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CATEGORIES

OF SPECTRA AND

INFINITE

LOOP SPACES

by J. Peter May

At the Seattle culation where of H,(F;Zp)

conference,

I presented

a calp,

as an algebra, and F(n)

for odd primes

F = lim F(n) >

is the topological

monoid

of homotopy was m e a n t H*(BF;Zp). all primes Dyer-Lashof is somewhat herent ings.

equivalences

of an n-sphere. step towards

This c o m p u t a t i o n the c o m p u t a t i o n H*(BF;Zp), and of

as a preliminary Since then,

I have c a l c u l a t e d

for

p, as a Hopf algebra algebras. lengthy,

over the Steenrod

The calculation,

while not difficult,

and I was not able to write up a coin time for inclusion required in these proceedstudy of

presentation

The c o m p u t a t i o n operations

a systematic

homology

on n-fold study,

and infinite

loop spaces.

As a result of this H,(2nsnx;Zp),

I have also been able to compute over the Steenrod p. algebra, This [3] and

as a Hopf algebra spaces X

for all connected result, Milgram which

and prime numbers

generalizes

those of Dyer and Lashof descriptions of both

[8], yields and

explicit H,(QX;Zp),

H,(~nsnx;Zp) of H,(X;Zp).

QX = li~> 2nsnx,

as functors

An essential a systematic and infinite

first

step towards

these results

was

categorical loop spaces.

analysis

of the notions

of n-fold will

The results

of this analysis

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449

-

be presented relationships H.(~nsnx;zp)

here.

These

include certain adjoint functor the conceptual are functors reason that of H,(X;Zp) to maps moti-

that provide and

H,(QX;Zp)

and that precisely between spectra.

relate maps between These categorical

spaces

considerations

vate the introduction I and i, of

of certain non-standard spectra and

categories, and the

(bounded)

~-spectra,

main purpose of this paper gories.

is to propagandize

these cate-

It is clear from their definitions are considerably easier

that these

categories

to work with topolog-

ically than are the usual ones, they are sufficiently

but it is not clear that We shall

large to be of interest.

remedy this by showing that, cise, these categories

in a sense to be made prefor the purposes of (bounded)

are equivalent

of homotopy spectra and spectra

theory to the standard ~-spectra.

categories

We extend the theory to unbounded

in the last section. The material here is quite simple, both as category to

theory and as topology, have useful concrete

but it turns out nevertheless We shall

applications.

indicate two

of these at the end of the paper. that there spaces, is a natural epimorphism,

In the first, we observe realized by a map of loop by

from the stable homotopy

groups of an infinite In the second,

space to its ordinary homotopy coupling our results with other

groups.

information,

we shall conspaces and

struct a collection

of interesting

topological

-

4 5 0

-

maps;

the other

information

by itself gives no hint of the

possibility

of p e r f o r m i n g

this construction.

1

THE C A T E G O R I E S

in

AND H O M O L O G Y

In order to sensibly loop spaces, framework it is n e c e s s a r y

study the h o m o l o g y

of iterated

to have a precise

categorical

in w h i c h to work.

It is the purpose of this sec-

tion to p r e s e n t We let

such a framework. T denote the c a t e g o r y of t o p o l o g i c a l and

spaces w i t h b a s e - p o i n t we let

and b a s e - p o i n t

p r e s e r v i n g maps,

~: HOmT(X,~y) denote the standard loop and s u s p e n s i o n We define Ln, to have objects B i = ~Bi+ I 6 T gi = ~gi+l 0 ~ i ~ n. jects adjunction functors.

) HomT(SX,Y ) homeomorphism relating

(i.i) the

the c a t e g o r y

of n-fold

loop sequences,

B = {Bil0 ~ i ~ n}

such that such that for

and maps

g = {gil0 ~ i ~ n} B 0 = niBi and

6 T; c l e a r l y We define

go = nigi

t = i

to be the c a t e g o r y w i t h obB i = ~Bi+ I E T T; c l e a r l y We call L~ loop and m a p s

B = {Bili k 0}

such that

g = {gili k 0} B 0 = ~iBi and

such that go = ~agi

gi = n g i + 1 E for all ~-spectra

i ~ 0.

the category sequences) . Un: ~ ) T Un B

of p e r f e c t For all by and

(or of infinite forgetful

n, we define and

functors Of course, if We

UnB = B 0 Ung

Ung = go"

n < ~,

are n-fold

loop spaces and maps.

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451

-

say t h a t a s p a c e if map X = U=B f 6 T

X £ T

is a p e r f e c t B £ i~

infinite

loop s p a c e

for some o b j e c t is a p e r f e c t g ~ i~o

and we say that a if f = U=g

infinite

loop m a p

for some m a p

We s e e k a d j o i n t s the f u n c t o r s Qn x = Un. For

Qn:

T

>

In,

1 ~ n ~ ~ , to

n < ~ and

, define Qnf = {~n-isnfl0 in Q: T ~ i ~ n}. in. For ) [ by re-

{~n-isnxl0 Qn x and

~ i ~ n} Qn f

Clearly, the case letting spect

are o b j e c t s

and maps

n = ~

, we

first define

a functor

Q X = li~ ~nsnx, w h e r e

the l i m i t is t a k e n w i t h

to the i n c l u s i o n s ~nu-i (Isn+Ix) : ~ n s n x ..-> ~ n + I s n + l x

For

f: X ~ that

Y, w e

define

Qf = l i ~ ~nsnf: and i~ Qf = nQSf. by Q~X =

QX

~ QY.

It

is c l e a r define Q~f =

QX = ~ Q S X Q~:

We can therefore {QSiXli > 0} and

a functor

T--->

{Qsifli > 0}.

For each

n,

1 ~ n ~ =

, t h e r e is an a d j u n c t i o n

~n: H ° m T ( X , U n B ) Proof. posites snx Observe first

" H°min(QnX'B)" that the f o l l o w i n g t w o com-

are the i d e n t i t y . s n u - n (isnx ) • sn~nsnx un ( i n n s n x ) > snx, X £ Y

(1.2)

~-n ( i s n ~ n x ) ~nx ~nsn~nx

~nn

(l~nx) ~ ~nx, X £ T (1.3)

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In fact, in

since

~(f)

= u(inz)

• Sf

for any m a p

f: Y

• ~Z ; this

T, ~n (l~nsnx) (1.2)

. sn~-n(isnx) of

= ~n~-n(isnx) (1.3)

= isnx

proves natural Tn: iT

and the proof

is similar. ) i~ and

Now define

transformations > UnQ n by

~n: QnUn

~n(B) ~(B) Tn(X)

= {fln-i~n(1B0)I0

~ i ~ n}:

QnUn B

> B • B if if

if

n < ~;

(1.4)

= {li~) ~ J u i + J ( 1 B 0 ) l i = ~-n(isn x)- x

~ 0}. Q = U = B = nnsnx

if

n = ~;

) UniX

n < ~; n = =.

