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"The stately mosque is an interesting blend of Moorish and Islamic architecture, a gift from the British to the Sultan Suleiman in the 19th century."

A classic of Islamic architecture, it was presented by the British to Sultan Suleiman in the 19th century. It is estimated that the mosque can accommodate up to 1,000 worshippers at any one time.

The Architectural Styles Of Mosques in Malaysia: From Vernacular to Modern Structures
by Dr. A. Ghafar Ahmad
Paper presented at the Symposium on Mosque Architecture, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 31 Jan. 99 - 3 Feb. 99

(Paper published in Proceedings of the Symposium on Mosque Architecture: The Historic and Urban Developments of Mosque Architecture, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Vol. 2, 1999, p. 147-163)

Tengkera Mosque, Malacca (left), Ubudiah Mosque, Kuala Kangsar, Perak (centre) and Ibai Mosque of Kampung Cendering, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu (right)


textiles and pottery highly in demand by both Europeans and Asians. Chinese 35%.0 THE COMING OF ISLAM TO MALAYSIA In 1887. which is a state in the east coast of the Malay Peninsula. no other evidence either the ruins or historical records of architectural styles and building materials used in mosques during that period was discovered. consists of thirteen states. The buildings were raised on stilts and timber was largely used for building structures. Islam was disseminated to all areas in the Malay Peninsula. This historical evidence has proven that Islam first came to Malaysia. Singapore was separated from Malaysia in 1965. whom is one of the nine Sultans. Using the methods of building surveys and inspection to record the various types of mosque architecture in Malaysia. The paper also studies the changes in the mosque architecture in Malaysia from vernacular and colonial influences to modern structures. which referred to a Malay kingdom ruled by Islamic Law. Terengganu. Muslim merchants and traders from India. besides the inscribed stone. were dated 4 Rejab 702 Hijrah (22 February 1303). serving five-year terms as the Supreme Head of State. The Malaysian government is a parliamentary democratic system with a Prime Minister as the Head of the Government and an elected Yang Di Pertuan Agong (King). Eurasians. particularly the Malay Peninsula in the early 14th century. The formation of Malaysia in 1963 included the eleven states in the Malay Peninsula. the mosque is a common building found in most urban and rural areas in the country. Malaysia or formerly known as Malaya gained her independence from the British on 31 August 1957.9 million comprising of the Malays 51%. which is situated in the heart of South-east Asia. Under this kingdom. Indonesians and Arabs. Thais. Many mosques of the traditional architectural style were built to hold prayers and other activities associated with the teachings and dissemination of Islam. With the majority of its population being Muslims. Attap (Nipah thatch) and clay tiles roofs were commonly used in both the mosque and Malay houses. Kadazans. Malaysia has a population of 21. Sarawak and Singapore. The growth of Islam in the Malay Peninsula became more prominent in the early 15th century during the Malay sultanate of Malacca. Due to its strategic location facing the Straits of Malacca. The inscriptions on the stone. Sabah.Malaysia. However. technology utilisation and the political environment. 2. The varying architectural styles of the mosques displayed particular design characteristics which are reflective of many factors including ethnic culture. Malacca in the 15th century had flourished as a port city which became an important trading centre for spices. The architectural style and building materials of the mosques built during this period were similar to that of the traditional Malay houses. Presently. an inscribed stone was found on the banks of Tarsat River at Kuala Brang. Malacca was then established as an important centre for the spread of Islam in the region. the Middle East and Indonesia came to Malacca to trade as well as to spread Islam. Some of them had settled in many parts of the Malay Peninsula and had built mosques and Quranic schools . colonialism. Due to political circumstances. this paper presents a comparative analyses of the mosques built during different periods in the Malaysian history. Indians 10% and the remaining 4% are formed by other ethnic groups such as the Dayaks. eleven in the Malay Peninsula and the two states of Sabah and Sarawak in the northern quarter of Borneo.

