You are on page 1of 18

Soalan 1 : Berikan maksud sistem kardiovaskular?

Jawapan: Merupakan satu sistem yg menyokong sistem2 lain b'fungsi dgn b'kesan dan berperanan m'angkut Oksigen, nutrien, hormon dan keperluan lain kpd sel2 yg t'libat serta m'bawa keluar sisa2 metabolisme utk dikumuh Soalan 2 : Nyatakan komponen-komponen utama sistem kardiovaskular? Jawapan : Jantung, darah dan salur darah Soalan 3 : Senaraikan fungsi2 sistem kardiovaskular? Jawapan : (a)Menghantar Oksigen ke sel2 dlm badan (b)Mengeluarkan Karbon dioksida (c)Menghalang berlaku dehidrasi dlm tubuh badan (d)Mengekalkan suhu dalam bdn (e) Mengangkut sel-sel, hormon dan nutrien
Autoregulasi Aliran darah yang menuju ke otak lebih tinggi dibandingkan ke organ lain, meskipun demikian, hal tersebut hanya sekitar ± 2% dari berat badan, dan otak menerima sekitar 1520% dari cardiac output. Hubungan antara aliran darah serebral (ADS) dan tekanan darah telah diteliti secara luas. Tahanan perfusi yang melewati otak disebut sebagai tekanan perfusi serebral (TPS) yaitu selisih antara tekanan rata-rata arteri (tekanan darah arterial sistemik) dengan tahanan vena serebral (TVS) atau resistensi intrakranial (RIK); dimana TVS dan RIK lebih tinggi dari tekanan rata-rata arteri (TRA). Meskipun TRA mendekati nilai TPS pada saat RIK normal, namun saat RIK meningkat, maka secara signifikan TPS dapat menjadi lebih rendah dari TRA. Autoregulasi aliran darah merupakan mekanisme regulasi untuk tetap mempertahankan aliran darah supaya tetap konstan, walaupun tekanan perfusi berubah-ubah. Dengan demikian, pada keadaan di bawah normal, aliran darah serebral tetap konstan berada di atas batas dari TPS (60-150 mmHg) sebagai hasil dari timbal balik perubahan pada CVR. Jika TPS lebih tinggi atau lebih rendah dari batas tersebut, maka ADS menjadi sebanding dengan tekanan/tahanan perfusi. Jika batas atas autoregulasi terlampaui, maka hal ini dapat menyebabkan vasodilatasi ekstrim yang mengakibatkan terjadinya kerusakan barier darah otak dan oedema serebral. Jika batas bawah autoregulasi terlampaui, maka terjadi penurunan TPS yang mengakibatkan penurunan ADS. Pada saat TPS mengalami penurunan maka pembuluh darah serebral merespon dengan memperbesar tahanan arteriol supaya ADS tetap konstan dan memelihara distribusi oksigen serta nutrisi. Sebaliknya, pada saat TPS meningkat, maka tahanan pembuluh darah akan konstriksi untuk menjaga ADS tetap pada keadaan stabil. Batas autoregulasi ditentukan oleh vasokonstriksi dan vasodilatasi ekstrim dari tahanan arteriol (2). Ketika batas bawah autoregulasi terlampaui, maka ADS menjadi turun. Otak merespon penurunan ADS tersebut dengan meningkatkan konsentrasi turunan oksigen, sehingga dengan demikian metabolisme oksigen serebral tetap terpelihara dalam kondisi normal (3). Fraksi turunan oksigen tersebut dapat meningkat sekitar 30-50% dari nilai normalnya, bahkan dapat lebih dari 80%. (Lihat gambar). Peningkatan kadar turunan oksigen tersebut bermanifestasi berupa pelebaran selisih kadar oksigen (a-vDO2) antara arteri dan vena atau pengurangan saturasi oksigen pada vena jugularis. Peningkatan fraksi turunan oksigen (FTO) atau pelebaran a-vDO2 merupakan suatu penanda tidak adequatnya aliran darah (penghantaran oksigen) secara relatif ke jaringan yang membutuhkan (pemakaian oksigen) yang juga dikenal sebagai laju metabolik tak sebanding. Pada suatu waktu kedua kapasitas autoregulasi dan respon FTO ini menjadi letih

blood flow initially falls. blood flow (F) falls because of the following relationship between pressure. by partially occluding the arterial supply to the organ).. PA-PV) initially decreases. For example. When perfusion pressure (arterial minus venous pressure. Regulasi aliran darah berlaku melalui pengembangan (vasodilation) dan pengecutan (vasoconstriction) aliran darah. PH yang rendah dan juga kecederaan.g. Autoregulation is a manifestation of local blood flow regulation. flow and resistance: Autoregulasi ialah keupayaan intrinsik (dalaman) sesuatu organ untuk mengekalkan peredaran darah yang tetap (constant) walaupun terdapat perubahan tekanan di dalam sel. Vasolidation ini terjadi kerana pengambilan dan pembuangan oksigen dan juga karbon dioksida. . This autoregulatory response occurs in the absence of neural and hormonal influences and therefore is intrinsic to the organ. Tergantung pada derajat dan lamanya iskemia yang terjadi. It is defined as the intrinsic ability of an organ to maintain a constant blood flow despite changes in perfusion pressure.dan kehabisan tenaga maka terjadi iskemia dan laju metabolik mulai mengalami penurunan. maka akan terjadi infark jaringan yang menetap. then returns toward normal levels over the next few minutes. if perfusion pressure is decreased to an organ (e.