(1.5)

~(X)

= lim u-J(IsJx) : X---> that (1.2) and

U~Q=X

= QX that

We c l a i m posites

(1.3)imply for all n.

the f o l l o w i n g

two com-

are the

identity

Qn X QnYn(X)) Un B Tn (UnB) For for since factors n < ~, (1.6)

QnUn~n x

#n (Qn x)
U n ~ n (B) (1.2)

> Qn x, x £ Y

(1.6)

¢

UnQnUn B

~ UnB , B E in by a p p l i c a t i o n of

(1.7) ~n-i

follows (1.7)

from

0 ~ i ~ n

and

is just

(1.3)

applied that

to

X = B n, T~(X)

B 0 = UnB = SnB n. as the c o m p o s i t e

For

n = =, o b s e r v e

x ~-i (Isx)) ~sx n~- (sx) nQSX = Qx
It f o l l o w s ~-iT~(six) Observe that T~(X)

= u-iT=(six)

for all

i > 0

since

= u - i ( a T = ( S i+Ix) that

• u-I (isi+ix))

= U- (i+l) T~ (si+1 X) .

also

aJ~(si+Jx)

: ~Jsi+Jx

) ~JQsi+Jx

= Qsix

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453

-

is just the natural inclusion obtained from the definition of Qsix as lim ~Jsi+Jx. > We therefore have that:

@~(Q=X) i " Q=T=(X) i = li~> ~J~ i+j (IQx) • li~) ~ksi+k~-(i+k) T=(si+kx) • ~Jsi+J -(i+j)T~(si+Jx)

= lim~ nJ~ i+j (lQx)
= li)m

~J T~ (si+Jx)

=

IQS ix • lim) u-k(IskBQ)

U~@~(B)

• T~(U~B)

= limm ~J~J (IB0)

= li~> ~JuJ(IB0)

• u -j (1SJB0) = li~ IB0 = IB0 the second equality is an observation The third equalities follow from

In both calculations,

about the limit topology. formulas (1.2) and

(1.3) respectively. if if f: x g: Qn x @n ~ UnB ) B

Finally, define is a map in T (1.8) (1.9)

@n(f) = @n(B)

• Qn f

~n(g) = Ung • Tn(X)

is a map in in

It is a standard fact that ~n since the composites If

is an adjunction with inverse (1.7) are each the identity. = H,(UnB), where hom~. We

(1.6) and

B 6 in, we define

H,(B)

ology is taken with coefficients regard H,

in any Abelian group

as a functor defined on

in, but we deliberately

do not specify a range category.

Indeed, the problem of (perfect)

determining the homology operations on n-fold and

infinite loop spaces may be stated as that of obtaining an appropriate algebraic description of the range category. It

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follows easily from ~n (X). : H. (X) is adjoint to sense,

(1.2) and

(1.5) of the proof above that is a monomorphism. Qn X are, in . Since Qn

) H. (UnQnX)

Un, the objects

in a w e l l - d e f i n e d It is therefore H. (X), with

free objects

in the category H. (Qn X)

natural to expect values

to be a functor of range category. ~ = Zp

in the appropriate

I have proven

that this is the case if functor. map in f: X

and have computed the if B E in ~n(f) : Qn X then any > B

By the previous proposition, ~ UnB in T induces a map

Ln, and the functor describing

H. (Qn x)

is g e o m e t r i c a l l y is deterin terms of

free in the sense that m i n e d by

~n (f)*" H. (Qn x) ---> H. (B) > H. (UnB)

f* = Un#n (f)*~n (X).- H. (X)

of the homology operations the functor.

that go into the definition

In this sense, we can geometrically since ~B).H. (QnUn B)

realize is

enough free objects an epimorphism.

~ H. (B)

All of these statements

are analogs of wellThe category is the appro-

known facts about the cohomology of spaces. of u n s t a b l e algebras over the Steenrod

algebra

priate range category for cohomology with Products of the Qn x K(Zp,n) 's

Zp-coefficients.

play the role analogous to that of classes play the role anal-

and their fundamental

ogous to that of

H.(X) c H.(Qn x) . i, we can show the applica-

By use of Proposition

bility of the method of acyclic models to the homology of iterated loop spaces. natural transformations The applications envisaged are to

defined for iterated loop spaces but

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4 5 5

-

not

for a r b i t r a r y Let

spaces• T

The

argument denote over

needed any

is p u r e l y let

categorical. A A denote , and > the M be

temporarily of m o d u l e s of m o d e l A-module R: by T R(X) > A

category,

category be the

a commutative in T. Let S

ring

let A

a set free If A

objects functor, is any

F: S

where functor,

is the define on a

category functor

of sets. R: T )

= F[ U H o m T ( M , X ) M6 M

× R(M)]

objects f: X

and ) Y,

R(f) (~,r) then

=

(f • ~,r) and R by

on m o r p h i s m s , r £ R(M). l(X) (~,r) by M

where Define

if a natReexists > R

~ 6 HomT(M,X) I: R ~ to b e

ural call

transformation that R is s a i d

= R(v) (r). if t h e r e I - ~: R

representable ) R such

a natural is the we have

transformation natural

~: R

that

identity the

transformation.

With

these

notations,

following

lemma.

Lemma

2

Let and QM = let R: T

~: H o m T ( X , U B ) A and QM. be let

) HomL(QX,B)

be

an a d j u n c t i o n by Then M. S Define is

a functor

representable L ) A.

{ Q M I M 6 M}

S = R • U:

r e p r e s e n t a b le by

Proof. n: R • U ) S by

Define

a natural =

transformation for transforma-

n(B) (v,r) Write as

(~(~) ,R~-I(IQM) (r)) I' for for R. the n a t u r a l We have

~: M ---> UB, tion l'n = ~ > S

r £ R(M). defined ) RU = S

above since

IU: R U

~'n(B) (~,r)

= s~(~) [R~ -I (IQM) (r) ] = R [ U ~ ( ~ )

~-I(IQM) ] (r) = R(~) (r)

456

Therefore, l'(n~U)

if

~: R

> R

satisfies

k~ = i: R

> R, then the result.

= IU • ~U = l: S Of course, if ¢

> S, and this proves is an a d j u n c t i o n j

as in the lemma T, then

and if

Tj

denotes

the product of > HomLj(QDx,B)

factors

cJ: HomTj(X,UJB) (X E T j , B E t j ). R: T j ~ A and

is also an a d j u n c t i o n to functors

Thus the lemma applies RuJ: ij ) A. let

Returning singular

to topology, functor, in ---~ A

C,: T

> A

be the in A. The

chain complex to C,Un:

with coefficients for 1 ~ n ~ ~ on i~

lemma applies remark above, and C a r t e s i a n M =

and, by the (tensor With

to the usual products

related

functors

of singular

chain complexes). in T, we have

{Am} , the standard if

set of m o d e l s and

UnQnA m = ~nsnA m are c o n t r a c t i b l e therefore models n-fold

n < ~

U~Q~A m = QAm; objects

these spaces are

and the m o d e l We conclude

{QnAm } c in

acyclic.

that the m e t h o d

of acyclic of

[4] is a p p l i c a b l e and p e r f e c t

to the study of the h o m o l o g y loop spaces.

infinite

2

COMPARISONS

OF C A T E G O R I E S

OF S P E C T R A

The w o r k of the p r e v i o u s category t is a r e a s o n a b l e that i

section

shows that the but

object of study c o n c e p t u a l l y ,

it is not obvious interest. classical

is large enough to be of t o p o l o g i c a l

For example, groups

it is not clear that the infinite to p e r f e c t infinite

are b/mmotopy e q u i v a l e n t

loop spaces.

