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FIRESTOP ENGINEERS
TeI. No. : ++ 91 79 22161962 Fax : ++ 91 79 22173963
EmaiI : contact@firestopgroup.com Web : www.firestopgroup.com
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The The Fire Fire TriangIe TriangIe
Fire Safety, at its most basic, is based upon the principIe of
keeping fueI sources and ignition sources separate.
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The The Fire Fire
Enough DXYCEN DXYCEN to sustaIn combustIon +
Enough HEAT HEAT to reach IgnItIon temperature +
Some FUEL FUEL or combustIbIe materIaI =
Together, they produce the CHEhICAL CHEhICAL PEACTIDN PEACTIDN ,
that Is fIre
Three thIngs must be present at the same tIme to produce fIre:
Take away any one of these thIngs and the fIre wIII be Take away any one of these thIngs and the fIre wIII be
extInguIshed extInguIshed
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FueI CIassifications FueI CIassifications
FIres are classIfIed accordIng to the
type of fuel that Is burnIng.
Ìf you use the wrong type of fIre
extInguIsher on the wrong class of
fIre, you mIght make matters worse.
Ìts very Important to understand the
four dIfferent fIre (fuel)
classIfIcatIons.
Next
lass A: ombustIble SolIds·Wood, paper, cloth,
trash, plastIcs-solIds that are not metals.
lass 8: Flammable lIquIds-gasolIne, acetone,
oIl, grease, petrol, etc.
lass : Flammable Cases·LPC, C, Acetylene
E EnergIzed electrIcal equIpments, as long as
It's "plugged In."
lass 0: |etals-potassIum, sodIum, alumInIum,
magnesIum. FequIres SpecIal 0ry Powder and
other specIal extInguIshIng agents.



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FueI CIassifications FueI CIassifications
|ost fIre extInguIshers wIll have a pIctograph
label tellIng you whIch types of fIre the
extInguIsher Is desIgned to fIght.
For example, a sImple water extInguIsher
mIght have a label lIke thIs.
.whIch means It should only be used on lass A fIres.
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FueI CIassifications FueI CIassifications
Types of Fire Extinguishers Types of Fire Extinguishers
0Ifferent types of fIre extInguIshers are desIgned
to fIght dIfferent classes of fIre.
The 4 most common types of fIre extInguIshers are:
1. Water (W/o2) · For 'A' lass
2. |echanIcal Foam (AFFF) - For 'A' E '8' lass
J. arbon 0IoxIde (
2
) - For '8' E '' lass
4. 0ry hemIcal (A8) - For 'A', '8' E '' lass
0ry hemIcal (8) - For '8' E '' lass
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1. 1. Water (W/o2) FIre ExtInguIshers
ater, the best fIre extInguIshant
suIted for combatIng fIres
InvoIvIng ordInary carbonaceous
materIaIs IIke wood, paper, cIoth,
rubber û jute. ater
extInguIshes fIre rapIdIy by
strIkIng, Instant cooIIng û
quenchIng effects.
FIIIed wIth water and pressurIzed
Co2 Cas CartrIdge, they are
essentIaIIy Iarge squIrt guns.
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Types of Fire Extinguishers Types of Fire Extinguishers
1. 1. Water (W/o2) FIre ExtInguIshers
Water/o2
extInguIsh fIre
by takIng away
the "heat"
element of the
FIre TrIangle.
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Types of Fire Extinguishers Types of Fire Extinguishers
1. 1. Water (W/o2) FIre ExtInguIshers
W/o2 Is desIgned for lass A fIre onIy:
Wood, paper, cloth E combustIble materIal.
UsIng water on a flammable lIquId fIre could cause
the fIre to spread.
UsIng water on an electrIcal fIre Increases the rIsk of
electrocutIon. Ìf you have no choIce but to use a
W/o2 on an electrIcal fIre, make sure the electrIcal
equIpment Is un·plugged or de·energIzed.
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Types of Fire Extinguishers Types of Fire Extinguishers
1. 1. Water (W/o2) FIre ExtInguIshers
W/Co2 will be found in older buildings, particularly in public
hallways, as well as in Residence Halls.
