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A GENERAL

ALGEBRAIC

APPROACH

TO STEENROD

OPERATIONS

by J. Peter May

i.

Introduction.

Since the introduction of the Steenrod operations in the cohoclear that similar operations exist in there are Steenrod operations in the in the c o h o m o l o g y of c o c o m -

m o l o g y of topological spaces, it has b e c o m e a variety of other situations. cohomology F o r example,

of simplicial restricted Lie algebras,

mutative Hopf algebras, w e r e introduced m o d

and in the h o m o l o g y of infinite loop spaces (where they m o d p, p>2, by D y e r and Lashof

2 by Araki and K u d o [3] and

[6]).
The purpose of this expository paper is to develop a general algebraic setting in which all such operations can be studied simultaneously. This approach allows

a single proof, applicable to all of the above examples, the operations, including the A d e m relations.

of the basic properties of

In contrast to categorical treatments

of Steenrod operations, simplify s o m e w h a t

the elegant proofs developed by Steenrod [25-30] actually Further, even the m o s t general exist-

in our algebraic setting.

ing categorical study of Steenrod operations, to iterated loop spaces.

that of Epstein [7], cannot be applied

W e e m p h a s i z e that this is an expository paper.

Although a n u m b e r

of n e w re-

sults and n e w proofs of old results are scattered throughout, the only real claim to originality lies in the basic context. results since a large n u m b e r W e have chosen to give complete proofs of all allows a

of m i n o r simplifications in the arguments

substantial simplification of the theory as a whole.

W e have also included a n u m b e r

of topological results which should be well-known but appear not to be in the litera-

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ture.

In particular, in section I0, w e give a quick complete calculation of the and s h o w that Serre's

m o d p c o h o m o l o g y Bockstein spectral sequence of K(w,n)'s simple proof [Z3] of the axiomatization of the m o d with only slight modifications to the case p > Z.

2 Steenrod operations applies

T h e general theory is presented in the first five sections.

Most of the proofs

in sections i, 2, and 4 are based on those of Steenrod [Z5-30], and those of section 3 are simplifications of arguments of D y e r and Lashof [6 ]. Via acyclic models and a l e m m a due to Dold [5], the theory is applied to several simplicial categories The standard properties of the

and to topological spaces in sections 7 and 8. Steenrod operations in spaces, except and

po = I, drop out of the algebraic theory, In contrast, w e prove that The theory is

1 = I is s h o w n to follow f r o m these properties. m°

po = 0 on the c o h o m o l o g y of simplicial restricted Lie algebras. applied to the c o h o m o l o g y of c o c o m m u t a t i v e

Hopf algebras in section II; the opera-

tions here are important in the study of the c o h o m o l o g y of the Steenrod algebra [13, 18]. The present analysis arose out of w o r k on iterated loop spaces, but this application will appear elsewhere. The material of sections 6 and 9, which is is presented here with a view

peripheral to the study of Steenrod operations, towards this application.

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1.

Algebraic preliminaries; Let A be a c o m m u t a t i v e

equivariant

homology By a A-complex, we u n d e r s t a n d a

differential A-module,

with d i f f e r e n t i a l of d e g r e e q = 0 for q < 0 and

minus one. n e g a t i v e if

We s a y t h a t a A - c o m p l e x K q = 0 for q > 0. We u s e

K i s p o s i t i v e if K Z-graded

c o m p l e x e s in o r d e r t h a t o u r The exposition and the nota-

t h e o r y c a n be a p p l i e d e q u a l l y w e l l to h o m o l o g y a n d to c o h o m o l o g y . w i l l be g e a r e d to h o m o l o g y , w h e r e t h e n o t a t i o n is s l i g h t l y s i m p l e r , tions appropriate mentary f o r c o h o m o l o g y w i l l b e g i v e n in s e c t i o n 5.

