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United Nations

Educational, Scienti¿c and
Cultural Organization
UNESCO}and
“Everyone has} the right to}education”
UNESCO}and
Published in November 2011 by the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization
7, place de Fontenoy, 75352 Paris 07 SP, France
© UNESCO 2011
All rights reserved
The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout this
publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the
part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or
area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or
boundaries.
Designed and printed by UNESCO
Printed in France on FSC certified paper
Photo cover:
©

UNESCO/Ministerio de Educación. School children in Florida (Valle), in Colombia, 2011.
ED-2011/WS/30 – CLD 3539.11
Contents
Foreword 5
Education worldwide 6
UNESCO’s education mission 7
International targets 9
Africa and gender: two priorities 11
Literacy, teachers and work skills 13
Strengthening education systems 16
Planning and managing education 20
Leading the international agenda 22
Networking and sharing knowledge 24
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EDUCATION
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POLITICAL
QUALI TY
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TEACHERS
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TO REACH MARGINALIZED
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GOALS
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SKILLS
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SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
GUIDANCE
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STAKEHOLDERS
MOVEMENT
INCLUSIVE
LIFELONG LEARNING
EARLY CHILDHOOD CARE AND EDUCATION
A DULT L I T E RA CY
PARTNERS
EFFORTS
MISSION
HEALTH
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Foreword
A quality education throughout
life is the birthright of every
woman, man and child. In turn,
education, particularly that of girls
and women, aids progress across
allŰdevelopment goals.
Since the adoption of the
Education forŰ All and Millennium
Development Goals in 2000,
remarkable progress has been
made in education worldwide, and much of it in
some of the world’s poorest countries. Millions more
children are in school, making the move from primary
to secondary education, and gender disparities
in primary and secondary school enrolments are
narrowing.
However, the slowing of primary enrolments globally
coupled with high dropout rates and a critical
shortage of teachers – especially in sub-Saharan
Africa – means much work remains to be done to
protect and build upon those gains. The aftermath of
the global economic crisis threatens to further erode
the education advances made in the past decade.
Against this backdrop, increasing access to education
requires strong political will and a corresponding
improvement in quality, along with a workforce of well-
trained and motivated teachers and targeted actions
to reach marginalized and excluded groups.
UNESCO’s mandate covers
all facets of education. The
Organization offers guidance
and expertise to policy-makers
and other stakeholders, and
helps countries to plan, build and
rebuild education systems that are
responsive to a rapidly changing
world. In particular, UNESCO
leads the global Education for
All movement, and promotes
a holistic and inclusive vision of lifelong learning
that includes early childhood care and education,
primary, secondary and higher education, youth and
adult skills, adult literacy, gender parity and quality
education.
In collaboration with its many partners, UNESCO is
intensifying efforts to pursue this valuable mission to
make quality education a reality for all, so that each
and every one of us has the chance to realize our
full potential and enjoy better health, improved living
standards, and fuller social and political participation
in society.
Qian Tang, Ph.D.
Assistant Director-General
forŰEducation
6
Education worldwide
Worldwide, more people than ever before are
benejting from an education. Over 1.5 billion children
and youth are enrolled in kindergartens, primary and
secondary schools and universities. From 1999 to
2008, an additional 52 million children enrolled in
primary school. The number of children out of school
was more than halved in South and West Asia, and in
sub-Saharan Africa enrolment ratios rose by almost
one-third. Access to education is steadily expanding;
across developing countries, enrolment in higher
education has risen sharply, and innovative literacy
and adult education programmes are transforming
the lives of the disadvantaged.
But a number of obstacles, including poverty, still
keep 67 million children of primary-school age out
of school, 53 per cent of whom are girls and almost
43 per cent of whom are in sub-Saharan Africa.
Enrolment rates are slowing and being eroded by
dropout, particularly in countries affected by armed
conkict where over 40 per cent of out-of-school
children live. Gender disparities continue to hamper
progress in education. Around 17 per cent of the
world’s adults – 793 million people, of whom two-
thirds are women – still lack basic literacy skills.
Millions struggle to learn in overcrowded classrooms,
without textbooks or qualijed teachers. An additional
2 million teachers will need to be recruited by 2015 to
achieve universal primary education, more than half
of them in sub-Saharan Africa.
UNESCO leads the global Education for All movement.
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UNESCO’s education mission
Since its creation in 1945, UNESCO’s mission has
been to contribute to the building of peace, poverty
eradication, lasting development and intercultural
dialogue, with education as one of its principal
activities to achieve this aim. The Organization’s other
jelds of action include the natural sciences, the social
and human sciences, culture, and communication
and information.
Today, UNESCO is committed to a holistic and
humanistic vision of quality education worldwide,
the realization of everyone’s right to education, and
the belief that education plays a fundamental role in
human, social and economic development.
Setting standards
UNESCO’s commitment to the right to education is
enshrined in three key standard-setting documents.
Signed in 1948 in the aftermath of the Second World War,
the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 26)
proclaims that: “Everyone has the right to education”.
In 1960, the Convention against Discrimination in
Education, adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO,
stated that the Organization “…has the duty not only to
proscribe any form of discrimination in education but also
to promote equality of opportunity and treatment for all
in education”. It was, and remains, the first international
instrument with binding force in international law that
develops the right to education in all its dimensions.
In 1989, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, in
Articles 28 and 29, stipulated that primary education
should be “compulsory and available free to all”, and that
it should allow children to reach their fullest potential.
Educational objectives
▶ supporting the achievement of Education for All
(EFA)
▶ providing global and regional leadership in
education
▶ building effective education systems worldwide
from early childhood to the adult years
▶ responding to contemporary global challenges
through education
How UNESCO works to meet these objectives
UNESCO is the only United Nations agency with
a mandate to cover all aspects of education. Its
work encompasses educational development
from pre-school through primary, secondary and
higher education, including technical and vocational
education and training, non-formal education and
adult learning. The Organization focuses on increasing
equity and access, improving quality, and ensuring
that education develops knowledge and skills in
areas such as sustainable development, HIV and
AIDS, human rights and gender equality. UNESCO
works with governments, National Commissions
for UNESCO and a wide range of other partners
to make education systems more effective through
policy change. It coordinates the Education for All
movement, tracks education trends and raises the
projle of educational needs on global development
agendas. UNESCO is also an active and committed
partner in UN reform, which aims to improve
coordination, efjciency and delivery.
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Promoting the right to education
The universal right to education proclaimed by the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 26)
is at the very heart of UNESCO’s mission and is an
integral part of its constitutional mandate. UNESCO’s
Constitution expresses the belief of its founders in:
“full and equal opportunities for education for all
[...] to advance the ideal of equality of educational
opportunity [...].”
UNESCO’s Education Sector has Ƅve main
functions:
▶ Laboratory of ideas: anticipating and respond-
ing to emerging trends and needs in education, and
developing education policies based on research and
country priorities.
▶ Standard-setter: developing standards, norms
and guidelines in key education areas, and monitoring
the implementation of relevant legal and normative
instruments.
▶ Clearinghouse: promoting the development,
implementation and dissemination of successful
educational policies and practices.
▶ Capacity-builder: providing technical cooperation
to develop the capacity of Member States to achieve
their national education goals.
▶ Catalyst for international cooperation: initiating
and promoting dialogue and exchange among
education leaders and stakeholders.
Four ways UNESCO supports the right to education
▪ Monitoring the implementation of the international normative instruments in this field
▪ Building and strengthening capacities and mechanisms and reporting
▪ Assisting Member States in reviewing and developing their national legal frameworks
▪ Mobilizing, developing and fostering global partnerships to raise awareness on key issues relating to the
implementation of international normative instruments on the right to education
In a primary school in Adwa, Ethiopia.
9
International targets
In the year 2000, the international community signed up to the Education for All and
Millennium Development Goals. Currently the two most influential frameworks in the field of
education, they are an ambitious roadmap for the global community to follow, offering a long-
term vision of reduced poverty and hunger, better health and education, sustainable lifestyles,
strong partnerships and shared commitments.
Education for All (EFA)
The EFA movement is a global commitment led by
UNESCO to provide quality basic education for all
children, youth and adults. It began at the World
Conference on Education for All (Jomtien, Thailand,
1990), which stressed education as a human right
and outlined a holistic vision of lifelong learning. Ten
years later, at the World Education Forum (Dakar,
2000), 164 governments pledged to achieve EFA and
identijed six goals with wide-ranging targets to be
met by 2015.
The jve multilateral institutions that organized the
World Conference for Education for All remain the
key international stakeholders in the EFA movement:
United Nations Educational, Scientijc and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO), United Nations Development
Programme (UNDP), United Nations Population Fund
(UNFPA), United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
and the World Bank.
As lead agency of the EFA movement, UNESCO
focuses its activities on jve key areas: policy dialogue,
monitoring, advocacy, mobilization of funding and
capacity development.
The six Education for All Goals
Goal 1. Expand early childhood care and education
Goal 2. Provide free and compulsory primary education
for all
Goal 3. Promote learning and life skills for young people
and adults
Goal 4. Increase adult literacy
Goal 5. Achieve gender parity
Goal 6. Improve the quality of education
Education for All
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Millennium Development Goals
Also adopted in 2000, the eight Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs) aim to halve poverty by
2015. Although MDGs 2 and 3 focus on achieving
universal primary schooling, empowering women
and eliminating gender disparities at the primary and
secondary levels, education drives the achievement
of all the MDGs. This is because it equips people with
the knowledge and skills to break the cycle of poverty
and shape their future life chances.
The eight Millennium Development Goals
  Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
  Goal 2. Achieve universal primary education
  Goal 3. Promote gender equality and empower
women
  Goal 4. Reduce child mortality rate
  Goal 5. Improve maternal health
  Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other
diseases
  Goal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability
  Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for
development
Three key UN initiatives
UNESCO currently leads three major initiatives within
the UN family.
The UN Literacy Decade (2003–
2012) aims to create a greater impetus
for literacy, with stronger political
commitment, improved programmes for
youth and adults, and additional funding, in order to
reduce the number of illiterate people.
The UN Decade of Education for
Sustainable Development (2005-
2014) encourages governments to
incorporate the principles, values and
practices of sustainable development into teaching
and learning, so as to address social, economic,
cultural and environmental challenges.
Launched in 2004, the UNAIDS
Global Initiative on Education and HIV and AIDS
(EDUCAIDS) works with more than 80 countries
to promote, develop and support comprehensive
educational responses to the pandemic.
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Africa and gender: two priorities
Africa
Africa is a top priority for UNESCO and education is
key to the region’s development. The past decade has
seen marked advances towards EFA in sub-Saharan
Africa. Indeed, the region has increased primary net
enrolment ratios by almost one-third, despite a large
rise in the school-age population. Gender gaps have
narrowed at the primary level, more children are
moving from primary school to secondary education
and real expenditure on education has increased by
more than six per cent each year.
But major challenges remain. Sub-Saharan Africa is
unlikely to reach the EFA literacy target set for 2015.
It is home to almost 43 per cent of the world’s out-
of-school children, levels of learning achievement are
low and gender disparities are still considerable. It
also has the largest share of the world’s population
