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Anatomy of the Eye

• Contains Photoreceptors External and Accessory Structure 1. Eyelids • Protects the eyes.

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Location: meets at the medial and lateral corners are Medial and Lateral Canthus. Has Meibomian Gland - sebaceous glands that produce oily secretion to lubricate eye


Eyelashes Location: Projects at the border of each eyelid. Prevents perspiration and shades eye from sunlight. Has Ciliary Glands - sweat glands between eyelashes.



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Mucous membrane that lines eyelids and covers anterior eyeball. Produces lubricating mucus to moisten eyeball. 4. Lac

Homeostatic Imbalance: Conjunctivitis • “Inflammation of Conjunctiva” resulting from reddened, and irritated eyes. • “Pink Eye” – Infectious form of Conjunctivitis caused by bacteria and viruses.
rimal Apparatus

Consists of lacrimal gland and no. of ducts that drain lacrimal secretions into nasal cavity.

Path of Tears: 1st Lacrimal Glands Releases Tears - contains antibodies and lysozome that destroys bacteria. It cleanses, protects eye surface as it moistens and lubricates. 2nd Lacrimal Duct 3rd Lacrimal Canals 4th Lacrimal Sac 5th Nasolacrimal Duct (opens to nasal cavity) 6th Nasal Cavity 5. 6 Extrinsic or External Eye Muscles

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Location: Above the lateral end of each eye.

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Location: Attached to outer surface of each eye. Produces gross eye movements and follow moving objects. Name of Eye Muscle Lateral Rectus Medial Rectus Superior Rectus Inferior Rectus Inferior Oblique Superior Oblique Action Moves eyes laterally Moves eyes medially Elevates and rolls eyes superiorly Depresses and rolls eyes inferiorly Elevates and turns eyes laterally Depresses and turns eyes laterally Controlling Cranial Nerve V1 – Abducens III – Oculomotor III – Oculomotor III – Oculomotor III - Oculomotor IV - Trochlear

Internal Structures of Eye: EYEBALL

Hollow sphere composed of 3 Tunics filled with fluids called Humors to maintain its shape.

3 Tunics of Eyeball 1. Sclera or Fibrous Tunic

Outer, tough, protective tunic; “White of the Eye””.


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Special structure of sclera which is transparent to allow entry of light. Well supplied with nerve endings (mostly pain fibers). Can be transplanted from one person to another. No Blood Vessel

Choroid or Vascular Tunic

Middle Tunic; Vascular Provides nutrition to internal eye structures Contains dark pigment, which prevents light from scattering inside the eye.

Formed by 2 Smooth Muscles 1. Ciliary Body – lens is attached


Iris - Colored part of eye; Controls pupil size


Circular Muscles

In close vision and bright light it contracts and PUPIL CONSTRICTS Radial Muscles • In distant vision and dim light, it contracts to DILATE PUPILS Pupil - rounded opening of iris where light passes.


Retina or Sensory Tunic • Innermost tunic

Retina contains photoreceptors because they respond to light. a. Rods

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Most dense at periphery of retina & decreases toward center of retina For peripheral vision Allows to see in GRAY tones in DIM LIGHT

Homeostatic Imbalance: Night Blindness Anything that interferes with RODS hinders the ability to see at night d/t Vitamin A deficiency.



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Allows to see COLORS in BRIGHT LIGHT (For Color Vision and High Visual Acuity) Most dense at the center of retina and decreases toward periphery of retina.

3 Varieties of Cones 1. Responds to blue light 2. Responds to green light 3. Responds to a range including both red and green lights Immediate Colors • Impulses received from at the same time of more than 1 type of cone by the visual cortex.

Homeostatic Imbalance: * Color Blindness - lack of 3 cones * Partial Blindness - lack of 1 cone; most common is red or green; sex linked condition; occurs mostly in males.
Optic Disc or Blind Spot.

