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Brighton Education Teaching Fellows Project Fellows Guiding Standards and Principles

The Purpose and Meaning of the Standards in Practice
The Standards for the Education, Competence and Professional Conduct are intended to honour and advance the profession by highlighting the complex and varied nature of educators’ work. They articulate the knowledge, skills and attitudes that professional educators shall possess as well as the responsibilities that accrue to them as professionals who hold the trust of the Malaysian Ministry of Education and the people of Malaysia they represent. In doing so, the Standards contribute to a safe and high-quality learning environment for students and provide a basis for professional efficacy. Taken together, the Standards define the professional attributes and expertise that educators bring to bear for the benefit of students, their educators and society. As a tool for the Brighton Education Teaching Fellows, the Malaysian Ministry of Education and the people of Malaysia they represent, the Standards are intended to support the goals of Malaysian society by helping to support the education of citizens to live productive and fulfilled lives. Educators who embody these Standards must be able to relate intellectually, pedagogically and ethically with students and their educators as they teach the specific subjects and curriculum of the Malaysian Ministry of Education. Standards are a profession’s way of communicating to its members and the Malaysian Ministry of Education and the people of Malaysia they represent the description of the work of professionals – what they know, what they are able to do, and how they comport themselves as they serve the Malaysian Ministry of Education and the people of Malaysia they represent. The Standards provide the foundation and stability on which the teaching profession can grow, articulating both the values and characteristics that distinguish the profession. Professionals enter into a contract with the Malaysian Ministry of Education and the people of Malaysia they represent that provides the professionals with a level of autonomy and self-regulation in return for an agreement that the profession will place the interests of the Malaysian Ministry of Education and the people of Malaysia they represent above individual interests. Professionals agree to be accountable to the Malaysian Ministry of Education and the people of Malaysia they represent, and the Standards serve as a touchstone for this responsibility. Even the most eminent and competent professionals will continue throughout their careers to learn about and build their repertoires in pedagogy and subject area knowledge. Indeed, standards serve both as ideals to which educators aspire and expectations that can be reasonably held. One critical consideration that often accompanies the development of standards is the question of how they will be used in practice. The practice of education is an ongoing journey of growing understanding and developing skills. The notion that a professional can attain perfection in practice flies in the face of the notion of continual learning and suggests that “meeting” a standard can be relative. The question should not be “Has the Standard been met?” but “To what extent has the Standard been met for the particular context in which the educator is preparing or working?” A deficit in a single standard is not necessarily a fatal flaw that destroys professional competence, though in certain substantive circumstances it may be.

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Educators value the involvement and support of parents. families and other stakeholders. Educators understand and apply knowledge of student growth and development. beliefs and knowledge of Malaysia’s democratic society. d) assessment. Educators respect the diversity in their classrooms. 3. b) planning. They understand that their individual conduct contributes to the perception of the profession as a whole. Educators have an understanding of the education system in The Malaysian Ministry Of Education and the law as it relates to their duties. Educators have a privileged position of power and trust. guardians. 2. Educators understand. and understand the relationships among them. maintaining the dignity and credibility of the profession. Educators are role models who act ethically and honestly. social and vocational development of students. instruction. They are responsible for the emotional and physical safety of students. schools and communities. ideological. conceptual and methodological foundations of education and of the subject areas they teach. c) instruction. Educators teach students to understand relevant curricula in a global context. 6. 4. Educators practice effective classroom a) management. Educators have a broad knowledge base and understand the subject areas they teach.Brighton Education Teaching Fellows Project Fellows Guiding Standards and Principles STANDARDS 1. Educators employ a variety of instructional and assessment strategies. material or other advantage. Educators communicate effectively and in a timely manner with parents and consider their advice on matters pertaining to students and their educators. They respect confidentiality unless disclosure is required by law. Educators are responsible for fostering the emotional. Educators act with integrity. e) evaluation and f) reporting. esthetic. Educators must be able to communicate effectively in English. in the school community. intellectual. and demonstrate an understanding of individual learning differences and special needs. Educators do not abuse or exploit students or minors for personal. 2 . sexual. Educators have the knowledge and skills to facilitate learning for all students and know when to seek additional support for their practice. Educators understand the curricular. Educators thoughtfully consider all aspects of teaching. 5. This knowledge is used to assist educators in making decisions about curriculum. respect and support the role of parents and the community in the education of students. Educators are accountable for their conduct while on duty. as well as off duty. Educators are knowledgeable about how students and their educators develop as learners and as social beings. physical. where that conduct has an effect on the education system. assessment and classroom management. Educators convey the values. Educators treat students with respect and dignity. from planning through reporting. Educators value and care for all students and act in their best interests.