After a few minutes. . the flow will fall more than the 30% fall in perfusion pressure because of passive constriction as the intravascular pressure falls. If a vascular bed has a high degree of autoregulation (e. In a passive vascular bed. myogenic and endothelial mechanisms are responsible for this vasodilation.red line). then the new steady-state flow may be very close to normal despite the reduced perfusion pressure. the flow will gradually increase (red line) over the next few minutes as the vasculature dilates (resistance decreases . kehadiran bahan-bahan kimia dalam tubuh dan respons terhadap aktiviti tubuh (senaman. Proses ini biasanya berlaku pada cabang-cabang artioles.Vasoconstriction pula terjadi kerana perubahan suhu. arterial resistance (R) falls as the resistance vessels (small arteries and arterioles) dilate. one that does not show autoregulation.g. If a vascular bed is capable of undergoing autoregulatory behavior. brain and coronary circulations). which is represented by a slight increase in resistance in the passive vascular bed. the flow will achieve a new steady-state level. As resistance decreases. When blood flow falls. penghadaman). The figure to the right shows the effects of suddenly reducing perfusion pressure from 100 to 70 mmHg. In fact.. that is. Many studies suggest that that metabolic. this will result in a rapid and sustained fall in blood flow. blood flow increases despite the presence of reduced perfusion pressure. then after the initial fall in perfusion pressure and flow.

The renal.If an organ is subjected to an experimental study in which perfusion pressure is both increased and decreased over a wide range of pressures. the curve labeled "Dilated" is generated as perfusion pressure is changed. this upper limit is seldom reached physiologically. depending upon the organ. manakala regulasi cutaneous menunjukkan sedikit atau tiada autoregulasi. many organs will display autoregulation as the perfusion pressure is reduced. If a vasodilator drug is infused into an organ so that it is maximally dilated and incapable of autoregulatory behavior. This perfusion pressure.e. however. there will be a range of perfusion pressures (i. There is an upper limit to the autoregulatory range. and peripheral arterial disease. then the relationship between steady-state flow and perfusion pressure can be plotted as shown in the figure to the right. The "Constricted" curve represents the pressureflow relationship when the vasculature is maximally constricted and when autoregulation is not present. cerebral. hence. and the steady-state autoregulatory flow response measured. and coronary circulations show excellent autoregulation. When this occurs. This has clinical implications in coronary. Otot rangka pula menunjukkan darjah autoregulasi yang sederhana. Organ-organ yang berlainan memerlukan kadar autoregulasi yang berbeza. may be between 50-70 mmHg. where proximal narrowing (stenosis) of vessels may reduce distal pressures below the autoregulatory range. Different organs display varying degrees of autoregulatory behavior.. The red line represents the autoregulatory responses in which flow changes relatively little despite a large change in perfusion pressure. . The cutaneous circulation shows little or no autoregulatory capacity. celebral dan pengaliran kolonari menunjukkan darjah autoregulasi yang tinggi. Below this perfusion pressure. blood flow decreases passively in response to further reductions in perfusion pressure. When the vasculature is not maximally dilated. the distal vessels will be maximally dilated and further reductions in pressure will lead to reductions in flow. cerebral. This figure also shows that there is a pressure below which an organ is incapable of autoregulating its flow because it is maximally dilated. thereby reducing resistance to flow. It is non-linear because blood vessels passively dilate with increasing pressures. Renal. autoregulatory range) where flow may not decrease appreciably as perfusion pressure is reduced. whereas skeletal muscle and splanchnic circulations show moderate autoregulation.

thereby leading to tissue hypoxia and organ dysfunction. or partial occlusion with a thrombus) this can result in an autoregulatory response. Perfusion of these organs (especially the latter two) is essential for life. This autoregulation is particularly important in organs such as the brain and heart in which partial occlusion of large arteries can lead to significant reductions in oxygen delivery.g. therefore. Autoregulasi yang baik ialah di antara 60-200 mmHG tekanan perfusion. Hal ini boleh mengakibatkan kelumpuhan pada organ penting tubuh badan.. Autoregulation. it is most clearly observed in the kidney. yet autoregulation is very important. atherosclerotic narrowing of lumen. despite baroreceptor reflexes that constrict much of the systemic vasculature. which are the primary vessels for regulating blood flow within an organ. . oxygen) where it is most needed. Autoregulation is a process within many biological systems. Good autoregulation between 60 and 200 mmHg perfusion pressure helps to maintain normal coronary blood flow whenever coronary perfusion pressure changes due to changes in aortic pressure. Whenever a distributing artery to an organ becomes narrowed (e. can lead to autoregulatory responses in certain organs. Autoregulasi penting pada organ seperti otak dan jantung di mana sekatan/gangguan pada arteri boleh menyebabkan kekurangan oksigen yang mendadak. and through autoregulation the body can divert blood (and thus. as occurs for example with hypotension caused by hypovolemia or circulatory shock. vasospasm. and the brain. ensures that these critical organs have an adequate blood flow and oxygen delivery. resulting from some internal adaptive mechanism that works to adjust (or mitigate) the systems response to stimuli. There are situations in which arterial pressure does not change. This results in a reduced pressure at the level of smaller arteries and arterioles. [1] the heart.Under what conditions does autoregulation occur and why is it important? A change in systemic arterial pressure. Narrowing (see stenosis) of distributing arteries increases their resistance and hence the pressure drop along their length. These resistance vessels dilate in response to reduced pressure and blood flow. In hypotension. blood flow to the brain and myocardium does not decline appreciably (unless the arterial pressure falls below the autoregulatory range) because of the strong capacity of these organs to autoregulate. While most systems of the body show some degree of autoregulation.