No photoreceptors

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Point where optic nerve leaves the back of eyeball

Fovea Centralis “Greatest Visual Acuity or Point of Sharpest Vision” Contains only CONES

Lens • Focusing the lights entering the eye

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Major light bending (refractory) structure of eye. Flexible biconvex crystal like structure held upright by suspensory ligament attached to ciliary body.

2 Chambers of Lens 1. Anterior Chamber


Anterior to lens; contains Aqueous Humor (AH) Aqueous Humor * Helps maintain Intraocular Pressure * Provides nutrients for lens and cornea * Reabsorbed into venous blood through Canal of Schlemm Posterior Chamber

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Posterior to lens; contains Vitreous Humor (VH) to prevent eyeball from collapsing.

Homeostatic Imbalance: Cataract “Opacity of Lens”; lens becomes hard and opaque Treatment: surgical removal of lens and replacement with lens implant or special cataract glasses.

Homeostatic Imbalance: Glaucoma ↑ Intraocular Pressure d/t accumulated Aqueous Humor (AH) Initial Sign: Progress slowly and asymptomatic @ first Later signs: Halos around lights, headaches, and blurred vision Tonometer – equipment used to measure IOP Treatment: Eyedrops (miotics) to ↑ AH drainage or with surgical enlargement of drainage channel

Opthalmoscope – Instrument that illuminate (light up) the eyeball Pathway of Light through the Eye and Light Refraction Cornea  AH  Through Pupil  AH  Lens  VH  Retina Refraction

When light passes from one substance to another that has different density, its speed changes and its ray are bent or refracted.

Accommodation • Ability of eyes to focus on close objects (less than 20 ft away) Visual Fields and Visual Pathways to the Brain A. Pathway of nerve impulses from Retina of eye: Fixation Point  Optic Nerve  Optic Chiasma – crossover of optic fibers  Optic Tract  Thalamus  Optic Radiation  Visual Cortex in Occipital Lobe. Each side of brain receives visual input from eyes – from lateral vision and medial vision. Also, each eye sees slightly different view but their visual fields overlap a bit that causes BINOCULAR VISION or TWO EYED VISION or 3 DIMENDSIONAL VISION.

Homeostatic Imbalance: Hemianopia

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Loss of same side of visual field d/t a damage to visual cortex on 1 side only (occurs in CVA) Won’t see things past the middle of visual field either right or left depending on CVA side.

Eye Reflexes 1. Photo Pupillary


When eyes are suddenly exposed to bright light, pupil constricts to prevent excess bright light from photoreceptors.

Accommodation Pupillary Reflex


Pupil constricts when viewing close objects to provide more acute vision.


Movement of eyes medially when viewing close objects (ex. Cross eyed)

Defects of Focus or Refraction Errors 1. Emmetropia - normal refractive state; eye focuses images correctly on retina.


Ammetropia – sight not in proper measure a. Hyperopia • “Far – sighted”

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Correction: Convex lens to converge (meet) light before entering eye. Eyeball is too short Subject to eye strain as their ciliary muscle contract continuously.



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“Near sighted”; “Short Vision” Correction: Concave lens to diverge (move away) spread of light before entering eye. Eyeball is too long

Presbyopia • “Old Sight”

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Correction: Bifocal Lens or Reading Glasses Blurring of near objects d/t hardening of lens due to aging.

Astigmatism • “Distorted Vision”

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Correction: Cylindrical Lens Unequal curvature of lens or cornea that prevents clear focus of light.

Other Eye Problems: 1. Trachoma – scarring of cornea and leads to blindness.

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Chalazion – cyst due to infection of sebaceous gland along eyelid. Stye – infection of eyelash Neonatal Gonorrhea Opthalma – infant passes birth canal of mother with gonorrhea which results from conjunctivitis and blindess; Treatment is erythromycin

Eye Disorders that leads to Blindness 1. Glaucoma and Cataract

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Diabetic Retinopathy – optic nerve degeneration Retinal Detachment – separation of inner sensory from outer pigmented retina

Strabismus – “crossed eyes”; abnormal weak eye muscles.