infected with HIV, with 90 per cent of the world’s two
million children living with the virus in sub-Saharan
Africa. UNESCO works with the African Union, which
has dejned development goals for the region through
the New Partnership for Africa’s Development and the
Second Decade of Education for Africa (2006-2015).
UNESCO supports the Decade through its core
initiatives in support of EFA as well as through sector
analyses, national education support strategies,
monitoring and evaluation.
The importance of quality
Democratic Republic of the Congo:
A prizewinning UNESCO literacy
project, Collectif Alpha UJUVI.
The Basic Education in Africa Programme supports the
holistic and comprehensive reform of basic education
and an uninterrupted nine to ten years of quality basic
education, including early childhood care and education
(ECCE).
The Pôle de Dakar supports African countries with
sectoral diagnoses, development of educational
strategies, implementation of educational policies, and
facilitating external technical and financial support. It
conducts studies and syntheses, and carries out training
in partnership with other institutions, with a view to
strengthening the skills of national education officers.
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Gender
“Girls’ secondary schooling carries a cascade
of lifetime benefits: higher incomes, higher
agricultural productivity, lower child and
maternal mortality, lower fertility, delayed
age of marriage, better prevention against
HIV and AIDS. This is the right moment for
empowering young women.”
Irina Bokova, Director-General of UNESCO
Gender inequality is still an obstacle to Education for
All. Two out of three countries in the world face gender
disparities in primary and secondary education, and
as many as half will not achieve the goal of gender
parity in education by 2015, according to the 2010
Global Education Digest – the kagship publication of
the UNESCO Institute for Statistics.
The Organization has developed a set of gender
mainstreaming training tools to build gender equality
considerations into policies and programmes and
sensitize educators. Within the UNAIDS family, HIV
prevention education has a strong gender dimension:
the Organization’s Gender and HIV and AIDS series
seeks to bolster the self-conjdence of girls – and
boys – in tackling issues of reproductive health.
Education to counter discrimination and promote
human rights also engages with the issue of gender-
based violence.
In 2010, UNESCO was a signatory to the UN Joint
Statement on Accelerating Efforts to Advance
the Rights of Adolescent Girls, an expression of
commitment to empower the millions of young
individuals to hold the keys to a better future.
Better Life, Better Future
UNESCO’s new global partnership for girls’ and women’s
education seeks to address the distinctive barriers both
face in accessing learning, and in particular secondary
education and adult literacy. The partnership will scale
up global advocacy for girl’s and women’s education and
introduce programmes aimed at stemming the drop-out
rate of adolescent girls in the transition from primary
to secondary education and in lower secondary schools,
and focus on scaling up women’s literacy programmes
through stronger advocacy and partnerships, including
with the private sector.
West Bengal, India: The gender gap in secondary school
enrolments is narrowing in many countries.
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Literacy, teachers and}work}skills}
Literacy
Literacy is a fundamental right and the
foundation for lifelong learning. It imparts
knowledge, skills and the self-confidence to
transform lives, leading to better health and
income as well as fuller participation in the
community.
UNESCO helps Member States to increase their
literacy rates by motivating governments and civil
society to focus on literacy, formulate solid policies
and develop capacities to deliver good quality
multilingual programmes.
Its major initiatives are the United Nations Literacy
Decade (2003-2012) and the Literacy Initiative for
Empowerment (LIFE, 2006-2015) a ten-year global
initiative to accelerate literacy in the 35 countries with
the biggest literacy challenges.
The UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL,
Hamburg, Germany) is an international research,
training, information and publishing centre for literacy,
adult education and non-formal education. Its
documentation centre holds more than 60,000 items,
including a unique collection of literacy materials from
120 countries in more than 160 languages. By linking
advocacy, networking, educational research, policy
and practice, UIL works to improve the environment
and quality of lifelong learning for all worldwide.
The Literacy Assessment and Monitoring Programme
(LAMP), developed by the UNESCO Institute for
Statistics (UIS, Montreal, Canada) is a tool to
help Member States measure levels of literacy
achievement.
UNESCO International Literacy Prizes
Each year on 8 September, UNESCO celebrates
International Literacy Day and awards prizes in
recognition of excellence and innovation in promoting
literacy throughout the world. The UNESCO King
Sejong Literacy Prize is sponsored by the government
of the Republic of Korea and the UNESCO Confucius
Prize for Literacy is sponsored by the government
of the People’s Republic of China. Themes include
women’s empowerment (2010) and literacy for
peaceŰ(2011).
Venezuela: Participating in the successful national
literacy programme.
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Literacy begins at home
The Females for Families programme in Egypt, winner
of the 2010 UNESCO Confucius Prize for Literacy, took
120 girls from the remote Egyptian town of Abu-Ashur
and gave them six months’ training as community
leaders. Many families in the town live on less than
US$60 a month and suffer from inadequate health and
education services. The girls established family-based
literacy classes and imparted information on health,
hygiene and family planning; trained people in cooking,
crafts and agriculture; accompanied them on medical
appointments, encouraged drop-outs to return to school
and helped secure small loans. In addition, the town was
given a permanent resource centre staffed with a doctor,
a vet, an education specialist, a loan officer and other
professionals. In raising literacy levels, the girls also
helped remove prejudices about women in public life.
Teachers
Teachers help to empower people, build peace
and develop societies, yet many suffer from
poor status, wages and working conditions,
and carry out their vital work in deprived and
dangerous settings. Without sufficient numbers
of qualified teachers – men and women – the
EFA and MDG targets will be hard to meet.
The current teacher shortage is acute. The number
of teaching staff has simply not kept pace with the
unprecedented surge in primary school enrolment
since 2000. Globally, a total of 99 countries will need
at least 2 million more teachers in classrooms by 2015
to provide quality primary education. More than half of
these new teachers are needed in sub-Saharan Africa.
There are also important qualitative challenges to face
such as the training, deployment and motivation of
teachers.
UNESCO provides global leadership on teachers
and their status, recruitment, training and
professional development, based on the UNESCO/
ILO Recommendation concerning the Status of
Teachers (1966), which is applied in parallel with the
Recommendation concerning the Status of Higher
Education Teaching Personnel (1997).
Policies and guidelines
UNESCO helps countries to develop comprehensive
teacher policies, with attention to training, status,
working conditions and accreditation. In Latin America
and the Caribbean, it has produced studies on key
areas such as teacher evaluation, innovative pre-
service teacher training programmes, health and
working conditions. In the Asia-Pacijc region, the
Organization has taken the lead in the use of information
and communication technologies, both for teachers’
professional development and to support classroom
teaching. UNESCO’s International Bureau of Education
(IBE, Geneva, Switzerland) develops teacher guidelines
for curriculum change with teams from Ministries of
Education in various countries, while the UNESCO
International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP,
Paris, France) has reviewed teacher management
practices and highlighted successful strategies in
countries greatly affected by HIV and AIDS.
Teaching and learning Arabic in a primary school near
Rabat, Morocco.
Training
The Teacher Training Initiative for Sub-Saharan Africa
(TTISSA) aims to improve national teacher policy and
strengthen teacher education in the region. UNESCO’s
International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa
(IICBA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia) assists Member States in
Africa with open and distance learning and face-to-face
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training of trainers. At the international level, the Task
Force on Teachers for EFA, a global alliance of partners,
coordinates and reinforces global efforts to close the
teacher gap for the achievement of all EFA goals.
World Teachers’ Day
World Teachers’ Day, held annually on 5 October since
1994, commemorates the anniversary of the signing in
1966 of the UNESCO/ILO Recommendation concerning the
Status of Teachers. It is an occasion to pay tribute to the
vital role of teachers and to advocate for improvements in
their status and working conditions.
Work skills
Technical and vocational education and
training (TVET) plays an essential role in
helping reduce poverty and promote growth
as well as in ensuring the social and economic
inclusion of marginalized communities.
In an era of global economic integration and rapidly
evolving technologies, training for the world of work
has never been more important. However, many
governments are not giving sufjcient priority to the
basic skills and learning needs of youth and adults.
Quality TVET programmes are urgently needed to
bridge the gap between school and work.
A strategy to support TVET in Member States
In cooperation with a range of partners, UNESCO has
established a strategy to support TVET in Member States
from 2010 to 2015. The strategy focuses on three core
areas:
▪ providing upstream policy advice and related
capacity development
▪ conceptual clarification of skills development and
improvement of monitoring of TVET
▪ acting as a clearinghouse and informing the global
TVET debate
Focus on relevance
UNESCO promotes TVET and skills for work as part
of lifelong learning, concentrating on secondary and
post-secondary training in formal and non-formal
settings. It helps Member States to develop long-
term strategies and solutions based on inclusive and
rights-based approaches. To counter the perception
of TVET courses as a safety net for failing or poor
students, UNESCO works to improve their quality,
status and employment value, making sure they are
relevant to social and economic needs.
The UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for
Technical and Vocational Education and Training
(Bonn, Germany) helps Member States strengthen
and upgrade their TVET systems. The UNEVOC
network consists of 282 specialized institutions,
known as UNEVOC Centres, in 167 UNESCO
Member States. It includes government ministries,
research facilities, planning and training institutions.
An Interagency Group on TVET was established in
2009 on the initiative of UNESCO. Its members include
ILO, OECD, the World Bank, the European Training
Foundation, the European Commission and the Asian
Development Bank. The objective of the group is
to share knowledge on TVET issues and to promote
cooperation at global and country levels. A specijc
working group on indicators, also involving the UNESCO
Institute for Statistics, was established to develop TVET
indicators for policy monitoring and evaluation.
The Inter-Agency Task Team (IATT) for the
revitalization of TVET in the Economic Community of
West African States (ECOWAS) was established in
August 2009. Through the IATT, UNESCO is creating
partnerships with agencies including UNDP, ILO and
the Association for the Development of Education in
Africa (ADEA), to support the development of skills for
youth employment.
Five countries, five years to improve job
skills in Southern Africa
A five-year project to revitalize TVET, which began in
autumn 2011, targets  five Southern African countries:
Botswana, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Malawi,
Namibia and Zambia. The project is based on comprehensive
research carried out on the status of TVET in countries in
the Southern African Development Community, as part
of a UNESCO capacity-building initiative funded by the
Government of the Republic of Korea.
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Strengthening education systems
As the lead agency for Education for All,
UNESCO’s top priority is to speed up access
to quality learning. The Organization helps
countries to develop inclusive, holistic and
balanced education systems from early
childhood to the adult years.
Early childhood care and education
Early childhood care and education (ECCE) programmes
prepare children for school, mitigate the effects of
household deprivation, break the cycle of educational
disadvantage between parents and children, and
strengthen prospects for economic growth.
UNESCO advocates for holistic ECCE programmes
that includeŰhealth, nutrition and security. The multi-
faceted nature of ECCE presents the challenge of
coordinating policy development and implementation
across different sectors (education, social affairs
and health). Following the jrst World Conference on
ECCE held in Moscow in 2010, UNESCO is leading
an interagency project to develop a Holistic Early
Childhood Development Index, with UNICEF as a
major partner.
Primary and secondary education
Because of the increase in primary school enrolments,
many countries have broadened the concept of basic
education to include lower secondary education.
For low-income countries, secondary education for
all is a difjcult target to achieve.
Most high-income countries are close to universal
secondary education, with a large share of the
population progressing to the tertiary level, but
marginalized groups still struggle and face further
discrimination in the job market. Through second-
chance programmes, young people who failed to
complete primary education can acquire the skills
and knowledge needed to expand their livelihood
choices.
To ensure quality and relevance are maintained during
rapid expansion, UNESCO’s Secondary Education
Regional Information Base contains policy-relevant
data on secondary education in the Asia region to
help education practitioners in developing policies
and reforms.