We shall show that,

from the point of v i e w of

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457

-

homotopy g o r y of proceed

theory, (bounded) by stages

i

is in f a c t e q u i v a l e n t To d o this,

to t h e u s u a l

care-

a-spectra.

w e s h a l l h a v e to more

through a sequence of s p e c t r a .

of s u c c e s s i v e l y

restrictive

categories

By a spectrum, B = {Bi,fili is a map. sequence ~ 0}, where g: B Bi

we shall mean a sequence Bi is a s p a c e a n d fi: Bi > ~Bi+ I

By a m a p of m a p s gi:

> B' > B~ l

of s p e c t r a w e s h a l l m e a n a such that the following dia-

grams a r e h o m o t o p y

commutative, g B 1 ±

i k 0.

> B'. 1

fi

1

~Bi+ I We c a l l th e r e s u l t i n g inclusion spectrum I S

~gi+l

1'
~ S. spectra

fi

(2.1)

~B' i+l W e say t h a t B £ S is an

category fi

if e a c h

is a n i n c l u s i o n . by l e t t i n g (2.1) I

We obtain a map in comI

the c a t e g o r y be a m a p in

of i n c l u s i o n

s u c h t h a t the d i a g r a m s for e a c h S.) i k 0.

actually

m u t e on the n o s e subcategory if e a c h fi of

(Thus, B 6 S

is n o t a f u l l m-spectrum mS be the and

We say t h a t

is an We let

is a h o m o t o p y of S

equivalence. objects

full s u b c a t e g o r y we let

whose

a r e the of

m-spectra, I whose B 6 al

al = I N aS

be the f u l l

subcategory

objects

a r e the i n c l u s i o n

n-spectra.

A spectrum if Bi R

w i l l be s a i d to be a r e t r a c t i o n mation r e t r a c t of mBi+ 1

spectrum i.

is a d e f o r denote the

for a l l

W e let

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full s u b c a t e g o r y spectra. B 6 i objects

of i

~I

whose

objects

are the retraction of in R, s i n c e R if

Clearly,

is a f u l l s u b c a t e g o r y fi = 1 and then any map in i

we may take of i

between of and

w i l l be a m a p (2.1).

by t h e c o m m u t a t i v i t y

the d i a g r a m s inclusions

Thus we have the following

categories

i c R c

nl c

aS

and

I c S . C, if g,g': to B

(2.2) > B' g' if g homoHC are

For e a c h of t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s are m a p s gi is a in C, t h e n w e say t h a t to ' gi in T g

is h o m o t o p i c i gi

is h o m o t o p i c (weak)

for e a c h if e a c h

We say that is a (weak)

homotopy

equivalence C C

topy e q u i v a l e n c e . and a q u o t i e n t

Now each H: C

has a h o m o t o p y > HC.

category of HC

functor

The objects of HC

the s a m e as t h o s e of equivalence clusions C c D have sions of classes (2.2) g ~ g'

a n d the m a p s in C.

are homotopy

of m a p s

Note

t h a t e a c h of t h e inin t h e s e n s e t h a t in D. if

is h o m o t o p y in C, t h e n HC E C

preserving g ~ g'

and induced since

We therefore incluin

functors if gig'

> HD and

and these are still in D, t h e n

g ~ g'

g ~ g'

C.
The following needed in o r d e r definitions, d u e to S w a n [ii], w i l l b e

to o b t a i n p r e c i s e

comparisons

of o u r v a r i o u s

categories

of s p e c t r a .

Definitions

3

(i)

A category

C

is an

H-category

if t h e r e

is an

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459

-

equivalence such that fg

relation f ~ f' and

, c a l l e d homotopy, g ~ g' implies

on its h o m sets whenever HC and a

fg ~ f'g'

is defined. funotor (ii)

We then have a q u o t i e n t c a t e g o r y

quotient

H: C--~ HC.
C be any c a t e g o r y and D an H-category. ) D > HD is a function, is a functor. for each in C. C E C If > D on objects and maps, This amounts and T(fg) to re~ T(f)T(g) H-category,

Let T: C C

A prefunctor such that quiring whenever HT:

T(I C) ~ IT(C) fg is d e f i n e d

C is also an

we say that a p r e f u n c t o r if f ~ g in C implies

T: C

is h o m o t o p y p r e s e r v i n g in T 0. Clearly, T

T(f) ~ T(g) if

is h o m o t o p y

preserving

if and only HT = T,H. C > D

determines

a functor

T.: HC ---> H0 (iii) transformation maps in D n(C):

such that Let S,T:

be prefunctors. ) T

A natural

of p r e f u n c t o r s > T(C), f: C

n: S

is a c o l l e c t i o n of T(f) n(C) ~ n(C')S(f) is said to be a

S(C)

C E C, such that • C' in C. n

for each m a p

natural equivalence transformation n(C)~(C) natural

of p r e f u n c t o r s ~: T

if there exists a n a t u r a l • S such that for each n: S Hn: HS a natural > T • HT C E C. A

of p r e f u n c t o r s and

~ 1T(C)

~(C) n(C) ~ IS(C) of p r e f u n c t o r s of functors preserving,

transformation

determines and, if

a natural transformation S and T are h o m o t o p y n.: S.

transformation if n is a if defined,

of functors natural n.

> T.

such that

n,H = Hn; Hn

equivalence

of prefunctors,

then

and,

are n a t u r a l

equivalences

of functors.