particularly in new housing estates in both urban and rural areas. during the Dutch occupation both buildings were destroyed and left in ruins. Malaysia was the earliest settlement of the Muslim Achenese community on the island. plantation estates and military areas. Javanese. these buildings still remained intact and are well maintained. In the 18th century. clock towers. Examples of the Portuguese architecture include the Porta de Santiago Gate built in 1511 and the St. Kuala Lumpur. Dutch (1641-1795) and British (1795-1957). institutional/commercial. Some became the sultans of the respective states while others seeked military assistance from Indonesia and the Dutch. and . Penang. Paul's Church built in 1590. includes a mosque with an ancient well. They are highly distinguished by the ethnic cultures. Ipoh. freedom of worship is enjoyed by all the ethnic communities. hotels/guest houses. prisons. In 1641. The British colonial buildings range from official residences of British resident-generals and Anglican churches to railway stations and public buildings. 3. For instance. rows of shophouses. the Acheen Street Mosque area in Georgetown. Johor Bahru. particularly in many parts of the British settlements including major cities. A. Besides the Achenese settlements. Indonesia in the early 1800's. government offices. who controlled most parts of Indonesia. Although Islam is the official religion in Malaysia. forts/military. Pakistanis and Arabs. the Dutch. The first British settlement and military support was in the island of Penang when Captain Sir Francis Light gained the island by mutual agreement from the Sultan of Kedah in 1795. traditional townhouses and a cemetery. the British. As a country which had been colonised by the Portuguese (1511-1641).0 COLONIAL OCCUPATION AND BRITISH ARCHITECTURE The Malay sultanate of Malacca came to an end when the Portuguese conquered Malacca in 1511.30). residential. there are other Muslim settlements in Malaysia including the Indians. railway stations. The 160-year of British occupation in Malaysia has brought about major changes in the local architectural scenes. palaces. made an agreement with the Dutch to exchange Sumatera for Malacca and other states in the Malay Peninsula. schools. The Portuguese and Dutch architecture are primarily found in Malacca. Today. Ghafar Ahmad in his book entitledBritish Colonial Architecture in Malaysia 18001930 has classified the British colonial buildings found in Malaysia into 12 categories (1. These include the mosques/churches. However. languages and also the distinctive architectural styles of their mosques. a minaret. The Malay sultans and their families fled to other states in the Malay Peninsula. Kuching and Kota Kinabalu. The Stadhuys building was renovated and converted into a state museum. who had earlier colonised Sumatera. defeated the Portuguese in Malacca and conquered the Malay Peninsula. Georgetown. The settlement. which was established by merchants and traders headed by Tengku Syed Hussain Al-Aidid from northern Sumatera. p.(madrasahs) in their community. Many new mosques have been built in the country to cater for the increasing number of the Muslim population. The Dutch architecture include the Stadhuys building built between 1641-60 for the Dutch Governor and the Christ Church erected in 1753. the remains of its colonial architecture can still be found in most major cities including Malacca.