Teachers and Students Producing Together Facilitate learning through joint productive activity among teachers and students. for example. The teacher works on the principle that all human beings are creative in their own way. Educators contribute their expertise to activities offered by their schools. teaching and learning that are informed by theory and practice. Teachers are responsible for Managing students’ Motivation If one begins with the notion that teachers do not manage classrooms. in a way which motivates learners to further expand and explore their creativity and therefore their language and personal development. The teacher responds to learners creative output positively. critical thinking. Educators support. thus. Educators engage in professional development and reflective practice. innovative manner. 2. The teacher draws on a variety of media and arts and exposes learners to a wide range of task types. one can begin to understand and affect behaviour. thoughts and feelings. Learning occurs most effectively when experts and novices work together for a common product or goal.Brighton Education Teaching Fellows Project Fellows Guiding Standards and Principles 7. mentor or encourage other educators and those preparing to enter the profession. understanding that a hallmark of professionalism is the concept of professional growth over time. that they manage people. "Providing assistance" is the general definition of teaching. Educators develop and refine personal philosophies of education. then one is taken beyond the physical boundaries of rooms to the limitless possibilities in the human mind and spirit. Educators contribute to the profession. 8. districts. professional organizations. There. post-secondary institutions or contribute in other ways. Teachers must encourage and respect Creativity in the process of Learning The teacher sets an example by teaching in a creative. Educators identify their professional needs and work to meet those needs individually and collaboratively. non-judgementally. problem solving. joint productive activity (JPA) maximizes teaching and learning. Educators engage in career-long learning. guiding it in such a way that ideally is demonstrated in a complete engagement in the most important human activity – learning… for each student. setting tasks and facilitating activities which inspire and motivate students to express and explore their inner creativity. creative expression. 3. The teacher strives to create a positive. supportive learning environment which allows and encourages learners to express their own ideas. 3 . and are therefore motivated to assist one another. Additional Specific Principles of Practice for Brighton Education Teaching Fellows: 1.

7. and career goals are then discussed as well as strategies for learning. productive and respectful relationships with all stakeholders 9. and personal fulfillment. it is important to simply recognize that not everybody learns or acquires a second language through a single method or set of techniques. Accomplished teachers have a rich understanding of the subject(s) they teach and appreciate how knowledge in their subject is created. they also develop the critical and analytical capacities of their students. While faithfully representing the collective wisdom of our culture and upholding the value of disciplinary knowledge. 6. 1983) is still developing and there are different interpretations of the two concepts and the relationship between them.Brighton Education Teaching Fellows Project Fellows Guiding Standards and Principles 4. Teachers shall understand the practice of culturally responsive teaching. career achievements. They are aware of the preconceptions and background knowledge that students typically bring to each subject and of strategies and instructional materials that can be of assistance. linked to other disciplines and applied to real-world settings. 8. situational and relevant through reflective. For now. 5. Appropriate academic goals are challenging yet achievable and teachers assist students with strategies for setting and achieving general goals. Teachers encourage learning that is contextual. Teachers Respect Diversity The study of Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences (Frames of Mind Gardner. including academic performance. and they are adept at teaching students how to pose and solve their own problems. Accomplished teachers command specialized knowledge of how to convey and reveal subject matter to students. Setting and achieving one's personal goals requires self-monitoring. Teachers Set Clear Achievable and Challenging Goals and Objectives Goals encompass a variety of endeavours. course and study goals. Their instructional repertoire allows them to create multiple paths to the subjects they teach. Teachers are responsible for monitoring and assessing students’ progress in learning Teachers use appropriate formative and summative tools and provide feedback to students promptly and constructively. comfortable classroom environments that encourage risk-taking and innovation. 4 . responsive and inclusive practice 10. They understand where difficulties are likely to arise and modify their practice accordingly. Teachers cultivate appropriate. Teachers know the subjects they teach and how to teach those subjects to students. organized. Teachers build safe.