Higher education
Demand for higher education has risen sharply, with
the number of tertiary students increasing six-fold in
the last 40 years. Internationally mobile students are
expected to multiply by about 12 per cent annually.
Rapid globalization has led to a diversijcation of
providers, creating the need for reinforced accreditation
and quality assurance systems.
As the only UN agency with a mandate for higher
education, UNESCO helps Member States and their
institutions widen access to quality higher education
through diverse modes of provision adapted to local
development needs. Initiatives to inform policy include
Global Fora on essential issues such as university
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rankings (2011), graduate employability (2012) and
diversijed provision and jnancing of higher education
(2013). Normative instruments are in place to support
international mobility of students and graduates.
UNESCO is in the process of revising the Regional
Conventions on recognition of higher education
qualijcations as well as exploring possibilities to
establish a Global Convention for all Member States.
Further activities promote quality assurance in higher
education, support institutions and states, reduce
brain drain, and enhance inter-institutional cooperation
and networking through the UNESCO Chairs and
UNITWIN programmes.
Reconstructing education after
disaster and conflict
A signijcant proportion of the 67 million children out
of primary school worldwide live in countries affected
by war and natural disasters. Achieving EFA requires
ensuring learning opportunities for these children. It
is increasingly recognized that education must be a
major part of any humanitarian response. Conkict and
disaster-affected communities themselves prioritize
education, often even before more immediate material
needs. Education restores routine and gives people
hope for the future. It can also serve as a channel both
for meeting other basic humanitarian needs, and for
communicating vital messages that promote safety
and well-being. Rebuilding education systems is an
essential element in restoring peace and laying the
ground for long-term sustainable development. The
Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies
(INEE) is an open global network of practitioners and
policy-makers working together to ensure quality
education in emergency situations. It brings together
UN agencies and NGOs and places education jrmly
on the agenda as part of the initial response to an
emergency.
Back to school after the Haiti earthquake
Immediately after the Haiti earthquake in 2010, UNESCO
opened up its premises to host the Minister of Education
and his cabinet, whose buildings were destroyed, and
helped carry out a damage and needs assessment of
education institutions. With close to 90 per cent of
schools in the country’s West Department damaged or
destroyed, and more than 450,000 children displaced,
an urgent priority was to open temporary schools and
provide learning materials. By the time schools reopened,
an emergency curriculum had been developed and
disseminated with UNESCO’s support. To equip educators
with the skills to recognize trauma and alleviate stress-
related symptoms, UNESCO with its partners trained over
3,000 secondary school teachers and other educational
personnel on learner-centred psycho-social support. A
nationwide census of all TVET centres was launched,
and the first five centres are now being reconstructed and
equipped. Another UNESCO initiative, “Un livre pour un
enfant d’Haiti” (A book for a child in Haiti), launched
in collaboration with NGO Bibliothèques sans frontières
(Libraries without Borders), collected 6,000 books which
were circulated in 12 camps and 22 schools.
Debris, including classwork, Port-au-Prince, Haiti,
where the January 2010 earthquake destroyed over a
thousand schools.
18
Education and disaster risk
reduction
Climate change, including a rise in extreme weather
events, is contributing to a reduction in communities’
coping capacities. A growing global population,
particularly in urban areas with poor infrastructure and
lack of emergency procedures, compounds these
risks, increasing the number of people vulnerable to
hazards.Ű Disaster risk reduction (DRR) aims to build
society’s resilience and ability to cope. Education has
a central role to play in equipping people with life-
saving and environmentally sustainable knowledge
and skills. Both in the immediate aftermath of
disasters and before, UNESCO supports Member
States to integrate DRR into their education sectors.
UNRWA – Educating against the odds
With its 19,000 teachers and educators, the UN Relief and
Works Agency for Palestine Refugees (UNRWA) is one of
the largest school systems in the Middle East. UNRWA
and UNESCO collaborate with four ministries in providing
basic education and training for half a million Palestinian
refugee children in Jordan, Lebanon, the West Bank, Gaza
and Syria. Following four different national curricula is
one of UNRWA’s main challenges. UNRWA teachers and
students work in extremely challenging circumstances,
with 70 per cent of UNRWA schools operating on double
shifts, many in unsuitable buildings.
HIV and AIDS
With an estimated 6,800 people newly infected with
HIV every day, prevention education must be at the
forefront of any response to the epidemic. School-
based HIV education offers a very cost-effective
approach to prevention, as the right message can
reach large numbers of young people from diverse
backgrounds.
Sexuality education is key to HIV
prevention
A seminal study undertaken by UNESCO into the cost-
effectiveness of sexuality education programmes provides
a solid economic basis for the argument that such
programmes play a key role in HIV prevention amongst
young people. The study provides the data and analysis
necessary to make a stronger and better informed
case for investing in school-based sexuality education
programmes, particularly in those countries most affected
by the epidemic.
The UNAIDS Global Initiative on Education and HIV
and AIDS (EDUCAIDS) helps countries to respond to
the epidemic by giving particular attention to children
and youth, especially the most vulnerable, within a
sector-wide approach.
This work is reinforced by UNESCO’s efforts to
support HIV prevention through sexuality education,
based on the International Technical Guidance on
Sexuality Education published in 2009 in partnership
with UNAIDS, UNFPA, UNICEF and WHO.
The UNAIDS Inter-Agency Task Team (IATT) on
Education was created in 2002 to support faster and
better education sector responses to HIV and AIDS.
Convened by UNESCO, the IATT promotes education
as an essential element for the prevention of HIV and
the mitigation of the impact of AIDS.
A half-finished classroom in the Mugosi Primary School
near Kahe refugee camp, Democratic Republic of the Congo.
19
Information and communication
technologies in education
UNESCO works towards the inclusion of all learners,
through the reinforcing of quality education and training
and lifelong learning through the integration of locally-
relevant information and communication technologies
(ICT) into teaching and learning. This includes, in
particular, open access modalities, communities of
practice, global digital libraries and resource centres,
and digital learning tools.
The integration of ICT in education policies, the use of
mobile technologies for learning and ICT as a tool for
literacy, with particular attention to women, are some
of the topics that currently form part of UNESCO’s
education programme. The Organization collaborates
with partners such as the Commonwealth of Learning to
expand understanding of Open Educational Resources
and promote their wider use.
Monitoring learning achievement
Gains made in access to education cannot be sustained
without a parallel improvement in quality. International
learning assessments reveal marked global and national
disparities in learning achievement. UNESCO works
with a range of partners to improve capacity to assess
and monitor quality and learning achievement. The
Southern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational
Quality (SACMEQ) involves 15 ministries of education
and produces cross-national studies on the quality of
education and schooling. The Latin American Laboratory
for Assessment of the Quality of Education (LLECE) aims
to assess the quality of education and factors associated
with students’ experiences and development. UNESCO
Beirut, in collaboration with the Australian Council
for Educational Research, is developing an Arab States
initiative to help monitor learning achievement and
strengthen national education systems, while UNESCO’s
International Bureau of Education (IBE) supports
countries in the development of quality curricula for EFA.
Pakistan: Mobile learning, or m-learning, is taking off among the newly literate. UNESCO’s Mobile Phone Literacy
project aims to empower women and girls.
20
Planning and managing education
To generate sustainable, large-scale
improvements in education systems,
governments must be able to plan for and
manage school enrolments, assign teachers to
areas where they are most needed, promote
the use of relevant, up-to-date curricula and
materials, and facilitate pathways between
the different levels and settings of education.
Improving their capacity to do all this will
ensure that education systems respond to the
real needs of societies.
Policy and planning
UNESCO helps national decision-makers to
develop and carry out solid and relevant education
policies and strategies. This support can come in
various forms: technical assistance with the design
of education sector development plans; the use of
simulation models or information systems; review of
education policies; assessment of national planning
and management and development of capacity
development plans; reinforcement of capacities;
contribution to sector dialogue at country level;
and the mobilization of donors to support national
educational priorities. UNESCO’s International
Institute for Educational Planning plays a key role in
reinforcing capacities in educational planning and
management.
Partnerships are essential. UNESCO collaborates
with the Global Partnership for Education (formerly
the Education for All Fast Track Initiative) to support
countries facing acute challenges to achieve the
EFA goals, including post-conkict and post-disaster
countries.
Financing education
The aftershocks of the 2008 global jnancial crisis
threaten to deprive millions of children of an education
in the world’s poorest countries. It is estimated that
donors will have to bridge a jnancing gap of US$16
billion a year to meet the goal of universal primary
education by 2015. Governments are coping with the
crisis in different ways, from countercyclical measures
to social safety net schemes, but many countries risk
falling behind target.
Innovative financing
UNESCO is a member of the Task Force on Innovative
Financing for Education, which explores new and creative
ways of financing development and meeting international
objectives.
In addition to multi-stakeholder partnerships, the idea of
a levy – for instance, of 0.005 per cent – on transactions
between four major currencies could be explored. This
could raise US$30 billion a year. Education bonds in
local currency could also be considered in order to better
guarantee the financing of education sector projects. A
venture fund for investment in innovative education is
another idea being investigated.
21
New donors
The inkuence of middle-income and developing
countries as South-South Cooperation (SSC) partners
and funders of development assistance has grown,
along with that of the private sector, as a key factor
in reducing poverty. New support includes foreign
direct investment, donations from philanthropists,
foundations, corporations and non-governmental
organizations, and aid from new donors such as
China, India and the Gulf States.
Targeted support
UNESCO has provided targeted support to countries
considered among those least likely to achieve EFA. In
the 2010-2011 biennium, 20 priority countries were thus
given special support in the areas of literacy, teachers,
TVET or sector-wide policy and planning, in order to
speed up progress towards EFA. These countries are
Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Burundi, Cambodia,
Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, East Timor,
Ethiopia, Guinea, Haiti, Lao People’s Democratic Republic,
Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Rwanda,
Togo, and Yemen.
UNESCO is targeting some 15-20 additional countries in
the 2012-2013 biennium, while continuing to support
the 20 initial priority countries through extrabudgetary
resources.
The Global Partnership for Education, of which UNESCO is a member, provides an international, multilateral
framework for cooperation in education.
22
Leading the international agenda
The EFA Global Monitoring Report
The annual EFA Global
Moni t or i ng Repor t
(GMR) is the world’s
foremost publication
on progress towards
education for all. It is the
work of an independent
team of researchers,
and produced and
published by UNESCO.
Serving as a unique
policy tool for decision-makers, the Report aims to
inform, inkuence and sustain commitment towards
EFA, and to urge governments and donors to rise to
the challenge of meeting education goals. Each year, it
focuses on a specijc theme of particular relevance, for
example education and armed conkict (2011) or skills
development (2012). The Report is funded jointly by
UNESCO and multilateral and bilateral agencies, and
benejts from the expertise of an international advisory
board.
EFA global partnerships
The success of the EFA movement lies in its wide-
ranging partnerships, which bring together key
stakeholders in national governments, international and
regional aid agencies, civil society, the private sector and
non-governmental organizations.Ű The jve multilateral
institutions that organized the World Conference on
Education for All in 1990 remain the key international
stakeholders in the EFA movement: UNESCO, UNDP,
UNFPA, UNICEF and the World Bank.
Capacity building for EFA
UNESCO’s Capacity Development for EFA
programme (CapEFA) helps countries improve the
effectiveness of their education systems using pooled
funding from Denmark, Finland, Italy, Norway, Sweden
and Switzerland. The Programme is providing extra-
budgetary support to the Education Sector’s 20Űtarget
countries for education (see box p. 21).
CapEFA works alongside national counterparts to
assess their existing strengths, identify the priority
areas for action and design strategies for reinforcing
essential capacities.
UNESCO’s Member States identify country and
regional priorities for the programme themselves,