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460

-

(iv) preserving is a d j o i n t prefunctors each topic D 6 0 in C

If

S: D

> C between

and

T: C

> D

are h o m o t o p y we say that of T

prefunctors to S ~: TS

H-categories,

if there exist n a t u r a l > 19 and T: i c

transformations > ST

such that for > SD is homoC £ C 0 to the

the c o m p o s i t e

S~(D) T(SD) : SD SD

to the identity map of ~ (TC) • TT (C): TC TC. > HC If and S > TC and

and for each in

composite

is h o m o t o p i c T

the identity m a p of tors, then S.: HD

are a d j o i n t p r e f u n c > HC are a d j o i n t > HOmH0(T.A,B)-

T.: HD

functors,

with adjunction

#. = ~.T.: HOmHc(A,S.B) our v a r i o u s that theory I categories

We can now c o m p a r e The f o l l o w i n g theorem implies

of spectra. to S

is e q u i v a l e n t

for the p u r p o s e s of homotopy topy invariant information

in the sense that no homoattention to to con-

is lost by r e s t r i c t i n g in I, and that ~I

spectra and maps of spectra ~S in this sense.

is e q u i v a l e n t

Under r e s t r i c t i o n s compares denote R to

on the types of spaces ~S. To state the of Bi S whose is a

sidered,

it s i m i l a r l y let C

restrictions, objects locally u(fi):

the full s u b c a t e g o r y such that each

are those spectra finite c o u n t a b l e SB i > Bi+ 1

{Bi,f i} simplicial

c o m p l e x and each Observe that if W is B

is simplicial. of S

the full

subcategory Bi

w h o s e objects are those spectra type of a c o u n t a b l e is h o m o t o p y if equivalent

such that each CW-complex, (in each S) Bi

has the h o m o t o p y W

then every object of C.

to an object of is h o m o t o p y

In fact,

{Bi,f i} 6 W, then simplicial

equivalent

to a locally finite

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-

complex

B1
f
°

by

[9, T h e o r e m

i] ; if

f~ 1

is the composite by chosen homotopy approxito

B~ 1

> B. 1

i > ~Bi+ 1

> ~B.~+

1

determined ~(f[)

equivalences mation {B',f'} Theorem to

B. <-----> B! 1 1 ~(f.~), then

and if {Bi,f i} to

is a s i m p l i c i a l equivalent

is homotopy

and therefore

B' ~"} 6 C i,~i

4

There such that (i) tors J: I n: 1S > S

is a homotopy

preserving

prefunctor

M: S

> I

There exists > JM, with

a natural

equivalence

of prefunc-

inverse

~: JM

> IS, where J.M. is n a t u r a l l y

is the inclusion. to the identity

Therefore of HS.

equivalent

functor

(ii) is a map by ~(B) in I

MJ: if

I

> I

is a functor, ~: MJ

6(JB): > 11

JMJB

> JB

B 6 I, and if then

is defined of

= 6(JB),

is a natural

transformation

functors. (iii) relationship n and J establish and M. an adjoint prefunctor

between

Therefore is an adjunction, and ¢~I (g) = J.g where

¢.: HomHS(A,J.B) ¢.(f)
g: M.A

> HomHI(M.A,B) f: A > J.B,

= ~.(B)M.f,
> B.

• n.(A),

(iv) serving

By restriction, ~S -~ ~I

M

induces

a homotopy

pre-

prefunctor

which

satisfies ~I > ~S.

(i) through

(iii) with respect (v)

to the inclusion M

By restriction,

induces

a homotopy

462

-

preserving through

prefunctor

~S n C

> R N C

which

satisfies

(i)

(iii) w i t h r e s p e c t Proof.

to the inclusion M

R N C

> ~S N C. (i) and

We first c o n s t r u c t Let

and prove Define

(ii) simultaneously. MB = {MiB,Mif } E I MoB = B 0 . constructed. nj: Bj such that (a) ~jnj = i: Bj n~j ) MjB Assume Let and

B = {Bi,f i} 6 S. on i

by induction that MjB,

as follows. Mjf,

Let

j ~ i, and

j < i, have b e e n that

no = 1 = t0

and assume B~ J

further

~j : MjB

have been c o n s t r u c t e d

> Bj

and • ~ j-1

nj£j ~ l: MjB and

> MjB

;

(b)

• M3-1 f = f. . 3-I Mi+IB

nn j • fj -i ~ M 3-1 f • nj_ I • of the m a p > Mi+IB denote MiB > ~Mi+IB-

Define

to be the m a p p i n g ) Bi+l, let

cylinder ki: SMiB

~(fi ) • S~ i" SMiB the s t a n d a r d Clearly Mif

inclusion,

and define

Mif = u-](ki): Consider

is then an inclusion.

the d i a g r a m

S£ i
SMiB ~ Sn i ki=~ (Mif) [ Mi+IB ( ni+~ Here tained hi+ I and £i+i are the inclusion properties j = i + 1. and r e t r a c t i o n cylinders, that follows by obhence [~ (fi) > Bi+ l ~ SB i

by the standard for

of m a p p i n g

(a) is s a t i s f i e d ~i+l " u(Mif)

It is s t a n d a r d

= u(fi)S~i , and

n~i+ I • Mif = fi~i

-

463

-

application tained

of

u-l.

Now

~ni+l

" fi = M i f

" ni

is ob(b) for

by a s i m p l e

chase

of the diagram. M

This

proves

j = i + 1 maps n(B):

and thus c o n s t r u c t s B > JM_B £(JB) MJB and

on o b j e c t s > B

and c o n s t r u c t s in S. If

£(B) : JMB in I by

B 6 I, then ~(B) g: B that
!

is a m a p m B. in found

(b) and w e can d e f i n e M on maps. and a s s u m e (with Let

= ~(JB): > B' Mjg

We n e x t c o n s t r u c t S. for Define j ~ i

be a m a p have been etc.) • nj;

M 0 g = go such that

= n(B'),

(c) (d) Then, and

n~gj3 = M j g RMjg by

£!3 " M j g ~ gj£j • Mj_ig. of m a p s

with

equality

if

g £ I;

• Mj_If

= Mj_if'

(c) and the d e f i n i t i o n

in the c a t e g o r i e s > ~Bi+l' ' with

S

I, fi£ iMi g ~ flgi~ i ~ ngi+Ifi~i: ' if hi: g 6 [. SMiB Applying × I > B' i+ 1

MiB

equalities a homotopy

u, w e see that t h e r e from hi ' ~SM~g (fi) St l

exists to

gi+lu(fi)S£i, homotopy (x,t) Mi+IB if

and w e agree g 6 I. × I and Write

to c h o o s e [x,t] and

to be the c o n s t a n t [y] for the images of

6 SMiB of

y 6 Bi+ 1

in the m a p p i n g for Mi+IB'.

cylinder Define

u(fi)S~i,

and s i m i l a r l y by

Mi+l g: M i + I B ----> Mi+IB' (e) Mi+ig[x't]

= ~[SMig(x),2t], [hi(x,2t - i)],

0 ~ t ~ 1/2 1/2 ~ t ~ i.

Mi+iglY] It is t r i v i a l tinuous.

=

[gi+l (Y) ] • that Mi+ig is w e l l - d e f i n e d diagram: and con-

to v e r i f y

Now consider

the f o l l o w i n g

-

464

-

(Mif) SMiB ~ Mi+1 B ~

~ i+! > Bi+ 1

SMig u (Mif') SMiB'

Mi+] g ~ > M ! + 1 B '~

gi+l B i+i '

q.
l+l

Since and

ni+l (Y) = ' ~i+1

[Y]'

' ni+l

" gi+l

= Mi+Ig

" ni+l from

is o b v i o u s , (a) and a g is in

" Mi+l g ~ gi+l~i+l

then follows square.

simple I, t h e n

c h a s e of the r i g h t - h a n d ~i+lMi+ig since (c) for
!

