
CATEGORIES
OF SPECTRA AND
INFINITE
LOOP SPACES
by J. Peter May
At the Seattle culation where of H,(F;Zp)
conference,
I presented
a calp,
as an algebra, and F(n)
for odd primes
F = lim F(n) >
is the topological
monoid
of homotopy was m e a n t H*(BF;Zp). all primes DyerLashof is somewhat herent ings.
equivalences
of an nsphere. step towards
This c o m p u t a t i o n the c o m p u t a t i o n H*(BF;Zp), and of
as a preliminary Since then,
I have c a l c u l a t e d
for
p, as a Hopf algebra algebras. lengthy,
over the Steenrod
The calculation,
while not difficult,
and I was not able to write up a coin time for inclusion required in these proceedstudy of
presentation
The c o m p u t a t i o n operations
a systematic
homology
on nfold study,
and infinite
loop spaces.
As a result of this H,(2nsnx;Zp),
I have also been able to compute over the Steenrod p. algebra, This [3] and
as a Hopf algebra spaces X
for all connected result, Milgram which
and prime numbers
generalizes
those of Dyer and Lashof descriptions of both
[8], yields and
explicit H,(QX;Zp),
H,(~nsnx;Zp) of H,(X;Zp).
QX = li~> 2nsnx,
as functors
An essential a systematic and infinite
first
step towards
these results
was
categorical loop spaces.
analysis
of the notions
of nfold will
The results
of this analysis

449

be presented relationships H.(~nsnx;zp)
here.
These
include certain adjoint functor the conceptual are functors reason that of H,(X;Zp) to maps moti
that provide and
H,(QX;Zp)
and that precisely between spectra.
relate maps between These categorical
spaces
considerations
vate the introduction I and i, of
of certain nonstandard spectra and
categories, and the
(bounded)
~spectra,
main purpose of this paper gories.
is to propagandize
these cate
It is clear from their definitions are considerably easier
that these
categories
to work with topolog
ically than are the usual ones, they are sufficiently
but it is not clear that We shall
large to be of interest.
remedy this by showing that, cise, these categories
in a sense to be made prefor the purposes of (bounded)
are equivalent
of homotopy spectra and spectra
theory to the standard ~spectra.
categories
We extend the theory to unbounded
in the last section. The material here is quite simple, both as category to
theory and as topology, have useful concrete
but it turns out nevertheless We shall
applications.
indicate two
of these at the end of the paper. that there spaces, is a natural epimorphism,
In the first, we observe realized by a map of loop by
from the stable homotopy
groups of an infinite In the second,
space to its ordinary homotopy coupling our results with other
groups.
information,
we shall conspaces and
struct a collection
of interesting
topological

4 5 0

maps;
the other
information
by itself gives no hint of the
possibility
of p e r f o r m i n g
this construction.
1
THE C A T E G O R I E S
in
AND H O M O L O G Y
In order to sensibly loop spaces, framework it is n e c e s s a r y
study the h o m o l o g y
of iterated
to have a precise
categorical
in w h i c h to work.
It is the purpose of this sec
tion to p r e s e n t We let
such a framework. T denote the c a t e g o r y of t o p o l o g i c a l and
spaces w i t h b a s e  p o i n t we let
and b a s e  p o i n t
p r e s e r v i n g maps,
~: HOmT(X,~y) denote the standard loop and s u s p e n s i o n We define Ln, to have objects B i = ~Bi+ I 6 T gi = ~gi+l 0 ~ i ~ n. jects adjunction functors.
) HomT(SX,Y ) homeomorphism relating
(i.i) the
the c a t e g o r y
of nfold
loop sequences,
B = {Bil0 ~ i ~ n}
such that such that for
and maps
g = {gil0 ~ i ~ n} B 0 = niBi and
6 T; c l e a r l y We define
go = nigi
t = i
to be the c a t e g o r y w i t h obB i = ~Bi+ I E T T; c l e a r l y We call L~ loop and m a p s
B = {Bili k 0}
such that
g = {gili k 0} B 0 = ~iBi and
such that go = ~agi
gi = n g i + 1 E for all ~spectra
i ~ 0.
the category sequences) . Un: ~ ) T Un B
of p e r f e c t For all by and
(or of infinite forgetful
n, we define and
functors Of course, if We
UnB = B 0 Ung
Ung = go"
n < ~,
are nfold
loop spaces and maps.

451

say t h a t a s p a c e if map X = U=B f 6 T
X £ T
is a p e r f e c t B £ i~
infinite
loop s p a c e
for some o b j e c t is a p e r f e c t g ~ i~o
and we say that a if f = U=g
infinite
loop m a p
for some m a p
We s e e k a d j o i n t s the f u n c t o r s Qn x = Un. For
Qn:
T
>
In,
1 ~ n ~ ~ , to
n < ~ and
, define Qnf = {~nisnfl0 in Q: T ~ i ~ n}. in. For ) [ by re
{~nisnxl0 Qn x and
~ i ~ n} Qn f
Clearly, the case letting spect
are o b j e c t s
and maps
n = ~
, we
first define
a functor
Q X = li~ ~nsnx, w h e r e
the l i m i t is t a k e n w i t h
to the i n c l u s i o n s ~nui (Isn+Ix) : ~ n s n x ..> ~ n + I s n + l x
For
f: X ~ that
Y, w e
define
Qf = l i ~ ~nsnf: and i~ Qf = nQSf. by Q~X =
QX
~ QY.
It
is c l e a r define Q~f =
QX = ~ Q S X Q~:
We can therefore {QSiXli > 0} and
a functor
T>
{Qsifli > 0}.
For each
n,
1 ~ n ~ =
, t h e r e is an a d j u n c t i o n
~n: H ° m T ( X , U n B ) Proof. posites snx Observe first
" H°min(QnX'B)" that the f o l l o w i n g t w o com
are the i d e n t i t y . s n u  n (isnx ) • sn~nsnx un ( i n n s n x ) > snx, X £ Y
(1.2)
~n ( i s n ~ n x ) ~nx ~nsn~nx
~nn
(l~nx) ~ ~nx, X £ T (1.3)
 452 
In fact, in
since
~(f)
= u(inz)
• Sf
for any m a p
f: Y
• ~Z ; this
T, ~n (l~nsnx) (1.2)
. sn~n(isnx) of
= ~n~n(isnx) (1.3)
= isnx
proves natural Tn: iT
and the proof
is similar. ) i~ and
Now define
transformations > UnQ n by
~n: QnUn
~n(B) ~(B) Tn(X)
= {flni~n(1B0)I0
~ i ~ n}:
QnUn B
> B • B if if
if
n < ~;
(1.4)
= {li~) ~ J u i + J ( 1 B 0 ) l i = ~n(isn x) x
~ 0}. Q = U = B = nnsnx
if
n = ~;
) UniX
n < ~; n = =.
(1.5)
~(X)
= lim uJ(IsJx) : X> that (1.2) and
U~Q=X
= QX that
We c l a i m posites
(1.3)imply for all n.
the f o l l o w i n g
two com
are the
identity
Qn X QnYn(X)) Un B Tn (UnB) For for since factors n < ~, (1.6)
QnUn~n x
#n (Qn x)
U n ~ n (B) (1.2)
> Qn x, x £ Y
(1.6)
¢
UnQnUn B
~ UnB , B E in by a p p l i c a t i o n of
(1.7) ~ni
follows (1.7)
from
0 ~ i ~ n
and
is just
(1.3)
applied that
to
X = B n, T~(X)
B 0 = UnB = SnB n. as the c o m p o s i t e
For
n = =, o b s e r v e
x ~i (Isx)) ~sx n~ (sx) nQSX = Qx
It f o l l o w s ~iT~(six) Observe that T~(X)
= uiT=(six)
for all
i > 0
since
= u  i ( a T = ( S i+Ix) that
• uI (isi+ix))
= U (i+l) T~ (si+1 X) .
also
aJ~(si+Jx)
: ~Jsi+Jx
) ~JQsi+Jx
= Qsix

