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1965

]

THE COHOMOLOGY OF THE STEENROD ALGEBRA

377

= 0 and KLP = L if and only if every finite-dimensional L-module is completely reducible. The latter implies that ExtV(i)(Af, iV)=0 for all F(L)-modules M and Nf finite dimensional or not, and therefore all F(L)-modules are projective and V(L) has global dimension zero, i.e., Ext7 (L) (M, N) = 0 for all n> 1 and for all M and N.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. S. Eilenberg and J. C. Moore, Limits and spectral sequences, Topology 1 (1961), 1-23. 2. G. Hochschild, Representations of restricted Lie algebras of characteristic p , Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 5 (1954), 603-605. 3. N. Jacobson, Lie algebras, Interscience, New York, 1962. 4. J. Milnor and J. C. Moore, On the structure of Hopf algebras, Ann. of Math, (to appear).
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THE COHOMOLOGY OF THE STEENROD ALGEBRA; STABLE HOMOTOPY GROUPS OF S P H E R E S 1 2 BY J. PETER MAY Communicated by W. S. Massey, November 6, 1964 In this paper, we state some of the results obtained by application of the methods of [4] to the study of the cohomology of the Steenrod algebra A. In brief, our results are a complete determination of H8'l{A) for t — s â 42 in the mod 2 case, and for t — s g:2(p-l)(2p2+p+2)-4: in the mod p case, p>2. Due to the existence of the Adams spectral sequence [ l ] , these results give information about the stable homotopy groups of spheres. We recall t h a t the mod p Adams spectral sequence {Er} (for the sphere) has differentials 5 r : Esr'i—:>E?r+r,t+r~1 and satisfies the properties: (1) E?S±H'-*{A) as a Z p -algebra. (2) Each Er is a differential Z p -algebra. (3) {£*» I / — s — k} provides a composition series for 7rk(S; p) (relative to a suitable filtration); here irk(S, p) denotes the stable homotopy group Wk(S) modulo the subgroup of elements whose order is finite and prime to p. During the preparation of this paper, the author was partially supported by National Science Foundation grant number NSF-GP-1853. 2 The work announced here is contained in the author's doctoral thesis, submitted to Princeton University.
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J. P. MAY

[March

Now Toda [S], [6] has calculated wk(S, 2), fegl9, and wk(S, p), p>2, k^2p2(p-l)-3, with partial information for k = 2p2(p-l)-2 and 2 2p (p — 1) — 1. It turns out that there is only one pattern of differentials consistent with Toda's results. Therefore the structure of the Adams spectral sequence is completely known in the range of Toda's computations. Partial information about the differentials in higher dimensions can be obtained whenever an element is decomposable in terms of elements whose differentials are known. In fact, there are enough relations to allow complete determination of Tk(S, 2), jfe^28, and to determine Tk(S, p), p>2y k<2(p-l)(p2+2p)-4:, up to one unknown differential. We state our results first for the case p — 2. Let Hk(A) = ® «-•-* H'ft(A). Hk(A) is a Z 2 -space, but there exists an element hoÇ.Hltl(A) such that multiplication by hQ on elements surviving to E*, corresponds essentially to multiplication by 2 in the ring w(S, 2). We interpret multiplication by hQ in H*(A) to be multiplication by 2 in writing the groups Hk(A) below. We only state our results in those dimensions in which nearly complete information on 7TA;(5, 2) has been obtained.
THEOREM

1. For 1 8 ^ f e ^ 3 1 , Hk(A) and Th(S, 2) are as follows: H"(A) Tk(S, 2)

k

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
n

Z2 + Z4 + Z8
Zi + Za Z*
ZÎ + Z*

+ Zs

Zi + Zs Zs Zt + Z* Zi + Zi Zi + Zi + Zs + Zie Zt + Zi Zi + Zi Zi + Zi Zs Zi

zs + zt
Z% + Zi + Zs + Zn Zt + Z 2 - - Z-t f Zt + Zt + Zn Zt + Za + Zi Zs Zt

z*
Zt + Zs + Zit + Zzi W + Zt + Ztu

0 or Zt 0 ç r30(S, 2) C (Z2)'
Zu ç m(S, 2) C Zu summanis).