If the m a p

= gi+l~i+l h i(x,t)

is e a s i l y v e r i f i e d

by e x p l i c i t t.

computation This p r o v e s merely since course,

= gi+1 p (fi) S&i(x) To p r o v e

for all

j = i + i.

(d) for

j = i + l, commutes, square. Of

observe

t h a t the l e f t - h a n d [x,0], that

square clearly p-i in to this I, a n d MJ: I >

~(Mif) (x) = (d) p r o v e s of

and a p p l y Mg is a m a p

(c) c o m p l e t e s I is c l e a r l y such

the p r o o f a functor. that

(ii) of the t h e o r e m If Z: M i + I B

since

> Mi+IB'

is any m a p w h a t e v e r

Zni+ 1 ~ n i + l g i + 1 , t h e n ~ nl+igi+l~i+ 1 ~ £ni+l£i+ 1 ~ £ . class of Mi+ig is i n d e p e n d e n t easily that since

Mi+ig ~ nl+l$~+lMi+ig It f o l l o w s

t h a t the h o m o t o p y of hi,

of the c h o i c e M: S if > Z

and f r o m this M then

it f o l l o w s

is a p r e f u n c t o r . > B' in S,

is h o m o t o p y

preserving

g ~ g': B

Mig ~ Mig i > 0. (b), and

• ni$ i = nigi~ i ~ !

n 1 gi~i = Mig ! follows

|

• ni£ i ~ M i g

|

, (a),

Now

(i) of the t h e o r e m

immediately

from

(c). (iii) To p r o v e (iii), w e m u s t show that the f o l l o w i n g

-

465

-

two composites (f) (g) By map. JB n(JB) MB Mn(B) (a) and For

are h o m o t o p i c ) JMJB J~(B) ~ MJMB ~(MB)

to the identity map.

_ JB, B E ~ MB, B 6 S. (f) is the identity = 1 ~ n(B) ~(B) : JMB class of > JMB.

~ (B) = ~ (JB), the composite (g), note that proof ~(JMB) n(JMB) above

By the u n i q u e n e s s applied Since

for the h o m o t o p y M~(B) M

Mi+ig = ~(MB).

to the case M~(B)Mn(B) ~ 1

g = ~(B), we have by the fact that

~ ~(JMB)

is a prefunctor, to the iden-

this proves tity.

that the composite

(g) is homotopic

(iv) S and

Since

aS for

and

~I

are full subcategories MB q ~I if

of

I, it suffices

(iv) to prove that (a) and (b) w h i c h to

B E aS, and this follows gj : nBj+ 1 > Bj

from

show that

if

is a homotopy > MjB

inverse

fj, then Mjf.

njgjn~j+ 1 : nMj+IB (v) if and B E aS N C.

is a h o m o t o p y

inverse to

Again,

it suffices on

to show that i, starting MiB

MB q R N C with ~ B = B finite n i,

By induction

n O = 1 = ~Q, we see that each simplicial complex since

is a locally

countable and ~i

and that each m a p Mi+IB SMiB

u (Mi_if),

is simplicial, map

is the m a p p i n g > Bi+ l

cylinder

of the simplicial By Hanner simplicial and,

u(fi)S~i: 3.5],

[i0, p. 151]. locally retract finite (ANR)

[5, C o r o l l a r y complex

every c o u n t a b l e neighborhood

is an absolute [7, p. 284], Mif

by K u r a t o w s k i

the loop space of an A N R is is a closed subspace of the

an ANR.

Since the image of

-

466

-

ANR

~Mi+IB , Mif

has the homotopy extension property w i t h MiB [6, p. 86], and therefore ~Mi+IB [i0, p. 31]. MiB is

respect to the ANR

a d e f o r m a t i o n retract of that

This proves

MB £ R N C, as was to be shown• The category I is not only large and convenient. in v i e w of the following in ZX I. We can de-

It is also conceptually

satisfactory in Y

o b s e r v a t i o n relating maps fine a functor spectrum of g- X that > Y zg z: T ~ I

to maps

by letting and fi
=

be the suspension
.

X, zi x = six is a map in

~- i ( i s i + , x ) Zig = Sig;

If

T, define I. and

it is clear I • T be

is in fact a map in UB = B 0

Let

U = Ui:

the forgetful functor, UZ: T • Y

Ug - go"

Observe that

is the identity functor.

With these notations,

we have the following proposition. Proposition ) Homy(X,UB) is an adjunction. fi: B0 ___> ~iBi 1
)

U: HomI(ZX,B) Proof• inductively by i > 0. If

B = {Bi,f i} 6 I, define

f0 = i, fl = f0' and

fi+l = n i f ~: 7U

. fi 11

if by

Define a natural transformation > B. Since

~(B) = { i(fi) }: TUB = i(fi+l) g: X = g. = i(Rifi

n~i+l (fi+l) ~(B)

• ~-I (Isi+IB0) I. For

• fi) = fi~i(fi), ~(g) = @(B)Zg. ZX

is a map in U~(g)

• UB, define Now fi X for

Clearly

= u° (f°)Z0g

is easily v e r i f i e d to be Therefore ~(ZX) = i: ZX > ZX; since

u-i(isix):

• ~isix.

-

4 6 7

-

we obviously that ~U = i.

have

ZU(Izx)

= I: ZX

>

ZUZX = ZX, this

implies

Finally, R. The f o l l o w i n g to I to

we compare theorem and ~I shows

i

to the c a t e g o r i e s that L is n i c e l y

I, ~I, a n d related of w e a k in-

conceptually homotopy variant and m a p s Theorem

is eq%livalent for the p u r p o s e s in the s e n s e

theory

t h a t no w e a k h o m o t o p y attention

information of s p e c t r a 4, it a l s o

is lost by r e s t r i c t i n g in shows L; c o u p l e d that with

to s p e c t r a preceding to R N W

the r e m a r k s

i N W theory.

is eq~livalent

for the p u r p o s e s

of h o m o t o p y

Theorem

6

There formation inclusion,

is a f u n c t o r n: i I

L:

I

>

i

and a natural K: L > I

transis the

of f u n c t o r s such t h a t (i) LK: i

) KL, w h e r e

-. L

is t h e

identity

functor

and

L: H o m I ( A , K B ) is an a d j u n c t i o n (ii) to Lg' in If L, and with

) HomL(LA,B) • n(A) Lg for g: L A > B. homotopic is a

L-I (g) = Kg in

g ~ g' if

I, t h e n

is w e a k l y > KLB

B E ~I, t h e n

n(B) : B

weak homotopy (iii)

equivalence. Let B 6 R N C; t h e n g ~ g': i. B n(B) : B ---> KLB > B' in I, t h e n is a h o m o -

topy equivalence Lg ~ Lg': LB

a n d if in

> LB'

Proof. inclusion,

Let

B = {Bi,f i} E I.

