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Physico-Chemical Properties of Oil Extracted from Custard Apple (Annona Squamosha) Seeds

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Abstract
In this study n-hexane, Acetone, Methanol and Benzene were used as solvent to extract the custard apple seeds oil in a batch extraction process. Physico- chemical properties and chemical composition of the oil were determined by standard methods. It was remarkable that no high differences were observed in all physico-chemical properties in the four oil sample obtained by extraction using different solvent. The oil was characterized by non-edible, high Oleic Acid (48.68 wt %) and Linoleic Acid (24.69 wt%) as well as pleasant odor and having toxic principle. This oil contains bioactive annonaceous acetogenin Tetrahydrofuranoid fatty acid lactone (THFFAL) that can be used as bio-pesticide against a number of common pests. Therefore the present study recommended using this oil as eco-friendly bio-pesticide an alternative to the synthetic pesticide. Key words: Custard apple seeds, solvent, extraction, oil, physico-chemical properties, composition and bioactive acetogenins. *Corresponding author

Introduction: Custard apple  1,2  (Annona Squamosha) is one of the finest fruits introduced
in India from tropical America. It is also found in wild form in many parts of India. It is cultivated in Andhrapradeh, Maharastra, Karnataka, Bihar, Orissa and Tamilnadu.It is a medium sized tree, up to 4m high. It grows  3,4  well even in fertile, marginal, poor and rocky soil. It prefers a warm and dry climate and also dislikes water logging.It is reported that the pulp of the fruits apart from direct consumption is used in preparation of drink, 5-7 ice cream and fermentation for liquor preparation. The seeds are so hard that they may be swallowed whole with no ill effects but the kernel is very toxic  8-10 . The seeds, leaves and young fruits are insecticidal. The leaf juice kills lice. The bark contains 0.12 wt% anonaine that can cause paralysis. Sap from cut branches is acrid and irritant and can cause severely injure to the eyes. According to an estimate  11 made by Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) custard apple trees are grown in about 40,000 hectares and can yield about 4 lakh tonnes seeds. This in turn can yields 1.12 lakh tonnes fatty oil. Skdar D.C. et al  12  studied the transesterification of custard apple seeds oil. They have reported the various physico-chemical properties of custard apple seeds oil as well as methyl ester of custard apple seeds oil. Previous work done by the authors  13 , has concentrated on custard apple seeds oil recovery using n-hexane as solvent. The effect of different parameters such as time, temperature, particle size, mixing speed and solvent to solid ratio were investigated. They have reported custard apple seeds kernel contains maximum of 40 wt% oil. They have also reported the various physicochemical properties of the oil. The objective of this work is to investigate the physico-chemical properties and chemical composition of different oil sample extracted using different solvent. The further objective of this work is to investigate the bioactive component 14  present in the oil which is responsible to act as bio-pesticide.

Experimental: Materials and Chemical: Custard apple seeds were collected from the farm land of Acharya
Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad. Chemicals n-hexane, Acetone, Methanol and Benzene were provided by s.d. fine chemical Ltd. Mumbai, India. All the chemicals were over 99% pure and analytical grades. They were used as received without further purification.

Experimental Setup: The experimental apparatus used to carry out oil extraction from
custard apple seeds consists of a cell that contains the two necked flat bottom flask, seed kernel solvent mixture, thermometer pocket, thermometer, vertical condenser and magnetic stirrer cum heater. The complete experimental set-up is shown in Fig.1.

Experimental Procedure: The required amounts of custard seeds kernel of particle size
0.462 mm was placed in the apparatus to perform the oil extraction at operating temperature 65 0C by regulating the power supply through magnetic stirrer cum heater. A fixed quantity of solvent in the ratio of 15ml/g is added to the kernel. The magnetic stirrer was turned on at 1200

RPM and solvent kernel mixture was stirred vigorously. The extraction process was carried on for 4 hours with continuous stirring. The sample was then filtered to separate out the kernel residue. For each samples custard seeds oil was separated from the solvent by vacuum distillation. The operating parameters solvent were changed one at a time keeping the other parameters constant in the following order n-hexane, Acetone, Methanol and Benzene. Various physico-chemical properties, composition and bioactive acetogenin of the oil were determined.