with the thematic focus being in line with UNESCO’s
education priorities.
23
Education for global citizenship
Education for global citizenship embraces the ideas of
peace, tolerance and mutual understanding, human
rights education and related educational themes.
It provides a framework for preventing violence in
schools and promoting intercultural understanding,
inter-faith dialogue, respect for diversity and empathy.
With partners including its 9,000 Associated Schools,
UNESCO has developed and tested pedagogical and
practical tools for teachers, and encouraged school-
level initiatives. The Organization has produced
guidelines for the prevention of school violence, and
worked with directors and teachers to adapt them to
social and cultural contexts. Prevention work includes
a manual produced by UNESCO working with the
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
and the Council of Europe on issues including anti-
Semitism and discrimination against Muslims in
education. Educating about the Transatlantic Slave
Trade, the Holocaust and other forms of genocide
aims to help students be more vigilant about violations
of human rights. UNESCO continues to play a major
role in the implementation of the World Programme
for Human Rights Education.
Education for sustainable
development
Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)
promotes efforts to rethink educational programmes
and systems in order to create sustainable
societies. Through its Climate Change Education
for Sustainable Development programme, UNESCO
aims to make climate change education a central and
visible part of the international response to climate
change. The programme works by strengthening the
capacity of Member States to provide quality climate
change education; encouraging innovative teaching
approaches to integrate this education in schools;
and enhancing non-formal education programmes
through media, networking and partnerships.
UNESCO leads the UN Decade of Education for
Sustainable Development (2005-2014), which seeks
to mobilize the educational resources of the world to
help create a more sustainable future.
Visions of education beyond 2015
As the target date for achieving the EFA goals
approaches, international development partners and
think tanks have already begun to articulate new
visions for education and learning beyond the 2015
targets set by the EFA movement.
UNESCO, as an international laboratory of ideas,
is taking part in this process by mobilizing global
knowledge and forward-looking research to identify,
understand, and anticipate the challenges for the
future of education in an increasingly complex world.
Building on its landmark 1972 Learning to Be and
1996 Learning: The Treasure Within reports, UNESCO
is engaged in a process of dejning new paradigms
that can guide thinking on education across the world
beyond 2015.
24
Networking and sharing
knowledge
Education publications
As part of UNESCO’s role as a publishing house,
the Education Sector produces titles covering all of
the Sector’s programmes ranging from toolkits to
monographs, global reports and high-level policy
documents. They are used by policy-makers,
education professionals, development agents,
students and the general public. UNESCO publishes
in the six ofjcial languages of the Organization as well
as in a range of other languages.
South-South Cooperation in
Education
UNESCO launched the South-South Cooperation
Programme for Education in 2007, with the
establishment of a South-South Cooperation Fund.
This is the only fund in the UN System to support
developing countries to meet the EFA goals and
MDGs. The Fund supports educational exchanges on
a South-South basis, as well as triangular cooperation
with more developed countries.
The E-9 Initiative was launched in 1993 as a
forum for the nine most highly-populated countries
of the South, Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt,
India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria and Pakistan, to
discuss and exchange best practices in education.
TheŰnetwork represents more than 60 per centŰof the
world’s population and has become a powerful lobby
for EFA.
University Twinning and Networking
The UNITWIN/UNESCO Chairs Programme advances
research, training and programme development by
building university networks and encouraging inter-
university cooperation through the transfer of knowledge
across borders. The programme has 675  UNESCO
Chairs and 68 UNITWIN Networks, involving over
795 institutions in 127 countries. It helps to promote
North-South and South-South cooperation and capacity
development, and serves both as think tank and bridge
between the academic world and civil society, local
communities, industry and the media.
International Bureau of Education
UNESCO’s International Bureau of Education (IBE) is
a global centre and knowledge base specializing in
curriculum development. It produces the World Data
on Education (WDE) database, which gives access
to more than 160 projles of education systems
worldwide. The Institute’s Digital Library of National
Education Reports on the Development of Education
is another unparalleled source of information about
educational trends. The IBE’s journal, Prospects:
Quarterly Review of Comparative Education, is
published jve times a year.
25
UNESCO Associated Schools
Founded in 1953, UNESCO’s Associated Schools Project
Network (ASPnet) is one of the largest global networks of
schools in the world, with 9,000 educational institutions in
180 countries ranging from pre-school to teacher training
institutions. It acts as a powerful tool to achieve UNESCO’s
priorities and increase the Organization’s visibility.
ASPnet’s priorities are to promote EFA and disseminate
examples of quality education in practice, with an
emphasis on education for sustainable development,
peace and human rights, and intercultural learning. The
network further serves as an international laboratory for
new educational practices which reinforce the humanistic,
ethical and international dimensions of education.
UNESCO Institute for Statistics
The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) was
established in 1999 to meet the growing needs
of UNESCO Member States and the international
community for high quality statistics in the jelds
of education, science and technology, culture and
communication. Based in Canada, the Institute gathers
statistical information to help Member States analyse the
efjciency and effectiveness of their programmes and to
inform their policy decisions. It monitors progress towards
Education for All and the education-related Millennium
Development Goals through the annual UIS education
survey, which covers all education levels and a range of
issues such as gender parity, teachers and jnancing.
Updated three times a year, the UIS education database
is the most comprehensive in the world, from primary
school enrolments to tertiary graduation rates, and its
data are used by international, intergovernmental, non-
governmental and regional organizations, as well as
by research institutes, universities and other relevant
bodies. It is the primary education data source for the
UNESCO EFA Global Monitoring Report, the World Bank
World Development Indicators and the UNDP Human
Development Report.
UNESCO Institute for Lifelong
Learning
The UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL)
promotes lifelong learning policy and practice with a
focus on adult and continuing education, literacy and
non-formal education, as well as alternative learning
opportunities for marginalized groups. UIL addresses
the concerns of all Member States and regions,
providing technical support to enhance lifelong learning
through advocacy, networking, research and capacity-
building. Its activities are geared towards achieving
the EFA goals and the MDGs, notably in line with the
objectives of the International Conference on Adult
Education (CONFINTEA) series, the United Nations
Literacy Decade and the UNESCO Literacy Initiative for
Empowerment (LIFE).
International Institute for
Educational Planning
The UNESCO International Institute for Educational
Planning (IIEP) is a centre for training and research,
specialized in educational planning and management.
The IIEP trains and provides technical support to
UNESCO Member States to develop robust individual
and institutional capacity. IIEP’s technical assistance
provides direct support to ministries of education so that
they can plan and manage their education systems more
effectively and develop more inclusive education policies
and programmes, including from a gender perspective.
The Institute creates knowledge packages on education
policy and planning techniques. It disseminates and
shares information on educational planning, practice
and management to equip all stakeholders in education
with the knowledge they need.
26
UNESCO around the world
How UNESCO’s Education Sector is structured
A global network
UNESCO’s Education Sector is led by the Assistant Director-General for Education. It comprises Divisions and
Teams at UNESCO Headquarters in Paris, seven Education Institutes and Centres, four Regional Bureaux for
Education, as well as education staff working in the UNESCO jeld ofjces. There are also seven education
Centres established and funded by Member States under the auspices of UNESCO.
Headquarters
EFA Global Partnerships Team (EFA)
Executive Ofðce (EO)
Education Research and Foresight Team (ERF)
EFA Global Monitoring Report Team (GMR)
Division for Planning and
Development of Education
Systems (PDE), which also hosts
the SecretariatŰof the International
TeacherŰTask Force for EFA
Division for Basic to Higher
Educationband Learning (BHL)
Division of Education for Peace and
Sustainable Development (PSD)
Ofðce of the Assistant
Director-General
forbEducation
Regional Bureaux for Education
Africa: Dakar, Senegal
Arab States: Beirut, Lebanon
Asia and the PaciƄc: Bangkok, Thailand
* A new ĺeld structure is being implemented in the Africa Region in the 2012-13 biennium
Field offices by region (as of November 2011)
Africa*
Abuja, Nigeria
Accra, Ghana
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Bamako, Mali
Brazzaville, Republic of Congo
Bujumbura, Burundi
Dar es Salaam, United Republic of
Tanzania
Harare, Zimbabwe
Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the
Congo
Libreville, Gabon
Maputo, Mozambique
Nairobi, Kenya
Windhoek, Namibia
Yaoundé, Cameroon
Latin America and the Caribbean: Santiago, Chile
27
Arab States
Amman, Jordan
Cairo, Egypt
Doha, Qatar
Iraq (based in Amman, Jordan)
Khartoum, Sudan
Rabat, Morocco
Ramallah, Palestinian Territories
Asia and the Pacific
Almaty, Kazakhstan
Apia, Samoa
Beijing, China
Dhaka, Bangladesh
Hanoi, Viet Nam
Islamabad, Pakistan
Jakarta, Indonesia
Kabul, Afghanistan
Kathmandu, Nepal
New Delhi, India
Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Tashkent, Uzbekistan
Tehran, Iran
Europe and North America
Moscow, Russian Federation
Venice, Italy
Latin America and the Caribbean
Brasilia, Brazil
Guatemala City, Guatemala
Havana, Cuba
Kingston, Jamaica
Lima, Peru
Mexico City, Mexico
Montevideo, Uruguay
Port-au-Prince, Haiti
Quito, Ecuador
San José, Costa Rica
Two UN liaison offices
Geneva, Switzerland
New York, USA
UNESCO Education Institutes (Category I)
The International Bureau of Education (IBE), Geneva, Switzerland,
works to enhance curriculum development and educational content.
The International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP), Paris,
France and Buenos Aires, Argentina, helps countries design, plan
and manage their education systems.
The UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL), Hamburg,
Germany, promotes lifelong learning policy and practice, with a focus
on adult education literacy and non-formal education.
The Institute for Information Technologies in Education (IITE),
Moscow, Russian Federation, assists countries in the use of
information and communication technologies in education.
The International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa (IICBA),
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, helps strengthen Africa’s educational
institutions with a focus on teachers.
The International Institute for Higher Education in Latin America
and the Caribbean (IESALC), Caracas, Venezuela, promotes the
development of higher education in the region.
UNESCO Education Centre
The International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education
and Training (UNEVOC), Bonn, Germany, works on improving
education for the world of work.
Centres funded by Member States under the auspices of UNESCO (Category II)
International Research and Training Centre for Rural Education
(INRULED), Baoding, China
Asia-PaciƄc Centre of Education for International Understanding
(APCEIU), Seoul, Republic of Korea
Guidance, Counselling and Youth Development Centre for Africa
(GCYDCA), Lilongwe, Malawi
Regional Centre for Educational Planning (RCEP), Sharjah, United
Arab Emirates
International Centre for Girls’ and Women’s Education in Africa
(CIEFFA), Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
South-East Asian Centre for Lifelong Learning for Sustainable
Development (SEA-CLLSD), Manila, Philippines
Regional Centre for Early Childhood Care and Education in the
Arab States (RCECCE), Damascus, Syrian Arab Republic
28
More on UNESCO’s work
in}education
Contact us
Education Sector
UNESCO
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29
Education Statistics
The UNESCO Institute for Statistics covers all education levels and addresses key policy
issues such as gender parity, teachers and jnancing:
▶ http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/Pages/default.aspx for a selection of reports
and data from the UIS
Progress towards EFA. The Education for All Global Monitoring Report is the world’s
foremost publication on progress towards EFA:
▶ http://www.unesco.org/en/education/efareport
Order publications
Order our publications from the online bookshop in English, French, Spanish, Russian and Arabic published
or co-published by UNESCO. These include books, multimedia (DVDs, CD-Roms, VHS videos), periodicals,
and scientijc maps for professionals: http://publishing.unesco.org/default.aspx
Apply for job vacancies
Temporary services (Appointments of Limited Duration and Consultancies) enable the Sector to deal with a
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Education
Sector
United Nations
Educational, Scienti¿c and
Cultural Organization
UNESCO’s mission is building peace, eradicating poverty
and promoting sustainable development and intercultural
dialogue through education, theŰsciences, culture,
communication and information.
Education empowers people with the knowledge and skills
to improve themselves. UNESCO aims to make the right to
quality education a reality for every child, youth and adult.