They will also be found in Textiles & Wood
Ìndustries / Godowns. Ìt is important to
remember, however, that all Electrical &
Electronic equipment must be disconnected
from its electrical source before using a
water extinguisher on it.
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Types of Fire Extinguishers Types of Fire Extinguishers
2. 2. |echanIcal Foam (AFFF) FIre ExtInguIshers
Foam is a powerfuI knockdown
agent for spiII fires invoIving
infIammabIe Iiquids. This
extinguisher forms a thick Iater of
foam over the burning surface,
effectiveIy cutting of atmospheric
suppIy of oxygen to the burning
surface there by smothering the
fire and preventing re-ignition.
Foam extinguishes fire by giving
bIanketing effect.
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Types of Fire Extinguishers Types of Fire Extinguishers
|echanIcal Foam
(Afff) extInguIsh
fIre by takIng
away the heat"
E Dxygen"
element of the
FIre TrIangle.
2. 2. |echanIcal Foam (AFFF) FIre ExtInguIshers
Next
Types of Fire Extinguishers Types of Fire Extinguishers
AFFF's are desIgned for CIass A û ß fIres :
!etroI, oiI, naphtha, paints, aIcohoIs &
soIvents.
UsIng Foam on an electrIcal fIre Increases the rIsk of
electrocutIon. Ìf you have no choIce but to use a
Foam on an electrIcal fIre, make sure the electrIcal
equIpment Is un·plugged or de·energIzed.
2. 2. |echanIcal Foam (AFFF) FIre ExtInguIshers
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Types of Fire Extinguishers Types of Fire Extinguishers
oam will be found in older buildings, particularly in
Petrol Pumps, as well as Oil Depots.
They will also be found in Refineries &
Petrochemical Ìndustries. Ìt is important to
remember, however, that all Electrical &
Electronic equipment must be disconnected
from its electrical source before using a
oam extinguisher on it.
2. 2. |echanIcal Foam (AFFF) FIre ExtInguIshers
Next
Types of Fire Extinguishers Types of Fire Extinguishers
J. J. arbon 0IoxIde FIre ExtInguIshers
CO
2
cylinders range in size from 2 Kgs. to 22.5 Kgs. or larger. On
larger sizes, the horn will be at the end of a long, flexible hose.
The pressure In a

2
extInguIsher Is
so great, bIts of
dry Ice may shoot
out of the horn!
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Types of Fire Extinguishers Types of Fire Extinguishers
J. J. arbon 0IoxIde FIre ExtInguIshers
CO
2
s will frequently be found in laboratories, mechanical
rooms, Sophisticated Electronic Equipments Room and
flammable liquid storage areas.

2
's are desIgned for lass 8 E
(Flammable LIquIds and ElectrIcal
Sources) fIres only!
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Types of Fire Extinguishers Types of Fire Extinguishers
J. J. arbon 0IoxIde FIre ExtInguIshers

2
Is very cold as It comes out of the extInguIsher, so It
cools the fuel as well.
arbon dIoxIde Is a
non·flammable gas
that takes away the
oxygen element of
the fIre trIangle.
WIthout oxygen,
there Is no fIre.
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Types of Fire Extinguishers Types of Fire Extinguishers
J. J. arbon 0IoxIde FIre ExtInguIshers
lass A materIals may also smolder
and re·IgnIte.
A
2
may be IneffectIve In
extInguIshIng a lass A fIre because It
may not be able to dIsplace enough
oxygen to successfully put the fIre
out.
Next
Types of Fire Extinguishers Types of Fire Extinguishers
4a. 4a. 0ry hemIcal (A8) FIre ExtInguIshers
The powder also works to Interrupt the chemIcal reactIon of
fIre. These extInguIshers are very effectIve at puttIng out fIre.
A8 0ry chemIcal
extInguIshers put
out fIre by coatIng
the fuel wIth a thIn
layer of dust. ThIs
separates the fuel
from the oxygen In
the aIr.