architectural styles and influences.miscellaneous buildings/monuments. Keste Ven who designed the Sultan Sulaiman Mosque (1932). soldiers or even priests. The buildings were designed and built by trained architects. This includes mosques located in Penang Island. 4. Incidentally. bricklayers. Penang  architect  engineer L. State.0 METHODOLOGY: SELECTION OF MOSQUES AND BUILDING SURVEYS A total of 34 mosques built in Malaysia. Georgetown. in central regions and a few remote places. Appendix 1 shows a list of mosques surveyed. Aesthetically. District. the Railway Station built in 1911. Goman who supervised the Zahir Mosque (1912). Some British architects and engineers. British colonial architecture in Malaysia is essentially a hybrid. year built. Examples of some British architects and engineer who were responsible for the design of mosques in Malaysia are as follows:  architect  architect A. namely the Moorish influence. The architectural styles of these mosques differed very much from the vernacular mosques. Neubronner who designed the Kapitan Keling Mosque (1916). All these buildings portray distinctive design characteristics which are similar to their contemporary designs in England. The Moorish influence can be seen in many buildings in the heart of Kuala Lumpur city such as the majestic Sultan Abdul Samad Building built in 1897. particularly in the Malay Peninsula were surveyed and inspected in this study. The buildings can be classified into four main architectural styles. Alor Setar. along the west and east coast. Kelang. Hubbuck who designed the Jamek Mosque (1909).A. who had previously worked in India and other parts of the British Empire. This was accomplished with due respect to the Islamic faith of the local Malays. Selangor J. colonial influence or modern)  architectural  status of mosques (National. Tudor. The locations of the mosques surveyed represent a geographical crosssection of various architectural styles throughout the Malay Peninsula.B. and the Railway Administration Headquarters built in 1917. Kuala Lumpur H. there had been non-Muslims British architects and engineers who were responsible for the design and construction of mosques in Malaysia. particularly the sultans. The selection of the mosques was based upon key criteria which are as follows:  year built (18th Century to date) styles (vernacular. were inspired by the Moghul architecture and had incorporated such architectural styles into the designs of government offices and railway stations in the Malay Peninsula. NeoClassical and Neo-Gothic. contractors. Kedah. Village) .

the architectural styles of the mosques in Malaysia can be classified into 3 types with corresponding built periods. Conservation and Urban Design Unit of Kuala Lumpur and Penang Heritage Trust. The study also includes comparative analyses between the traditional mosques and the colonial-influence mosques built during the British occupation in the country. Key information recorded in the forms include the name of mosque. name of architect/builder. craftsmanship and ethnic background. Once the mosques had been recognised and identified. date gazetted (listed) if applicable (under the Malaysian Antiquity Act 1976). libraries. description of mosque. The architectural styles of the modern mosques are also studied and classified in order to have a better understanding of the changes in the mosque architecture from vernacular and colonial influences to modern structures. and photographic study were carried out to establish the different architectural styles of mosques in Malaysia. maps and photographs of mosque and proposals for mosque maintenance. locations (states in the Malay Peninsula) Several building surveys and inspections covering site investigations. the design of the vernacular mosques reflects most of the characteristics of the traditional Malay houses. archives.0 ARCHITECTURAL STYLES OF MOSQUES IN MALAYSIA Based on the mosque surveys. construction area. towns.1 Vernacular Mosques (18th century to date) For a tropical country such as Malaysia where heavy rainfall and warm sunshine occur all year round. address. verbal interviews with people expected to have some knowledge about mosques built in or around their area. districts and villages. availability of building materials. date of built. The architectural style of the vernacular mosques are influenced by four major factors including climatic conditions. Heritage of Malaysia Trust. universities.  conducting a mosque survey in  carrying out major cities. The architectural styles and building structures were noted and recorded on mosque survey forms. local institutions and conservation bodies such as museums. and many openings including louvered . the identification of the mosques surveyed in the study was based on the following procedures:  collecting any possible record at various agencies. mosque authority. stilts to raise the mosques above ground level to avoid floods. which are as follows: 5. structural survey. Examples of some building features which were built in response to the warm and humid climatic conditions are pitched roofs to enable rain water to run off quickly. building condition and defects. Each mosque was studied externally and internally following permission from the mosque authority. 5. Since there is no central body for recording characteristics of mosque buildings in the country. a building survey together with structural and site inspections were carried out.