453

is just the natural inclusion obtained from the definition of Qsix as lim ~Jsi+Jx. > We therefore have that:
@~(Q=X) i " Q=T=(X) i = li~> ~J~ i+j (IQx) • li~) ~ksi+k~(i+k) T=(si+kx) • ~Jsi+J (i+j)T~(si+Jx)
= lim~ nJ~ i+j (lQx)
= li)m
~J T~ (si+Jx)
=
IQS ix • lim) uk(IskBQ)
U~@~(B)
• T~(U~B)
= limm ~J~J (IB0)
= li~> ~JuJ(IB0)
• u j (1SJB0) = li~ IB0 = IB0 the second equality is an observation The third equalities follow from
In both calculations,
about the limit topology. formulas (1.2) and
(1.3) respectively. if if f: x g: Qn x @n ~ UnB ) B
Finally, define is a map in T (1.8) (1.9)
@n(f) = @n(B)
• Qn f
~n(g) = Ung • Tn(X)
is a map in in
It is a standard fact that ~n since the composites If
is an adjunction with inverse (1.7) are each the identity. = H,(UnB), where hom~. We
(1.6) and
B 6 in, we define
H,(B)
ology is taken with coefficients regard H,
in any Abelian group
as a functor defined on
in, but we deliberately
do not specify a range category.
Indeed, the problem of (perfect)
determining the homology operations on nfold and
infinite loop spaces may be stated as that of obtaining an appropriate algebraic description of the range category. It
 454
follows easily from ~n (X). : H. (X) is adjoint to sense,
(1.2) and
(1.5) of the proof above that is a monomorphism. Qn X are, in . Since Qn
) H. (UnQnX)
Un, the objects
in a w e l l  d e f i n e d It is therefore H. (X), with
free objects
in the category H. (Qn X)
natural to expect values
to be a functor of range category. ~ = Zp
in the appropriate
I have proven
that this is the case if functor. map in f: X
and have computed the if B E in ~n(f) : Qn X then any > B
By the previous proposition, ~ UnB in T induces a map
Ln, and the functor describing
H. (Qn x)
is g e o m e t r i c a l l y is deterin terms of
free in the sense that m i n e d by
~n (f)*" H. (Qn x) > H. (B) > H. (UnB)
f* = Un#n (f)*~n (X). H. (X)
of the homology operations the functor.
that go into the definition
In this sense, we can geometrically since ~B).H. (QnUn B)
realize is
enough free objects an epimorphism.
~ H. (B)
All of these statements
are analogs of wellThe category is the appro
known facts about the cohomology of spaces. of u n s t a b l e algebras over the Steenrod
algebra
priate range category for cohomology with Products of the Qn x K(Zp,n) 's
Zpcoefficients.
play the role analogous to that of classes play the role anal
and their fundamental
ogous to that of
H.(X) c H.(Qn x) . i, we can show the applica
By use of Proposition
bility of the method of acyclic models to the homology of iterated loop spaces. natural transformations The applications envisaged are to
defined for iterated loop spaces but

4 5 5

not
for a r b i t r a r y Let
spaces• T
The
argument denote over
needed any
is p u r e l y let
categorical. A A denote , and > the M be
temporarily of m o d u l e s of m o d e l Amodule R: by T R(X) > A
category,
category be the
a commutative in T. Let S
ring
let A
a set free If A
objects functor, is any
F: S
where functor,
is the define on a
category functor
of sets. R: T )
= F[ U H o m T ( M , X ) M6 M
× R(M)]
objects f: X
and ) Y,
R(f) (~,r) then
=
(f • ~,r) and R by
on m o r p h i s m s , r £ R(M). l(X) (~,r) by M
where Define
if a natReexists > R
~ 6 HomT(M,X) I: R ~ to b e
ural call
transformation that R is s a i d
= R(v) (r). if t h e r e I  ~: R
representable ) R such
a natural is the we have
transformation natural
~: R
that
identity the
transformation.
With
these
notations,
following
lemma.
Lemma
2
Let and QM = let R: T
~: H o m T ( X , U B ) A and QM. be let
) HomL(QX,B)
be
an a d j u n c t i o n by Then M. S Define is
a functor
representable L ) A.
{ Q M I M 6 M}
S = R • U:
r e p r e s e n t a b le by
Proof. n: R • U ) S by
Define
a natural =
transformation for transforma
n(B) (v,r) Write as
(~(~) ,R~I(IQM) (r)) I' for for R. the n a t u r a l We have
~: M > UB, tion l'n = ~ > S
r £ R(M). defined ) RU = S
above since
IU: R U
~'n(B) (~,r)
= s~(~) [R~ I (IQM) (r) ] = R [ U ~ ( ~ )
•
~I(IQM) ] (r) = R(~) (r)
456
Therefore, l'(n~U)
if
~: R
> R
satisfies
k~ = i: R
> R, then the result.
= IU • ~U = l: S Of course, if ¢
> S, and this proves is an a d j u n c t i o n j
as in the lemma T, then
and if
Tj
denotes
the product of > HomLj(QDx,B)
factors
cJ: HomTj(X,UJB) (X E T j , B E t j ). R: T j ~ A and
is also an a d j u n c t i o n to functors
Thus the lemma applies RuJ: ij ) A. let
Returning singular
to topology, functor, in ~ A
C,: T
> A
be the in A. The
chain complex to C,Un:
with coefficients for 1 ~ n ~ ~ on i~
lemma applies remark above, and C a r t e s i a n M =
and, by the (tensor With
to the usual products
related
functors
of singular
chain complexes). in T, we have
{Am} , the standard if
set of m o d e l s and
UnQnA m = ~nsnA m are c o n t r a c t i b l e therefore models nfold
n < ~
U~Q~A m = QAm; objects
these spaces are
and the m o d e l We conclude
{QnAm } c in
acyclic.
that the m e t h o d
of acyclic of
[4] is a p p l i c a b l e and p e r f e c t
to the study of the h o m o l o g y loop spaces.
infinite
2
COMPARISONS
OF C A T E G O R I E S
OF S P E C T R A
The w o r k of the p r e v i o u s category t is a r e a s o n a b l e that i
section
shows that the but
object of study c o n c e p t u a l l y ,
it is not obvious interest. classical
is large enough to be of t o p o l o g i c a l
For example, groups
it is not clear that the infinite to p e r f e c t infinite
are b/mmotopy e q u i v a l e n t
loop spaces.
We shall show that,
from the point of v i e w of