Since

each the

fi

is an

w e can d e f i n e

LiB = li~) ~iB i+j' w h e r e

li/nit is

- 468 -

taken with respect to the inclusions Clearly in ~Li41B = LiB , hence LB £ i. LiB

~Jfi+j: If

~JBi+j > B'

> ~j+IBi+j+l" is a map

g: B

I, define

Lig = li~, ~3gi+j: sJfi+j~Jgi+j

> L.B' 1

; the limit makes by the definition Lg £ t. Define in-

sense since of maps n: 11 clusion; = hi(B). in > KL q(B) Now

= ~J+Igi+j+l~Jfi+j ~Li+Ig = Lig, hence hi(B) : B i a map in LiB

I.

Clearly by letting

be the natural

is obviously

since

~qi+l (B) ° fi

(ii) of the theorem is a standard consequence of the limit topology. of i is evident, The fact that and nK: K LK is and

of the definition the identity Lq: L > LKL

functor

> KLK

are easily verified This implies

to be the identity natural to prove (iii).

transformations. If

(i) and it remains

B 6 R, with retractions > Bi

ri: ~Bi+ 1 by

> Bi, define maps

riJ: ~JBi+ j ri,J+l

inductively if j > 0.

r io = i, r i I = r i, and ri+jfi+ j = i, we have define maps ~iqi: B i B 6 C. > Bi is the

= rij~Jri+ j

Since

ri,j+l~Jfi+ j = riJ. ~i = lim riJ: LiB identity that map.

We can therefore > B i. Obviously that

Suppose further > LiB.

Then we claim (v) of Theorem £JBi+ j with i and j Then

ni~ i ~ i: LiB ~JBi+ j

As in the proof of Let us identify for all

4, each

is now an ANR. ~Jfi+j in

its image under

£J+tBi+j+ 1 £Jfi+j

and omit the inclusion maps the inclusion

from the notation.

~JBi+ j x I U £J+IBi+j+ I × I c ~J+iBi+j+ 1 x I is that of a closed homotopy extension subset in an ANR, and it therefore to the ANR has the

property with respect

~J+IBi+j+ 1 •

-

4 6 9

-

In particular, tion retract ki: ~Bi+ 1 x I homotopies: kij: of

by

[10, p. 31], each ~Bi+l,

Bi

is a strong deforma-

and we assume given homotopies ki: 1 ~ r i rel B..
l

> ~Bi+l,

The ,

k.

1

induce

kij:

nJ+IBi+j+ 1 x I

> nJ+IBi+j+l

1 ~ nJri+ j rel ~JBi+ j , in the obvious

fashion on
j t we can

(kij,t = n3ki+j,t). choose homotopies hij:

We claim that, by induction
• m

hij: n3Bi+ j x I

> ~3Bi+ j , on ~JBi+ j × I. let j > 0. Con-

1 ~ riJ rel B i , such that let hi0

hi,j+ 1 = hij

To see this,

be the constant hij

homotopy, for some

hil = k i = ki0

, and suppose given diagram:

sider the following

(~JBi+jxI U ~J+IBi+j+ Ix~)x0

- (~JBi+jxI U ~J+iBi+j+ 1 xl) xI

I~3+I Bi+j+ 1
~. i,
%

j +1

(~j+l

Bi+j+ 1 xI) x0

> (~j+l Bi+j+l xI) xl
N

The unlabeled hij(x,s,t) ~(y,l,t) verified hij = kij fore obtain

arrows are inclusions, if

and

hij

is defined by ~ij (y,0,t) • = y ,

= hij(x,st)

x £ ~3Bi+ j ; and if

= hij(nJri+j(y ),t) that ~ij

y E nJ+IBi+j+1

It is easily and that We can thereDefine

is well-defined

and continuous

on the common parts of their domains. Hi,j+ 1

such that the diagram commutes. It is trivial

hi,j+l (x,s) = Hi,j+] (x,s,l) .

to verify that

470 -

hi,j+ 1 li~ hij: from 1

has the d e s i r e d LiB to × I • LiB

properties. is d e f i n e d if

Now and is c l e a r l y B---~ B' a homotopy in I and

ni£ i .

Finally,

g ~ g':

B E R N C, t h e n Lig = L i g n i ~ i = nigi~ i ~ , This completes the p r o o f of n ,g i £ i = Lig 'ni~ i ~ Lig ' , , (iii) and of the t h e o r e m . relationships are c l o s e l y • i of ia 0 .

We remark Propositions In fact, Q~

t h a t the c a t e g o r i c a l

1 and 5 and of the t h e o r e m functor LZ: T

related.

the c o m p o s i t e

is p r e c i s e l y

, and the a d j u n c t i o n ~: HomT(X,U=B) 1 factors U -I • H o m i(Q X,B) (U~ = U)

of P r o p o s i t i o n

as the c o m p o s i t e L

HornT (X,UKB) The v e r i f i c a t i o n the d e f i n i t i o n s .

~ Homl (~X,KB) statements

_~ H o m i (Q~X,B) . only a glance at

of t h e s e

requires

3 We shall of the p r e v i o u s promised extension

INFINITE here

LOOP

SPACES the implications loop s p a c e s of the w o r k

summarize for

section

infinite

and g i v e t h e about the out

applications. of o u r r e s u l t s

We then make to u n b o u n d e d

a few remarks spectra

and p o i n t

an i n t e r e s t i n g

collection

of c o n n e c t i v e to say t h a t initial space

cohomology X 6 T B0

theories.

It is c u s t o m a r y loop s p a c e If X if X is the as an

is an i n f i n i t e of an ~ - s p e c t r u m that B.

is g i v e n

H-space,

it is r e q u i r e d

its p r o d u c t

-

471

-

be h o m o t o p i c valence X

to the p r o d u c t > aB 1 . loop map g. = B0

induced from the h o m o t o p y a map f 6 T

equi-

Similarly, if f

is said to be go of a of T h e o r e m see that if I.

an infinite m a p of

is the initial m a p M: aS > nl

~-spectra ~B

The functor and ~g

4 satisfies the identical

= go •

We t h e r e f o r e

infinite

loop spaces and m a p s are o b t a i n e d to i n c l u s i o n a-spectra and m a p s in

we r e s t r i c t a t t e n t i o n If f: X---> X'

is any infinite

loop map,

then T h e o r e m 6

implies the e x i s t e n c e loop maps

of a c o m m u t a t i v e

d i a g r a m of i n f i n i t e

I 1
X' such that infinite valences. If X is an infinite CW-complex, f' is a p e r f e c t and g g'> Y' infinite and g' loop spaces are w e a k h o m o t o p y type of a c o u n t a b l e of B o a r d m a n map Y g: X and V o g t ~ Y then it follows

X

g>

Y

(3.1)

loop m a p b e t w e e n p e r f e c t equi-

loop space of the h o m o t o p y from a r g u m e n t s loop and

[i, p. 15] that there g

is an infinite equivalence

such that

is a h o m o t o p y in

is the initial

space of a s p e c t r u m

~S ~ W.