We g i v e s o m e e l e -

homological lemmas

in t h i s s e c t i o n ; t h e s e e x t r a c t t h e s l i g h t a m o u n t of

i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e h o m o l o g y o f g r o u p s t h a t is n e e d e d f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e Steenrod operations. If ~ is a g r o u p , w e l e t s p e a k of A v - m o r p h i s m s s p e a k of ~ - m o r p h i s m s on is r A letters, and let AT denote its group ring o v e r A. We s h a l l g e n e r a l l y and we s h a l l group

rather than ~-equivariant A-morphisms, when ~r C ~ A is understood. r . For q e Z, l e t Let ~ A(q) r

denote the s y m m e t r i c

denote the ATr-module which by let 0-k = ( - 1 ) q s ( ° ' ) k , w h e r e M(q) denote rheAs).

as a A - m o d u l e

and has the A T - a c t i o n d e t e r m i n e d ~e ~r If M is a A w - m o d u l e , 0-(re@k) = r Kr factors

( - 1 ) s(°-) i s t h e s i g n of module If M@A(q)

with the diagonal action let K r = K~...~K,

0-m@ 0-k ( w h e r e @ = ~ A K.

K is a A - c o m p l e x ,

V i a p e r m u t a t i o n of

factors,

with the standard sign convention, Kr(q) is defined.

becomes

a A~r-complex for

w C E r, a n d Let

I denote the A-free A-complex one basis element A and e

w h i c h has two b a s i s e l e m e n t s

e

o

and

e1

of degree zero,

of d e g r e e

o n e , a n d d i f f e r e n t i a l d(e) = e I - eo. F-module structure,

If F i s a H o p f a l g e b r a o v e r ya = 8(y)a f, g: K-~,-L F-morphism for y ~F and

I is given the t r i v i a l

a • I, t h e n t h e n o t i o n of a F - h o m o t o p y of F - c o m p l e x e s , such that

h : f -~ g, w h e r e

are morphisms H:I~K-'PL

is e q u i v a l e n t to t h e n o t i o n of a and H ( e o @ k ) = g(k), where

H ( e l @ k ) = f(k)

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I~K

is given the diagonal F-action.

In fact, H

determines

h by h(k) = H ( e ~ k )

and conversely. With these notations, w e have the following l e m m a . diagonally on tensor products. Lemma (i) I.I. Let TrC ~
r

In all parts, A T

acts

and let V

be a positive ATr-free complex. r suchthat

There exists a A ~ r - m o r p h i s m and h( e l ~ v) = v @ e

h:I~V----> V ~ I r I

h(eo@V) = V@eo r (ii) i~fr (iii) to H(K) (iv) a,b e N q

for all v e V . of A - c o m p l e x e s , then

If f,g: K - - > L i~ gr:v~K If A and r->

are A - h o m o t o p i c m o r p h i s m s

V ~ L r are A ~ - h o m o t o p i c m o r p h i s m s K is a A-complex, then

of A T - c o m p l e x e s . equivalent

is a field and V@K r is

K is A-homotopy V@H(K) r,

AT-homotopy

e q u i v a l e n t to

Let v ~ V

satisfy d ( v ~ I) = 0 in V ~
T

A; let K and vl~b r

be a A - c o m p l e x

and let

be h o m o l o g o u s c y c l e s .

Then

v~a

r

are homologous cycles

of v ®
T

Kr(q).
(i) Let 8 : I ~> A be t h e a u g m e n t a t i o n Define k:V-->V@J g ( e o ) : 1 = ~.~ ( e l ) , by k ( v ) = v @ ( e s:V-->V@J and let

Proof. J = Ker(~r), Since

8r : ir ---~ A r = A . 0.

r r i - eo). from ktothe

H(J)= 0, H ( V @ J ) =

Define a A T - h o m o t o p y Let

zero m a p by induction on degree as follows.

s I = 01 given Let {xj} be a si_ldi(x ) h is
*

Si.l:Vi_ I --> (V~J).,wel find easily that di(ki- si.idi) = 0. A~r-basis for and extend s.
1

V.;
1

for

x ~ {xj}, choose
1

si(x ) such that di+lsi(x)=ki(x)The d e s i r e d

to a l l of V. h(e~v) L

by T-equivariance. -- s(v) for v e V.

ATr-morphism

obtained byletting

(ii) Let t : l ~ K - - >

determine a A - h o m o t o p y

from

f to g.

T h e n the followl~fr to

ing composite is a A T - m o r p h i s m

which determines aA~r-homotopy f r o m

l®g r :
I@v@Kr where u: I r ~ h~l>v@ir~Kr l~u >V~(I@K)r l @ tr > V ~ L r
s

K r ----> ( I ~ K) r

is the evident shuffling isomorphism.

