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Digestive System 6 GIT Process and Controls 1. 2. Ingestion – ingestion of food into mouth.

Propulsion– food is propelled from one organ to next. a. Peristalsis  Alternate waves of contraction & relaxation of muscles in the organ wall to squeeze food along the tract. b. Segmentation in Small Intestine  Moves food back & forth to mix food with digestive juices Food Breakdown: Mechanical Digestion  Chewing food by teeth, mixing food by tongue, churning food in stomach, and segmentation. Food Breakdown: Chemical Digestion  Large food molecules are broken down to their building blocks by Enzymes (act as catalyst) thru Hydrolysis (addition of water to split substance into smaller particles)

2 Main Groups of Digestive System 1. Alimentary Canal or Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT)  Performs Digestive Functions  Continuous, coiled, and hollow muscular tube from mouth to anus.  Major Organs: a. Mouth (Ingestion & Food Breakdown M&C) b. Pharynx (Propulsion by Peristalsis) c. Esophagus (Propulsion by Peristalsis) d. Stomach (Digestion – M & C) e. Small Intestine (Absorption) f. Large Intestine (Defecation) Accessory Digestive Organ  Assists in Digestive breakdown a. Teeth b. Salivary Glands c. Liver d. Pancreas e. Gallbladder

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MOUTH (ORAL CAVITY)   Entrance for food Food Breakdown begins, food is mixed with saliva, masticated (chewed), and swallowed(deglutition)
2 Phases of Deglutition or Swallowing: a. b. Buccal Phase –tongue pushes bolus into pharynx. Pharyngeal Esophageal Phase – food transported through pharynx and esophagus by peristalsis and conduction of food to the stomach.

Carbohydrates 1. Monosaccharide – building blocks of CHO  Glucose (blood sugar), Fructose (fruit sugar), and Galactose (milk sugar found in lactose) Disaccharides – 2 simple sugars linked  Sucrose (table sugar), Maltose (malt sugar), and Lactose (milk sugar) Polysaccharides – indigestible; doesn’t provide nutrients but provide bulk or fiber. a. Starch – storage form of glucose in the body. b. Dextrin – hydrolyzed starch c. Glycogen – storage form of glucose in liver and muscles. Proteins – Building Blocks are Amino Acids; Products of Digestion are Peptides and Polypeptides. Lipids or Fats - Building blocks are Fatty Acids and Glycerol 5. 6. Absorption – absorption of nutrients in SI Defecation – Elimination of wastes via anus in the form of Feces.

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Parts of Mouth 1. 2. 3. Lips – protects anterior opening Cheeks – lateral walls Palates – separates nasal cavity from oral cavity a. Hard Palate – anterior b. Soft Palate – posterior 4. Uvula – fingerlike projection of soft palate 5. Vestibule – space between lips & cheeks (externally) and teeth & gums (internally) 6. Oral Cavity Proper – area contained by the teeth. 7. Tongue – occupies floor of mouth; attached to Hyoid Bone and Styloid Process 8. Papillae – located on tongue that contains taste buds or receptors (CN 7, 9, 10) 9. Lingual Frenulum – secures tongue to floor of mouth. * Tongue Tied – extremely short frenulum 10. Tonsils – lymphoid organ for defense a. Palatine Tonsils – pair; posterior end b. Lingual Tonsils – covers base of tongue

ACCESSORY ORGAN: SALIVARY GLANDS Saliva   Secretions of Salivary Glands Dissolves food so it can be tasted.

2 Regions of Teeth 1.   Crown Exposed part above Gum or Gingiva Covered in Enamel (hardest substance in the body; mineralized with calcium salts) Root  Embedded in jaw bone  Covered by Cementum, which attaches tooth to Periodontal Membrane, w/c holds tooth in jaw.