to varying degree. This is termed local or intrinsic regulation of blood flow. Some mechanisms originate from within blood vessels (e.g. their own blood supply in order to meet their metabolic and functional needs. . arachidonic acid metabolites. The tissue mechanisms are linked to tissue metabolism or other biochemical pathways (e. iaitu titik kardiak dan titik vasomotor bertanggungjawab untuk memantau dan mengawal aktiviti kardiovaskular. Tissues and organs within the body are able to intrinsically regulate. Keupayaan ini dikenali sebagai peredaran darah secara asli (local) atau dalaman.Kawalan neutral Dua titik di antara medulla oblongata.. Tisu dan organ di dalam tubuh badan berkeupayaan melakukan regulasi peredaran darah secara dalaman (intrinsik) untuk mendapatkan kadar metabolik dan keperluan merekan. myogenic and endothelial factors).g. Several mechanisms are responsible for local blood flow regulation. whereas others originate from the surrounding tissue. histamine and bradykinin)..

perfused organs having no neural or hormonal influences. pressurized blood vessels. Myogenic behavior has not been clearly identified in all vascular beds. Therefore. they can be demonstrated in isolated. Peredaran secara dalaman/asli ini tidak bergantung kepada faktor luaran seperti kehadiran hormon. Myogenic mechanisms are intrinsic to the smooth muscle blood vessels. and may be present to a small degree in skeletal muscle. The myogenic mechanism may play a role in autoregulation of blood flow and in reactive hyperemia. the balance between local regulatory mechanisms and extrinsic factors in vivo determines thevascular tone and therefore the blood flow within the tissue. the vessel responds by constricting. Diminishing pressure within the vessel causes relaxation and vasodilation. This response is observed in vivo and in isolated. If the pressure within a vessel is suddenly increased. Ultimately.Mekanisme-mekanisme yang bertanggungjawab dalam peredaran darah secara dalaman ini terbahagi kepada dua : a) Mekanisme yang berasal dari dalam pembuluh darah b) Mekanisme yang berasal daripada tisu-tisu berhampiran Local regulatory mechanisms act independently of extrinsic control mechanisms such as sympathetic nerves and circulating hormones. particularly in small arteries and arterioles. Examples of local regulation of blood flow include the following: autoregulation active hyperemia reactive hyperemia.      . but it has been noted in the splanchnic and renal circulations.

Hypoxia-induced vasodilation may be direct (inadequate O2 to sustain smooth muscle contraction) or indirect via the production of vasodilator metabolites.   Tissue Metabolites and Ions: Adenosine is formed from cellular AMP acted upon by 5'-nucleotidase. These metabolic mechanisms ensure that the tissue is adequately supplied by oxygen and that products of metabolism (e. Like CO2. especially if the latter is accompanied by inadequate oxygen delivery. leads to an increase in blood flow (active hyperemia). Lactic acid. however. particularly in the cerebral circulation. Stretching also increases the rate of smooth muscle pacemaker cells that spontaneously undergo depolarization and repolarization. because with each action potential K+. hypoxic vasoconstriction). there is a time lag) during muscle contractions and this causes K+ to accumulate in the extracellular space. leaves the cell. Another mechanism that may couple blood flow and metabolism involves changes in the partial pressure of oxygen. which likely involves the formation of reactive oxygen species. CO2 plays a significant role in regulating cerebral blood flow. Extracellular K+ increases when there is an increase in action potential frequency. the Na+/K+ATPase pump is able to restore the ionic gradients. Adenosine formation is a particularly important mechanism for regulating coronary blood flow. although in large part because of its pH effect..e. This is termed the metabolic theory of blood flow regulation. a product of anaerobic metabolism. lactate) are removed.     Electrophysiological studies have shown that vascular smooth muscle cells depolarize when stretched. that hypoxia induces vasoconstriction in the pulmonary circulation (i. Normally. Potassium ion appears to play a significant role in causing active hyperemia in contracting skeletal muscle. Carbon dioxide formation increases during states of increased oxidative metabolism... There is considerable evidence that actively metabolizing cells surrounding arterioles release vasoactive substances that cause vasodilation. as occurs during muscle contraction or during changes in neuronal activity in the brain.e.     . The AMP is derived from hydrolysis of intracellular ATP and ADP.g. the pump does not keep up with rapid depolarizations (i. Increases or decreases in metabolism lead to increases or decreases in the release of these vasodilator substances. For example. It readily diffuses from parenchymal cells in which it is produced to the vascular smooth muscle of blood vessels where it causes vasodilation. Note. Blood flow is closely coupled to tissue metabolic activity in most organs of the body. is a vasodilator. CO2. increased H+ (decreased pH) causes vasodilation. Adenosine formation increases during hypoxia and increased oxygen consumption. Small increases in extracellular K+produces hyperpolarization of vascular smooth muscle and relaxation through stimulation of the electrogenicNa+/K+-ATPase pump and increasing membrane conductance to K+ (K+ activated K+ channels). however. endothelin-1 or products of arachidonic acid metabolism. an increase in tissue metabolism. leading to contraction. which can produce metabolic acidosis. Potassium ion is released by contracting cardiac and skeletal muscle. H+. Several different mechanisms that may be involved in the metabolic regulation of blood flow are summarized below: Hypoxia: Decreased tissue pO2 resulting from reduced oxygen supply or increased oxygen demand causes vasodilation. Hydrogen ion increases when CO2 increases or during states of increased anaerobic metabolism.