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Types of Fire Extinguishers Types of Fire Extinguishers
4a. 4a. 0ry hemIcal (A8) FIre ExtInguIshers
"A8" fIre extInguIshers are fIlled wIth a fIne yellow powder.
The greatest portIon of thIs powder Is composed of
monoammonIum phosphate. The extInguIshers are pressurIzed
wIth nItrogen.
A8 extInguIshers are red. n campus, they range In sIze from
500 Cms. To 10 Kgs.
Next
Types of Fire Extinguishers Types of Fire Extinguishers
4a. 4a. 0ry hemIcal (A8) FIre ExtInguIshers
An "A8" extInguIsher wIll have a
label lIke thIs, IndIcatIng It may
be used on lass A, 8 and fIres.
Ìt Is extremely Important to IdentIfy whIch types of dry
chemIcal extInguIshers are located In your area!
You don't want to mIstakenly use a "8" extInguIsher on a
lass A fIre thInkIng that It was an "A8" extInguIsher.
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Types of Fire Extinguishers Types of Fire Extinguishers
4b. 4b. 0ry hemIcal (8) FIre ExtInguIshers
These extInguIshers are very effectIve at puttIng out class 8
E fIres.
0ry chemIcal
extInguIshers put
out fIre by
coatIng the fuel
wIth a thIn layer
of dust. ThIs
separates the fuel
from the oxygen
In the aIr.
Next
Types of Fire Extinguishers Types of Fire Extinguishers
4b. 4b. 0ry hemIcal (8) FIre ExtInguIshers
0ry chemIcal extInguIshers wIth
powder desIgned for lass 8 and fIres
("8" extInguIshers) may be located In
places such as commercIal kItchens and
areas wIth flammable lIquIds.
n campus, you wIll fInd A8's E 8's In publIc hallways of
new buIldIngs, In laboratorIes, break rooms, offIces,
chemIcal storage areas, mechanIcal rooms, UnIversIty
vehIcles, etc.
Next
Types of Fire Extinguishers Types of Fire Extinguishers
4b. 4b. 0ry hemIcal (8) FIre ExtInguIshers
You may see them labeled:
- 0ry hemIcal Powder
- A8 (can be used on lass A, 8, or fIres)
- 8 (desIgned for use on lass 8 and fIres)
0ry chemIcal powder extInguIshers come In a
varIety of types.
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Types of Fire Extinguishers Types of Fire Extinguishers
ow to Use a Fire Extinguisher ow to Use a Fire Extinguisher
Ìt's easy to remember how to use a fIre
extInguIsher If you remember the acronym
!ASS:
!!uII
A AIm
S Squeeze
S Sweep
Next
!!uII the pIn or safety cIIp.
ThIs ThIs wIII wIII aIIow aIIow
you you to to dIscharge dIscharge
the the extInguIsher extInguIsher
Next
ow to Use a Fire Extinguisher ow to Use a Fire Extinguisher
A AIm at the base of the fIre.
HIt the fueI. HIt the fueI.
If you aIm at the If you aIm at the
fIames... fIames...
. the extInguIshIng agent wIII fIy rIght
through and do no good.
Next
ow to Use a Fire Extinguisher ow to Use a Fire Extinguisher
S Squeeze, rotate or hIt the top
of the handIe.
ThIs depresses a pIn ThIs depresses a pIn
that reIeases the that reIeases the
pressurIzed pressurIzed
extInguIshIng agent. extInguIshIng agent.
Next
ow to Use a Fire Extinguisher ow to Use a Fire Extinguisher
S Sweep from sIde to sIde.
.. untII the fIre Is .. untII the fIre Is
compIeteIy out. compIeteIy out.
Start usIng the extInguIsher
from a safe dIstance away,
then slowly move forward.
nce the fIre Is out, keep an eye on the area In case
It re·IgnItes.
Next
ow to Use a Fire Extinguisher ow to Use a Fire Extinguisher
#uIes for Fighting Fires #uIes for Fighting Fires
FIres can be very dangerous and you should always be
certaIn that you wIll not endanger yourself or others
when attemptIng to put out a fIre.