457

homotopy g o r y of proceed
theory, (bounded) by stages
i
is in f a c t e q u i v a l e n t To d o this,
to t h e u s u a l
care
aspectra.
w e s h a l l h a v e to more
through a sequence of s p e c t r a .
of s u c c e s s i v e l y
restrictive
categories
By a spectrum, B = {Bi,fili is a map. sequence ~ 0}, where g: B Bi
we shall mean a sequence Bi is a s p a c e a n d fi: Bi > ~Bi+ I
By a m a p of m a p s gi:
> B' > B~ l
of s p e c t r a w e s h a l l m e a n a such that the following dia
grams a r e h o m o t o p y
commutative, g B 1 ±
i k 0.
> B'. 1
fi
1
~Bi+ I We c a l l th e r e s u l t i n g inclusion spectrum I S
~gi+l
1'
~ S. spectra
fi
(2.1)
~B' i+l W e say t h a t B £ S is an
category fi
if e a c h
is a n i n c l u s i o n . by l e t t i n g (2.1) I
We obtain a map in comI
the c a t e g o r y be a m a p in
of i n c l u s i o n
s u c h t h a t the d i a g r a m s for e a c h S.) i k 0.
actually
m u t e on the n o s e subcategory if e a c h fi of
(Thus, B 6 S
is n o t a f u l l mspectrum mS be the and
We say t h a t
is an We let
is a h o m o t o p y of S
equivalence. objects
full s u b c a t e g o r y we let
whose
a r e the of
mspectra, I whose B 6 al
al = I N aS
be the f u l l
subcategory
objects
a r e the i n c l u s i o n
nspectra.
A spectrum if Bi R
w i l l be s a i d to be a r e t r a c t i o n mation r e t r a c t of mBi+ 1
spectrum i.
is a d e f o r denote the
for a l l
W e let
 458 
full s u b c a t e g o r y spectra. B 6 i objects
of i
~I
whose
objects
are the retraction of in R, s i n c e R if
Clearly,
is a f u l l s u b c a t e g o r y fi = 1 and then any map in i
we may take of i
between of and
w i l l be a m a p (2.1).
by t h e c o m m u t a t i v i t y
the d i a g r a m s inclusions
Thus we have the following
categories
i c R c
nl c
aS
and
I c S . C, if g,g': to B
(2.2) > B' g' if g homoHC are
For e a c h of t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s are m a p s gi is a in C, t h e n w e say t h a t to ' gi in T g
is h o m o t o p i c i gi
is h o m o t o p i c (weak)
for e a c h if e a c h
We say that is a (weak)
homotopy
equivalence C C
topy e q u i v a l e n c e . and a q u o t i e n t
Now each H: C
has a h o m o t o p y > HC.
category of HC
functor
The objects of HC
the s a m e as t h o s e of equivalence clusions C c D have sions of classes (2.2) g ~ g'
a n d the m a p s in C.
are homotopy
of m a p s
Note
t h a t e a c h of t h e inin t h e s e n s e t h a t in D. if
is h o m o t o p y in C, t h e n HC E C
preserving g ~ g'
and induced since
We therefore incluin
functors if gig'
> HD and
and these are still in D, t h e n
g ~ g'
g ~ g'
C.
The following needed in o r d e r definitions, d u e to S w a n [ii], w i l l b e
to o b t a i n p r e c i s e
comparisons
of o u r v a r i o u s
categories
of s p e c t r a .
Definitions
3
(i)
A category
C
is an
Hcategory
if t h e r e
is an

459

equivalence such that fg
relation f ~ f' and
, c a l l e d homotopy, g ~ g' implies
on its h o m sets whenever HC and a
fg ~ f'g'
is defined. funotor (ii)
We then have a q u o t i e n t c a t e g o r y
quotient
H: C~ HC.
C be any c a t e g o r y and D an Hcategory. ) D > HD is a function, is a functor. for each in C. C E C If > D on objects and maps, This amounts and T(fg) to re~ T(f)T(g) Hcategory,
Let T: C C
A prefunctor such that quiring whenever HT:
T(I C) ~ IT(C) fg is d e f i n e d
C is also an
we say that a p r e f u n c t o r if f ~ g in C implies
T: C
is h o m o t o p y p r e s e r v i n g in T 0. Clearly, T
T(f) ~ T(g) if
is h o m o t o p y
preserving
if and only HT = T,H. C > D
determines
a functor
T.: HC > H0 (iii) transformation maps in D n(C):
such that Let S,T:
be prefunctors. ) T
A natural
of p r e f u n c t o r s > T(C), f: C
n: S
is a c o l l e c t i o n of T(f) n(C) ~ n(C')S(f) is said to be a
S(C)
C E C, such that • C' in C. n
for each m a p
natural equivalence transformation n(C)~(C) natural
of p r e f u n c t o r s ~: T
if there exists a n a t u r a l • S such that for each n: S Hn: HS a natural > T • HT C E C. A
of p r e f u n c t o r s and
~ 1T(C)
~(C) n(C) ~ IS(C) of p r e f u n c t o r s of functors preserving,
transformation
determines and, if
a natural transformation S and T are h o m o t o p y n.: S.
transformation if n is a if defined,
of functors natural n.
> T.
such that
n,H = Hn; Hn
equivalence
of prefunctors,
then
and,
are n a t u r a l
equivalences
of functors.