UNESCO}and

Published in November 2011 by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 7, place de Fontenoy, 75352 Paris 07 SP, France © UNESCO 2011 All rights reserved The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Designed and printed by UNESCO Printed in France on FSC certified paper Photo cover:

© UNESCO/Ministerio de Educación. School children in Florida (Valle), in Colombia, 2011.
ED-2011/WS/30 – CLD 3539.11

teachers and work skills Strengthening education systems Planning and managing education Leading the international agenda Networking and sharing knowledge 5 6 7 9 11 13 16 20 22 24 .Contents Foreword Education worldwide UNESCO’s education mission International targets Africa and gender: two priorities Literacy.

EVERY WOMAN. MAN AND CHILD CHANGING LITERACY CHILDREN GENDER PARTNERS SYSTEMS STAKEHOLDERS W O R L D W I D E LIFELONG LEARNING PRIMARY TO SECONDARY EDUCATION POLITICAL GUIDANCE EXCLUDED GROUPS POLICY-MAKERS TEACHERS A D U LT L I T E R A C Y SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA SKILLS HEALTH EDUCATION TO REACH MARGINALIZED POLITICAL PARTICIPATION QUALITYINCLUSIVE MOVEMENT EARLY CHILDHOOD CARE AND EDUCATION 4 GLOBAL BUILD MISSION FULLER SOCIAL EFFORTS .

along with a workforce of welltrained and motivated teachers and targeted actions to reach marginalized and excluded groups. primary. the slowing of primary enrolments globally coupled with high dropout rates and a critical shortage of teachers – especially in sub-Saharan Africa – means much work remains to be done to protect and build upon those gains. particularly that of girls and women. education. and UNESCO promotes leads the global Education for movement. and much of it in some of the world’s poorest countries. The aftermath of the global economic crisis threatens to further erode the education advances made in the past decade. and expertise to policy-makers stakeholders. Qian Tang. helps countries to plan. secondary and higher education. adult literacy. a holistic and inclusive vision of lifelong learning that includes early childhood care and education. Against this backdrop. making the move from primary to secondary education. Assistant Director-General for Education 5 . and gender disparities in primary and secondary school enrolments are narrowing. Ph. All In particular. UNESCO is intensifying efforts to pursue this valuable mission to make quality education a reality for all. Education for All and Millennium Development remarkable progress has been made in education worldwide. In collaboration with its many partners. man and child. Millions more children are in school. improved living standards. youth and adult skills. gender parity and quality education.D. However.Foreword A quality education throughout life is the birthright of every woman. and fuller social and political participation in society. UNESCO’s all facets Organization and other mandate of offers covers The guidance and education. increasing access to education requires strong political will and a corresponding improvement in quality. Since the adoption Goals in of the 2000. aids progress across all development goals. build and rebuild education systems that are responsive to a rapidly changing world. In turn. so that each and every one of us has the chance to realize our full potential and enjoy better health.

But a number of obstacles. across developing countries. and innovative literacy and adult education programmes are transforming the lives of the disadvantaged. Enrolment rates are slowing and being eroded by dropout. The number of children out of school was more than halved in South and West Asia. without textbooks or qualijed teachers. more people than ever before are benejting from an education. enrolment in higher education has risen sharply. particularly in countries affected by armed conkict where over 40 per cent of out-of-school children live. including poverty.Education worldwide Worldwide. Access to education is steadily expanding. Over 1. UNESCO leads the global Education for All movement. 6 .5 billion children and youth are enrolled in kindergartens. Gender disparities continue to hamper progress in education. From 1999 to 2008. of whom twothirds are women – still lack basic literacy skills. more than half of them in sub-Saharan Africa. An additional 2 million teachers will need to be recruited by 2015 to achieve universal primary education. 53 per cent of whom are girls and almost 43 per cent of whom are in sub-Saharan Africa. Millions struggle to learn in overcrowded classrooms. an additional 52 million children enrolled in primary school. and in sub-Saharan Africa enrolment ratios rose by almost one-third. Around 17 per cent of the world’s adults – 793 million people. still keep 67 million children of primary-school age out of school. primary and secondary schools and universities.

adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO. and that it should allow children to reach their fullest potential. National Commissions for UNESCO and a wide range of other partners to make education systems more effective through policy change. improving quality. 7 . lasting development and intercultural dialogue. Today. stipulated that primary education should be “compulsory and available free to all”. and remains. the Convention against Discrimination in Education. UNESCO is also an active and committed partner in UN reform. In 1989. and ensuring that education develops knowledge and skills in areas such as sustainable development. UNESCO’s mission has been to contribute to the building of peace. The Organization’s other jelds of action include the natural sciences. the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 26) proclaims that: “Everyone has the right to education”. the social and human sciences. the realization of everyone’s right to education. UNESCO is committed to a holistic and humanistic vision of quality education worldwide. The Organization focuses on increasing equity and access. secondary and higher education.UNESCO’s education mission Since its creation in 1945. the first international instrument with binding force in international law that develops the right to education in all its dimensions. which aims to improve coordination. and communication and information. UNESCO works with governments. social and economic development. the Convention on the Rights of the Child. poverty eradication. stated that the Organization “…has the duty not only to proscribe any form of discrimination in education but also to promote equality of opportunity and treatment for all in education”. tracks education trends and raises the projle of educational needs on global development agendas. Setting standards UNESCO’s commitment to the right to education is enshrined in three key standard-setting documents. culture. non-formal education and adult learning. Its work encompasses educational development from pre-school through primary. Signed in 1948 in the aftermath of the Second World War. with education as one of its principal activities to achieve this aim. efjciency and delivery. It coordinates the Education for All movement. In 1960. Educational objectives ▶ supporting the achievement of Education for All (EFA) ▶ providing global and regional leadership in education ▶ building effective education systems worldwide from early childhood to the adult years ▶ responding to contemporary global challenges through education How UNESCO works to meet these objectives UNESCO is the only United Nations agency with a mandate to cover all aspects of education. It was. and the belief that education plays a fundamental role in human. HIV and AIDS. including technical and vocational education and training. in Articles 28 and 29. human rights and gender equality.

▶ Catalyst for international cooperation: initiating and promoting dialogue and exchange among In a primary school in Adwa.. norms and guidelines in key education areas. ▶ Standard-setter: developing standards. Ethiopia. ▶ Capacity-builder: providing technical cooperation to develop the capacity of Member States to achieve their national education goals.. education leaders and stakeholders.].. developing and fostering global partnerships to raise awareness on key issues relating to the implementation of international normative instruments on the right to education 8 . and developing education policies based on research and country priorities. ▶ Clearinghouse: promoting the development. implementation and dissemination of successful educational policies and practices. and monitoring the implementation of relevant legal and normative instruments. Four ways UNESCO supports the right to education ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Monitoring the implementation of the international normative instruments in this field Building and strengthening capacities and mechanisms and reporting Assisting Member States in reviewing and developing their national legal frameworks Mobilizing. UNESCO’s Constitution expresses the belief of its founders in: “full and equal opportunities for education for all [..Promoting the right to education The universal right to education proclaimed by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 26) is at the very heart of UNESCO’s mission and is an integral part of its constitutional mandate.” UNESCO’s Education Sector has functions: ve main ▶ Laboratory of ideas: anticipating and responding to emerging trends and needs in education.] to advance the ideal of equality of educational opportunity [.

which stressed education as a human right and outlined a holistic vision of lifelong learning. Provide free and compulsory primary education for all Goal 3. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). strong partnerships and shared commitments. monitoring. sustainable lifestyles. offering a longterm vision of reduced poverty and hunger. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). they are an ambitious roadmap for the global community to follow. 164 governments pledged to achieve EFA and identijed six goals with wide-ranging targets to be met by 2015. As lead agency of the EFA movement. Scientijc and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The six Education for All Goals Goal 1. Improve the quality of education Education for All 9 . advocacy. the international community signed up to the Education for All and Millennium Development Goals. at the World Education Forum (Dakar.International targets In the year 2000. Ten years later. 2000). Expand early childhood care and education Goal 2. Thailand. The jve multilateral institutions that organized the World Conference for Education for All remain the key international stakeholders in the EFA movement: United Nations Educational. Increase adult literacy Goal 5. mobilization of funding and capacity development. youth and adults. It began at the World Conference on Education for All (Jomtien. Achieve gender parity Goal 6. UNESCO focuses its activities on jve key areas: policy dialogue. Education for All (EFA) The EFA movement is a global commitment led by UNESCO to provide quality basic education for all children. better health and education. 1990). Currently the two most influential frameworks in the field of education. Promote learning and life skills for young people and adults Goal 4. United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the World Bank.

Improve maternal health   Goal 6. the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) aim to halve poverty by 2015. values and practices of sustainable development into teaching and learning. 10 . cultural and environmental challenges. improved programmes for youth and adults. Ensure environmental sustainability   Goal 8. This is because it equips people with the knowledge and skills to break the cycle of poverty and shape their future life chances. Achieve universal primary education   Goal 3. in order to reduce the number of illiterate people. with stronger political commitment. develop and support comprehensive educational responses to the pandemic. Although MDGs 2 and 3 focus on achieving universal primary schooling. Reduce child mortality rate   Goal 5. malaria and other diseases   Goal 7. The eight Millennium Development Goals   Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger   Goal 2. Promote gender equality and empower women Three key UN initiatives UNESCO currently leads three major initiatives within the UN family.Millennium Development Goals Also adopted in 2000. empowering women and eliminating gender disparities at the primary and secondary levels. The UN Literacy Decade (2003– 2012) aims to create a greater impetus for literacy. Combat HIV/AIDS. and additional funding. Develop a global partnership for development Global Initiative on Education and HIV and AIDS (EDUCAIDS) works with more than 80 countries to promote. so as to address social. the UNAIDS   Goal 4. education drives the achievement of all the MDGs. economic. The UN Decade of Education for Sustainable 2014) Development (2005to encourages governments incorporate the principles. Launched in 2004.