Kemoresptor. Kemoreseptor dan pusat kontrol tertinggi diotak juga mempengaruhi mekanisme kontrol saraf. Dua mekanisme yang dilakukan adalah mempengaruhi distribusi darah dan mempengaruhi diameter pembuluh darah. heart failure. Hormon REGULASI TEKANAN DARAH 1. CO2. There is a drug called as Beta-blocker.Kemoreseptor dipengaruhi oleh kandungan O2. Umumnya kontrol sistem saraf terhadap tekanan darah melibatkan: baroreseptor dan serabut2 aferennya. pusat vasomotor dimedula oblongata serta serabut2 vasomotor dan otot polos pembuluh darah. or kidney failure. People who sleep late in night and then having problem to awake in morning. berlokasi pada sinus karotikus dan arkus aorta. 2. Melatonin has daily rhythm. Blood pressure rise from normal level to higher cause hypertension or high blood pressure. Hormon yang mempengaruhi: epinefrin dan norepinefrin. vivid dreams etc due to which because reducing the attention and mentally balance disturb. this give to rise sleep-wake cycle. Beta-blocker helps to improve trouble in sleep. Side effect of Melatonin cause drowsiness. Beta-blocker drug is use to improve the melatonin hormonal level due to which a patient of hypertension sleep is improve. Pineal gland in brain release a hormone related to serotonin. It may have some vasodilatory activity in contracting skeletal muscle. Melatonin is safe to use under . Pusat Vasomotor mempengaruhi diameter pembuluh darah dengan mengeluarkan epinefrin sebagai vasokonstriktor kuat. ADH. it can cause many diseases like heart attack. Risk of blood clotting is also increase due to Melatonin hormone reduces.Baroresptor dipengaruhi oleh perubahan tekanan darah pembuluh arteri. headache. which cause change in the skin. For cardiovascular regulation melatonin play important role to maintain the rhythm of the body. Baroresptor. regarded sleep or wake in generative cycles in mammals. sejumlah kimia darah juga membantu regulasi tekanan darah melalui refleks kemoreseptor yang akan dibawa ke pusat vasomotor. and once blood pressure is control serious problems related to that can be controlled. atau PH darah. confusion. NO. disorder of melatonin.Kontrol Kimia Selain CO2 dan O2. berlokasi pada badan karotis dan arkus aorta. dan alkohol. angiotensin II. dan asetilkolin sebagai vasodilator. which is followed by body. Inorganic phosphate is released by the hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides. If care is not taken to hypertension. which helps in reducing blood pressure.Sistem Saraf Sistem saraf mengontrol tekanan darah dengan mempengaruhi tahanan pembuluh darah perifer. Delay in sleep cause during whole day process cause rhythm disorder. Natriuretik Atrial.

In addition. Thus. You should contact your physician. weight loss treated rats consumed about half the amount of water as did oil treated rats after ISOP. estrogen alone alters activity in hindbrain circuits governing cardiovascular reflexes. both of which are important components of a hindbrain circuit that regulates cardiovascular reflexes. estrogen and weight loss decreased Fos IR and angiotensin type 1 receptor mRNA in the subfornical organ when compared to the oil treated controls rats. Melatonin is also not suitable for mothers who are depended on breast feeding. a forebrain structure implicated in the control of angiotensin II-mediated water intake. etc. . while also controlling for body weight changes that occur as a consequence of ovariectomy and estrogen replacement. You should be careful while using melatonin should not be used for long term. estrogen significantly attenuated the depressor response to isoproterenol (ISOP) and this reduction was accompanied by an increase in HR similar to those of rats in which mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased nearly two-fold more. avoid using long term melatonin for your safety. if you should use melatonin or no. estrogen treatment significantly reduced ISOP-elicited Fos immunoreactivity (IR) in the area postrema and lateral parabrachial nucleus. which may underlie estrogenmediated attenuation of the depressor response to ISOP. In terms of fluid balance. suffering with depression. If you are over 18 years old and a healthy person. Melatonin is not made for pregnant women. both estrogen and weight loss had similar effects on the subfornical organ. Ia juga dikatakan sebagai sejenis aktiviti fizikal atau riadah yang selalunya dilakukan dalam jangka masa tertentu. working with rail road. It is not suitable for everyone. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of estrogen on cardiovascular regulation and fluid balance. In terms of cardiovascular regulation. despite similar plasma renin activity. as it can cause side effect to them. you can use melatonin. Conversely. Melatonin should not be used with heavy machinery operator like trucker. eye disease. There is possibility of damage in the retina of eye. intakes that were very similar to those of estrogen and oil treated rats in our previous study.some circumstances. suggesting that the weight loss that accompanies estrogen replacement underlies estrogen affects on angiotensin II stimulated water intake. Furthermore. Senaman PENGENALAN Senaman merupakan satu kegiatan fizikal yang menggalakkan kecergasan fizikal.