Brighton Education Teaching Fellows Project Fellows Guiding Standards and Principles Teachers should be FREE . Collette Foster 3. William Taylor 12. Lloyd Precious Signature ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Date _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ 5 . Peter Wickham 13. Stuart Gale 10. Marlene Hawkins 9. Resourceful. Engaging and Enriching We. Ruth Wickham 14.2013). Jeff Hawkins 8. Rod Deering 7. Name 1. Don Nixon 2. the undersigned.Flexible. John Bateman 11. William Tweedie 5. agree to follow The Fellows Guiding Standards and Principles stated above in our work in the Teacher Training Institutes to which we are assigned as Teaching Fellows in the Brighton Education Teaching Fellows Project (2010 . Phil Keegan 6. Simone Evans 4.

negotiates. how effectively s/he comprehends. Human communication exists when intelligible signals are transmitted and received in the context of the satisfaction of needs and wants. Communication is PRACTICAL. not the correctness of form or grammar. Communication is accomplished through a variety of INTEGRATED means that should not be isolated in the learning/acquisition process. to communicate. The language used in communication is. fulfilling purposes. has one general purpose. English is not the end. resolve and be flexible. Speaking. which is to convey our thoughts and feelings to other beings. Providing students with strategies to manage this uncertainty and the unpredictability in discourse is essential to building beginners‟ confidence and sustaining their motivation. All communication options should be explored before resorting to their native language and translation. if it satisfies real needs and wants. All else is communicatively useless action or noise. unpredictable. that is. and Evaluate (SIDCME) their own learning (The PRIME © METHOD). Observation takes its rightful place as an essential skill along with Listening. The most significant implication of this principle is in the facilitator‟s acceptance of the role as „guide on the side. identifiable purposes. engaging (motivating) and enriching (FREE) in taking this Approach. The choice of language used in oral and written communication involves interactional uncertainty. The most important criteria in assessing students‟ progress are first. resourceful. 6 . must be comprehensible. Reading.Brighton Education Teaching Fellows Project Fellows Guiding Standards and Principles For consideration: Principles Specifically for Facilitation of English as a Foreign Language Acquisition Key Principles of the PRIME© Approach and Method By William M. English. Control. Therefore. the degree to which the student is actively engaged in the process of English language acquisition and secondly. Monitor. then Direct. Communication is context dependent. It is one means to the end. Beginners need as many options as possible to support their efforts to communicate. direct and indirect. content. students provide the substance. and MEANINGFUL to both sender and receiver. the facilitator must have patience. and conveys meaning. involves them as individuals. like all human languages. We need to know and understand why people communicate and how English can be used as one means to accomplish these purposes. Students must first Initiate. To achieve the objective of students becoming autonomous learners. The implications take us beyond the accepted axiom that we should teach language usage. Students will acquire the English they want and agree they need to. People communicate for specific. Facilitators of language acquisition have the responsibility of providing students with the tools necessary for progress. interests. All other motional and emotional means of communication figure importantly in the process. and structure. Tweedie Communication is the primary goal in the facilitation of English Language Acquisition. Facilitators provide the framework and guideposts. and goals. and Writing. Language learning strategies. not sage on the stage‟. Facilitators must ensure that their communication with students and the language students are engaged in acquiring are both comprehensible and meaningful and that the understanding and conveyance of meaning takes precedence over correctness of form. Students acquire English if it is RELEVANT to their lives. addressing their backgrounds. largely. These include an array of strategies for learning in general and language learning specifically. not about the language. must be incorporated into the curriculum.