Composition of Saliva 1. 2. Mucus – moistens and binds food into a mass called Food Bolus Serous Fluid – has enzyme Salivary Amylase or for Starch Digestion (Start of Chemical Digestion of Starch  Maltose) Lysozome & Iga – inhibits bacteria

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Dentin – underlies enamel, surrounds pulp cavity, and forms bulk of tooth Pulp Cavity – Has Pulp that supplies nutrients to the tooth and provides tooth sensations. Root Canal – route for blood vessels and nerves.

3 Pairs of Salivary Glands 1. 2. 3. Parotid Glands – large; anterior to ears Submandibular Glands – empty into floor of mouth Sublingual Glands – empty into floor of mouth

HI: Mumps or Patotitis – “inflammation of parotid glands”; leads to sterility if ovary and testes is affected. ACCESSORY ORGAN: TEETH Functions 1. 2. Mastication (Chewing) of Food Tear and Grind Food

GIT ORGAN: PHARYNX (THROAT)  a. b. c. Muscular tube that provides passageway for air, food, and fluids Nasophraynx – passage of air only (respiration) Oropharynx – passage of air, food, and fluids Laryngopharynx – passage of air, food, and fluids; continuous to esophagus

2 Sets of Teeth 1. Deciduous st  1 set of teeth; “Baby Teeth” or “Milk Teeth”  Erupts at 6 months st  Lower Central Incisors – 1 teeth to appear Permanent  6 – 12 y/o they fall out; all will erupt by end of Adolescence; 32 full set
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Muscle Layers - Contracts to propel food into esophagus by Peristalsis (ILOC) a. b. Inner – Longitudinal Muscle Layer Outer – Circular Muscle Layer

GIT ORGAN: ESOPHAGUS  Muscular tube that provides passageway of food from Pharynx to Stomach by Peristalsis

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Wisdom Teeth / 3 Molars – may erupt by 17 – 25 y/o. Impacted Teeth – teeth remain embedded in jaw bone. Types of Teeth Type Incisors Canines Premolars Molars Shape Chisel – shaped Fang – like With broad crowns Same Function Cutting Tearing , Piercing Grinding same

4 Tissue Layers from Esophagus to Large Intestine 1. Mucosa  Innermost Layer  Moist membrane that lines cavity of the organ.  Mostly simple columnar Submucosa  Beneath mucosa  Contains blood vessels, nerve endings, lymph nodules, and lymphatic vessels. HI: Amoeba

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Muscularis Externa  muscular layer that contracts to propel food by Peristalsis (ICOL) a. Inner - Circular Layer (becomes smaller) b. Outer - Longitudinal Layer (shortens) Serosa  Outermost layer  Has Peritoneum (covers internal organs) a. Visceral Peritoneum – produce serous fluid b. Parietal Peritoneum – lines abdominopelvic cavity by Mesentery (membrane extension; attaches internal organs)

Chyme – food after being process in the stomach and enters Small Intestine through Pyloric Sphincter. Stomach Capacity: 4 gallons (1 L) of food; when empty it collapses inward on itself, and its mucosa thrown into Rugae (large folds)

2 Curvatures of Stomach 1. 2. Lesser Curvature – concave in medial surface Greater Curvature – convex lateral surface

2 Omemtum of Stomach 2 Nerve Plexuses – part of ANS that regulates mobility and secretory activity of GIT Organs. 1. 2. Submucosal Nerve Plexus Myenteric Nerve Plexus 1. 2. Lesser Omemtum – double layer of peritoneum; extends from liver to lesser curvature. Greater Omemtum – extension of peritoneum ;covers abdominal organs; contains fat to help insulate, cushion, and protect abdominal organs

GIT ORGAN: STOMACH  HI: Peritonitis - inflammation of peritoneum C – shaped on the left side of abdomen beneath diaphragm (epigastric & left hypochondriac) Has 3 Muscular Layers 1. 2. 3. Inner – Circular Layer Outer – Longitudinal Layer Oblique Layer (allows to churn, mix, and pummel food, breaking it to smaller pieces)

Functions 1. 2. 3. Temporary Storage of Food Site for food breakdown (mechanical and chemical) Start of Chemical Breakdown of Proteins  Polypeptides Hormone Gastrin stimulates stomach glands to release Enzyme Pepsin, HCI, and Mucus. HCI activates Pepsin for Chemical Breakdown of Proteins  Polypeptides. Regions of stomach 1. Cardiac Region  “Near the heart”  Surrounds Cardioesophageal Sphincter, where food enters from esophagus to stomach. Fundus – expanded part Body – midportion Pyloric Atrium Pylorus – terminal part of stomach where most digestive activity occurs; continuous with Small Intestine thru Pyloric Sphincter.