Results & Discussions: Physical Properties of Custard Apple Seeds Oil: Physical properties of oil extracted
from custard apple seeds using different solvents n-hexane, Acetone, Methanol and Benzene were determined by standards methods. The analytical results are shown in Table1. The results show that the physical properties of the custard apple seeds oil extracted using n-hexane as solvent is comparable to the oil extracted using Acetone, Methanol and Benzene as solvent. However, there is a little difference in the properties of pour point and slightly higher difference in case of kinematics viscosity and flash point.

Chemical Properties of Custard Apple Seeds Oil: Quality of oil expressed in terms of
chemical properties such as Acid value, Iodine value, Calorific value, Saopnification value and un Saponifiable matter. These properties of crude custard apple seeds oil extracted using different solvent (without further treatment) were determined as per Bureau of Indian Standard. The analytical results are shown in Table2. It is seen from the table that the chemical properties of oil extracted using n-hexane is comparable with the properties of oil extracted using other solvent.

Composition of Custard Apple Seeds Oil: The fatty acid composition of custard apple
seeds oil were analyzed by Gas Chromatogram (GC). The different peaks on the Chromatogram correspond to different component of the oil sample and the area under the peaks indicates the percentage composition of the fatty acids. The calculated fatty acids composition of oil extracted using different solvents n-hexane, Acetone, Methanol and Benzene are given in Table3. This table shows that the major fatty acids in custard seeds oil are Oleic acid, Linoleic acid, Palmitic acid, Stearic acid and Linolenic acid. In addition to these acids traces of Lauric acid, Caprillic acid, Caproic acid, Myristic acid and Capric acid are also present.

Bioactive Acetogenins: The Bioactive Acetogenin present in custard apple seeds oil was
analyzed by standard method. It was found that amount of BAA present in the oil varies from 0.02 to 0.08 (wt %). The BAA consists of C 35 or C 37 is presumably derived from C 32 or C 34 fatty acids combined with two propanol units. They are further characterized by a central poly oxygenated core comprising one, two or three Tetrahydrofuran rings along with a number of flaking hydroxyl groups.

Conclusions: The experimental results indicate that the custard apple seeds oil can be
extracted using any suitable solvent. The physico-chemical properties and composition of the oil extracted using

different solvents are comparable. This oil is non-edible and it contains 0.02 to 0.08 wt% bioactive acetogenin (BAA). Therefore the present study recommended to use this oil as ecofriendly bio-pesticide an alternative to the highly dangerous synthetic pesticide.

Acknowledgement: The authors would like to express their gratitude to Karnataka State
Council of Science and Technology, Bangalore, India for providing financial support. The authors would also like to thanks to Dr.Hemachandra Sagar, Chairman and Dr.Premachandra Sagar, vice-Chairman of Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Bangalore for providing moral encouragement during the course of investigation.

References:
1. Bose T.K. and Mitra S.K., Fruits Tropical and Subtropical, Custard Apples, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, (1990). 2. Sadhu M.K. and Gosh S.K., Indian Agriculture, 20, (1976), 297. 3.Paramanik D.K. and Bose T.K., South Indian Horticulture, 22, (1974), 117. 4. Choudhary A.S., Singh G.N. and Singh A.R., Indian J. Agric. Res., 19, (1985), 90. 5. Gazit S., Galon J. and Podoler H., J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 107, (1982), 849. 6. Ranjit S., and Chowdhury B., Fruits and vegetable, National Book Trust, New Delhi, India, (1969). 7. Dhua R.S., Mitra S.K. and Sen S.K., Proc. Nat. Sem. On Plant Propagation, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswvidyalaya, Kalyani, (1982), 54. 8. Edwin L.H., Fruits in the Home Garden, Custard Apple. Department of Primary Industries, Queensland, (1994).