The dimensions of learning commonly articulated are: 1. Reflection . to help people understand each other so they can help each other progress towards a better world? This principle will guide facilitators and students in the selection or development of material for classroom modeling and practising. forms. Is it not our ultimate goal. Skills and Strategies 1 While great progress has been made in expanding the scope of factors that affect ELA facilitation in recent years such as Multiple Intelligence and Thinking Styles Theories. The overconfident student.Brighton Education Teaching Fellows Project Fellows Guiding Standards and Principles Language acquisition is an indefinite process with characteristics distinct from other subject matter learning. Learning theorists have argued that learning and development are not components of an assembly line that can be broken down into discrete steps occurring with machine-time precision. The facilitator/facilitator and student should be actively searching for. they are dynamically interwoven and interdependent. The process must be enjoyable and ENRICHING to self and society. In both cases. students develop along the dimension of confidence and independence. and language acquisition.Contemplative and Critical „Learning occurs across complex dimensions that are interrelated and interdependent.‟ (Iverson. It is important that the facilitators be aware of the students‟ progress along these dimensions as it is likely 1 they correlate directly to their progress in the acquisition process. The content they need and want to express in achieving relevant purposes will require different and varied structures and forms at different times. Use of Prior and Emerging Experience 5. Confidence and Independence 2. and reflective of their own learning. The facilitator must have sufficient command and knowledge of English usage to be an effective model for the students and provider of the information they need. Students cannot be expected to achieve goals set out on a continuum of grammatical structures. who has relied on faulty or underdeveloped skills and strategies. The next section takes a closer look at this important concept. content knowledge. as facilitators of the acquisition of language for its practical use in achieving meaningful purposes. Knowledge and Understanding 4. These five dimensions cannot be separated out and treated individually. The facilitator‟s language and classroom material are known and perceived by the students to be models for their own language development. USA and most commercial ESL programmes pay little attention to the progress of students across all the dimensions of learning. the shy student begins to trust his/her own abilities and begins to work alone at times. and functions. learns to ask for help when facing an obstacle. and documenting positive evidence of the student‟s development across the five dimensions listed above. one‟s identity. in the process of fulfilling its purposes. the psychology of learning. but an organic PROCESS that unfolds along a continuum according to its own pace and rhythm. The Dimensions of Learning ESL standards articulated by such organizations as TESOL. there is a need for more research of the relationships among emotion. The psychological and emotional factors in language acquisition must figure largely in the approach facilitators and students take to the process because communication is the expression of self. 7 . or to insist on presenting her own point of view in discussions. Language acquisition is a process tangent to and reflective of the student‟s development and growth across all the dimensions of learning. Skills and Strategies 3. rather. S) Confidence and Independence Growth and development occur when learners‟ confidence and independence become coordinated with their actual abilities and skills. use of their experience. It is not a simple case of „more is better‟.

„A crucial but often unrecognized dimension of learning is the ability to make use of prior experience in new situations‟ or when confronted with new learning challenges. This is according to the unique nature of second language acquisition. predetermined curricula we cannot discover. their efforts and progress should be the most important factor in assessments and evaluations. In structured. Tweedie) 2 Facilitators in this programme must monitor all the factors articulated because language cannot be acquired effectively without management and accomplishment in these areas. after all..M. Reflection . and topics and the relationship between theories and practise. writings. at the heart of new imaginings and their realization.e. techniques. depends on how well they know and use the skills and strategies laid open to them for their personal use. nor can the student. Knowledge and Understanding Content knowledge refers to the extent students understand the theory of new or revealed methods. the confidence and independence he/she is developing. in the context of second language acquisition. or how ongoing experience shapes the content knowledge and understanding. skills and strategies. 8 . the ability to draw on this experience and connect it to their engagement in the process of learning. Iverson for original Facilitator Training Workshops by J. Iverson introduced the concepts of the five dimensions for the University of Texas in 1997 for general learning. (Source: Adapted from S. inflexible. I have adapted and related them specifically to the arena of second language acquisition.‟ How well students actually learn (performance ability or mastery of any given content ) or acquire. clearer communication.Contemplative and Critical It is important to contemplate our own learning process and to analyse how we are progressing in the process of acquiring our knowledge or a second language. This dimension of learning is the most familiar as it has been the most quantifiable and justifiable in terms of historically modern educational systems. practical and relevant use of the knowledge). not the quality or quantity of English they have acquired. 2 S. how his/her prior experience might help build new or greater understandings. It is measured by how effectively the knowledge (ideas) is conveyed by facilitators of learning as well as by how well students demonstrate their understanding of the ideas through formal and informal presentations (examinations. how well we using the skills and strategies we need? How much effort are we putting into developing our confidence? How courageous are we becoming in validating our own experiences and using them to build our futures on? This overview thinking and recognition of limitations and obstacles provides the impetus for continued progress and is a necessary dimension of learning and acquisition of language for stronger. „Skills and strategies represent the “know-how” aspect of learning.Brighton Education Teaching Fellows Project Fellows Guiding Standards and Principles Specific skills and strategies are involved in the process of language acquisition as well as other areas of learning that require instruction and the active participation of the students. i.‟ This dimension of learning is. „Observing learners over a period of time as they are engaged in a variety of activities will allow this important capability to be accounted for. What is the simple past of the verb „to think‟? What is a “web site” on the WorldWide Web? These are typical content knowledge/understanding questions. It is necessary to overtly encourage and value learners‟ experiences and more over to help them incorporate their experiences into the process of learning and acquiring a new language in that case. indeed. These skills include technological skills for computer communication for all students if they are to become active participants in the global village. Use of Prior and Emerging Experience Use of prior and emerging experience involves the students‟ awareness of the importance and relevance of their own experience. Imagine you have no imagination. How well are we using the skills and strategies available to us to communicate better our thoughts and feelings? Are our students and we developing the ability to distance ourselves enough from the process to reflect on it in the general terms of the extent we are engaged in it and how important it is to our development as human beings and as a global society? Is our ability to think critically of the specific aspects of the process. While students are expected to achieve some of these minimum standards or learning outcomes.W.