Combining that ~ X' type

this fact w i t h theorem, and

(v) of T h e o r e m of T h e o r e m

4, the remarks

preceding f: X

(iii)

6, we see that if

is any infinite of c o u n t a b l e

loop map b e t w e e n

spaces of the h o m o t o p y

CW-complexes,

then there is a h o m o t o p y c o m m u t a t i v e

- 472

diagram that f'

of infinite

loop maps, infinite

of the form given loop map and g

in and

(I), such g' are

is a p e r f e c t equivalences. Therefore

homotopy

nothing

is lost for the purposes of infinite

of w e a k and and

homotopy

theory

if the n o t i o n s

loop spaces

maps are replaced maps,

by those of p e r f e c t for homotopy

infinite

loop spaces

and similarly

theory provided

that we re-

strict a t t e n t i o n CW-complexes.

to spaces

of the homotopy

type of c o u n t a b l e

The promised topy groups of infinite i.

comparison

of stable and u n s t a b l e

homo-

loop spaces if Y

is now an easy c o n s e q u e n c e is an infinite loop space, gives a map

of P r o p o s i t i o n say Y = B0

In fact,

where

B E ~S, then that p r o p o s i t i o n ) LMB in I. in i, and T h e o r e m

¢.(LMB) : Q.LoMB n(MB) : MB > LB Qy by a = Qn 0 (MB),

6 gives

a map

Define maps 8 ~ LoMB < Y and y y a is c l e a r l y since equi-

a ~ QLoM B
t

S = ¢. 0 (LMB), equivalence,

Y = no (MB). so is

a weak homotopy Q: Y > T

and therefore

is easily v e r i f i e d Since ¢.,0(LMB)

to preserve w e a k h o m o t o p y

valences. LOMB, nn(QX) fore K S(Y) infinite 8,

• T.(LeMB) on homotopy.

is the identity map of If X E T, then X. There-

is an e p i m o r p h i s m ~th

S(X) , the = Kn p(Y) = y:ls,~,:

stable homotopy > E,(y) that if

group of

~,(Qy)

gives f: Y

an e p i m o r p h i s m ) Y' is any

) ~,(Y). loop map,

It is clear then

p(y,) (Qf), = f,p(y) . ~S(y)

> En(Y')

.

-

4 7 3

-

It should be observed loop spaces

that the notions

of infinite

and maps are not very useful since the composite loop map.

from a c a t e g o r i c a l loop maps need infinite loop maps B with

point of v i e w

of infinite

not be an infinite f: X B0 = Y giving > Y and

In fact, g i v e n

g: Y

) Z, there need be no spectrum

which f

is simultaneously

the range of a map of spectra giving g. One

and the domain

of a map of spectra infinite

can get around topological

this by requiring and using

loop spaces

to be to

monoids

a classifying

space argument These

allow c o m p o s i t i o n tions m o t i v a t e in section i.

of maps,

but this t

is awkward.

condi-

the use of

in the d e f i n i t i o n

of homology

The following be used

application of i.

of our results, illustrates ~(n)

w h i c h will the technical and to

in the computation of the category F (n), where of maps monoids

H*(BF), Let

convenience let F = i~

= HomT(sn,s n)

the limit

is taken w i t h respect F (n) and If F

suspension topological fine that

S : F (n) under

) F(n+l) .

are

composition by

of maps.

X 6 T, de° f), by the com-

y: ~nx x ~(n) is, with flnx

> ~nx

y(x,f) with

= ~-n(un(x)

identified

HomT(S°,~nx),

posite nnx×~(n)~n×l> This defines HOmT(sn,x) xF(n)COmposition ) H o m y ( s n , x ) an operation of gi: ~(n) ~Bi+1 on nnx. > Bi
N ~-n

> ~nx.

N o w let be a homotopy fn: B0 in-

B = {Bi,f i} 6 aS, and let verse and to gn: fi" ~nBn Define > B0

homotopy

equivalences

> ~nBn and define

in the obvious

inductive m a n n e r

- 474 -

Yn = g n y ( f n Observe since that Yn fails

x i): B 0 × ~(n) to d e f i n e condition with y on

> B0 . of ~(n) on B0 Of

an o p e r a t i o n

the a s s o c i a t i v i t y Yn coincides

(xf)g = x(fg) ~nB n if

is lost.

course, ativity

B 6 i, and a s s o c i diagram:

is t h e n r e t a i n e d .

Now consider x N (n) F Y

the f o l l o w i n g

~nBn

~nB n

B0

×

~(n)

fn+l×l>

a n+l

!~ n f ~
l Bn+l

Bn+ 1 x F (n) [l×S

ll×S fn+l x 1 B 0 x ~(n)

/

Y ~ ~n

_n+l g > BO

> ~ n + I B n + 1 × ~(n+l)

The l e f t - h a n d y is n a t u r a l

triangle on

and s q u a r e

commute hence

trivially.

Clearly x i).

n-fold

loop maps,

~nfn Y = y(~nf

y(1 x S) = y

since • Sf) gi . are we

~ - n ( ~ n ( x ) f ) = ~ - ( n + l ) ~ ( ~ n ( x ) f ) = p-(n+l) (~n+l (x) gn is h o m o t o p i c to gn+l~nfn, then and if B 6 R .

and the if

chosen have

retractions,

gn __ g n + l ~ n f n

Thus

B 6 R

Yn = Yn+1 (i × S) x ~

and w e can d e f i n e Since the r i g h t - h a n d in f's R, the m a p and g's triangle Y is n o t is

Y = lim Yn: B0 > not t r a n s f o r m e d natural maps, on R.

~ B0 .

naturally For

by m a p s

B E i, the trivializes. Y: B0 × ~

are t h e i d e n t i t y for e a c h h: B and B £ i, > B' f £ ~.

and the d i a g r a m

Therefore, and for if

we h a v e an o p e r a t i o n is a m a p in i, t h e n

> B0

h 0 (xf) = h 0 (x) f

x 6 B0

- 475 -

Stasheff Lashof space

[unpublished]

has g e n e r a l i z e d work of Dold and monoid M operates on a

[2] to show that if a t o p o l o g i c a l X, then there is a n a t u r a l way X M > XXMEM > EM > BM ) BM.

to form an a s s o c i a t e d principal consist if

quasifibration quasifibration of the h o m o t o p y B £ i and

to the c l a s s i f y i n g As usual, let F c ~

equivalences

of spheres.

By restriction, of F on Y

Y = B0, we have an o p e r a t i o n form YxEEF. Of course,

and w e can is n a t u r a l

therefore on i.

this c o n s t r u c t i o n

Boardman inclusions between

and Vogt

[1] have p r o v e n

that the s t a n d a r d loop maps struc-

U c O c PL c Top c F loop spaces w i t h sum (on

are all i n f i n i t e respect

infinite

to the H-space

tures given by W h i t n e y homotopic

F, this s t r u c t u r e used above).

is w e a k l y We n o w k n o w of F G on of

to the c o m p o s i t i o n i

product

that we can pass to (spaces h o m o t o p y F.

and obtain n a t u r a l

operations

equivalent

to) each of these sub H-spaces spaces BG.