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(iii)

Define

f: H(K) ---> 14 b y s e n d i n g e a c h e l e m e n t of a b a s i s f o r

H(K) to a

chosen representative cycle.

K ~ I m f (9 Coker f as a A - c o m p l e x and Coker f is is a field. The first half follows and

acyclic and therefore contractible since A implies the second half by (ii). (iv) Define a m o r p h i s m of A - c o m p l e x e s f(eo) = b, and f(e)= (-l)qc, where df(e) = (-l)qfd(e)). Let F: I @ V - - > l~V h

f:l---> K, of degree

q, by f(ei) = a,

d(c)= a-b in K V@I<r(q) Kr(q).

(the sign ensures that

be the composite

> v~Ir

l~f r

> V~

A check of signs shows that fr is a qr. By

A:r-morphism, hence that F (i), w e find that

is a m o r p h i s m of A,r-complexes of degree

F(ei®v) : (i ® f r ) ( v ® e ~ ) :

(-i)qrdeg V v ® f(ei)r , i = 0 or I.
A, w e have that

Since w operates trivially on I and d ( v ® i ) = 0 in V ®

d(e®v)=

(e i - e o ) @ V

i n 1 ® V.
iT

Thus, in V ~
1T
e

Kr(q),
-

d F ( e @ v ) = (-l)qrF(el @ v and this proves the result.

@v)= (-i)qr(degv+l)(v@a r
0

v@br),

W e n o w consider the cyclic group w of prime order tion of the standard A~-free resolution W = W(p,A) Definition i. 2. Let W.
1

p.

We r e c a l l the d e f i n i -

of A. p with generator o~. and

Let

w be the cyclic group of prime order e., i > 0.
1

be Aw-free on one generator

Let N = i+ ~ + ... + ap-I

T = c~-i in Aw. by the formulas

Define a differential d, augmentation ~ , and coproduct ~ on W

(I)

d(ezi+l) = Tezi

and

d(ezi ) = Nezi_l ;

~(o~Je o) = I ;
and

•(ezi+l) = ~ e2j@eZk+ i + ~ e2j+l@aeZk j+k=i j+k= i

*(ez)-ezj®eZk + j+k= i-I j+k=i
Then W

0< r <s <p

J

ezj+l ~ °zSezk+l

is a differentiaiAw-coalgebra and a A w - f r e e resolution of A.

When

necessary

f o r c l a r i t y , we s h a l l w r i t e

W(p,A)

for

W.

Of c o u r s e ,

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W ( p , A ) = W(p, Z) ~ A .

The structure

of W(p, Zp)

shows that ~3 and c o p r o -

H.(~r; Zp) = H(W(p, Z p ) ~ r r Z p ) duct (2) ~b, b y the f o r m u l a Ho.(~r;Zp).,. h a s Zp-basis

is given, with its B o c k s t e i n o p e r a t i o n

{ell i>0}_

suchthat

~3(e2i)= e z i _ l

and
if p > Z .

¢(e i) = E e.j ~ e k if p = 2 o r i is odd, j+k = i We e m b e d ~ in E P b y o~(1. . . . . p) = (p, 1 . . . . .

J2(e2i ) = E e2j(~e2k j+k = i p-l), where Z P

a c t s on {1 . . . . . p } .

We then h a v e the following l e m m a . E W. be the n - s k e l e t o n of W = W(p, Z ). L e t G 1 p inn be a n y s e t of i e f t c o s e t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f o r ~r in E . L e t K be a Z - m o d u l e with P P totally ordered BCK basis Lemma 1.3. L e t W 'n'=

{xjl j

e J}

Let

AC Kp have basis < 'Jp' Jl < Jp}"

{ x j P l j c J } a n d let Then

p have basis

{x.~(jp). I "~ ~ G, jl .<. . . .
n

H(w(n)~

K p) = ( (9 e . ~ A ) 1 i=O

~B(eo~B ) (B(Kerdn(~B)

,

d :W
n

n

- - > Wn_ 1.

Proof.