dengan ini latihan anaerobik meningkatkan keberkesanan pergerakan. LATIHAN ANAEROBIK Latihan anaerobik meningkatkan aras penolakan dan kunci enzim glycolitic. Metabolic processes speed up and more waste is created. Asid laktik merupakan hasil akhir anerobik glycolisis. Tindakbalas "lactate" darah dengan senaman dapat meramalkan dengan tepat prestasi daya tahan atlit dan telah dicadangkan sebagai kriteria pengukuran untuk daya tahan (Weltmen 1995). seperti naik tangga atau berlari mengejar bas. VO2 max pula terbatas pada pengaliran berpusat maka adalah tidak tepat untuk menggunakan indikator ini sebagai ramalan prestasi daya tahan. Below we will examine the acute or immediate response to exercise and also the longterm adaptations that take place in the cardiovascular system with repeated exercise. The cardiovascular system serves five important functions (1) during exercise: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Delivers oxygen to working muscles Oxygenates blood by returning it to the lungs Transports heat (a by-product of activity) from the core to the skin Delivers nutrients and fuel to active tissues Transports hormones Exercise places an increased demand on the cardiovascular system. To perform as efficiently as possible the cardiovascular system must regulate these changes and meet the bodys increasing demands (2). Kecergasan fizikal ialah keupayaan untuk melakukan kerja. Latihan anaerobik akan meningkatkan prestasi anaerobik tetapi sebaliknya keputusan peningkatan adalah lebih kepada perolehan kekuatan dari peningkatan fungsi sistem anaerobik. Ini akan menunjukkan senaman yang meningkatkan tindakbalas "lactate" darah adalah jenis senaman yang diperlukan untuk meningkatkan prestasi daya tahan. Ianya telah dihipotesiskan sebagai lebih baik dari VO2 max. Cara untuk melakukan senaman ini adalah dengan mengerjakan otot-otot besar dengan perlahanlahan bersama-sama regangan otot dan sendi secara mudah dan serta senang. Oxygen demand by the muscles increases sharply. semasa membuat prekripsi senaman. Aktiviti jenis ini biasanya diikuti dengan senaman ynag berintesiti tinggi. "Lactate" darah memberi kesan ke atas senaman merangkumi adaptasi peripheral bagi otot-otot yang khusus.berulangkali yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan tahap kecergasan dan kesihatan. During vigorous exercise this increases to 80-85% of cardiac output. Blood is shunted away from major organs . More nutrients are used and body temperature rises. Tindakbalas "lactate" darah lebih sensitif untuk menganggarkan keupayaan daya tahan. At rest 15-20% of circulating blood supplies skeletal muscle. The most important aspects of the cardiovascular system to examine include:  Heart rate  Stroke volume  Cardiac output  Blood flow  Blood pressure  Blood Blood Flow The vascular system can redistribute blood to those tissues with the greatest immediate demand and away from areas that have less demand for oxygen.

a typical systolic blood pressure in a healthy individual ranges from 110140mmHg and 60-90mmHg for diastolic blood pressure.i. Values of 480/350mmHg (9) have been reported to coincide with a Valsalva manoeuvre . Blood Pressure At rest.9% reduction in blood plasma respectively (11). The difference in oxygen content of arterial and venous blood is known as a-vO2 difference. liver. plasma volume can decrease by 1020% and by 15-20% in 1-minute bouts of exhaustive exercise (10). As exercise intensity increase the a-vO2 difference increase also and at maximal exertion the difference between arterial and venous blood oxygen concentration can be three times that at a resting level. A reduction in plasma increase the concentration of hemoglobin or hematocrit. stomach and intestines. Resistance training with 40% and 70% one repetition maximum can cause a 7. This is advice worth adhering to. It has been shown that gastrointestinal blood flow during exercise shortly after a meal is greater compared to exercising on an empty stomach (8). Blood During resting conditions the oxygen content of blood varies from about 20ml of oxygen per 100ml of arterial blood to 14ml of oxygen per 100ml of venous blood (2). . Although no extra red blood cells have been produced. the greater concentration of hemoglobin per unit of blood significantly increases the bloods oxygen carrying capacity. Blood plasma volume decreases with the onset of exercise. trying to exhale against a closed mouth.e. nose and glottis.7% and 13. It is then redirected to the skin to promote heat loss (2). healthy athletes (2). Athletes are often advised not to eat several hours before training or competition. During exercise systolic pressure. as food in the stomach will lead to competition for blood flow between the digestive system and muscles. levels during resistance exercise.such as the kidneys. During prolonged exercise. the pressure during contraction of the heart (known as systole) can increase to over 200mmHg and levels as high as 250mmHg have been reported in highly trained. Diastolic pressure on the other hand remains relatively unchanged regardless of exercise intensity. albeit brief. The increase in blood pressure and changes in intramuscular osmotic pressures force water from the vascular compartment to the interstitial space. This is one of the main adaptations during immediate acclimatization to altitude. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure can rise to high. In fact an increase of more than 15 mm Hg as exercise intensity increases can indicate coronary heart disease and is used as marker for cessing an exercise tolerance test.

When you exercise regularly there is also an increase in the number of red blood cells which the body uses to transport oxygen throughout the body. hematocrit actually reduces following training (2). How does cardiovascular fitness benefit the body? The Cardiovascular system is an intregal part of almost every part of the body. a greater production of red blood cells can also a contributory factor. the benefits of cardiovascular fitness go beyond simply strengthening the heart. However. Because blood plasma increases to a greater extent than red blood cells.Blood pH can change from a slightly alkaline 7. This is due to:  Increased number of capillaries  Greater opening of existing capillaries  More effective blood redistribution  Increased blood volume Blood Pressure Blood pressure can decrease (both systolic and diastolic pressure) at rest and during submaximal exercise by as much as 10mmHg in people with hypertension. An increase in red blood cells should increase hematocrit but this is not the case. Blood Flow Skeletal muscle receives a greater blood supply following training. it too can lead to a long-term reduction in blood pressure (17). What type of excercises strenghten the cardiovascular system? There are basically two types of excercises. Therefore. at a maximal exercise intensity systolic blood pressure is decreased compared to pretraining (15. It is interesting to note that although resistance exercises can raise systolic and diastolic blood pressure significantly during the activity.5 during all-out sprinting activity.16). appropriate forms of . Blood Volume Endurance training increase blood volume. What is the Cardiovascular system? The Cardiovascular system is the system that circulates blood throughout the body. Aerobic excercises are those which involve the larger muscles and lasts a long enough period of time to increase the bodies need for oxygen and it is this type of exercise which is essential to strenghtening the cardiovascular system. The primary organ responsible for the circulation of blood is the heart. Recall that hematocrit is the concentration of hemoglobin per unit of blood. While plasma volume accounts for the majority of the increase. There is a direct effect that this type of exercise has on the mental processes because of the increased blood flow. This is primarily due to an increased reliance on anaerobic energy systems and the accumulation oh hydrogen ions (1). It is often referred to as the circulatory system.4 at rest to as low as 6. Therefore. There are aerobic exercises and anaerobic exercises.