Paloh Mosque. Ipoh. This can be seen in the windows. Kota Bharu. fanlights and carving panels to allow natural cross ventilation of air. stone. Effectively. For example. pilasters. Kelantan (1871). Old Mosque of Kampung Masjid Tinggi. namely the traditional and regional influence. pointed arches. p. Seremban. Bagan Serai. Johor which is a combination of Baroque classical style and the Moorish influence. particularly for the Malay houses. The regional influence mosques in Malaysia are similar to that of the old mosques built in many parts of Indonesia. bricks. Malacca (1748). bamboo. keystones. For example. It is important to highlight that there are two types of architectural styles under the vernacular mosques category. pediments and plastered renderings on cornices and capitals are common features found in the colonial mosques. Langgar Mosque. Johor has four wings with minarets. Some mosques were built in the proximity of royal palaces and were even named after the respective Negeri Sembilan (1924). This is partly because some of the Malays in Malaysia are the descendants of various ethnic groups from Indonesia. the vernacular mosques portray high level of craftsmanship. Malacca (1930). Like the Malay houses. features and building materials. Domes (either onion-shaped or top-shaped). the Malays of Banjar descent originated from Kalimantan on the Island of Borneo. Many of the colonial mosques were built to appeal to the Malay societies particularly the Malay rulers (2. Examples of the vernacular mosques with regional influence are Tengkera Mosque. 5. Kampung Keling Mosque. form. Such craftsmanship generally reflects the owners' status and wealth. Conversely. Kelantan (1730's). Most of the mosques built during the colonial period are architecturally different from the vernacular mosques in terms of scale and proportion. Building materials such as timber. vernacular mosques with regional influence can be distinguished by their two or three-tiered roofs with decorative roof ridges and clay tiles. had combined the Moorish influence and the classical styles to portray an Islamic image to the mosques. Another interesting example is the Jamek Mosque in Muar. fanlights. Perak was built . pinnacles and domes as well as classical elements. carving wall panels. the building depicts a public building commonly built in the 17th and 18th century Europe which features a complexity of forms and decorative elements. way of life and environment.2 Colonial Mosques (1795 to 1957) There are a number of mosques built during the British occupation of Malaysia between 1795 and 1957. whilst the Malays of Bugis descent were from the Island of Sulawesi. clay tiles and attap are widely used in the vernacular mosques as they are easily available locally. Some of the mosques were designed by local architects and designers whilst others were designed and supervised by British architects and engineers from the Public Works Department. Perak (1912) and Kampung Raja Mosque. Examples of the vernacular mosques with traditional influence are Kampung Laut Mosque. Rather than a mosque. at the turn of the century. For example. the Ubudiah Mosque in Kuala Kangsar. Malacca (1728). Perak (1929) and Tanjung Keling Mosque. the Sultan Abu Bakar Mosque in Johor Bahru. classical columns. The traditional mosques usually reflect the strong influences of the Malay houses. the British architects. Nilam Puri. fascia boards and well-designed mimbar with intricate flower motifs. turrets. the Malays of Javanese descent came from the Island of Java. octagonal minarets and buildings which are square in shape.17).