Indeed. The past decade has seen marked advances towards EFA in sub-Saharan Africa. development of educational strategies. including early childhood care and education (ECCE). UNESCO supports the Decade through its core initiatives in support of EFA as well as through sector analyses. Gender gaps have narrowed at the primary level. UNESCO works with the African Union. and facilitating external technical and financial support. The Basic Education in Africa Programme supports the holistic and comprehensive reform of basic education and an uninterrupted nine to ten years of quality basic education. levels of learning achievement are low and gender disparities are still considerable. with a view to strengthening the skills of national education officers. monitoring and evaluation. which has dejned development goals for the region through the New Partnership for Africa’s Development and the Second Decade of Education for Africa (2006-2015). implementation of educational policies. national education support strategies. and carries out training in partnership with other institutions. The importance of quality 11 . more children are moving from primary school to secondary education and real expenditure on education has increased by more than six per cent each year. the region has increased primary net enrolment ratios by almost one-third. Sub-Saharan Africa is unlikely to reach the EFA literacy target set for 2015.Africa and gender: two priorities Africa Africa is a top priority for UNESCO and education is key to the region’s development. The Pôle de Dakar supports African countries with sectoral diagnoses. It conducts studies and syntheses. Democratic Republic of the Congo: A prizewinning UNESCO literacy project. It is home to almost 43 per cent of the world’s outof-school children. despite a large rise in the school-age population. Collectif Alpha UJUVI. It also has the largest share of the world’s population infected with HIV. But major challenges remain. with 90 per cent of the world’s two million children living with the virus in sub-Saharan Africa.

Director-General of UNESCO Gender inequality is still an obstacle to Education for All. This is the right moment for empowering young women. UNESCO’s new global partnership for girls’ and women’s education seeks to address the distinctive barriers both face in accessing learning. including with the private sector. higher agricultural productivity. In 2010. Better Future 12 . Better Life. lower child and maternal mortality. The Organization has developed a set of gender mainstreaming training tools to build gender equality considerations into policies and programmes and sensitize educators. an expression of commitment to empower the millions of young individuals to hold the keys to a better future. Two out of three countries in the world face gender disparities in primary and secondary education.” Irina Bokova. and as many as half will not achieve the goal of gender parity in education by 2015. and focus on scaling up women’s literacy programmes through stronger advocacy and partnerships. The partnership will scale up global advocacy for girl’s and women’s education and introduce programmes aimed at stemming the drop-out rate of adolescent girls in the transition from primary to secondary education and in lower secondary schools. West Bengal. Within the UNAIDS family. UNESCO was a signatory to the UN Joint Statement on Accelerating Efforts to Advance the Rights of Adolescent Girls. India: The gender gap in secondary school enrolments is narrowing in many countries. better prevention against HIV and AIDS. lower fertility. and in particular secondary education and adult literacy. HIV prevention education has a strong gender dimension: the Organization’s Gender and HIV and AIDS series seeks to bolster the self-conjdence of girls – and boys – in tackling issues of reproductive health. according to the 2010 Global Education Digest – the kagship publication of the UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Education to counter discrimination and promote human rights also engages with the issue of genderbased violence. delayed age of marriage.Gender “Girls’ secondary schooling carries a cascade of lifetime benefits: higher incomes.

Hamburg. Canada) is a tool to help Member States measure levels of literacy achievement.Literacy. developed by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS. UNESCO helps Member States to increase their literacy rates by motivating governments and civil society to focus on literacy. It imparts knowledge.000 items. adult education and non-formal education. formulate solid policies and develop capacities to deliver good quality multilingual programmes. 13 . networking. policy and practice. The Literacy Assessment and Monitoring Programme (LAMP). Montreal. The UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL. Themes include women’s empowerment (2010) and literacy for peace (2011). skills and the self-confidence to transform lives. The UNESCO King Sejong Literacy Prize is sponsored by the government of the Republic of Korea and the UNESCO Confucius Prize for Literacy is sponsored by the government of the People’s Republic of China. UIL works to improve the environment and quality of lifelong learning for all worldwide. training. By linking advocacy. UNESCO International Literacy Prizes Each year on 8 September. Its major initiatives are the United Nations Literacy Decade (2003-2012) and the Literacy Initiative for Empowerment (LIFE. 2006-2015) a ten-year global initiative to accelerate literacy in the 35 countries with the biggest literacy challenges. including a unique collection of literacy materials from 120 countries in more than 160 languages. UNESCO celebrates International Literacy Day and awards prizes in recognition of excellence and innovation in promoting literacy throughout the world. Its documentation centre holds more than 60. Venezuela: Participating in the successful national literacy programme. information and publishing centre for literacy. educational research. leading to better health and income as well as fuller participation in the community. teachers and}work}skills} Literacy Literacy is a fundamental right and the foundation for lifelong learning. Germany) is an international research.

winner of the 2010 UNESCO Confucius Prize for Literacy. Addis Ababa. hygiene and family planning. In raising literacy levels.Literacy begins at home The Females for Families programme in Egypt. UNESCO provides global leadership on teachers and their status. build peace and develop societies. Globally. yet many suffer from poor status. Morocco. the town was given a permanent resource centre staffed with a doctor. training and professional development. Paris. it has produced studies on key areas such as teacher evaluation. Teachers Teachers help to empower people. encouraged drop-outs to return to school and helped secure small loans. an education specialist. both for teachers’ professional development and to support classroom teaching. a loan officer and other professionals. Geneva. innovative preservice teacher training programmes. Ethiopia) assists Member States in Africa with open and distance learning and face-to-face . based on the UNESCO/ ILO Recommendation concerning the Status of Teachers (1966). wages and working conditions. Many families in the town live on less than US$60 a month and suffer from inadequate health and education services. trained people in cooking. a vet. More than half of these new teachers are needed in sub-Saharan Africa. France) has reviewed teacher management practices and highlighted successful strategies in countries greatly affected by HIV and AIDS. status. accompanied them on medical appointments. Policies and guidelines UNESCO helps countries to develop comprehensive teacher policies. and carry out their vital work in deprived and dangerous settings. The current teacher shortage is acute. There are also important qualitative challenges to face such as the training. a total of 99 countries will need at least 2 million more teachers in classrooms by 2015 to provide quality primary education. The number of teaching staff has simply not kept pace with the unprecedented surge in primary school enrolment since 2000. Switzerland) develops teacher guidelines for curriculum change with teams from Ministries of Education in various countries. UNESCO’s International Bureau of Education (IBE. deployment and motivation of teachers. while the UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP. health and working conditions. the Organization has taken the lead in the use of information and communication technologies. Without sufficient numbers of qualified teachers – men and women – the EFA and MDG targets will be hard to meet. the girls also helped remove prejudices about women in public life. recruitment. In Latin America and the Caribbean. Training The Teacher Training Initiative for Sub-Saharan Africa (TTISSA) aims to improve national teacher policy and strengthen teacher education in the region. working conditions and accreditation. In addition. which is applied in parallel with the 14 Teaching and learning Arabic in a primary school near Rabat. The girls established family-based literacy classes and imparted information on health. crafts and agriculture. with attention to training. In the Asia-Pacijc region. Recommendation concerning the Status of Higher Education Teaching Personnel (1997). took 120 girls from the remote Egyptian town of Abu-Ashur and gave them six months’ training as community leaders. UNESCO’s International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa (IICBA.

known as UNEVOC Centres. making sure they are relevant to social and economic needs. planning and training institutions. five years to improve job skills in Southern Africa A five-year project to revitalize TVET. It is an occasion to pay tribute to the vital role of teachers and to advocate for improvements in their status and working conditions. which began in autumn 2011. Quality TVET programmes are urgently needed to bridge the gap between school and work. World Teachers’ Day World Teachers’ Day. OECD. to support the development of skills for youth employment. held annually on 5 October since 1994. in 167 UNESCO Member States. The project is based on comprehensive research carried out on the status of TVET in countries in the Southern African Development Community. Its members include ILO. training for the world of work has never been more important. status and employment value. many governments are not giving sufjcient priority to the basic skills and learning needs of youth and adults. also involving the UNESCO Institute for Statistics. commemorates the anniversary of the signing in 1966 of the UNESCO/ILO Recommendation concerning the Status of Teachers. UNESCO is creating partnerships with agencies including UNDP. 15 Work skills Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) plays an essential role in helping reduce poverty and promote growth as well as in ensuring the social and economic inclusion of marginalized communities. At the international level. was established to develop TVET indicators for policy monitoring and evaluation. The Inter-Agency Task Team (IATT) for the revitalization of TVET in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) was established in August 2009. An Interagency Group on TVET was established in 2009 on the initiative of UNESCO. A specijc working group on indicators. the European Training Foundation. the Task Force on Teachers for EFA. Through the IATT. concentrating on secondary and post-secondary training in formal and non-formal settings. Germany) helps Member States strengthen and upgrade their TVET systems.training of trainers. UNESCO has established a strategy to support TVET in Member States from 2010 to 2015. In an era of global economic integration and rapidly evolving technologies. as part of a UNESCO capacity-building initiative funded by the Government of the Republic of Korea. a global alliance of partners. ILO and the Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA). coordinates and reinforces global efforts to close the teacher gap for the achievement of all EFA goals. Democratic Republic of the Congo. The objective of the group is to share knowledge on TVET issues and to promote cooperation at global and country levels. term strategies and solutions based on inclusive and rights-based approaches. However. the World Bank. The UNEVOC network consists of 282 specialized institutions. Malawi. targets  five Southern African countries: Botswana. Namibia and Zambia. The UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training (Bonn. To counter the perception of TVET courses as a safety net for failing or poor students. the European Commission and the Asian Development Bank. The strategy focuses on three core areas: ▪ providing upstream policy advice and related capacity development ▪ conceptual clarification of skills development and improvement of monitoring of TVET ▪ acting as a clearinghouse and informing the global TVET debate Focus on relevance UNESCO promotes TVET and skills for work as part of lifelong learning. research facilities. A strategy to support TVET in Member States In cooperation with a range of partners. UNESCO works to improve their quality. It helps Member States to develop long- . It includes government ministries. Five countries.

but marginalized groups still struggle and face further discrimination in the job market. mitigate the effects of household deprivation. Early childhood care and education (ECCE) programmes prepare children for school. The Organization helps countries to develop inclusive. and strengthen prospects for economic growth. many countries have broadened the concept of basic education to include lower secondary education. secondary education for all is a difjcult target to achieve. Most high-income countries are close to universal secondary education. Internationally mobile students are expected to multiply by about 12 per cent annually. nutrition and security. For low-income countries. break the cycle of educational disadvantage between parents and children. UNESCO helps Member States and their institutions widen access to quality higher education through diverse modes of provision adapted to local development needs. with a large share of the population progressing to the tertiary level. UNESCO’s Secondary Education Regional Information Base contains policy-relevant data on secondary education in the Asia region to help education practitioners in developing policies and reforms. UNESCO advocates for holistic ECCE programmes that include health.Strengthening education systems As the lead agency for Education for All. UNESCO’s top priority is to speed up access to quality learning. Primary and secondary education Because of the increase in primary school enrolments. with UNICEF as a major partner. To ensure quality and relevance are maintained during rapid expansion. social affairs and health). The multifaceted nature of ECCE presents the challenge of coordinating policy development and implementation across different sectors (education. with the number of tertiary students increasing six-fold in the last 40 years. young people who failed to complete primary education can acquire the skills and knowledge needed to expand their livelihood choices. creating the need for reinforced accreditation and quality assurance systems. UNESCO is leading an interagency project to develop a Holistic Early Childhood Development Index. Early childhood care and education Higher education Demand for higher education has risen sharply. holistic and balanced education systems from early childhood to the adult years. As the only UN agency with a mandate for higher education. Initiatives to inform policy include Global Fora on essential issues such as university 16 . Rapid globalization has led to a diversijcation of providers. Through secondchance programmes. Following the jrst World Conference on ECCE held in Moscow in 2010.