Silence may also occur in extended pauses before a student answers a question. examples and information relevant to EFL students' backgrounds assist them in understanding content. recognizing that the student needs more time to answer lets the student know that you are interested in listening. Opportunities for substantive. Tweedie Adapted From the NCBE Program Information Guide Series. They often appear when a learner is trying out new grammatical structures. language use. a teacher can continue the dialogue by restating what the student has said to model the correct form. Number 19 Silence is often needed Students must be silent at times as they learn to speak a second language. there may be a need to briefly "tune out" at points in the course of a day to "recharge" from the constant effort of listening and speaking in a new language. direct correction of errors can hinder students' efforts and discourage further attempts to express ideas with the language skills they have available. When the focus is on communicating. offers all students opportunities to recognize and validate different perspectives. formulate questions. Instructional activities should maximize opportunities for communication and as much as possible. An active learning and acquiring instructional model for EFL students includes elements that address the special language-related needs of students who are learning and acquiring English. Incorporating diversity into the classroom provides EFL students with social support. when 9 . should have opportunities to communicate meaningfully in this way. Some learners need to focus more on listening than speaking. Involving students Instructional tasks should involve students as active participants. Errors generally indicate progress As with first language acquisition. Teachers can increase comfort levels through structured classroom rules and activity patterns. Rather than correct errors directly. and provides all students interesting information. and genuine care and concern for each student. Students contribute and learn more effectively when they are able to play a role in structuring their own learning and acquiring. All students are able to focus on and enjoy learning and acquiring more when the school and classroom make them feel safe comfortable with themselves and with their surroundings. Valuing diversity Valuing the diverse backgrounds and resources that EFL students bring to the classroom and being sensitive to their unique needs can serve to build an instructional environment that can benefit all students. sustained dialogue are critical to challenging students' abilities to communicate ideas. errors can actually have a positive meaning. explicit expectations.Brighton Education Teaching Fellows Project Fellows Guiding Standards and Principles PRIME© Principles in Action in the EFL Classroom By William M. in contrast. Instructional content should utilize student diversity. Allow students additional time to collect their thoughts and structure their answer. Increasing comfort levels The classroom should be predictable and accepting of all students. especially during the early stages of learning and acquiring a new language. Current education research and reform focus on increasing student participation in instruction and on basing instruction on the real-life needs of students. For others. Each student. Also. and use language for higher order thinking. at his or her own level of proficiency. Moving too quickly to the next student discourages efforts to respond.