" allowing it to increase the efficiency with which it pumps blood around your body.80% of the maximum for a sufficient cardiovascular heart rate. the more likely you are to continue doing it. vigorous walking. One big factor in a regular workout routine is to have a workout partner or trainer. There are many who do this and never return. which helps "flush out" the bloodstream. removing troublesome products before they develop into a potential threat. The net effect of this is a reduced level of resting (and active) blood pressure. The more pleasurable the activity is. The key is to choose something that you can enjoy if at all possible. The first step is to find the upper limit of your heart rate. Getting started involves more than just excercising the first day. if you are 35 then the upper limit would be 185. it helps the cardiovascular system as well. Most trainers agree that the heart needs to reach a rate of 60% . aerobics. You can find this by taking your age and then subtracting it from 220. Blood Pressure 1. If the flow . You can envision this effect by imagining your arteries as a hose with dirt caked inside. cycling and some sports if played actively enough. Cholesterol 2. How do I know I am doing enough? There is a simple guide to determine if you are excercising hard enough. regular exercise can help win the battle against heart disease and other cardiovascular ailments. The Effects of Exercise on the Cardiovascular System By TS Jordan. eHow Contributor Regular exercise not only benefits the muscular and skeletal systems. Knowing that somebody else depends on you will greatly increase your chances of keeping your commitment. So for example. When coupled with an effective nutritional strategy. The net effect of this is a reduction in LDL cholesterol (the "bad" cholesterol). Regular exercise forces the heart to get into "shape. Regular exercise causes the rate of blood flow throughout the body to increase. Exercise trains the muscles as well as the heart.cardiovascular exercise are running. The key in getting started is to make it a part of your lifestyle and a habit. Once we have this then we can use it to determine whether we are reaching an ideal level of 60% to 80% of the upper limit. How can I get started? The problem most people have in beginning an exercise program is simply getting started.

When blood flow to muscles is regularly increased through bouts of exercise. the dirt will remain.html#ixzz1DYyzD2Y1 . Keeping your cardiovascular system in shape through exercise is the best way to lower your probability of suffering cardiac conditions. Finally. such as a heart attack or stroke.of water through the hose is minimal. Increased blood flow throughout the body has yet another benefit to your overall conditioning levels. the aforementioned benefits and increased efficiency garnered by the cardiovascular system has another tangential benefit--the reduction of the overall possibility of disease. however. Improved Recovery 3. Capillary Density Increases 4. you will sweep the dirt away. Disease Prevention 5. if you increase the flow. The body is a finely tuned machine. and exercise is the best way to provide regular maintenance. The net result of this is improved endurance during training sessions. the muscles will thereafter develop additional capillaries to better utilize the additional blood and nutrients contained therein.com http://www.com/about_5379749_effects-exercise-cardiovascularsystem. the more efficient it becomes at coping with and recovering from that stress.ehow. resulting in a more resilient body overall. The more often your heart is placed under controlled stress. The net result of this is a more rapid return to resting heart-rate levels after the cessation of exercise. Read more: The Effects of Exercise on the Cardiovascular System | eHow. Regular exercise also conditions the heart in another important way--it improves its ability to recover from stressful situations.

Merupakan komponen yang terpenting dalam profil fisiologi manusia Juga dikenali sebagai VO2max (didefinisikan sebagai kapasiti penggunaan oksigen yang maksimum oleh badan semasa melakukan aktiviti fizikal. 2. kecergasan respiratori.Pengeluar-Mengeluarkan karbon dioksida dan sisa hasil metabolism daripada setiap sel dalam badan 3. peredaran darah dan menambah kekuatan otot . arteri berwarna merah dan vena berwarna biru Fungsi Sistem Kardiovaskular 1.Penghalang-Menghalang dehidrasi dan infeksi dengan mengekalkan tahap cecair pada kadar yang sesuai. peredaran darah dan sistem respirasi. Asid lakfik menyebabkan otot dan badan berasa letih.Komponen dalam kardiovaskular terdiri daripada jantung.Sistem Kardiovaskular a. salur darah. *Sistem kardiovaskular manusia. Walau bagaimanapun. Contohnya seperti penyakit jantung.Semasa aktiviti fizikal dijalankan banyak asid lakfik akan terkumpul. Semua ini merupakan aspek kecergasan terpenting. sistem sirkulasi terbuka. Kecergasankardiova skular berkaitan dengan daya tahan kardivaskular. paru-paru.Pengekal-Membantu mengekalkan suhu dalam badan.Penghantar-Menghantar oksigen dan nutrient ke setiap sel di dalam badan melalui darah yang dipam oleh jantung. Sistem ini juga menolong menstabilkan suhu dan pH tubuh Ada tiga jenis sistem kardiovaskular. darah dan otot. 5. Huraikan mengenai system kardiovaskular Sistem kardiovaskular adalah suatu sistem organ yang berfungsi memindahkan zat ke dan dari sel. keletihan ini dapt diatasi dengan meningkatkan kecekapan jantung. Daya tahan kardiovaskular merujuk kepada keupayaan jantung dan salur darah membekalkan oksigen kepada sel-sel badan semasa aktiviti fizikal dijalankan. . 6. 4.Pengangkut-Mengangkut hormone dari kelenjar endokrin ke sel-sel sasaran melalui plasma darah. dan sistem sirkulasi tertutup. Asas kepada sebarang aktiviti fizikal juga faktor utama yang boleh mengurangkan risiko individu dari penyakit kardiovaskular. kecergasan aerobik. Jelaskan mengapa sistem ini begitu penting dalam profil seorang atlit Sistem kardiovaskular yang merangkumi denyutan jantung. tanpa sistem sirkulasi.Sistem Peredaran Darah i-Peredaran Pulmonari ii-Sistem Peredaran Sistemik b.

