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Endocrine System

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Second major controlling system of the body. Uses chemical messengers called Hormones, which are released into blood to be transported throughout the body.

Functions of Hormones: 1. Reproduction 2. Growth and Development 3. Mobilizing body defenses against stressors 4. Maintain electrolyte, water, and nutrient balance of the blood 5. Energy Balance 6. Regulates Cellular Metabolism Hormones

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Chemical substances secreted by cells in extra cellular fluids that regulate metabolic activity of other cells. Only affect certain tissue cells or organs called Target Cells or Target Organs. In order a target organ respond to a hormone, specific protein receptors must be present on plasma membrane to which it can bind.

Precise Changes that follow Hormone 1. Changes in Plasma Membrane’s permeability and electrical state ex. Anti Diuretic Hormone (ADH)

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Stimulation of Mitosis (Cell division) ex. Estrogen Activation or inactivation of enzymes ex. Throxine Synthesis of Protein or Certain Regulatory Molecules

Classification of Hormones 1. Amino acid – based molecules (Proteins, Peptides, and Amines)

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Steroids – made from cholesterol (Sex Hormones made by Gonads – testes and ovaries; Adrenal Cortex Hormones) Prostaglandins – fatty acid molecules

2 Mechanisms of Hormone Action 1. Steroid Hormone Mechanism – direct gene activation.

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Non steroid (amino acid – based) Hormone Mechanism – A second messenger system

Control of Hormone Release Maintained by Negative Feedback Mechanism to regulate blood levels of hormones. Stimulus and high or low hormone levels in blood inhibit or trigger the release of hormones.

3 Stimulus Categories that activate Endocrine Gland 1. Hormonal

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Most common stimulus; Endocrine organs are prodded into action by other hormones Ex. Hypothalamic Hormones stimulates Anterior Pituitary Gland to secrete hormones and Anterior Pituitary Hormones stimulate other endocrine glands to release their hormones.

Humoral

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Changing blood levels of certain ions and nutrients may stimulate hormone release. Ex. Parathyroid Hormone by Parathyroid Gland ↓ blood calcium levels Calcitonin released by Thyroid Gland Insulin produced by Pancreas

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Neural Stimuli

Nerve fibers stimulate hormone release Ex. Sympathetic Nervous System stimulation of Adrenal Medulla to release epinephrine and norephinephrine during stress

Pattern Stimuli (situation)  Endocrine Gland (receptor)  Hormone  Target Organ  Effect  End Effect (Reverse Homeostasis) – Negative Feedback Major Endocrine Organs 1. Pituitary Gland (hormone producing – purely endocrine)

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Thyroid Gland (hormone producing – purely endocrine) Parathyroid Gland (hormone producing – purely endocrine) Adrenal Gland (hormone producing – purely endocrine) Pineal Gland Thymus Gland Pancreas (endocrine and exocrine) Gonads or Sex Hormones (ovaries and testes) Hypothalamus

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2 Glands: 1. Endocrine Glands – “ductless glands”; produce hormones that they release into blood. 2. Exocrine Glands – release products at body surface or into body cavities through ducts.

Pituitary Gland • Size of a grape; hangs by a stalk from inferior surface of hypothalamus of brain
2 Lobes of Pituitary Gland 1. Anterior Pituitary – glandular tissue; “master endocrine gland” 2. Posterior Pituitary – nervous tissue 6 Anterior Pituitary Hormones 1. All are proteins 2. Act through messenger system 3. Regulated by hormonal stimuli; mostly negative feedback 6 Anterior Pituitary Hormones Function/s Target Organ/s Homeostatic Imbalance Dwarfism ↓ Hyposecretion of GH during childhood; Max ht of 4ft Growth Hormone (GH) * General metabolic hormone Determines final body size Skeletal Muscles Long Bones Gigantism ↑ Hypersecretion of GH during childhood; extremely tall; 8 – 9 ft. Acromegaly ↑ Hyper secretion occurs after long bone growth has ended Enlargement of facial bones (esp lower jaw), feet and hands. Prolactin (PRL) 3 Tropic Hormones 1.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) 2. Thyrotropic Hormone (TH) or Stimulates and maintains milk production in women. Regulates endocrine activity of Adrenal Cortex Growth and activity of Thyroid Gland Human Breast Adrenal Gland Thyroid Gland

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) 3. Gonadropic Hormones or Sex Hormones a. Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

b. Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone (ICSH)

Regulates hormonal activity of gonads In Females – Produce estrogen and eggs for ovulation In Males – Sperm development by testes In Females – Produce Estrogen and Progesterone In Males – Produce Testosterone

Ovaries Testes Ovaries

↑ Hyposecretion leads to Sterility

Same as above Testes

Ovaries Same as above Testes

Pituitary and Hypothalamus Relationship

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Anterior Pituitary hormones are controlled by Releasing and Inhibiting Hormones produced by Hypothalamus.