460

(iv) preserving is a d j o i n t prefunctors each topic D 6 0 in C
If
S: D
> C between
and
T: C
> D
are h o m o t o p y we say that of T
prefunctors to S ~: TS
Hcategories,
if there exist n a t u r a l > 19 and T: i c
transformations > ST
such that for > SD is homoC £ C 0 to the
the c o m p o s i t e
S~(D) T(SD) : SD SD
to the identity map of ~ (TC) • TT (C): TC TC. > HC If and S > TC and
and for each in
composite
is h o m o t o p i c T
the identity m a p of tors, then S.: HD
are a d j o i n t p r e f u n c > HC are a d j o i n t > HOmH0(T.A,B)
T.: HD
functors,
with adjunction
#. = ~.T.: HOmHc(A,S.B) our v a r i o u s that theory I categories
We can now c o m p a r e The f o l l o w i n g theorem implies
of spectra. to S
is e q u i v a l e n t
for the p u r p o s e s of homotopy topy invariant information
in the sense that no homoattention to to con
is lost by r e s t r i c t i n g in I, and that ~I
spectra and maps of spectra ~S in this sense.
is e q u i v a l e n t
Under r e s t r i c t i o n s compares denote R to
on the types of spaces ~S. To state the of Bi S whose is a
sidered,
it s i m i l a r l y let C
restrictions, objects locally u(fi):
the full s u b c a t e g o r y such that each
are those spectra finite c o u n t a b l e SB i > Bi+ 1
{Bi,f i} simplicial
c o m p l e x and each Observe that if W is B
is simplicial. of S
the full
subcategory Bi
w h o s e objects are those spectra type of a c o u n t a b l e is h o m o t o p y if equivalent
such that each CWcomplex, (in each S) Bi
has the h o m o t o p y W
then every object of C.
to an object of is h o m o t o p y
In fact,
{Bi,f i} 6 W, then simplicial
equivalent
to a locally finite
 461

complex
B1
f
°
by
[9, T h e o r e m
i] ; if
f~ 1
is the composite by chosen homotopy approxito
B~ 1
> B. 1
i > ~Bi+ 1
> ~B.~+
1
determined ~(f[)
equivalences mation {B',f'} Theorem to
B. <> B! 1 1 ~(f.~), then
and if {Bi,f i} to
is a s i m p l i c i a l equivalent
is homotopy
and therefore
B' ~"} 6 C i,~i
4
There such that (i) tors J: I n: 1S > S
is a homotopy
preserving
prefunctor
M: S
> I
There exists > JM, with
a natural
equivalence
of prefunc
inverse
~: JM
> IS, where J.M. is n a t u r a l l y
is the inclusion. to the identity
Therefore of HS.
equivalent
functor
(ii) is a map by ~(B) in I
MJ: if
I
> I
is a functor, ~: MJ
6(JB): > 11
JMJB
> JB
B 6 I, and if then
is defined of
= 6(JB),
is a natural
transformation
functors. (iii) relationship n and J establish and M. an adjoint prefunctor
between
Therefore is an adjunction, and ¢~I (g) = J.g where
¢.: HomHS(A,J.B) ¢.(f)
g: M.A
> HomHI(M.A,B) f: A > J.B,
= ~.(B)M.f,
> B.
• n.(A),
(iv) serving
By restriction, ~S ~ ~I
M
induces
a homotopy
pre
prefunctor
which
satisfies ~I > ~S.
(i) through
(iii) with respect (v)
to the inclusion M
By restriction,
induces
a homotopy
462

preserving through
prefunctor
~S n C
> R N C
which
satisfies
(i)
(iii) w i t h r e s p e c t Proof.
to the inclusion M
R N C
> ~S N C. (i) and
We first c o n s t r u c t Let
and prove Define
(ii) simultaneously. MB = {MiB,Mif } E I MoB = B 0 . constructed. nj: Bj such that (a) ~jnj = i: Bj n~j ) MjB Assume Let and
B = {Bi,f i} 6 S. on i
by induction that MjB,
as follows. Mjf,
Let
j ~ i, and
j < i, have b e e n that
no = 1 = t0
and assume B~ J
further
~j : MjB
have been c o n s t r u c t e d
> Bj
and • ~ j1
nj£j ~ l: MjB and
> MjB
;
(b)
• M31 f = f. . 3I Mi+IB
nn j • fj i ~ M 31 f • nj_ I • of the m a p > Mi+IB denote MiB > ~Mi+IB
Define
to be the m a p p i n g ) Bi+l, let
cylinder ki: SMiB
~(fi ) • S~ i" SMiB the s t a n d a r d Clearly Mif
inclusion,
and define
Mif = u](ki): Consider
is then an inclusion.
the d i a g r a m
S£ i
SMiB ~ Sn i ki=~ (Mif) [ Mi+IB ( ni+~ Here tained hi+ I and £i+i are the inclusion properties j = i + 1. and r e t r a c t i o n cylinders, that follows by obhence [~ (fi) > Bi+ l ~ SB i
by the standard for
of m a p p i n g
(a) is s a t i s f i e d ~i+l " u(Mif)
It is s t a n d a r d
= u(fi)S~i , and
n~i+ I • Mif = fi~i

463

application tained
of
ul.
Now
~ni+l
" fi = M i f
" ni
is ob(b) for
by a s i m p l e
chase
of the diagram. M
This
proves
j = i + 1 maps n(B):
and thus c o n s t r u c t s B > JM_B £(JB) MJB and
on o b j e c t s > B
and c o n s t r u c t s in S. If
£(B) : JMB in I by
B 6 I, then ~(B) g: B that
!
is a m a p m B. in found
(b) and w e can d e f i n e M on maps. and a s s u m e (with Let
= ~(JB): > B' Mjg
We n e x t c o n s t r u c t S. for Define j ~ i
be a m a p have been etc.) • nj;
M 0 g = go such that
= n(B'),
(c) (d) Then, and
n~gj3 = M j g RMjg by
£!3 " M j g ~ gj£j • Mj_ig. of m a p s
with
equality
if
g £ I;
• Mj_If
= Mj_if'
(c) and the d e f i n i t i o n
in the c a t e g o r i e s > ~Bi+l' ' with
S
I, fi£ iMi g ~ flgi~ i ~ ngi+Ifi~i: ' if hi: g 6 [. SMiB Applying × I > B' i+ 1
MiB
equalities a homotopy
u, w e see that t h e r e from hi ' ~SM~g (fi) St l
exists to
gi+lu(fi)S£i, homotopy (x,t) Mi+IB if
and w e agree g 6 I. × I and Write
to c h o o s e [x,t] and
to be the c o n s t a n t [y] for the images of
6 SMiB of
y 6 Bi+ 1
in the m a p p i n g for Mi+IB'.
cylinder Define
u(fi)S~i,
and s i m i l a r l y by
Mi+l g: M i + I B > Mi+IB' (e) Mi+ig[x't]
= ~[SMig(x),2t], [hi(x,2t  i)],
0 ~ t ~ 1/2 1/2 ~ t ~ i.
Mi+iglY] It is t r i v i a l tinuous.
=
[gi+l (Y) ] • that Mi+ig is w e l l  d e f i n e d diagram: and con
to v e r i f y
Now consider
the f o l l o w i n g

