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ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Homeostasis depends on the precise regulation of the organ and organ systems

of the body. The nervous and endocrine system are two major systems responsible for that regulation. Together they regulate and coordinate the activity of nearly all other body structures. When these system fail to function properly, homeostasis is not maintained. Failure ofsome component of the endocrine system to function can result in disease such as Diabetes Mellitus or Addison’s disease. The regulatory function of the nervous system and endocrine systems are similar in some respects, but they differ in other important ways. The nervous system controls the activity of tissues by sending action potentials along axons, which release chemical signals at their ends, near the cell they control. The endocrine system releases chemical signals into the circulatory sytem, whichh carries to all parts of the body. The cell that can detect those chemical signal produce reponses. The nervous system usually acts quickly and has short term effects, whereas the endocrine system usually response more slowly and has longer-lasting effects. In general, each nervous stimulus controls a specific tissue or organ, whereas each endocrine stimulus controls several tissues or organ. FUNCTIONS: It regulates water balance by controlling the solute concentratiuon of the blood. It regulates uterine contractions during delivery of the newborn and stimulates milk release from the breast in lactating females. It regulates the growth of many tissues, such as bone and muslces, and the rate of the metabolism of many tissues, which helps maintain a normal body temperature and normal mental function. Maturation of tissues, which result in the development of adult features and adult behavior, are also influence by the endocrine system. It regulaytes sodium, potassium and calcium concentrations in the blood. It regulates the heart rate and blood pressure and helps prepare the body for physical activity. It regulates blood glucoce levels and other nutrient levels in the blood It helps control the production and function of immune cells It controls the development and the function of the reproductive systems in males and females.

Pancreas an elongated gland extending from the duodenum to the spleen; consist of a head, body,

Glucose is converted to glycogen or fat. either directly or indirectly. The glucose is then released into the blood to increase blood glucose level. Glucagon binds to membrane-bound receptors primarily in the liver and caused the conversion of glycogen storage in the liver to glucose. Decreased result from decreasing blood glucose levels and from stimulation by the sympathetic of the nervous system. When blood glucose decreases. the Glucagon is released from the alpha cell when blood glucose level is low. Decreased insulin levels allow blood glucose to be conserved to provide the brain with adequate glucose and to allow other tissues to metabolize fatty acids and glycogen stored in the cell. the liver to acidic ketones. dehydration result. A decline in the blood glucose levels within a normal range causes the nervous system to malfunction because glucose is the nervous system’s main source of energy. When blood glucose level are very low. a condition called acidosis. when blood glucose levels are elevated a glucagon secretion is reduced. Insulin is released from the beta cells primarily response to the elevated blood glucose levels and increased parasympathetic stimulation that is associated with digestion of a meal. especially blood glucose. and the amino acids used to synthesize protein.and the tail. and pancreatic islet. increases the rate of glucose and amino acid uptake in these tissues. As fats are broken down. which are release into the circulatory system. which secretes digestive enzymes that are carried by the pancreatic duct to the duodenum. It is very important to maintain blood glucose levels within a normal range of values. other tissues to provide an alternative energy source break fats and proteins rapidly. the kidneys produce large volumes of urine containing substantial amounts of glucose because of the rapid loss of water in the form of urine. The endocrine part of the pancreas consists of pancreatic islets (small islands. There is an exocrine portion. The amino acids of proteins are broken down and used to synthesize glucose by the liver. converts some of the fatty acids. the break down of fats can cause the release of enough fatty acid and ketones to cause the pH of the fluids to decrease below normal. After a meal. Beta cells of the pancreatic islet secrete insulin. Sympathetic stimulation of the pancreas occurs during physical activity. Increase blood levels of certain amino acids also stimulates insulin secretion. called satiety center (fulfillment of hunger). Insulin binds to membrane-bound receptor and. The islets secrete two hormones – insulin and glucagon—which function to help regulate blood nutrient levels. which secrete insulin and glucagon. . islet of Langerhans) dispersed among the exocrine portion of the pancreas. adipose tissue. If blood glucose levels are too high. muscles. The major target tissues for insulin are the liver. Alpha cells of the pancreatic islets secrete glucagon. and the area of hypothalamus that controls appetite.

and glucagon secretion decreases. Epinephrine and cortisol caused the breakdown of protein and fat and the synthesis of glucose to help increase blood levels of nutrients. these hormones are secreted at a greater rate. insulin secretion increases. When blood glucose levels decrease. and growth hormones. Other hormones. When blood glucose level decrease. the rate of insulin secretion declines and the rate of glucagon secretion increase.Insulin and glucagon function together to regulate blood glucose levels. such as epinephrine. also function to maintain blood levels of nutrients. When blood glucose increase. cortisol. Growth hormone slows protein breakdown and favors fat breakdown .