Instructional interactions should provide support for student understanding. i. writing. Students can write in daily journals. explain their ideas about a topic to others. This can be supplemented through small group work where students learn from each other as they record observations and prepare oral presentations. however. Create opportunities for sustained dialogue and substantive language use. they can concentrate on and take risks in learning and acquiring. and thoughtful efforts from students. Learning and acquiring takes place often through students' efforts to summarize what they have observed. listening. students' use of their native as well as English language and other communication skills. or by expanding upon a particular response by creating a logical follow-on statement. and all other means. and report on activities. Explicit information on what is expected of students is provided and is reinforced through clearly structured daily patterns and class activities. and learning styles or Multiple Intelligences. When students are freed of the need to interpret expectations and figure out task structures. should be on communicating. and answer questions about their presentations. by explaining how they arrived at a particular conclusion. They should require answers that go beyond a single word or predictable patterns. they may be afraid of not writing everything correctly. interest. For EFL students this includes providing support for the students' understanding of instruction presented in English. Students should be given opportunities to write about what they have observed or learned. To maximize opportunities for students to use language. b) It is often hard to give many students the opportunities needed for meaningful. and non-linguistic communication skills they do have. seen by only themselves and the teacher. summarize. new responses. Some EFL students may be too embarrassed to write at first. c) Opportunities for maximizing language use and engaging in a sustained dialogue should occur in both written and oral English. 10 . d) The teacher should also ensure that there are substantive opportunities for students to use oral and written language to define. however. sustained dialogue within a teacher-centered instructional activity. Maximizing opportunities for language use Communication in all its aspects. For example. especially EFL students. reading. There is acceptance.. This type of writing should be encouraged for students at all levels.e. Provide a clear acceptance of each student. they should be encouraged to present their ideas using the oral. when they report their observations. and explain solutions. observing. written. and when the content is both meaningful and challenging. Less English proficient EFL students can be paired to work with other. in cooperative learning and acquiring groups. more proficient students or be encouraged to include illustrations. Through experience in trying to express ideas. including oral expression. Teachers should ensure that students understand the concepts and materials being presented. supports their development of higher order thinking skills. is really central to learning and acquiring for all EFL students. Ask questions that require new or extended responses. formulate questions. and understanding of different backgrounds. In reciprocal teaching models. Students can be asked to expand on their answers by giving reasons why they believe a particular response is correct. These provide important social and practical bases for students. beliefs. The following points are important ways to maximize language use. Creating an accepting and predictable environment A supportive environment is built by the teacher on several grounds. a) The teacher's questions should elicit new knowledge. teachers can plan to include other ways of organizing learning and acquiring activities. EFL students' language proficiency may not be fully equal to the task. students use language together to accomplish academic tasks. each student/group is responsible for completing then sharing/teaching one portion of a given task.Brighton Education Teaching Fellows Project Fellows Guiding Standards and Principles tasks are oriented toward discovery of concepts and answers to questions. The focus in this type of writing. for example.

constant. Provide for active participation in meaningful and challenging tasks. develop hypotheses about the answers. j) Develop the use of a discovery process. EFL students need to participate. i. while students assume increasing responsibility. in terms of English proficiency).g. 1993) instruction. students observe and report on what they have observed. An important goal is to create or increase the level of "authentic" (Newmann and Wehlage. work together to define ways to obtain the information they need to test their hypotheses. using limited written text. For example. it means that this should be done as a specific editing step. are especially necessary in EFL contexts. that recent research and reform efforts indicate are effective for all students. 11 .e. Students also play active roles in developing the knowledge that is to be learned (e. Focus on communication. Each situation will place its own demands on students and expose them to varied types of language use. Active participation also involves some shifting of roles and responsibilities. e) Opportunities for meaningful language use should be provided in a variety of situations: small groups. Indirect modeling (echoing) of a corrected form in the context of a response is preferable to direct correction. they use what they already know to identify questions and seek new answers. and teacher-student dyads. students assist the teacher in defining the goals of instruction and identifying specific content to be examined or questions to be addressed. with a variety of groupings (i. h) Shifts in approach. instruction that results in learning and acquiring that is relevant and meaningful beyond success in the classroom task alone. specific error correction should be given a minor role.. many descriptions of instructional innovation focus on increasing student participation in ways that result in students asking questions and constructing knowledge.. write to organizations for needed information. but still requires higher order thinking skills and allows them to demonstrate or provide information in non-linguistic ways. noting important differences from one event to the next. Through these steps. A discovery process is one in which students participate in defining the questions to be asked. Give students responsibility for their own learning and acquiring. apart from the actual production of the written piece. g) When the focus is on communicating or discussing ideas. an EFL student with very little oral or written proficiency in English can create a pictorial record of what was observed in a science class. Similarly. insistent correction of errors will discourage EFL students from using language to communicate. k) When students take an active role in constructing new knowledge. and assist each other in interpreting and summarizing information). For example. students learn new content in a way that allows them to build ownership of what they are learning and acquiring. peer-peer dyads (again.. There can be activity areas where students can meet in small groups or the teacher can meet with a student. teachers become less directive and more facilitative.Brighton Education Teaching Fellows Project Fellows Guiding Standards and Principles Provide opportunities for language use in multiple settings. in oral language use. or the furniture in the room can be arranged and rearranged to match the needs of an activity. This does not mean that errors are never corrected. Their participation can be at a level that is less demanding linguistically.e. gather information. They are also learning and acquiring how to learn and acquire. through a process of discovery to arrive at new information that is meaningful and that expands students knowledge. and summarize and interpret their findings. i) In active participation. with a variety of groupings). f) The physical layout of the room should be structured to support flexible interaction among students.