464

(Mif) SMiB ~ Mi+1 B ~
~ i+! > Bi+ 1
SMig u (Mif') SMiB'
Mi+] g ~ > M ! + 1 B '~
gi+l B i+i '
q.
l+l
Since and
ni+l (Y) = ' ~i+1
[Y]'
' ni+l
" gi+l
= Mi+Ig
" ni+l from
is o b v i o u s , (a) and a g is in
" Mi+l g ~ gi+l~i+l
then follows square.
simple I, t h e n
c h a s e of the r i g h t  h a n d ~i+lMi+ig since (c) for
!
If the m a p
= gi+l~i+l h i(x,t)
is e a s i l y v e r i f i e d
by e x p l i c i t t.
computation This p r o v e s merely since course,
= gi+1 p (fi) S&i(x) To p r o v e
for all
j = i + i.
(d) for
j = i + l, commutes, square. Of
observe
t h a t the l e f t  h a n d [x,0], that
square clearly pi in to this I, a n d MJ: I >
~(Mif) (x) = (d) p r o v e s of
and a p p l y Mg is a m a p
(c) c o m p l e t e s I is c l e a r l y such
the p r o o f a functor. that
(ii) of the t h e o r e m If Z: M i + I B
since
> Mi+IB'
is any m a p w h a t e v e r
Zni+ 1 ~ n i + l g i + 1 , t h e n ~ nl+igi+l~i+ 1 ~ £ni+l£i+ 1 ~ £ . class of Mi+ig is i n d e p e n d e n t easily that since
Mi+ig ~ nl+l$~+lMi+ig It f o l l o w s
t h a t the h o m o t o p y of hi,
of the c h o i c e M: S if > Z
and f r o m this M then
it f o l l o w s
is a p r e f u n c t o r . > B' in S,
is h o m o t o p y
preserving
g ~ g': B
Mig ~ Mig i > 0. (b), and
• ni$ i = nigi~ i ~ !
n 1 gi~i = Mig ! follows

• ni£ i ~ M i g

, (a),
Now
(i) of the t h e o r e m
immediately
from
(c). (iii) To p r o v e (iii), w e m u s t show that the f o l l o w i n g

465

two composites (f) (g) By map. JB n(JB) MB Mn(B) (a) and For
are h o m o t o p i c ) JMJB J~(B) ~ MJMB ~(MB)
to the identity map.
_ JB, B E ~ MB, B 6 S. (f) is the identity = 1 ~ n(B) ~(B) : JMB class of > JMB.
~ (B) = ~ (JB), the composite (g), note that proof ~(JMB) n(JMB) above
By the u n i q u e n e s s applied Since
for the h o m o t o p y M~(B) M
Mi+ig = ~(MB).
to the case M~(B)Mn(B) ~ 1
g = ~(B), we have by the fact that
~ ~(JMB)
is a prefunctor, to the iden
this proves tity.
that the composite
(g) is homotopic
(iv) S and
Since
aS for
and
~I
are full subcategories MB q ~I if
of
I, it suffices
(iv) to prove that (a) and (b) w h i c h to
B E aS, and this follows gj : nBj+ 1 > Bj
from
show that
if
is a homotopy > MjB
inverse
fj, then Mjf.
njgjn~j+ 1 : nMj+IB (v) if and B E aS N C.
is a h o m o t o p y
inverse to
Again,
it suffices on
to show that i, starting MiB
MB q R N C with ~ B = B finite n i,
By induction
n O = 1 = ~Q, we see that each simplicial complex since
is a locally
countable and ~i
and that each m a p Mi+IB SMiB
u (Mi_if),
is simplicial, map
is the m a p p i n g > Bi+ l
cylinder
of the simplicial By Hanner simplicial and,
u(fi)S~i: 3.5],
[i0, p. 151]. locally retract finite (ANR)
[5, C o r o l l a r y complex
every c o u n t a b l e neighborhood
is an absolute [7, p. 284], Mif
by K u r a t o w s k i
the loop space of an A N R is is a closed subspace of the
an ANR.
Since the image of

466

ANR
~Mi+IB , Mif
has the homotopy extension property w i t h MiB [6, p. 86], and therefore ~Mi+IB [i0, p. 31]. MiB is
respect to the ANR
a d e f o r m a t i o n retract of that
This proves
MB £ R N C, as was to be shown• The category I is not only large and convenient. in v i e w of the following in ZX I. We can de
It is also conceptually
satisfactory in Y
o b s e r v a t i o n relating maps fine a functor spectrum of g X that > Y zg z: T ~ I
to maps
by letting and fi
=
be the suspension
.
X, zi x = six is a map in
~ i ( i s i + , x ) Zig = Sig;
If
T, define I. and
it is clear I • T be
is in fact a map in UB = B 0
Let
U = Ui:
the forgetful functor, UZ: T • Y
Ug  go"
Observe that
is the identity functor.
With these notations,
we have the following proposition. Proposition ) Homy(X,UB) is an adjunction. fi: B0 ___> ~iBi 1
)
U: HomI(ZX,B) Proof• inductively by i > 0. If
B = {Bi,f i} 6 I, define
f0 = i, fl = f0' and
fi+l = n i f ~: 7U
. fi 11
if by
Define a natural transformation > B. Since
~(B) = { i(fi) }: TUB = i(fi+l) g: X = g. = i(Rifi
n~i+l (fi+l) ~(B)
• ~I (Isi+IB0) I. For
• fi) = fi~i(fi), ~(g) = @(B)Zg. ZX
is a map in U~(g)
• UB, define Now fi X for
Clearly
= u° (f°)Z0g
is easily v e r i f i e d to be Therefore ~(ZX) = i: ZX > ZX; since
ui(isix):
• ~isix.