Hormones of Posterior Pituitary
Acts as a STORAGE AREA FOR HORMONES made by Hypothalamic Neurons. 2 Posterior Function/s Target Organ/s Pituitary Hormones Oxytocin * Uterine contraction released during during labor, sexual childbirth and in nursing foreplay, & Uterus women breastfeeding. * Stop Postpartum bleeding * Milk Ejection (1st milk; “Let down reflex”) Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) or Vasopressin * Diuresis – urine production * Water Retention (Inhibit urine production) Kidney (Kidney Tubules) * ↑ Water Reabsorption * ↓ BP by constricting arterioles (small arteries) Mammary Gland or Breast Alcohol inhibits ADH secretion. Diabetes Insupidus ↓ Hyposecretion of ADH Vasoconstriction of Blood Vessels ↑ Hypersecretion of ADH Homeostatic Imbalance

Thyroid Gland • Location: Base of throat, inferior to Adam’s apple; easily palpated during physical examination. • Consists of 2 Lobes joined by Isthmus (central mass) • Composed of Fossicles, which store a sticky colloidal material.
2 Thyroid Gland Hormones 1. Thyroid Hormones (TH) * Body’s major metabolic hormone Function/s Target Organ/s Homeostatic Imbalance Goiter Enlargement of thyroid gland; ↓ in iodine. Cretinism

2 iodine – containing hormones of TH a. Thyroxine (T4) Secreted by thyroid follicles. b. Triiodothyronin (T3) Conversion of T4 to T3

Controls rate of glucose & converted to energy

Thyroid Gland

↓ Hyposecretion of thyroxine in early childhood; results in dwarfism; adult body remain childlike Myxedema Results from Hypothyroidism in Adults; S/S: puffed face, fatigue, poor muscle tone, low body temp person feels cold, obesity and dry skin; Hyperthyroidism ↑ Thyroxin; S/S: high basal metabolic rate, intolerance of heat, rapid heartbeat, weigh loss, nervous and agitated behavior, inability to relax. Grave’s Disease Form of Hyperthyroidism; S/S: enlargement of thyroid gland, Expothalmos (bulging eyes)

Calcitonin or Thyrocalcitonin Hypocalcemic Hormone Antagonist of Parathyroid Hormone ↓ Blood calcium levels in response to ↑ blood calcium

Decalcification of bones related to aging. Hypocalcemia - ↓ Calcium Tetany ↓ Calcium; uncontrollable muscle spasms

Hormonal Control of ↑ Ionic Calcium Levels in Blood Thyroid gland releases calcitonion, calcitonin stimulates calcium salts deposit in bone, decrease of blood calcium levels, normal blood calcium level ↑ Blood Calcium  Thyroid Gland  Calcitonin  Bone  Deposited to Bone  ↓ Blood Calcium  Normal Blood Calcium Level

Parathyroid Gland
• • Tiny masses of glandular tissues Location: Posterior surface of Thyroid Gland Function/s * Regulates Calcium Ion Homeostasis * Stimulates kidneys and intestine to absorb more calcium Target Organ/s Skeleton (Major PTH Target) Kidney & Small Intestine Homeostatic Imbalance Hypercalcemia - ↑ Calcium Hormones Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) Or Parathormone * Hypercalcemic Hormone

Hormonal Control of ↓ Ionic Calcium Levels in Blood * Parathyroid gland release PTH, PTH stimulates osteoclasts (bone destroying cells) to break down bone matrix to release calcium into blood. ↓ Blood Calcium  Parathyroid Gland  PTH (Kidney for reabsorption; SI for Calcium absorption) Bone  Osteoclasts  ↑ Blood Calcium Level  Normal Blood Calcium.