the use of group work requires attention to ensure that each individual has opportunities and responsibilities in contributing to the development of the overall product. and Food Technology can (or any combination for that matter). Formal roles should be assigned to each member of a group (e. note-taker. 12 . In this way different perspectives on the topic are developed through linkages across different types of learning and acquiring activities. not only in the classroom. and Information Technology can all become interrelated through their common reference to the same theme or topic of interest just as Maintenance. flexibility.. as students identify different tasks to be accomplished by a group. strength. Business administration. group discussion leader). n) Content matter is more meaningful for students when it relates to their background and experience. Telecommunications. The composition of groups should be carefully considered and should be flexible so that students experience working with different individuals. Use thematic integration of content across subject areas. Students should see opportunities and resources for learning and acquiring outside of the classroom as well. For example. goal-directed context. and so on). a comprehensive exploration of one or more content areas promotes understanding and helps students retain what they learn. integrated. q) Instruction is more challenging and engaging when it provides in-depth examination of fewer topics rather than more limited coverage of a broader range of topics. a parent who is a carpenter can be called upon to explain how the use of different materials can affect the design and strength of a structure (taking into account function. when a class is learning about structure. Production processes. An active learning and acquiring instructional approach ultimately seeks to develop in students a view of themselves as learners in all aspects of their lives.Brighton Education Teaching Fellows Project Fellows Guiding Standards and Principles Include the use of cooperative student efforts. the resources of the home and community should be used. the community. including students at different levels of ability. l) Recent findings about how people learn emphasize the social nature of learning and acquiring. For example. Many successful examples of classroom innovation with EFL students show the value of using cooperative working groups composed of heterogeneous groups of students. m) Learning to work in cooperative groups requires practice and guidance for the students. students might define and assign their own responsibilities. p) Learning and acquiring is also made more meaningful when it is contextualized within a broader topic. reporter. Make learning and acquiring relevant to the students' experience. Teachers need to be sensitive to the fact that some students prefer independent rather than cooperative learning and acquiring structures and activities. Whenever possible. and these roles should be rotated. Mixing less English proficient EFL and more English proficient students within groups promotes opportunities to hear and use English within a meaningful. 1990) so new content should be introduced through its relationship to an already understood concept. In all cases. Teachers may want to consider adjusting the balance of learning and acquiring activities for students to accommodate such differences and to provide more support. thematic curricula that address the same topic across different content areas provide students opportunities to explore a given subject in greater depth. Build in-depth investigation of content. new knowledge is best learned and retained when it can be linked to existing "funds of knowledge" (Moll et al. At older grades. thereby allowing students to gradually become more comfortable in these activities. o) It is important that the learning experience regularly draws links between home. Furthermore. and the classroom because this serves to contextualize and make content meaningful for students and ultimately to better acquisition of English. Furthermore. a discussion of food cycles can begin with a discussion of foods commonly found in students' homes and communities. Also.g.

Higher order thinking activities require students to use what they know to generate new information (e.g. and information about students' work. iii) share ideas and experiences with teachers who are interested in trying out more active instructional activities with their students.. and so on). such as: i) ii) asking open-ended questions that invite comparison and contrast. This is in contrast to lower order thinking skills such as rote repetition of responses or memorization of facts.Brighton Education Teaching Fellows Project Fellows Guiding Standards and Principles Design activities that promote higher order thinking skills. or compare and contrast). to solve problems. Provide support for understanding. let him know what you are doing. or state hypotheses. ideas. v) A significant body of recent research has focused on the value of teachers combining their professional expertise and sharing their experiences with one another. structuring learning and acquiring activities that require students to work cooperatively. s) Students need opportunities to take responsibility for their own learning and acquiring . and to explain the similarities and differences. essential to the process. and successful practices. for example. However. 13 . such as assistance in scheduling joint planning periods or in-class sessions in co-teaching or straightforward observation. This is what the active learning and acquiring instructional model provides. and as resources to each other in sharing ideas. t) The teacher's input as a facilitator and guide to students should be carried out in a variety of ways. the teacher should guide and facilitate students' efforts. ii) collaborate with other content area teachers who work with the same EFL students to share resources.g. draw conclusions. materials. the more consistent and effective their students' overall instructional experience will be. and prompt students to integrate what they have observed. As a partner in students' investigations of new content. to identify another folktale from their own background that they think makes a similar point. and to express further questions that they would like to tackle. to share their thoughts. encouraging students to discuss concepts they are learning. assisting students in identifying needed resources. iv) involve the program director. and setting up opportunities for students to demonstrate or exhibit their work to other classes in the school as a means of prompting further dialogue outside of the classroom iii) iv) v) vi) Work together with others. Higher order skills are utilized. local experts who could visit. and the benefits for the students Ask for support. some of this support should come in tangible ways. modeling the different group member roles if necessary. integrate information. the more teachers who work with the same students share information. It is not one that a teacher needs to face alone. Teachers can offer important support to each other by serving as sounding boards for successes and failures. is the support provided by the teacher. as additional sources of suggestions for resolving problem situations. field trips to organizations. Combine your expertise with that of other teachers. r) Classroom tasks should challenge students by requiring them to develop and utilize higher order skills. w) Teachers should take steps to: i) collaborate and confer with EFL specialists. u) The attempt to restructure activities in your classroom and to deal with new forms of diversity is a challenging one. either in regular teacher/student conferences or dialogue journals. when students are asked to review a folktale from one country that they have just read.. explain how you are implementing an active instructional model in your class.to seek out information and formulate answers. establishing long-term dialogues with students about the work they are doing. Also. including setting up linkages with resources in the local community (e.