4 6 7

we obviously that ~U = i.
have
ZU(Izx)
= I: ZX
>
ZUZX = ZX, this
implies
Finally, R. The f o l l o w i n g to I to
we compare theorem and ~I shows
i
to the c a t e g o r i e s that L is n i c e l y
I, ~I, a n d related of w e a k in
conceptually homotopy variant and m a p s Theorem
is eq%livalent for the p u r p o s e s in the s e n s e
theory
t h a t no w e a k h o m o t o p y attention
information of s p e c t r a 4, it a l s o
is lost by r e s t r i c t i n g in shows L; c o u p l e d that with
to s p e c t r a preceding to R N W
the r e m a r k s
i N W theory.
is eq~livalent
for the p u r p o s e s
of h o m o t o p y
Theorem
6
There formation inclusion,
is a f u n c t o r n: i I
L:
I
>
i
and a natural K: L > I
transis the
of f u n c t o r s such t h a t (i) LK: i
) KL, w h e r e
. L
is t h e
identity
functor
and
L: H o m I ( A , K B ) is an a d j u n c t i o n (ii) to Lg' in If L, and with
) HomL(LA,B) • n(A) Lg for g: L A > B. homotopic is a
LI (g) = Kg in
g ~ g' if
I, t h e n
is w e a k l y > KLB
B E ~I, t h e n
n(B) : B
weak homotopy (iii)
equivalence. Let B 6 R N C; t h e n g ~ g': i. B n(B) : B > KLB > B' in I, t h e n is a h o m o 
topy equivalence Lg ~ Lg': LB
a n d if in
> LB'
Proof. inclusion,
Let
B = {Bi,f i} E I.
Since
each the
fi
is an
w e can d e f i n e
LiB = li~) ~iB i+j' w h e r e
li/nit is
 468 
taken with respect to the inclusions Clearly in ~Li41B = LiB , hence LB £ i. LiB
~Jfi+j: If
~JBi+j > B'
> ~j+IBi+j+l" is a map
g: B
I, define
Lig = li~, ~3gi+j: sJfi+j~Jgi+j
> L.B' 1
; the limit makes by the definition Lg £ t. Define in
sense since of maps n: 11 clusion; = hi(B). in > KL q(B) Now
= ~J+Igi+j+l~Jfi+j ~Li+Ig = Lig, hence hi(B) : B i a map in LiB
I.
Clearly by letting
be the natural
is obviously
since
~qi+l (B) ° fi
(ii) of the theorem is a standard consequence of the limit topology. of i is evident, The fact that and nK: K LK is and
of the definition the identity Lq: L > LKL
functor
> KLK
are easily verified This implies
to be the identity natural to prove (iii).
transformations. If
(i) and it remains
B 6 R, with retractions > Bi
ri: ~Bi+ 1 by
> Bi, define maps
riJ: ~JBi+ j ri,J+l
inductively if j > 0.
r io = i, r i I = r i, and ri+jfi+ j = i, we have define maps ~iqi: B i B 6 C. > Bi is the
= rij~Jri+ j
Since
ri,j+l~Jfi+ j = riJ. ~i = lim riJ: LiB identity that map.
We can therefore > B i. Obviously that
Suppose further > LiB.
Then we claim (v) of Theorem £JBi+ j with i and j Then
ni~ i ~ i: LiB ~JBi+ j
As in the proof of Let us identify for all
4, each
is now an ANR. ~Jfi+j in
its image under
£J+tBi+j+ 1 £Jfi+j
and omit the inclusion maps the inclusion
from the notation.
~JBi+ j x I U £J+IBi+j+ I × I c ~J+iBi+j+ 1 x I is that of a closed homotopy extension subset in an ANR, and it therefore to the ANR has the
property with respect
~J+IBi+j+ 1 •

4 6 9

In particular, tion retract ki: ~Bi+ 1 x I homotopies: kij: of
by
[10, p. 31], each ~Bi+l,
Bi
is a strong deforma
and we assume given homotopies ki: 1 ~ r i rel B..
l
> ~Bi+l,
The ,
k.
1
induce
kij:
nJ+IBi+j+ 1 x I
> nJ+IBi+j+l
1 ~ nJri+ j rel ~JBi+ j , in the obvious
fashion on
j t we can
(kij,t = n3ki+j,t). choose homotopies hij:
We claim that, by induction
• m
hij: n3Bi+ j x I
> ~3Bi+ j , on ~JBi+ j × I. let j > 0. Con
1 ~ riJ rel B i , such that let hi0
hi,j+ 1 = hij
To see this,
be the constant hij
homotopy, for some
hil = k i = ki0
, and suppose given diagram:
sider the following
(~JBi+jxI U ~J+IBi+j+ Ix~)x0
 (~JBi+jxI U ~J+iBi+j+ 1 xl) xI
I~3+I Bi+j+ 1
~. i,
%
j +1
(~j+l
Bi+j+ 1 xI) x0
> (~j+l Bi+j+l xI) xl
N
The unlabeled hij(x,s,t) ~(y,l,t) verified hij = kij fore obtain
arrows are inclusions, if
and
hij
is defined by ~ij (y,0,t) • = y ,
= hij(x,st)
x £ ~3Bi+ j ; and if
= hij(nJri+j(y ),t) that ~ij
y E nJ+IBi+j+1
It is easily and that We can thereDefine
is welldefined
and continuous
on the common parts of their domains. Hi,j+ 1
such that the diagram commutes. It is trivial
hi,j+l (x,s) = Hi,j+] (x,s,l) .
to verify that
470 
hi,j+ 1 li~ hij: from 1
has the d e s i r e d LiB to × I • LiB
properties. is d e f i n e d if
Now and is c l e a r l y B~ B' a homotopy in I and
ni£ i .
Finally,
g ~ g':
B E R N C, t h e n Lig = L i g n i ~ i = nigi~ i ~ , This completes the p r o o f of n ,g i £ i = Lig 'ni~ i ~ Lig ' , , (iii) and of the t h e o r e m . relationships are c l o s e l y • i of ia 0 .
We remark Propositions In fact, Q~
t h a t the c a t e g o r i c a l
1 and 5 and of the t h e o r e m functor LZ: T
related.
the c o m p o s i t e
is p r e c i s e l y
, and the a d j u n c t i o n ~: HomT(X,U=B) 1 factors U I • H o m i(Q X,B) (U~ = U)
of P r o p o s i t i o n
as the c o m p o s i t e L
HornT (X,UKB) The v e r i f i c a t i o n the d e f i n i t i o n s .
~ Homl (~X,KB) statements
_~ H o m i (Q~X,B) . only a glance at
of t h e s e
requires
3 We shall of the p r e v i o u s promised extension
INFINITE here
LOOP
SPACES the implications loop s p a c e s of the w o r k
summarize for
section
infinite
and g i v e t h e about the out
applications. of o u r r e s u l t s
We then make to u n b o u n d e d
a few remarks spectra
and p o i n t
an i n t e r e s t i n g
collection
of c o n n e c t i v e to say t h a t initial space
cohomology X 6 T B0
theories.
It is c u s t o m a r y loop s p a c e If X if X is the as an
is an i n f i n i t e of an ~  s p e c t r u m that B.
is g i v e n
Hspace,
it is r e q u i r e d
its p r o d u c t