and helped carry out a damage and needs assessment of education institutions. reduce brain drain. Rebuilding education systems is an essential element in restoring peace and laying the ground for long-term sustainable development. often even before more immediate material needs. UNESCO with its partners trained over 3. and more than 450. launched in collaboration with NGO Bibliothèques sans frontières (Libraries without Borders). It brings together UN agencies and NGOs and places education jrmly on the agenda as part of the initial response to an emergency. Port-au-Prince. support institutions and states. Back to school after the Haiti earthquake Immediately after the Haiti earthquake in 2010. Reconstructing education after disaster and conflict A signijcant proportion of the 67 million children out of primary school worldwide live in countries affected by war and natural disasters. and enhance inter-institutional cooperation and networking through the UNESCO Chairs and UNITWIN programmes. UNESCO is in the process of revising the Regional Conventions on recognition of higher education qualijcations as well as exploring possibilities to establish a Global Convention for all Member States. Conkict and disaster-affected communities themselves prioritize education. Achieving EFA requires ensuring learning opportunities for these children. Another UNESCO initiative. A nationwide census of all TVET centres was launched. The Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE) is an open global network of practitioners and policy-makers working together to ensure quality education in emergency situations.000 books which were circulated in 12 camps and 22 schools. By the time schools reopened. It is increasingly recognized that education must be a major part of any humanitarian response. UNESCO opened up its premises to host the Minister of Education and his cabinet. With close to 90 per cent of schools in the country’s West Department damaged or destroyed. whose buildings were destroyed. and the first five centres are now being reconstructed and equipped. and for communicating vital messages that promote safety and well-being. graduate employability (2012) and diversijed provision and jnancing of higher education (2013). collected 6. where the January 2010 earthquake destroyed over a thousand schools.000 secondary school teachers and other educational personnel on learner-centred psycho-social support. Further activities promote quality assurance in higher education. including classwork. 17 .rankings (2011). Normative instruments are in place to support international mobility of students and graduates. Education restores routine and gives people hope for the future.000 children displaced. To equip educators with the skills to recognize trauma and alleviate stressrelated symptoms. an urgent priority was to open temporary schools and provide learning materials. “Un livre pour un enfant d’Haiti” (A book for a child in Haiti). an emergency curriculum had been developed and disseminated with UNESCO’s support. Haiti. It can also serve as a channel both for meeting other basic humanitarian needs. Debris.

UNRWA – Educating against the odds With its 19. is contributing to a reduction in communities’ coping capacities. Education has a central role to play in equipping people with lifesaving and environmentally sustainable knowledge and skills. the UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees (UNRWA) is one of the largest school systems in the Middle East. particularly in those countries most affected by the epidemic. the West Bank. HIV and AIDS With an estimated 6. Both in the immediate aftermath of disasters and before. Disaster risk reduction (DRR) aims to build society’s resilience and ability to cope.800 people newly infected with HIV every day. Democratic Republic of the Congo. prevention education must be at the forefront of any response to the epidemic. as the right message can reach large numbers of young people from diverse backgrounds. UNESCO supports Member States to integrate DRR into their education sectors. Schoolbased HIV education offers a very cost-effective approach to prevention. with 70 per cent of UNRWA schools operating on double shifts. Convened by UNESCO. based on the International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education published in 2009 in partnership with UNAIDS. the IATT promotes education as an essential element for the prevention of HIV and the mitigation of the impact of AIDS. increasing the number of people vulnerable to hazards. including a rise in extreme weather events.000 teachers and educators. UNRWA and UNESCO collaborate with four ministries in providing basic education and training for half a million Palestinian refugee children in Jordan. UNFPA. within a sector-wide approach. Gaza and Syria. 18 . UNICEF and WHO. The UNAIDS Inter-Agency Task Team (IATT) on Education was created in 2002 to support faster and better education sector responses to HIV and AIDS.Education and disaster risk reduction Climate change. especially the most vulnerable. The study provides the data and analysis necessary to make a stronger and better informed case for investing in school-based sexuality education programmes. Sexuality education is key to HIV prevention A seminal study undertaken by UNESCO into the costeffectiveness of sexuality education programmes provides a solid economic basis for the argument that such programmes play a key role in HIV prevention amongst young people. compounds these risks. UNRWA teachers and students work in extremely challenging circumstances. Lebanon. A growing global population. many in unsuitable buildings. This work is reinforced by UNESCO’s efforts to A half-finished classroom in the Mugosi Primary School near Kahe refugee camp. The UNAIDS Global Initiative on Education and HIV and AIDS (EDUCAIDS) helps countries to respond to the epidemic by giving particular attention to children and youth. support HIV prevention through sexuality education. particularly in urban areas with poor infrastructure and lack of emergency procedures. Following four different national curricula is one of UNRWA’s main challenges.

19 .Pakistan: Mobile learning. UNESCO Beirut. the use of mobile technologies for learning and ICT as a tool for literacy. is developing an Arab States initiative to help monitor learning achievement and strengthen national education systems. Information and communication technologies in education UNESCO works towards the inclusion of all learners. with particular attention to women. are some of the topics that currently form part of UNESCO’s education programme. UNESCO works with a range of partners to improve capacity to assess and monitor quality and learning achievement. This includes. Monitoring learning achievement Gains made in access to education cannot be sustained without a parallel improvement in quality. or m-learning. The Organization collaborates with partners such as the Commonwealth of Learning to expand understanding of Open Educational Resources and promote their wider use. in collaboration with the Australian Council for Educational Research. International learning assessments reveal marked global and national disparities in learning achievement. global digital libraries and resource centres. is taking off among the newly literate. The Southern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) involves 15 ministries of education and produces cross-national studies on the quality of education and schooling. open access modalities. through the reinforcing of quality education and training and lifelong learning through the integration of locallyrelevant information and communication technologies (ICT) into teaching and learning. and digital learning tools. while UNESCO’s International Bureau of Education (IBE) supports countries in the development of quality curricula for EFA. in particular. The Latin American Laboratory for Assessment of the Quality of Education (LLECE) aims to assess the quality of education and factors associated with students’ experiences and development. The integration of ICT in education policies. UNESCO’s Mobile Phone Literacy project aims to empower women and girls. communities of practice.

which explores new and creative ways of financing development and meeting international objectives. Financing education The aftershocks of the 2008 global jnancial crisis threaten to deprive millions of children of an education in the world’s poorest countries. reinforcement of capacities. Governments are coping with the crisis in different ways. This could raise US$30 billion a year. assessment of national planning and management and development of capacity development plans. large-scale improvements in education systems. including post-conkict and post-disaster countries. governments must be able to plan for and manage school enrolments. Improving their capacity to do all this will ensure that education systems respond to the real needs of societies. promote the use of relevant. It is estimated that donors will have to bridge a jnancing gap of US$16 billion a year to meet the goal of universal primary Policy and planning UNESCO helps national decision-makers to develop and carry out solid and relevant education policies and strategies. Education bonds in local currency could also be considered in order to better guarantee the financing of education sector projects. the idea of a levy – for instance. up-to-date curricula and materials. UNESCO collaborates with the Global Partnership for Education (formerly the Education for All Fast Track Initiative) to support countries facing acute challenges to achieve the EFA goals. from countercyclical measures to social safety net schemes. assign teachers to areas where they are most needed. Partnerships are essential.005 per cent – on transactions between four major currencies could be explored. education by 2015. A venture fund for investment in innovative education is another idea being investigated. This support can come in various forms: technical assistance with the design of education sector development plans. of 0. but many countries risk falling behind target. and the mobilization of donors to support national educational priorities. and facilitate pathways between the different levels and settings of education. the use of simulation models or information systems. 20 . review of education policies. Innovative financing UNESCO is a member of the Task Force on Innovative Financing for Education.Planning and managing education To generate sustainable. UNESCO’s International Institute for Educational Planning plays a key role in reinforcing capacities in educational planning and management. In addition to multi-stakeholder partnerships. contribution to sector dialogue at country level.

Angola. UNESCO is targeting some 15-20 additional countries in the 2012-2013 biennium. Togo. Lesotho. These countries are Afghanistan. New donors The inkuence of middle-income and developing countries as South-South Cooperation (SSC) partners and funders of development assistance has grown. corporations and non-governmental organizations. while continuing to support the 20 initial priority countries through extrabudgetary resources. TVET or sector-wide policy and planning. Haiti. of which UNESCO is a member. Lao People’s Democratic Republic. teachers. Democratic Republic of the Congo. New support includes foreign direct investment. East Timor. Rwanda. in order to speed up progress towards EFA. donations from philanthropists. 20 priority countries were thus given special support in the areas of literacy. In the 2010-2011 biennium. Bangladesh. and Yemen. foundations.The Global Partnership for Education. India and the Gulf States. provides an international. Ethiopia. Burundi. Mali. Cambodia. Madagascar. and aid from new donors such as China. Targeted support UNESCO has provided targeted support to countries considered among those least likely to achieve EFA. Guinea. Mauritania. along with that of the private sector. 21 . as a key factor in reducing poverty. Malawi. Chad. multilateral framework for cooperation in education.

UNESCO’s Member States identify country and regional priorities for the programme themselves. It is the work of an independent team of researchers. inkuence and sustain commitment towards EFA. UNDP. which bring together key stakeholders in national governments. The Report is funded jointly by UNESCO and multilateral and bilateral agencies. and produced and published by UNESCO. and to urge governments and donors to rise to the challenge of meeting education goals. CapEFA works alongside national counterparts to assess their existing strengths. Serving as a unique policy tool for decision-makers. The Programme is providing extrabudgetary support to the Education Sector’s 20 target countries for education (see box p. the private sector and 22 .Leading the international agenda The EFA Global Monitoring Report The annual EFA Global Monitoring Report (GMR) is the world’s foremost publication on progress towards education for all. Each year. 21). international and regional aid agencies. it focuses on a specijc theme of particular relevance. Finland. EFA global partnerships The success of the EFA movement lies in its wideranging partnerships. with the thematic focus being in line with UNESCO’s education priorities. non-governmental organizations. civil society. the Report aims to inform. Sweden and Switzerland. UNFPA. and benejts from the expertise of an international advisory board. Capacity building for EFA UNESCO’s Capacity Development for EFA programme (CapEFA) helps countries improve the effectiveness of their education systems using pooled funding from Denmark. UNICEF and the World Bank. identify the priority areas for action and design strategies for reinforcing essential capacities. Italy. The jve multilateral institutions that organized the World Conference on Education for All in 1990 remain the key international stakeholders in the EFA movement: UNESCO. Norway. for example education and armed conkict (2011) or skills development (2012).