(here (Z 2 ) = Z 2 + • • • + Z 2 , n

i 9 6s] REMARKS.

THE COHOMOLOGY OF THE STEENROD ALGEBRA

379

Adams [2] has calculated H9^{A) for t — s ^17 and for / ^ 2 4 . Liulevicius (unpublished) has calculated H*'l{A) for * ^ 3 1 , which, together with the periodicity theorems of Adams [2], gives complete information for t — s^23. The stated facts about 7Tk{S, 2), k = 30 and £ = 31, follow from unpublished results of Maunder, in which he identifies the elements of Ei which survive to the image of the J-homomorphism Z2n+1 0 * ( . S , 2), je = 2 n + 2 n + 1 w - l , m ^ O , n^2. f Next we state our results for the case p>2. As in the case p = 2, there is an element a^Hltl(A) such that multiplication by a0 on elements surviving t o £00 corresponds essentially to multiplication by p in 7r(5, p), and we may define a group structure on each E* — ® t-8-k Es/ by interpreting multiplication by a 0 t o mean multiplication by p. For the sake of brevity, we state our results in terms of £4 and restrict our attention to those dimensions k in which nearly complete information on 70; (S, p) is obtained.
THEOREM 2. The following elements {of the stated orders and dimensions) generate all E\ in the range 0<kS2{p — l){p2+2p)—4: {In the list below, j^l and q = 2{p — l)).

element
«y
CLjp II

order

dimension

Pu-A"1
„i-1 otiffi+iPi

J-1
aiiSi+ijSTV aiy ei <f> Prfp-ipt1

P Pl Pz P P P
P p p p* p

JQ-hJ^O modp
jpq-l, jfàO modp jp*q - l,j jé 0 modp

(jP+lp+t)q-2j, O^l^p-2 (jp+lp+t+l)q-2j-l, O^lûp-2 2 (p +jP+lp+t)q-2j-2, 0£l£p-2,
y = l if 1—1 and p = 3 {p +jP+lp+l+l)q~2j-3, O g / ^ - 2 , 7 = 1 if / = 1 and /> = 3 (^ +0g-3, (£ +0?-2, (p2+p)q-3 (p2+jp+p-l)q-2j~2,
2 2 2

l£lgp-2 lglgp-1 j**lifp=*3.

d2P-i{Pi+il3{~1y) =aiPi+il3i+J~1 or zero. All listed elements other than the jSj+ijSi""^ are cocycles under each Sr, and, at least in the range 0<k <2{p-l){p2+2p)-4, no listed elements other than the a^i+i^"1 are coboundaries under any Sr.

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J. P. MAY

REMARKS. In [5, I I I , p. 209], Toda states a problem equivalent to the problem of determining Ö2J>-I(Y). Gershenson [3] has calculated H8^{A) for t-sg;2p(p-l)--l. The results due to Milnor and Kervaire on the image of the J-homomorphism imply t h a t for each nè>0 and j è 1, j ^ O mod p, there will be an element a^tx\ of order pn+l in TT*(S, P),k = 2jp»(p-1)-1. Proofs and a complete statement of our results will appear elsewhere. BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. J. F. Adams, On the structure and applications of the Steenrod algebra, Comm. Math. Helv. 32 (1958), 180-214. 2. , Stable homotopy theory (lecture notes), Univ. of California, Berkeley, Calif., 1961. 3. H. H. Gershenson, Relationships between the Adams spectral sequence and Toda's calculations of the stable homotopy groups of spheres, Math. Z. 81 (1963), 223259. 4. J. P. May, The cohomology of restricted Lie algebras and of Hopf algebras, Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 71 (1965), 372-377. 5. H. Toda, p-primary components of homotopy groups. I, Exact sequences in the Steenrod algebra. II, mod p Hopf invariant. Ill, Stable groups of the sphere. IV, Compositions and toric constructions, Mem. College Sci. Univ. Kyoto 31 (1958), 129-142; 143-160; 191-210; ibid. 32 (1959), 297-332. 6. , Composition methods in homotopy groups of spheres, Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, N. J., 1962.
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