471

be h o m o t o p i c valence X
to the p r o d u c t > aB 1 . loop map g. = B0
induced from the h o m o t o p y a map f 6 T
equi
Similarly, if f
is said to be go of a of T h e o r e m see that if I.
an infinite m a p of
is the initial m a p M: aS > nl
~spectra ~B
The functor and ~g
4 satisfies the identical
= go •
We t h e r e f o r e
infinite
loop spaces and m a p s are o b t a i n e d to i n c l u s i o n aspectra and m a p s in
we r e s t r i c t a t t e n t i o n If f: X> X'
is any infinite
loop map,
then T h e o r e m 6
implies the e x i s t e n c e loop maps
of a c o m m u t a t i v e
d i a g r a m of i n f i n i t e
I 1
X' such that infinite valences. If X is an infinite CWcomplex, f' is a p e r f e c t and g g'> Y' infinite and g' loop spaces are w e a k h o m o t o p y type of a c o u n t a b l e of B o a r d m a n map Y g: X and V o g t ~ Y then it follows
X
g>
Y
(3.1)
loop m a p b e t w e e n p e r f e c t equi
loop space of the h o m o t o p y from a r g u m e n t s loop and
[i, p. 15] that there g
is an infinite equivalence
such that
is a h o m o t o p y in
is the initial
space of a s p e c t r u m
~S ~ W.
Combining that ~ X' type
this fact w i t h theorem, and
(v) of T h e o r e m of T h e o r e m
4, the remarks
preceding f: X
(iii)
6, we see that if
is any infinite of c o u n t a b l e
loop map b e t w e e n
spaces of the h o m o t o p y
CWcomplexes,
then there is a h o m o t o p y c o m m u t a t i v e
 472
diagram that f'
of infinite
loop maps, infinite
of the form given loop map and g
in and
(I), such g' are
is a p e r f e c t equivalences. Therefore
homotopy
nothing
is lost for the purposes of infinite
of w e a k and and
homotopy
theory
if the n o t i o n s
loop spaces
maps are replaced maps,
by those of p e r f e c t for homotopy
infinite
loop spaces
and similarly
theory provided
that we re
strict a t t e n t i o n CWcomplexes.
to spaces
of the homotopy
type of c o u n t a b l e
The promised topy groups of infinite i.
comparison
of stable and u n s t a b l e
homo
loop spaces if Y
is now an easy c o n s e q u e n c e is an infinite loop space, gives a map
of P r o p o s i t i o n say Y = B0
In fact,
where
B E ~S, then that p r o p o s i t i o n ) LMB in I. in i, and T h e o r e m
¢.(LMB) : Q.LoMB n(MB) : MB > LB Qy by a = Qn 0 (MB),
6 gives
a map
Define maps 8 ~ LoMB < Y and y y a is c l e a r l y since equi
a ~ QLoM B
t
S = ¢. 0 (LMB), equivalence,
Y = no (MB). so is
a weak homotopy Q: Y > T
and therefore
is easily v e r i f i e d Since ¢.,0(LMB)
to preserve w e a k h o m o t o p y
valences. LOMB, nn(QX) fore K S(Y) infinite 8,
• T.(LeMB) on homotopy.
is the identity map of If X E T, then X. There
is an e p i m o r p h i s m ~th
S(X) , the = Kn p(Y) = y:ls,~,:
stable homotopy > E,(y) that if
group of
~,(Qy)
gives f: Y
an e p i m o r p h i s m ) Y' is any
) ~,(Y). loop map,
It is clear then
p(y,) (Qf), = f,p(y) . ~S(y)
> En(Y')
.