Through its Climate Change Education 1996 Learning: The Treasure Within reports. Educating about the Transatlantic Slave Trade. understand. The Organization has produced guidelines for the prevention of school violence. Building on its landmark 1972 Learning to Be and Education for sustainable development Education and for Sustainable in order to Development create (ESD) promotes efforts to rethink educational programmes systems sustainable societies. and encouraged schoollevel initiatives. 23 . which seeks to mobilize the educational resources of the world to help create a more sustainable future. and enhancing non-formal education programmes through media. UNESCO is engaged in a process of dejning new paradigms that can guide thinking on education across the world beyond 2015. With partners including its 9. networking and partnerships. for Sustainable Development programme.Education for global citizenship Education for global citizenship embraces the ideas of peace. Visions of education beyond 2015 As the target date for achieving the EFA goals approaches. UNESCO leads the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014). It provides a framework for preventing violence in schools and promoting intercultural understanding. is taking part in this process by mobilizing global knowledge and forward-looking research to identify. respect for diversity and empathy. international development partners and think tanks have already begun to articulate new visions for education and learning beyond the 2015 targets set by the EFA movement. UNESCO. UNESCO has developed and tested pedagogical and practical tools for teachers. the Holocaust and other forms of genocide aims to help students be more vigilant about violations of human rights. tolerance and mutual understanding. inter-faith dialogue. Prevention work includes a manual produced by UNESCO working with the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and the Council of Europe on issues including antiSemitism and discrimination against Muslims in education. UNESCO continues to play a major role in the implementation of the World Programme for Human Rights Education. as an international laboratory of ideas.000 Associated Schools. and anticipate the challenges for the future of education in an increasingly complex world. encouraging innovative teaching approaches to integrate this education in schools. The programme works by strengthening the capacity of Member States to provide quality climate change education. UNESCO aims to make climate change education a central and visible part of the international response to climate change. human rights education and related educational themes. and worked with directors and teachers to adapt them to social and cultural contexts.

students and the general public. training and programme development by building university networks and encouraging interuniversity cooperation through the transfer of knowledge across borders. is published jve times a year. The E-9 Initiative was launched in 1993 as a forum for the nine most highly-populated countries of the South. They are used by policy-makers. Brazil. global reports and high-level policy documents. The IBE’s journal. Bangladesh. with the establishment of a South-South Cooperation Fund. 24 .Networking and sharing knowledge Education publications As part of UNESCO’s role as a publishing house. Mexico. local communities. involving over 795 institutions in 127 countries. University Twinning and Networking The UNITWIN/UNESCO Chairs Programme advances research. education professionals. It helps to promote North-South and South-South cooperation and capacity development. The Institute’s Digital Library of National Education Reports on the Development of Education is another unparalleled source of information about educational trends. and serves both as think tank and bridge between the academic world and civil society. International Bureau of Education UNESCO’s International Bureau of Education (IBE) is a global centre and knowledge base specializing in curriculum development. Nigeria and Pakistan. industry and the media. Egypt. Prospects: Quarterly Review of Comparative Education. to discuss and exchange best practices in education. It produces the World Data on Education (WDE) database. UNESCO publishes in the six ofjcial languages of the Organization as well as in a range of other languages. South-South Cooperation in Education UNESCO launched the South-South Cooperation Programme for Education in 2007. The programme has 675  UNESCO Chairs and 68 UNITWIN Networks. The Fund supports educational exchanges on a South-South basis. The network represents more than 60 per cent of the world’s population and has become a powerful lobby for EFA. as well as triangular cooperation with more developed countries. development agents. China. the Education Sector produces titles covering all of the Sector’s programmes ranging from toolkits to monographs. which gives access to more than 160 projles of education systems worldwide. Indonesia. India. This is the only fund in the UN System to support developing countries to meet the EFA goals and MDGs.

intergovernmental. with an emphasis on education for sustainable development. UNESCO’s Associated Schools Project Network (ASPnet) is one of the largest global networks of schools in the world. 25 . which covers all education levels and a range of issues such as gender parity. Updated three times a year. and its data are used by international. It monitors progress towards Education for All and the education-related Millennium Development Goals through the annual UIS education survey. including from a gender perspective. research and capacitybuilding. as well as by research institutes. It is the primary education data source for the UNESCO EFA Global Monitoring Report. the Institute gathers statistical information to help Member States analyse the efjciency and effectiveness of their programmes and to inform their policy decisions. teachers and jnancing. Education (CONFINTEA) series. UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning The UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) promotes lifelong learning policy and practice with a focus on adult and continuing education. science and technology. providing technical support to enhance lifelong learning through advocacy. peace and human rights. Its activities are geared towards achieving the EFA goals and the MDGs. The Institute creates knowledge packages on education policy and planning techniques. The IIEP trains and provides technical support to UNESCO Member States to develop robust individual and institutional capacity. International Institute for Educational Planning The UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) is a centre for training and research. nongovernmental and regional organizations. notably in line with the objectives of the International Conference on Adult UNESCO Institute for Statistics The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) was established in 1999 to meet the growing needs of UNESCO Member States and the international community for high quality statistics in the jelds of education. from primary school enrolments to tertiary graduation rates. networking. ethical and international dimensions of education. the World Bank World Development Indicators and the UNDP Human Development Report. It acts as a powerful tool to achieve UNESCO’s priorities and increase the Organization’s visibility. and intercultural learning.000 educational institutions in 180 countries ranging from pre-school to teacher training institutions. the UIS education database is the most comprehensive in the world.UNESCO Associated Schools Founded in 1953. practice and management to equip all stakeholders in education with the knowledge they need. ASPnet’s priorities are to promote EFA and disseminate examples of quality education in practice. The network further serves as an international laboratory for new educational practices which reinforce the humanistic. specialized in educational planning and management. with 9. universities and other relevant bodies. literacy and non-formal education. It disseminates and shares information on educational planning. the United Nations Literacy Decade and the UNESCO Literacy Initiative for Empowerment (LIFE). culture and communication. as well as alternative learning opportunities for marginalized groups. UIL addresses the concerns of all Member States and regions. Based in Canada. IIEP’s technical assistance provides direct support to ministries of education so that they can plan and manage their education systems more effectively and develop more inclusive education policies and programmes.

Democratic Republic of the Congo Libreville. Nigeria Accra. Lebanon Asia and the Paci c: Bangkok. Gabon Maputo. Senegal Arab States: Beirut. Thailand Latin America and the Caribbean: Santiago. Republic of Congo Bujumbura. Namibia Yaoundé. Ghana Addis Ababa. Kenya Windhoek.UNESCO around the world How UNESCO’s Education Sector is structured A global network UNESCO’s Education Sector is led by the Assistant Director-General for Education. It comprises Divisions and Teams at UNESCO Headquarters in Paris. Headquarters Ofðce of the Assistant Director-General forbEducation Executive Ofðce (EO) EFA Global Partnerships Team (EFA) Education Research and Foresight Team (ERF) EFA Global Monitoring Report Team (GMR) Division for Planning and Development of Education Systems (PDE). There are also seven education Centres established and funded by Member States under the auspices of UNESCO. as well as education staff working in the UNESCO jeld ofjces. Mali Brazzaville. United Republic of Tanzania Harare. seven Education Institutes and Centres. Ethiopia Bamako. Zimbabwe Kinshasa. Mozambique Nairobi. which also hosts the Secretariat of the International Teacher Task Force for EFA Division for Basic to Higher Educationband Learning (BHL) Division of Education for Peace and Sustainable Development (PSD) Regional Bureaux for Education Africa: Dakar. Cameroon * A new eld structure is being implemented in the Africa Region in the 2012-13 biennium 26 . Burundi Dar es Salaam. four Regional Bureaux for Education. Chile Field offices by region (as of November 2011) Africa* Abuja.

Republic of Korea Guidance. Ethiopia. works to enhance curriculum development and educational content. plan and manage their education systems. Counselling and Youth Development Centre for Africa (GCYDCA). Sudan Rabat. UNESCO Education Centre The International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training (UNEVOC). with a focus on adult education literacy and non-formal education. Venezuela. Switzerland. China Dhaka. Cambodia Tashkent. Mexico Montevideo. Syrian Arab Republic . Baoding. Moscow. Bangladesh Hanoi. Uzbekistan Tehran. United Arab Emirates 27 International Centre for Girls’ and Women’s Education in Africa (CIEFFA). Indonesia Kabul. Viet Nam Islamabad. Russian Federation Venice. Germany. Samoa Beijing. The International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa (IICBA). The International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP).Arab States Amman. Palestinian Territories Europe and North America Moscow. Jamaica Lima. Ecuador San José. Morocco Ramallah. works on improving education for the world of work. Manila. Seoul. Sharjah. Cuba Kingston. Costa Rica Asia and the Pacific Almaty. Qatar Iraq (based in Amman. Iran Two UN liaison offices Geneva. Philippines Regional Centre for Early Childhood Care and Education in the Arab States (RCECCE). France and Buenos Aires. helps strengthen Africa’s educational institutions with a focus on teachers. Pakistan Jakarta. Caracas. China Asia-Paci c Centre of Education for International Understanding (APCEIU). Addis Ababa. Haiti Quito. assists countries in the use of information and communication technologies in education. Nepal New Delhi. Bonn. Damascus. Russian Federation. The UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL). Argentina. Jordan Cairo. Paris. USA UNESCO Education Institutes (Category I) The International Bureau of Education (IBE). Brazil Guatemala City. Lilongwe. Malawi Regional Centre for Educational Planning (RCEP). promotes the development of higher education in the region. Burkina Faso South-East Asian Centre for Lifelong Learning for Sustainable Development (SEA-CLLSD). The International Institute for Higher Education in Latin America and the Caribbean (IESALC). The Institute for Information Technologies in Education (IITE). Afghanistan Kathmandu. Centres funded by Member States under the auspices of UNESCO (Category II) International Research and Training Centre for Rural Education (INRULED). Germany. helps countries design. India Phnom Penh. Egypt Doha. Geneva. promotes lifelong learning policy and practice. Italy Latin America and the Caribbean Brasilia. Jordan) Khartoum. Hamburg. Uruguay Port-au-Prince. Ouagadougou. Switzerland New York. Kazakhstan Apia. Peru Mexico City. Guatemala Havana.

org/new/en/education/resources/online-materials/ newsletters/eduinfo/ UNESDOC Consult publications and documents on education.org/new/en/education/resources/online-materials/publications/ 28 . ▶ http://www.unesco.unesco.com/user/unesco http://twitter.youtube.com/UNESCOnow http://www. Most documents can be downloaded free of charge.facebook. EduInfo http://www.unesco.More on UNESCO’s work in}education Contact us Education Sector UNESCO 7. Scienti¿c and Cultural Organization Follow us on http://www. place de Fontenoy 75352 Paris 07 SP France http://www.org/education/ edknowledge@unesco.com/pages/United-Nations-Educational-Scientific-and-CulturalOrganization-UNESCO/51626468389 Subscribe to the Education Sector Newsletter.org United Nations Educational.

org/en/education/efareport Order publications Order our publications from the online bookshop in English.Education Statistics The UNESCO Institute for Statistics covers all education levels and addresses key policy issues such as gender parity. CD-Roms. Spanish.unesco.org/Education/Pages/default. unesco. and scientijc maps for professionals: http://publishing.unesco. multimedia (DVDs.aspx for a selection of reports and data from the UIS Progress towards EFA. French. The Education for All Global Monitoring Report is the world’s foremost publication on progress towards EFA: ▶ http://www.org/new/en/education/about-us/how-we-work/job-vacancies/ 29 . periodicals.org/default.aspx Apply for job vacancies Temporary services (Appointments of Limited Duration and Consultancies) enable the Sector to deal with a short-term overload of work or to bring in outside expertise as needed. VHS videos). These include books.unesco.uis. teachers and jnancing: ▶ http://www. To consult these offers: http://www. Russian and Arabic published or co-published by UNESCO.

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eradicating poverty and promoting sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education. UNESCO aims to make the right to quality education a reality for every child.UNESCO’s mission is building peace. youth and adult. Education empowers people with the knowledge and skills to improve themselves. communication and information. the sciences. culture. Scienti¿c and Cultural Organization . Education Sector United Nations Educational.