9. Sikdar D.C. and Rao Y.J., Better Yield with Less Spray of Bio-pesticide, Agro-Bios News Letter, Vol.3, (2005), 15. 10. Sikdar D.C., CASK an Effective Bio-pesticide, J. Indian Chemical Engineers, Vol.47/No.1, (2005), 62. 11. Sham S., Krishnamurthy S. and Katyal S.L., Fruits in India, The Custard Apple and Allied Fruits, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, (1963)

12. Sikdar D.C., Lahiri B.L., Ranjini R., Renu D.K., Zaveri and Rao Y.J., Studies on Tranesterification of Custard Apple (Annona Squamosha) Seeds Oil, The Chemical Engineering World, (in Press), (2007). 13. Sikdar D.C. and Rao Y.J., Extraction of Eco-friendly Bio-pesticide from Custard Apple Seeds and its Evaluation on Pests, Proceeding of International Conference on Resource Utilization and Intelligent System, Kongu, Erode,Vol.I, (2006), 344. 14. Romano V.A.O., Bas G., Jeroen V.H., Mark H., Claudia W., Robert F.S., Sandra F.M. and Kurt F., Biomimetic Approach to the Stereo selective Synthesis of Acetogenin, Pure Appl. Chem. Vol.75, No.2-3, (2003), 259.

Table1.Physical Properties of Custard Seeds Oil Custard Seeds Oil Extracted Extracted

Physical Properties

Extracted

Extracted

Using n-hexane Using Acetone Using Methanol Using Benzene As Solvent As Solvent As Solvent As Solvent

Density

908.8

908.8

908.9

908.9

@ 25 0C (kg/m3) Viscosity

36.5

36.4

37.1

36.8

@ 25 0C (CP) Kinematics Viscosity 40.50 @25 0C (C St) Water Content (Vol. %) Flash Point (0 C) Pour point (0 C) Energy Content (MJ/Kg) Carbon Residue (wt %) Ash (wt %) Odor Color

41.0

42.4

42.10

0.006

0.008

0.019

0.013

316 -10 39.06

317 -10 38.86

317 -9 39.32

318 -9 39.41

4.02

4.16

4.08

4.22

0.01 Pleasant Brown

0.01 Pleasant Brown

0.01 Pleasant Dark Brown

0.01 Pleasant Dark Brown

Table2.Chemical Properties of Custard Seeds Oil Custard Seeds Oil Extracted Extracted

Chemical Properties

Extracted

Extracted

Using n-hexane Using Acetone Using Methanol Using Benzene As Solvent As Solvent As Solvent As Solvent

Acid Value (mg KOH/g) Iodine Value Calorific Value (MJ/Kg) Saponification Value Un Saponifiable Matter (wt%)

0.326

0.322

0.324

0.324

138 39.06

137 38.92

137 38.96

137 38.86

195 1.62

195 1.64

195 1.62

195 1.63

Table3.Composition of Custard seeds oil Weight Percentage Oil extracted Oil extracted

Fatty Acids

Oil extracted

Oil extracted

Using n-hexane Using Acetone Using Methanol Using Benzene As Solvent As Solvent As Solvent As Solvent

Caproic Acid Caprillic Acid Capric acid Lauric acid Myristic Acid Palmitic acid Stearic Acid Oleic Acid Linoleic Acid Linolenic Acid

00.0354 00.0539 00.0271 00.2533 00.0327 16.2472 10.3061 47.9040 24.3140 00.8263

00.0691 00.0358 00.0672 00.3276 00.0202 15.7856 10.0081 48.0541 24.6902 00.9421

00.0274 00.0258 00.0864 00.2295 00.0277 15.8603 12.5703 48.0786 22.7639 00.3301

00.0970 Nil Nil 00.2925 Nil 15.6638 12.2050 48.6876 22.9636 00.0905