4 7 3

It should be observed loop spaces
that the notions
of infinite
and maps are not very useful since the composite loop map.
from a c a t e g o r i c a l loop maps need infinite loop maps B with
point of v i e w
of infinite
not be an infinite f: X B0 = Y giving > Y and
In fact, g i v e n
g: Y
) Z, there need be no spectrum
which f
is simultaneously
the range of a map of spectra giving g. One
and the domain
of a map of spectra infinite
can get around topological
this by requiring and using
loop spaces
to be to
monoids
a classifying
space argument These
allow c o m p o s i t i o n tions m o t i v a t e in section i.
of maps,
but this t
is awkward.
condi
the use of
in the d e f i n i t i o n
of homology
The following be used
application of i.
of our results, illustrates ~(n)
w h i c h will the technical and to
in the computation of the category F (n), where of maps monoids
H*(BF), Let
convenience let F = i~
= HomT(sn,s n)
the limit
is taken w i t h respect F (n) and If F
suspension topological fine that
S : F (n) under
) F(n+l) .
are
composition by
of maps.
X 6 T, de° f), by the com
y: ~nx x ~(n) is, with flnx
> ~nx
y(x,f) with
= ~n(un(x)
identified
HomT(S°,~nx),
posite nnx×~(n)~n×l> This defines HOmT(sn,x) xF(n)COmposition ) H o m y ( s n , x ) an operation of gi: ~(n) ~Bi+1 on nnx. > Bi
N ~n
> ~nx.
N o w let be a homotopy fn: B0 in
B = {Bi,f i} 6 aS, and let verse and to gn: fi" ~nBn Define > B0
homotopy
equivalences
> ~nBn and define
in the obvious
inductive m a n n e r
 474 
Yn = g n y ( f n Observe since that Yn fails
x i): B 0 × ~(n) to d e f i n e condition with y on
> B0 . of ~(n) on B0 Of
an o p e r a t i o n
the a s s o c i a t i v i t y Yn coincides
(xf)g = x(fg) ~nB n if
is lost.
course, ativity
B 6 i, and a s s o c i diagram:
is t h e n r e t a i n e d .
Now consider x N (n) F Y
the f o l l o w i n g
~nBn
~nB n
B0
×
~(n)
fn+l×l>
a n+l
!~ n f ~
l Bn+l
Bn+ 1 x F (n) [l×S
ll×S fn+l x 1 B 0 x ~(n)
/
Y ~ ~n
_n+l g > BO
> ~ n + I B n + 1 × ~(n+l)
The l e f t  h a n d y is n a t u r a l
triangle on
and s q u a r e
commute hence
trivially.
Clearly x i).
nfold
loop maps,
~nfn Y = y(~nf
y(1 x S) = y
since • Sf) gi . are we
~  n ( ~ n ( x ) f ) = ~  ( n + l ) ~ ( ~ n ( x ) f ) = p(n+l) (~n+l (x) gn is h o m o t o p i c to gn+l~nfn, then and if B 6 R .
and the if
chosen have
retractions,
gn __ g n + l ~ n f n
Thus
B 6 R
Yn = Yn+1 (i × S) x ~
and w e can d e f i n e Since the r i g h t  h a n d in f's R, the m a p and g's triangle Y is n o t is
Y = lim Yn: B0 > not t r a n s f o r m e d natural maps, on R.
~ B0 .
naturally For
by m a p s
B E i, the trivializes. Y: B0 × ~
are t h e i d e n t i t y for e a c h h: B and B £ i, > B' f £ ~.
and the d i a g r a m
Therefore, and for if
we h a v e an o p e r a t i o n is a m a p in i, t h e n
> B0
h 0 (xf) = h 0 (x) f
x 6 B0
 475 
Stasheff Lashof space
[unpublished]
has g e n e r a l i z e d work of Dold and monoid M operates on a
[2] to show that if a t o p o l o g i c a l X, then there is a n a t u r a l way X M > XXMEM > EM > BM ) BM.
to form an a s s o c i a t e d principal consist if
quasifibration quasifibration of the h o m o t o p y B £ i and
to the c l a s s i f y i n g As usual, let F c ~
equivalences
of spheres.
By restriction, of F on Y
Y = B0, we have an o p e r a t i o n form YxEEF. Of course,
and w e can is n a t u r a l
therefore on i.
this c o n s t r u c t i o n
Boardman inclusions between
and Vogt
[1] have p r o v e n
that the s t a n d a r d loop maps struc
U c O c PL c Top c F loop spaces w i t h sum (on
are all i n f i n i t e respect
infinite
to the Hspace
tures given by W h i t n e y homotopic
F, this s t r u c t u r e used above).
is w e a k l y We n o w k n o w of F G on of
to the c o m p o s i t i o n i
product
that we can pass to (spaces h o m o t o p y F.
and obtain n a t u r a l
operations
equivalent
to) each of these sub Hspaces spaces BG.
The same is true for their c l a s s i f y i n g operation if of F on F
Observe to
that the r e s u l t i n g its product. product since map.) of
is not e q u i v a l e n t under
(In fact, ~BI, w h e r e
~ £ B0
is the i d e n t i t y ~f = ~ for all
the loop
B £ t, then
f E F
composing
any map w i t h the trivial map gives to u n d e r s t a n d by F
the trivial sig
It w o u l d be of i n t e r e s t of these operations GXFEF and
the g e o m e t r i c
nificance
on its various
sub Hspaces
and of the spaces I shall 7, : H. (B) ® H. (~)
BGxFEF. that, w i t h H, (B) rood p coefficients, of Hopf
show e l s e w h e r e ) H. (B)
gives
a structure
 476 N
algebra where algebra over
over
H,(F)
for
B 6 i
(and, 1.
afortiori, H, (B)
for
B ~ SS),
H, (B) = K, (B 0) over
as in s e c t i o n algebra
is also a K o p f algebra and
the o p p o s i t e
of the S t e e n r o d is d e f i n e d
the D y e r  L a s h o f operations
algebra, introduced on
which
in terms in
of the These cate
homology
by D y e r i.
and L a s h o f
[3].
operations gory three known for
are all n a t u r a l H, : i > ?
The a p p r o p r i a t e by specifying and,
range how
is d e t e r m i n e d operations
these
types
of h o m o l o g y these
commute,
coupled with
information, to c o m p u t e Finally,
commutation
formulas
are all that is
required
H* (BF) . we observe of s e c t i o n that t h e r e is a n a t u r a l spectra. way Let E Z} to
extend denote such
our r e s u l t s
2 to u n b o u n d e d
the c a t e g o r y w h o s e
objects and
are s e q u e n c e s B i = niB0 map such for that
{Bi,fili and
that )
{Bi,f ill > 0} ~ S ~Bi+ 1
fi : Bi
is the i d e n t i t y g = if {gill 6 Z} i < 0.
i < 0.
The maps
in
are s e q u e n c e s and tor gi = ~gi+l C: S • Sif
{gill > 0} 6 S completion if i > 0 and funcand
We have
an o b v i o u s by CiB = B i for C
defined
on o b j e c t s
CiB = niB 0 for
i < o, w i t h
Cif = fi
i a 0
Cif = 1
i < 0, and d e f i n e d with
similarly
on maps.
is an i s o m o r p h i s m functor D of S ~ • S. define
of c a t e g o r i e s For e a c h to be interest. {gill 6 Z}
inverse
the e v i d e n t defined under C
forgetful
of our p r e v i o u s l y the i m a g e of ~
subcategories in ~.
is of p a r t i c u l a r {B ili E Z } and and for
Its o b j e c t s such that
and m a p s
are s e q u e n c e s for all i
B i = nBi+ 1
gi = ~gi+l
 477 
all
i.
Clearly
all of the results of s e c t i o n 2 r e m a i n v a l i d for
the c o m p l e t e d categories. Our results s h o w that any r e a s o n a b l e by w h i c h w e m e a n any c o h o m o l o g y B 6 ~ c o h o m o l o g y theory,
theory d e t e r m i n e d by a s p e c t r u m theory d e t e r m i n e d b y a
N ~, is i s o m o r p h i c to a c o h o m o l o g y T ~ ~
s p e c t r u m in
and that any t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of s u c h t h e o r i e s g: B
> B'
d e t e r m i n e d by a map
in
~
A ~
is n a t u r a l l y e q u i T ~ ~. Recall
v a l e n t to a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n that Hn(x,A;B)
d e t e r m i n e d by a map in
= HomHT(X/A,Bn) B ~ ~ = 0 on CW pairs for n > 0,
defines the c o h o m o l o g y t h e o r y d e t e r m i n e d by (X,A). where P C a l l s u c h a theory c o n n e c t i v e is a point. loop space Of course, Y if
Hn(p;B)
Hn(p;B)
= E 0 (~nB 0) = Kn(B0). (additive)
Any i n f i n i t e
determines
a connective
c o h o m o l o g y t h e o r y since, by a c l a s s i f y i n g s p a c e argument, w e can obtain CB 6 ~ for such that n > 0; B0 is h o m o t o p y e q u i v a l e n t to and V o g t Y and
K 0 (Bn) = 0
a c c o r d i n g to B o a r d m a n
[1], any Y up to
such c o h o m o l o g y t h e o r y is so o b t a i n a b l e homotopy equivalence CQ~X determines for of i n f i n i t e
and d e t e r m i n e s If
loop spaces.
X 6 T, then since = h s(X) n i~
a connective n > 0, and
cohomology
theory,
CnQ~X = QSnX n > 0.
H n(P;CQ~x)
= nn(Qx)
In v i e w of P r o p o s i t i o n
i, t h e s e t h e o r i e s p l a y
a privileged
role a m o n g all c o n n e c t i v e c o h o m o l o g y t h e o r i e s , their properties might prove B £ i, then C~ B: C Q ~ B 0 to be of interest. determines
and an a n a l y s i s of Observe that if
> CB
a natural transforma
 478 
tion of cohomology theories if the theory d e t e r m i n e d by is e p i m o r p h i c
H * ( X , A ; C Q = B 0) CB
) H*(X,A;CB)
and,
is connective,
this t r a n s f o r m a t i o n
on the cohomology of a point.
 479 
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Fibre Homotopy Equivalence 3; 285305, [3] (1959).
Ill. J. Math.,
Dyer, E. and Lashof,
R., "Homology of Iterated Loop Spaces", (1962). S. , "Acyclic Models", A m e r .
Amer. J. Math., 84; 3588,
[4] Eilenberg, S. and MacLane, (1953).
J.
Math., 75; 189199,
[5] Hanner,
O., "Some Theorems
on Absolute Neighborhood
Retracts",
Ark. Mat., i; 389408,
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(1950). H. , Dimension Theory, Princeton
Hurewicz, W. and Wallman, Univ. Press, (1961).
[7]
Kuratowski,
C., "Sur Les Espaces Localement Connexes et n"
P~aniens en Dimension [8] Milgram,
Fund. Math., 24; 269287,
(1935)
R. J., "Iterated Loop Spaces", Annals of Math., (1966).
84; 386403, [9] Milnor, plex",
J., "On Spaces Having the Komotopy Type of a CWcom
Trans. A.M.S. , 90; 272280,
(1959). Inc., (1966).
[i0] Spanier, E. H., Algebraic Topology, McGrawHill, [ll] Swan, R. G., "The Homology of Cyclic Products", 95; 2768, (1960).
Trans. A.M.S.,