Imam's room and store rooms. Kangar. Perak (1908). 5. Georgetown. Sultan Abu Bakar Mosque. Selangor (1925) and Jamek Mosque. The first category is the modern styles which emphasise the advancement in building technology and engineering. Ubudiah Mosque. Kelang. Examples of the colonial mosques with Art-Deco influence are Sultan Sulaiman Mosque. For instance. whilst the Abidin Mosque in Kuala Terengganu was named after the late Sultan Zainal Abidin II . Johor (1892). Jamek Mosque. water features. construction methods. patterned pavements. garden lightings and signages. The architectural styles of the modern mosque can be classified into two categories. This period incidentally coincided with the Art-Deco trend in western architectural development. Indian Mosque. Kota Bharu. Perak (1898). stone and marble are commonly used in the construction of modern mosques. Abidin Mosque.000 people for prayer at one time whilst its surrounding galleries. the design and colour of the Sultan Abdul Aziz Mosque in Shah Alam. Penang (1916). steel. tall minarets and high ceilings are common features found in the modern mosques. Muar. Johor Bahru. contemporary designs of mosques as well as increased local interests toward Islamic architecture. Examples of modern . Kapitan Keling Mosque. Zahir Mosque. Kuala Kangsar. Kedah (1912). Its main prayer hall can accommodate more than 3. Georgetown. there are relatively few colonial mosques of the Art-Deco influences in the country compared to the ones with Moorish influences with classical features. Kelang.000 people. The key features of the Art-Deco influences include simple geometric shapes. Selangor was reflective of the infamous Ottoman mosque in Istanbul. However. Terengganu (1808). Johor (1925). topped with numerous small domes. Concrete. bricks. Turkey. modern mosques are constructed in a larger scale to accommodate the increasing number of Friday congregations. offices. Selangor (1932) and Jamek Mosque of Pontian. The mosque was constructed of reinforced concrete faced with Italian marble. Another example is the white-colour Ibai Mosque at Kuala Terengganu which was built on water and its architecture bears a resemblance to the Northern African mosque. Johor (1938). Syed Alwi Mosque. Ipoh. the National Mosque in Kuala Lumpur has a minaret of 245 feet in height and an umbrella-like roof. The architectural styles of the modern mosques have changed gradually in parallel with the development in structural advances. Penang (1808). For example. Perak (1912). can hold an additional of 5. Kuala Lumpur (1909). The mosque also has a number of rooms used for various functions such as a library.3 Modern Mosques (1958 to date)Many local architects were involved in the design of new mosques in Malaysia since independence. cubic masses and plain surfaces. Ipoh. the Middle East and Northern Africa. Alor Setar. royal guest rooms. the Art-Deco influences on mosques became more visible in the 1930's. Following the period of the mosques of Moorish influences with classical features. Kelantan (1922). The mosque has four high minarets at the four corners of the building surrounded by well-kept landscape. With the advent of science and technology. Al-Muhammadi Mosque. The second category of modern mosque is the Islamic influences which incorporate the styles of many mosques found in Islamic countries including Turkey. Examples of the colonial mosques with the moorish influences (including classical features) are Acheen Street Mosque. Onionshaped or top-shaped domes. Kuala Terengganu.close to the Bukit Chandan Palace. the ruler of Terengganu. The modern mosques usually incorporate well-designed landscape elements including plants. Alauddin Mosque. Jamek Mosque. Perlis (1910).

Most colonial mosques have distinct architectural features such as onion-shaped or top-shaped domes.4 Facilities and Fixtures . Attap and clay tiles are widely used for roofing. column capitals. fanlights. pediments and plastered renderings on cornices and capitals. Four key aspects of these mosques are compared and contrasted to establish the common features and differences between the mosques of various periods. Kuala Lumpur (1998) (Figure 20).3 Wood Carvings and Plastered Renderings Most of the vernacular mosques have fine wood carvings of flower motifs. Shah Alam. Penang (1980) and KLCC Mosque. pilasters. Kuala Lumpur (1965). Ipoh. 6. wood carvings and plastered renderings. Royal or National mosques by the mosque authority. the colonial and modern mosques are classified as the District. other building materials including concrete. Interestingly. With the advancement of construction technologies. Perak (1978). classified by the 3 built periods. arches as well as around windows and doors. National Mosque. Perlis (1972). modern mosques have been built with reinforced concrete and steel structures.1 Scale and Elements of Mosque In terms of scale and proportion. turrets. On the other hand. Kuantan. Negeri Sembilan (1967). as the need for building bigger mosques arised during and after the British colonial period. brick and steel were used to replace timber. Sultan Idris Shah II Mosque. 6.mosques with modern structures are Sultan Ahmad I Mosque. 6. Due to their relatively bigger sizes. the colonial mosques feature a richer vocabulary in architecture compared with the vernacular and modern mosques. Kuala Terengganu. plastered renderings are commonly found in the colonial mosques. State Mosque. State. are presented in this section. Selangor (1989) and Ibai Mosque of Kampung Cendering. building materials. classical columns. Seremban. Kangar.0 COMPARATIVE ANALYSES OF THE MOSQUESComparative analyses of the 34 mosques selected for this study. some of the modern mosques have incorporated both the wood carvings and plastered renderings especially on the interior walls. especially on cornices. 6. However. particularly on wall panels. pointed arches. As far as the elements of the mosques are concerned. The key aspects are scale and elements of mosques. State Mosque. Universiti Sains Malaysia. and facilities and fixtures. windows and mimbar. State Mosque. 6. Pahang (1964).2 Building Materials Timber is used excessively in the construction of the vernacular mosques. Terengganu (1994). Sultan Abdul Aziz Mosque. Examples of modern mosques with Islamic influence are Al-Malik Khalid Mosque. pilasters. keystones. the size of the vernacular mosques is usually much smaller compared to the colonial and modern mosques. The smaller-sized vernacular mosques may be associated with a smaller population threshold targeted for such mosques. Penang (1975).