Kidney Dialysis 1. Filtration 2. Reabsorption 3. Secretion

Adrenal Glands

Bean – shaped located at the top of kidney Two Parts of Adrenal Glands: Adrenal Cortex and Adrenal Medulla 1. Adrenal Cortex - produces 3 Major Groups of Steroid Hormones called Corticosteroids Hormones Function/s Target Organ/s Homeostatic Imbalance 1.Mineralocorticosteriods Regulates mineral or Aldosterone content of blood (Na & K Kidney Tubules * Stimulated by Humoral Ions) and water balance a. Renin produced by kidneys when BP ↓ and releases ↑ Blood Pressure aldosterone b. Atrial Netruiretic Peptide (ANP) released by ♥ that ↓ Blood Pressure prevents aldosterone release to ↓ BP 2. Glucocorticosteroids Normal Cell Metabolism Prescribed for Patients with Hyperglycemic hormones And Resist long term Rheumatoid Arthritis stressor by ↑ blood glucose levels Cushing’s Disease ↑ Hypersecretion of Anti- Inflammatory Glucocortocosteroids by ↓ edema reducing pain S/S: Moon Face, Buffalo by inhibiting pain causing Hump of fat on the upper molecules called back Prostaglandins a. Cortisone b. Cortisol Breakdown of fat and protein and reduces inflammation 3. Sex Hormones In Female: Estrogen Ovary Masculinization ↑ Hypersecretion of sex In Male: Androgen hormones development of male Testes sexual characteristics Sexual Infantilism; Sterility ↓ Hyposecretion of Androgen Addisons Disease


Hyposecretion of all Adrenal Cortex Hormones S/S: Bronze tone of skin, water and electrolyte imbalance, possible shock, S/S: If resulting from ↓ glucocorticosteroids: Hypoglycemia, burnout, suppressed immune system Adrenal Medulla


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Stimulated by Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) (Excitement, Exercise, Embarrassment, Emotions) Function/s * Breakdown of glycogen to glucose * Dilation of Bronchioles Target Organ/s Homeostatic Imbalance ↑ SNS – rapid heart rate, ↑ BP, perspiration, irritable

Hormones Epinephrine or Adrenaline

* Release fatty acids from fat cells Norepinephrine or Noradrenaline

Pancreatic Islets or Islets of Langerhans

Close to stomach in abdominal cavity ; most hidden endocrine glands Hormones Function/s Released by Beta Cells to ↓ blood glucose Target Organ/s Liver and Liver Cells Homeostatic Imbalance Diabetes Mellitus ↑ Blood Glucose Level Ketones –large amounts of fats are used for energy; blood becomes very acidic (acidosis)

Insulin Hypoglycemic hormone

Glucagon Hyperglycemic hormone; antagonist of Insulin

Released by Alpha Cells to ↑ blood glucose Regulates blood glucose level Normal Blood Level of Glucose Level: 80 – 120 mg / ml of blood. 3 Cardinal Signs of Diabetes Mellitus: 1. Polyuria - frequent urination to flush out glucose and ketones

Liver

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Polydipsia - ↑ thirst d/t water loss Polyphagia – ↑ hunger d/t inability to use sugars and loss of fats and proteins.

Types of Diabetes Mellitus 1. Type 1 – Insulin dependent (ID); Juvenile Type, Child; Pancreas doesn’t produce insulin.

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Type 2 – Non insulin dependent (NID); Late Onset DM; Adult Onset Type; Pancreas produce insulin

Pineal Gland or Pineal Body • Small cone shaped gland; found in the roof of 3rd Ventricle of the Brain • Hormone: Melatonin – “The sleep trigger”; establish body’s night cycle Thymus • Location: Upper Thorax posterior to Sternum • Hormone: Thyroxin – for maturation of special White Blood Cells called “T Lymphocytes” for Immune
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Gonads (Sex Hormones)
Hormones of the Female Gonads or Ovaries a. Estrogen Produced by Groafian Follicles Function/s Development of secondary sex characteristics * growth and maturity of reproductive organs Target Organ/s Homeostatic Imbalance

* appearance of pubic and axillary hair Acts with progesterone for Menstrual Cycle. b. Progesterone Lactation Acts with estrogen for Menstrual cycle Promote Growth of Uterine Lining Prepares for Lactation Hormone of the Paired Male Testes Androgens Function/s Produces Testosterone * Development of secondary male sex characteristics (growth of beard, bones and muscles, lowering of voice) * Stimulates Sex Drive * Sperm Production Target Organ/s Homeostatic Imbalance Uterus Human Breast Uterus Human Breast

Placenta
• 1. Contains Hormones that help pregnancy and deliver of baby Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hcG)


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Produced during early pregnancy to stimulate corpus luteum of ovary to continue producing estrogen and progesterone

Human Placental Lactogen (hPL)


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Works with estrogen and progesterone in preparing breasts for lactation

Relaxin

Relaxes and adds flexibility to pubic symphisis to ease birth passage.