(1993). SPECIAL ISSUES ANALYSIS CENTER FOCUS GROUP REPORT: ACTIVE LEARNING AND ACQUIRING INSTRUCTIONAL MODELS FOR LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENT STUDENTS. MYTHS AND MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING AND ACQUIRING: WHAT EVERY TEACHER NEEDS TO UNLEARN. 509-531. L.. G. B. and Rosebery. Inc..C.. 11. N. INC. COMMUNITY KNOWLEDGE AND CLASSROOM PRACTICE: COMBINING RESOURCES FOR LITERACY INSTRUCTION.  NEWMANN. QUINN. Technical Report from the Innovative Approaches Research Project. VA: DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATES.. M. 14 .. D. K.  Warren. NO. VA: DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATES. A. NATIONAL CENTER FOR RESEARCH ON CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING AND ACQUIRING. FATHMAN. INNOVATIVE APPROACHES RESEARCH PROJECT. L. D. A. NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE FOR BILINGUAL EDUCATION. W ASHINGTON. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION. 50. VA: Development Associates. Cheche Konnen: Collaborative scientific inquiry in language minority classrooms. Perhaps set up a regular time with each for discussion. (1990). J. starting small is okay. F. (1993).C. REPORT TO U.  MCLAUGHLIN.  KOBER. ARLINGTON. APRIL.. G. Learn about models for cooperative group work and plan to try cooperative work for one specific type of activity on a regular basis. 7.: COUNCIL FOR EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND RESEARCH.  MOLL.: NATIONAL CLEARINGHOUSE FOR BILINGUAL EDUCATION. AND W EHLAGE. TESOL QUARTERLY. Step by step you will be able to build an active learning and acquiring approach that will benefit all students in your classroom. TEACHING SCIENCE TO ENGLISH LEARNERS. Begin by becoming more familiar with your students. C. 8-12. M. VELEZ-IBANEZ. (1989).. EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP. VINCENT. Talk with other teachers and develop ideas together. AND KESSLER. B. REFERENCES  COLLIER.  LATRHOP.S. AND GREENBERG.C. A. M. (1992). ARLINGTON. (1992). W ASHINGTON..Brighton Education Teaching Fellows Project Fellows Guiding Standards and Principles YOU CAN'T DO IT ALL AT ONCE If you are interested in moving toward an active learning and acquiring instructional model. W ASHINGTON. HOW LONG: A SYNTHESIS OF RESEARCH ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN A SECOND LANGUAGE. PROGRAM INFORMATION GUIDE SERIES. AND ZEHLER. (1990). FIVE STANDARDS OF AUTHENTIC INSTRUCTION. C. OFFICE OF BILINGUAL EDUCATION AND MINORITY LANGUAGES AFFAIRS (OBEMLA). INC. 23. E. EDTALK: WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT SCIENCE TEACHING AND LEARNING AND ACQUIRING. GRADES 4-8. Arlington. HANDBOOK FOR TEACHERS AND PLANNERS.. V. D.: CENTER FOR APPLIED LINGUISTICS.

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