denyutan nadi danjenis sukan diceburi perlu dititik beratkan dalam memilih corak latihan dan masa diperlukan Latihan begini amat baik kerana mengabungkan kekuatan fizikal. daya kuasa. Didefinisikan sebagai keupayaan jantung. kaki. bahu dan lain-lain lagi. pengawalannafas. Huraikan satu kaedah latihan yang sesuai untuk melatih sistem ini Latihan di pusat gymnasium adalah antara yang terbaik untuk melatih sistem kardiovaskular. Kardiovaskular cergas meningkatkan kebolehan melakukan sebarang tugas. malah pembakaran lemak badan juga perlu dibantu dengan senaman kardiovaskular. Perenang memerlukan ketahanan kardiovaskular yang tinggi dan stabil untuk mengawal penafasan dan suhu badan didalam air. pembentukan otot tidak akan terhasil dengan mengangkat berat atau bebanan sahaja. Berikan contoh –contoh bagi menjelaskan jawapan anda dalam bahagian (b. Berkaitan dengan efisiensi dan keupayaan system kardiovaskular mengepam dan menyalurkan darah beroksigen ke seluruh tubuh secara berterusan bagi membolehkan seluruh anggota tubuh bekerja dalam tempoh masa yang panjang.) Kecerdasan fizikal untuk kemahiran dalam prestasi sukan dan permainan merujuk kepada keupayaan seseorang untuk bertanding dalam sukan dan permainan dengan mempunyai tenaga. Apabila aktiviti sukan dilakukan. Pelumba basikal jarak jauh memerlukan ketahanan kardiovaskular yang stabil sepanjang kayuhan. Pelari pecut memerlukan ketahanan kardiovaskular yang tinggi untuk masa yang singkat. Pilihbeberapa corak latihan termasuk lari setempat ataumelompat -Mulakan dengan yang tidak terlalu berat untuk menguji tahap ketahanan badan agar tidak berlaku kecederaan -Berat latihan boleh ditambah tetapi adalah lebih baik memilih untuk melakukan latihan yang agak lama. Tahap kecergasan meningkat apabila keupayaan daya tahan kardioveskular melebihi tahap purata kapasiti aerobik. ketangkasan. daya tahan. Latihan angkat berat yang berbeza mengikut bahagian badan tertumpu sama ada lengan. amat baik untuk mendapat kebaikan keseluruhan. saluran darah dan paru-paru mengedar oksigen ke otot-otot secara berterusan dalam jangka masa yang lama semasa melakukan aktiviti fizikal. Ini bermakna sistem kardiovaskular sedang digunakan. sistem rembesan peluh danmelatih agar stamina berpanjangan.penyakit hipokinetik. Kapasiti aerobik. Terlalu berat boleh memenatkan dan memendekkan masa latihan -Pilih masa untuk satu satu latihan (contohnya 2 minit untuk latihan lengan)sebelum menukar ke latihan lain (contohnya 2 minit untuk latihan kaki) dantukar pula ke lari setempat selama beberapa minit -Ulang 1-3 kali untuk melengkapkan sesi latihan -Bergantung kepada ketahanan fizikal. melatih jantung untuk menstabil denyutan.Konsep yang digunakan untuk menggambarkan status fungsi system digunakan untukmenggambarkan status fungsi system c. d. Bagi ahli sukan bina badan. penyakit lain dan kematian awal. . nadi akan menjadi pantas dan nafas lebih laju. ketrampilan serta ketepatan untuk mencapai tahap kecemerlangan.

43903941-44/.3/0.0 :73574430/007..59.8089 904380941007.034:8-44/8343.9.7 .  /110703.0-003574/:.-44/94241403507 241.907174290.90.94394 . /110703..:. .8.92..70.7907.70..425.82.'.907.3.0397.. 00794390/110703.034:8-44/403.0  44/5.3/ 70/:.9.5.0007..80. 22  ..43..8.:.80890-44/8403.08.0-09003.70.7907.2.0-0037054790/94.748249..3083 397..03403.9.:80.70850.9 %8843041902.82.70..8090.3.0397.0/ 9070..2:8.80 %03.773 .339 ..3/.2.480/24:9 3480.708930..2.0   70/:.3/ 430705099432.0.03.8090.3/ 4998   44/ :7370893.3.84.9..340:...94.3/.-4:9 241 403507 241..943410244-34702.0  8007.9433-44/5.79  94:34097.94335.80   #0889.0397.43./.99:/0  ..0.7081742. .43/943890403.3/-  3 23:90 -4:98410./09 .80-  .79203994903907899.70/-44/.389.3 -0970092089.57088:708 147.2:2.943.82.3/.097.  .4:20/0.3.43.82. 85..43903941.803 -44/57088:70.70  0 973940.9438/:73220/.3/.70..80  5.034:8-44/  %0/110703....94341 0244-3507:3941-44/831.70.393.43.803903893.8.:89.4:20.7907.70.