For thIs reason, when a fIre Is dIscovered.
1. AssIst any person In ImmedIate danger to safety, If It
can be accomplIshed wIthout rIsk to yourself.
2. all 101 or actIvate the buIldIng fIre alarm. The fIre
alarm wIll notIfy the fIre department and other buIldIng
occupants and shut off the aIr handlIng (A.) system to
prevent the spread of smoke.
Ìf the fIre Is small (and nly after havIng done these
2 thIngs), you may attempt to use an extInguIsher to
put It out. However However . . . . . . . .
Next
. . . before decIdIng to fIght the fIre, keep
these thIngs In mInd:
1. Know what Is burnIng. Ìf you don't know what's
burnIng, you won't know what kInd of extInguIsher to
use.
2. Even If you have an A8 fIre extInguIsher, there may be
somethIng In the fIre that Is goIng to explode or
produce toxIc fumes.
hances are you wIll know what's burnIng, or at least
have a pretty good Idea, but If you don't, let the fIre
department handle It.
Next
#uIes for Fighting Fires #uIes for Fighting Fires
. . . before decIdIng to fIght the fIre, keep
these thIngs In mInd:
3. Is the fIre spreadIng rapIdly beyond the poInt where It
started: The tIme to use an extInguIsher Is at the
begInnIng stages of the fIre.
4. Ìf the fIre Is already spreadIng quIckly, It Is best to
sImply evacuate the buIldIng.
As you evacuate a buIldIng, close doors and wIndows
behInd you as you leave. ThIs wIll help to slow the
spread of smoke and fIre. hake sure that No one Is
Ieft InsIde before you cIose the doors.
Next
#uIes for Fighting Fires #uIes for Fighting Fires
o not fIght the fIre If:
You don't have adequate or approprIate equIpment.
Ìf you don't have the correct type or large enough
extInguIsher, It Is best not to try fIghtIng the fIre.
You mIght InhaIe toxIc smoke. When synthetIc
materIals such as the nylon In carpetIng or foam
paddIng In a sofa burn, they can produce hydrogen
cyanIde and ammonIa In addItIon to carbon monoxIde.
These gases can be fatal In very small amounts.
Your InstIncts teII you not to. Ìf you are
uncomfortable wIth the sItuatIon for any reason, just
let the fIre department do theIr job.
Next
#uIes for Fighting Fires #uIes for Fighting Fires
The fInaI ruIe Is to aIways posItIon yourseIf wIth an exIt
or means of escape at your back before you attempt to
use an extInguIsher to put out a fIre.
In case the extInguIsher maIfunctIons, or somethIng
unexpected happens, you need to be abIe to get out quIckIy.
You don't want to become trapped.
Next
#uIes for Fighting Fires #uIes for Fighting Fires
ur Message To Industries ur Message To Industries
Fire safety shouId not remain as a sIogan, management must Iook into it. Fire
Safety makes sense from the point of view of economics as weII for the heaIthy
environment. AII deveIoped countries have found that it is more viabIe to instaII
Fire Fighting & Safety Systems rather than to bear the Iosses due to Fire.
ur survey reveaIed that effective use of weII maintained Fire Fighting & Safety
Equipments resuIted into saving hundreds of uman Lives as weII as !roperty
worth Crores of rupees. Every organization can save by going through the
Statutory Fire Safety Audit & FoIIowing proper procedure & recommendations for
the instaIIation of totaI Safety equipments. This shaII Minimize Fire Iosses & you
shaII continue your operation with totaI safety of your man & materiaI.
AII companies must organize workshops for their respective dept personneI's
with the competent authorities. This way they can heIp to save the company from
Fire Iosses & !recious Life, uItimateIy resuIting in saving huge amount for the
industry as a whoIe.
Next
This !resentation is copyrighted © & #eproduction /
#edistribution without
Company's Name/Logo wiII be prosecuted under the
copyright's Act of India.
Exit

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