All mosques which are historically and architecturally significant should be listed or gazetted in order to protect the buildings from being demolished.v). and mosque locations. The common characteristics of all these mosques have been discussed in the paper to provide a better understanding of the architectural styles of these mosques and the factors which influence these styles. Some modern mosques have installed air-conditioning units in the prayer halls and laid modern carpets. there are five main factors which govern the architectural styles of the mosques in Malaysia. Like the traditional Malay houses. technology utilisation and the political environment. Generally. mosques of unique architectural styles become the landmarks and focal points in the streets. some vernacular mosques which used to have a common ablution pool have now installed rows of water outlets for the convenience of the users. Georgetown. the colonial mosques and the modern mosques. Johor Bharu. In an effort to preserve and conserve historic mosques. 7. It is important to acknowledge that both the vernacular and colonial mosques are historically and architecturally significant. These factors largely determine the design of the mosques. building forms. Kuala Kangsar. Johor. the Sultan Abu Bakar Mosque. particularly in accentuating the historical development of Malaysia. Penang. Kuala Lumpur. colonialism. The practice of building conservation which includes the works of repair and maintenance may guarantee the building life span. and the Acheen Street Mosque. mosques of such styles portray unique characteristics which enrich the local architectural scene. Mosques of the vernacular and colonial styles should be considered as national heritage partly due to their historical and architectural values. It is a process which leads to the prolongation of the life of cultural property (3. Modern lighting fixtures have also replaced the traditional oil lamps. the mosques are usually more distinctive than other buildings. This paper presents a comparative analyses of the mosques built during different periods in the Malaysian history and studies the changes in the mosque architecture from vernacular and colonial influences to modern structures. the Ubudiah Mosque. They are ethnic culture. Perak. Sometimes. In most cities and towns in Malaysia. namely the vernacular mosques. This has resulted in the formation of a unique identity and image to the urban fabric which may enhance the Muslim communities and cultures. Examples of mosques which have been preserved and conserved are the Jamek Mosque.0 CONCLUSIONS This study adopted the method of building surveys and inspections to record the various types of mosque architecture in 34 selected mosques across Malaysia. it is increasingly vital to consider the state of building conditions and proper building maintenance programme to uphold such buildings. . the Government through the Department of Museum and Antiquity has gazetted a number of old mosques under the Antiquities Act 1976. With current rising awareness of the need for building conservation and preservation in the country. For example. The study has classified the three types of mosques.Most of the facilities in all types of mosques have been upgraded to satisfy the growing number of prayers or users. shapes and sizes. Building conservation should be seen as a way of preserving particular aspects of Malaysia's history and development. Historic mosques such as the vernacular and colonial mosques are prone to building defects and such practices of keeping building intact are crucial. climatic conditions. p.

Kelantan 1871 Vernacular Traditional 8. Penang 1808 Colonial Moorish influen (classical feature 7. Nilam Puri. Langgar Mosque Kota Bharu. Perak 1898 Colonial Moorish influen (classical feature .Appendix 1: The list of mosques surveyed in the study No Name of mosque Location Year built 1728 1728 Architectural styles Vernacular Vernacular Architectural influence Regional Regional 1. Acheen Street Mosque Georgetown. Johor 1892 Colonial Moorish influen (classical feature 9. Kampung Keling Mosque 1748 Vernacular Regional 5. Abidin Mosque Kuala Terengganu 1808 Colonial Moorish influen (classical feature 6. Kelantan Malacca 1730’s Vernacular Traditional 4. Sultan Abu Bakar Mosque Johor Bahru. Tengkera Mosque Kampung Hulu Melaka Mosque Kampung Laut Mosque Malacca Malacca 3. 2. Jamek Mosque Ipoh.