The same is true for their c l a s s i f y i n g operation if of F on F

Observe to

that the r e s u l t i n g its product. product since map.) of

is not e q u i v a l e n t under

(In fact, ~BI, w h e r e

~ £ B0

is the i d e n t i t y ~f = ~ for all

the loop

B £ t, then

f E F

composing

any map w i t h the trivial map gives to u n d e r s t a n d by F

the trivial sig-

It w o u l d be of i n t e r e s t of these operations GXFEF and

the g e o m e t r i c

nificance

on its various

sub H-spaces

and of the spaces I shall 7, : H. (B) ® H. (~)

BGxFEF. that, w i t h H, (B) rood p coefficients, of Hopf

show e l s e w h e r e ) H. (B)

gives

a structure

- 476 N

algebra where algebra over

over

H,(F)

for

B 6 i

(and, 1.

afortiori, H, (B)

for

B ~ SS),

H, (B) = K, (B 0) over

as in s e c t i o n algebra

is also a K o p f algebra and

the o p p o s i t e

of the S t e e n r o d is d e f i n e d

the D y e r - L a s h o f operations

algebra, introduced on

which

in terms in

of the These cate-

homology

by D y e r i.

and L a s h o f

[3].

operations gory three known for

are all n a t u r a l H, : i > ?

The a p p r o p r i a t e by specifying and,

range how

is d e t e r m i n e d operations

these

types

of h o m o l o g y these

commute,

coupled with

information, to c o m p u t e Finally,

commutation

formulas

are all that is

required

H* (BF) . we observe of s e c t i o n that t h e r e is a n a t u r a l spectra. way Let E Z} to

extend denote such

our r e s u l t s

2 to u n b o u n d e d

the c a t e g o r y w h o s e

objects and

are s e q u e n c e s B i = n-iB0 map such for that

{Bi,fili and

that )

{Bi,f ill > 0} ~ S ~Bi+ 1

fi : Bi

is the i d e n t i t y g = if {gill 6 Z} i < 0.

i < 0.

The maps

in

are s e q u e n c e s and tor gi = ~gi+l C: S • Sif

{gill > 0} 6 S completion if i > 0 and funcand

We have

an o b v i o u s by CiB = B i for C

defined

on o b j e c t s

CiB = n-iB 0 for

i < o, w i t h

Cif = fi

i a 0

Cif = 1

i < 0, and d e f i n e d with

similarly

on maps.

is an i s o m o r p h i s m functor D of S ~ • S. define

of c a t e g o r i e s For e a c h to be interest. {gill 6 Z}

inverse

the e v i d e n t defined under C

forgetful

of our p r e v i o u s l y the i m a g e of ~

subcategories in ~.

is of p a r t i c u l a r {B ili E Z } and and for

Its o b j e c t s such that

and m a p s

are s e q u e n c e s for all i

B i = nBi+ 1

gi = ~gi+l

- 477 -

all

i.

Clearly

all of the results of s e c t i o n 2 r e m a i n v a l i d for

the c o m p l e t e d categories. Our results s h o w that any r e a s o n a b l e by w h i c h w e m e a n any c o h o m o l o g y B 6 ~ c o h o m o l o g y theory,

theory d e t e r m i n e d by a s p e c t r u m theory d e t e r m i n e d b y a

N ~, is i s o m o r p h i c to a c o h o m o l o g y T ~ ~

s p e c t r u m in

and that any t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of s u c h t h e o r i e s g: B
> B'

d e t e r m i n e d by a map

in

~

A ~

is n a t u r a l l y e q u i T ~ ~. Recall

v a l e n t to a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n that Hn(x,A;B)

d e t e r m i n e d by a map in

= HomHT(X/A,Bn) B ~ ~ = 0 on CW pairs for n > 0,

defines the c o h o m o l o g y t h e o r y d e t e r m i n e d by (X,A). where P C a l l s u c h a theory c o n n e c t i v e is a point. loop space Of course, Y if

Hn(p;B)

H-n(p;B)

= E 0 (~nB 0) = Kn(B0). (additive)

Any i n f i n i t e

determines

a connective

c o h o m o l o g y t h e o r y since, by a c l a s s i f y i n g s p a c e argument, w e can obtain CB 6 ~ for such that n > 0; B0 is h o m o t o p y e q u i v a l e n t to and V o g t Y and

K 0 (Bn) = 0

a c c o r d i n g to B o a r d m a n

[1], any Y up to

such c o h o m o l o g y t h e o r y is so o b t a i n a b l e homotopy equivalence CQ~X determines for of i n f i n i t e

and d e t e r m i n e s If

loop spaces.

X 6 T, then since = h s(X) n i~

a connective n > 0, and

cohomology

theory,

CnQ~X = QSnX n > 0.

H -n(P;CQ~x)

= nn(Qx)

In v i e w of P r o p o s i t i o n

i, t h e s e t h e o r i e s p l a y

a privileged

role a m o n g all c o n n e c t i v e c o h o m o l o g y t h e o r i e s , their properties might prove B £ i, then C~ B: C Q ~ B 0 to be of interest. determines

and an a n a l y s i s of Observe that if

> CB

a natural transforma-

- 478 -

tion of cohomology theories if the theory d e t e r m i n e d by is e p i m o r p h i c

H * ( X , A ; C Q = B 0) CB

) H*(X,A;CB)

and,

is connective,

this t r a n s f o r m a t i o n

on the cohomology of a point.

- 479 -

BIBLIOGRAPHY [i] Boardman, spaces", (196 8). [2] Dold, A. and Lashof, R., "Principal Quasifibrations of Bundles", and J. M. and Vogt, R. M. "Homotopy Everything HMimeographed Notes, Math. Inst., Univ. of Warwick,

Fibre Homotopy Equivalence 3; 285-305, [3] (1959).

Ill. J. Math.,

Dyer, E. and Lashof,

R., "Homology of Iterated Loop Spaces", (1962). S. , "Acyclic Models", A m e r .

Amer. J. Math., 84; 35-88,
[4] Eilenberg, S. and MacLane, (1953).

J.

Math., 75; 189-199,
[5] Hanner,

O., "Some Theorems

on Absolute Neighborhood

Retracts",

Ark. Mat., i; 389-408,
[6 ]

(1950). H. , Dimension Theory, Princeton

Hurewicz, W. and Wallman, Univ. Press, (1961).

[7]

Kuratowski,

C., "Sur Les Espaces Localement Connexes et n"

P~aniens en Dimension [8] Milgram,

Fund. Math., 24; 269-287,

(1935)

R. J., "Iterated Loop Spaces", Annals of Math., (1966).

84; 386-403, [9] Milnor, plex",

J., "On Spaces Having the Komotopy Type of a CW-com-

Trans. A.M.S. , 90; 272-280,

(1959). Inc., (1966).

[i0] Spanier, E. H., Algebraic Topology, McGraw-Hill, [ll] Swan, R. G., "The Homology of Cyclic Products", 95; 27-68, (1960).

Trans. A.M.S.,