97089.70.80-.803903898894.894.557457. .84.:.:..2.007.898.808.08.70..007.907574/:.3/.80-44/.3//.709480.7889028.8.89.:..08144397.890.70.70.803903:2-074170/-44/.80.843902039.2:8../61 %0.3/.90110.0884:/3.8.7 90708.:80-44/5.4:20  44/!7088:70 44/57088:70.7/4.7941..385479403974:4:990-4/  .9.0.747.94:70889.07  .3.3/90.94788902 %0572.08.808 %070.3.70.-44/57088:708/0.43034:5074/41920943../94.3 7085438-014790.30.370/-44/.47941903..:2:.943410244-3507:39 41-44/ 33.99895041007.9 9944.30 .44/5.57088:70 .80/-44/.3//:73 8:-2.0..8088039..43 9072 70/:.:8041903.70-..94.425..090 ..916.0-44/70/897-:943 O 3.76090:::.3/989895041007.8.9.80.24890.901472841 .9:.949508410.79.9.70...70.947 #0...70.70/94570 97.82.80/-44/14 034:007.3/ /.80/70.33.70.4:20.070.301742.3.9.-44/57088:70831.9.3.:.90745033410893.71930884-043/825897039033 900.94.:.333.82:..33   ..9 %88572.. 4:9 857393.8 223504509507903843 40.916.7.:03.5.79 %0708.70..80370/-44/.4397-:9471.4:39814790 2.4:20 05.8 /:73.70.95..33 %88/:094 O 3.9433-44/57088:70    44/'4:20 3/:7.908-44/974:4:990 -4/ 98419037010770/94.82.33970.8090 -4/08300/147403.8.9434170/-44/.94.043.9708994.3.:.33.84.808 074-.074-.9::.5.074-..:03.0397..7/:094.007.9434/7403438   44/4 $009.08.2.9.80 ..0.5..08808-0.79  616:0.70/:.907-44/8:55144397.90-4/:80894 97.7/4.3.9.5.808894.0007.94341-44/8900.. 574.7.70.70...808 .074-.3..79-:998834990 ..07.:.097.79890.08.4.7/4.907090399.80 -498894.7.70.70.9.39/:7390.80/3:2-0741.8.33    98390708939434909..075..3.70.708 O 4700110.788902 %0701470 .43.80894..2./70..808.8070:.4 %0.0307 889028.894..4 %070.8002.7072:8.:03.07.3...:.3/0.08  02.84.7/4.37.902.94 89703903390..916.80 0.007.99.9::.708 O 70.5::/5.80/.70.788902890889029.794190-4/  %0701470 90-03019841.

3:890.9..941988.34/498.3007.0034: %00894..9-2.4809/79.084100534:7.4480 8420939.897.3/.439943.5488-0 %0247050.7.8.3/0.9.3/30.303.:.90 4:..041 94 4190:550729 489 97.0/38/0 19014 .8.8900.70/:.3890.7070.07.307 3439.7090390 :5507294:/-0  3.7007..9473.:.9..2 7024.98420-4/080 /0503/8434:70.00.3/4907.7.:808907.50 ..9041   4190 2.9.549039.804:7..38902:8.9433.70.0/0.074-.9 %03090110.70/:.7/4.4089074   4:.07709:73 %003099389..7/034: %01789 890589413/90:550729414:70./.74:3/4:7-4/ %0 3090110.7007..80147.250 14:.83.8:11.42292039  616256.28825 099389..474:8..8.313/98-9.9.0989030.797.7007..4:50/9.0824709.80 03.3:80994/0907230 09070.5.09.20398  44/!7088:70   07..9900.80 .7..70.3/9038:-97.34:7 .799409394 8.5..3/.90  %0110.805747.79 #0:..7/4.0.707:333 ..-090 ..8.790708.7 88902.79/80.058 1:84:990-44/8970.700.94:..793074797..:.70.8:7.79300/89470.045394.8.90 70:.3 .3.4089074 90-.804390.7007.98 90247004:.3 044397-:947  #0:.702.8.3.790/ 099389.80.:..1 %0574-02248950450.984107.9041-44/14974:4:990-4/943.83901789/..79414:710890...08. 970.8090011.2:2147..9.07.70:.4..4393:0/439      60.-9  30-1..30341...7/4.7 $8902 %$47/.797.8 .0/.843980110.8034943-030198902:8.:.0.039.474:95.9391742 $41470.416556 %0708.08900.80.8097.80.790/894 2.:..03:97943..334:7..7/4.3974:-08420574/:.3053 90-.3/842085479815.889028 905890.80.941988.7007.03..7094.9.3078.3/8009.04170893 .790/3.  %070.7474:9 74:930894.:.3 .98-0147090/0.30110.7009.70.0.7/4.93.03-0333.0 -44/57088:70  4089074   #0:.8250:/094/090723014:.95:258-44/.80.990.

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

.

42. 04 .

:...8.80 .-4:9**0110.98 007..7/4.7 88902 92              .

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

          .