Kampung Raja Mosque Seremban. 16. Al-Muhammadi Mosque Kota Bharu. Perak 1908 Colonial Moorish influen (classical feature 11. Indian Mosque Ipoh. Jamek Mosque Muar. Ubudiah Mosque Kuala Kangsar. Kedah 1912 Colonial Moorish influen (classical feature 14. Zahir Mosque Alor Setar. Syed Alwi Mosque Kangar. Perak 1912 Colonial Moorish influen (classical feature 15. Paloh Mosque Kapitan Keling Mosque Ipoh. Penang 1912 1916 Vernacular Colonial Traditional Moorish influen (classical feature 17. Sembilan 1924 Vernacular Traditional 19.10. Jamek Mosque Kuala Lumpur 1909 Colonial Moorish influen (classical feature 12. Perlis 1910 Colonial Moorish influen (classical feature 13. N. Kelantan 1922 Colonial Moorish influen (classical feature 18. Perak Georgetown. Johor 1925 Colonial Moorish influen (classical feature .

Sultan Ahmad I Mosque Kuantan. Old Mosque of Kampung Tinggi Bagan Serai. State Mosque Al-Malik Khalid Mosque Penang USM. 29. Sultan Sulaiman Mosque Kelang. Jamek Mosque Pontian. Perak 1972 1978 Modern Modern Modern structur Modern structur 30. Selangor 1925 Colonial Moorish influen (classical feature 21. State Mosque Sultan Idris Shah II Mosque Kangar.20. Penang 1980 1982 Modern Modern Modern structur Islamic influenc . Selangor 1932 Colonial Art-Deco influen 24. Perak 1929 Vernacular Regional 22. National Mosque State Mosque Kuala Lumpur Seremban. 27. Pahang 1964 Modern Modern structur 26. Sembilan 1965 1967 Modern Modern Modern structur Modern structur 28. Perlis Ipoh. Johor 1938 Colonial Art-Deco influen 25. Tanjung Keling Mosque Malacca 1930 Vernacular Regional 23. Alauddin Mosque Kelang. 31. N.

ed. Berita Publishing Sdn. KLCC Mosque Kuala Lumpur 1998 Modern Modern Structur References: (1) Ahmad. 1992. (6) Davies. 1994. Churches and Mosques. et. (8) Nasir. London.G. (9) Killmann. Architecture of the British Empire. (3) Feilden. Orbis Publishing. Conservation of Historic Buildings. J. The Architecture of Malaysia. (5) Davies. British Colonial Architecture in Malaysia 1800-1930. A. Kuala Lumpur.H. Amsterdam. The Pepin Press. Temples. (7) Hesketh. Kuala Lumpur. London. Splendours of the Raj: British Architecture in India 1660-1947. Traditional Malay Wood Carving. . . Mosques of Peninsular Malaysia. M. (4) Brett. and Forman. A. 1982.G. Basil Blackwell. Ibai Mosque of Kampung Cendering Kuala Terengganu 1994 Modern Islamic influenc 34. 1987. W. Sultan Abdul Aziz Mosque Shah Alam. George Weidenfeld and Nicolson Ltd. P. 1987. 1980.32. R. Selangor 1989 Modern Islamic influenc 33...H. Kuala Lumpur. (10) Yeang. (2) Nasir. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Oxford.F. Butterworth Scientific. W. Museums Association of Malaysia. 1984. Forest Research Institute Malaysia. 1982.M. Middlesex. B. London.. 1986. A.. The Moors: Islam in the West. Restoring & Reconstructing The Malay Timber House. Bhd. Penguin Books. 1997. Kuala Lumpur.

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