Stomach Mucosa   Produces large amounts of mucus Contains Gastric glands that secrete Gastric Juices. (Ex. Stomach Cells produce Intrinsic Factor for Vit B 12 absorption from Small Intestine) Function Protein Digesting Enzymes (Pepsinogens) Hydrochloric Acid – activates enzyme Pepsin; makes stomach contents acidic. Alkaline Mucus - lines stomach mucosa; protects stomach from HCI. Gastrin - stimulates release of gastric juice

Stomach Cells Chief Cells Parietal Cells

Mucous Neck Cells

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Enteroendocrine Cells

ACCESSORY ORGAN: PANCREAS  Produces Pancreatic Enzymes that breakdown ALL digestible food (CHO, CHON, Fats) and secreted into duodenum to neutralize chyme (b/c of Bicarbonate) 3 Structures that Enhances Absorption of Small Intestine 1. Microvilli  Tiny projections of mucosa w/c gives fuzzy appearance (“brush border”) Villi  Fingerlike projections of mucosa w/c gives velvet appearance  Has capillary bed & lacteal where digested food is absorbed Circular Folds – folds of mucosa and submucosa

ACCESSORY ORGAN: LIVER     2. Four – lobed organ Largest gland in the body st 1 organ where absorbed substances goes for DETOXIFICATION. Function: Produces Bile w/c contains Bile Salts to Emulsify Fats.

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MAJOR GIT ORGAN: LARGE INTESTINE Occult Blood – to check feces of presence of blood. ACCESORY ORGAN: GALLBLADDER  Stores and concentrates bile when fat digestion is not occurring.   Frames Small Intestine Extends from Ileocecal Valve to Anus

Functions 1. 2. Absorption of H20, salts, and vitamins (K and some B) Eliminate wastes from body via anus in the form of feces.

Gall Stones – bile is stored in gallbladder too long. Jaundice – bile pigments circulates the body; results from hepatitis and cirrhosis. Hepatitis – inflammation of liver Cirrhosis – chronic inflammation of liver MAJOR GIT ORGAN: SMALL INTESTINE      Body’s Major Digestive Organ Major Site of Food Absorption Longest Alimentary Canal Extends from Pyloric Sphincter to Ileocecal Valve. Pyloric sphincter – controls movement of chyme from stomach to small intestine

Subdivisions of Large Intestine 1. 2. Cecum – sac like; 1 part of Large Intestine Appendix – ideal location for bacteria to accumulate and multiply; HI: Appendicitis – inflammation of appendix Colon a. Ascending colon – travels up the right side of abdominal cavity and turns at HEPATIC flexure. b. Transverse Colon – across abdominal cavity and turns at SPLENIC flexure. c. Descending colon – goes down the left side of abdominal cavity to enter the pelvis. d. Sigmoid Colon – s- shaped; lie in pelvis Rectum – lies in pelvis Anal Canal – lies in pelvis; ends at anus a. External Sphincter - voluntary; skeletal muscle b. Internal Sphincter - involuntary; smooth muscle Open and close anus and normally closed except during defecation.
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3 Subdivisions of Small Intestine 1. Duodenum  “Twelve finger width long” w/c curves around Pancreas.  Pancreatic Ducts – completes chemical breakdown of foods in Small Intestine Jejunum – From duodenum to ileum Ileum  “Twisted Intestine”  Terminal part of small intestine.  Joins Large Intestine at Ileocecal Valve

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Goblet Cells - produce alkaline mucus to lubricate feces.
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