It is easy to see that where

K p is isomorphic as a Z Tr-module to P A and acts on Tr p Z Tr ~ B P by its left

A (9 (Z w ~ B ) , P

w acts trivially on ~

a c t i o n on

Z w,
p

Since

H ( w ( n ) ( ~ A ) " = H(w(n)(~" Z ) @ A "

and

H(W (n) ~ Z p ~ r ( ~ B) = H(W (n)) ~ B, the r e s u l t f o l l o w s . R e c a l l t h a t if ~r is a n y s u b g r o u p of E
in E, then conjugation by any AE-module M.

and if W e N(Tr), the n o r m a l i z e r

of 7r
for

"~ defines a h o m o m o r p h i s m

x/,:H(w; M) ---> H,(,rl M)

~/;:. is the m a p induced on h o m o l o g y f r o m where W is a n y A w - f r e e resolution of A and for

~# ~ y : W ~ M - - - - > ~# : W ---> W 0- ( *r and

W~M

is any m o r p h i s m w c W.

of A - c o m p l e x e s

-i such that ~# (0-w) = yo-y y#(w)

(It is easy to verify that ~# exists and that ?,:. is independent and of " / # . ) so that Clearly -~;:, 1 if ~ ~ w = since w e m a y then

of the choice of W define ~/#(w) = ~ v

(~#~/)(w~m)

= W@~/m

=w~m

,

we

W and m ~ M.

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If ~r C P C ~' a n d

y e N(w) t% N ( p ) , t h e n t h e f o l l o w i n g d i a g r a m J,

commutes:

H,(~r; M)

, > H,(p ; M)

J,
H , (~r; M) In fact, if W is anyAp-free

> H,(p ; M)
W is also aAw-free resolution

r e s o l u t i o n of A , t h e n

of A,
W~ rr

and the above
M--> W~ p M.

diagram

results from

the observation

that

j,

is induced from

In p a r t i c u l a r , Let

j , = j~.y, if y ¢ O. -.- order p > 2 and let q e Z. Consider

Lemma

1.4.

~ b e c y c l i c of p r i m e Then

j,: H: ¢ (Tr; Z p (q))
(i) (ii) If q If q Proof.

> H~(Zp; Zp(q)). "

is even, j,(ei) = 0 unless is odd, j,(ei) = 0 unless Let Z P in N(w). Define k

i = 2t(p-l)

or

i = 2t(p-l) - I. or i = (Zt+l)(p-i)- I. Let Y is an

i = (2t+l)(p-i)

generate the multiplicative and define W e ~ P y# : W --> W .k-i = k~ E by

subgroup of Zp, k p-| = I. Then yo~ -l = ~ k and

operate on P odd permutation

y(i) = ki. by

~/#(ezi ) = k i e g i , .

7#(eii+i)

j =0

a)ezi+l, .

y#(~ei) = y0-~-

iY#1ei),
(-l) q on

0~c ~r

Then y ~ Ep Z P

y # d = dy#

and

y#~y

induces the conjugation

y~< on

H,(~;Zp(q)).

Since

, j,y, = j~,..,hence '

j~,.(e - Y , ei)= 0 for all i. y operates by i ,-

(q) and therefore y,(ezi) = (-l)qkiezi and y,(eZi+l) = (-l)qki+lezi+l p and .

Thus

j,(ezi ) = 0 unless p.

1 - (-l)qk i = 0 m o d Clearly k i=

j,(eZi+l ) = 0 unless for s o m e

I - (-l)qk i+l -= 0 m o d t and k i-I

i rood p

if and only if i = t(p-l) for s o m e t.

rood p if and only if Zi = (2t+l)(p-l)

The result

follows easily.

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2.

The d e f i n i t i o n a n d e l e m e n t a r y p r o p e r t i e s of the o p e r a t i o n s We n o w d e f i n e a l a r g e a l g e b r a i c c a t e g o r y ~ (p,n) on which the S t e e n r o d

operations will be defined.

Steenrod operations will be obtained for particular
~ ' ( p , n). T h e i n t e r e s t of the i n t e g e r

c a t e g o r i e s of i n t e r e s t b y o b t a i n i n g f u n c t o r s to n

i n t h e f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n l i e s s o l e i y in the a p p l i c a t i o n s to i t e r a t e d l o o p s p a c e s . n = o® is r e l e v a n t . r be a n i n t e g e r , a n d l e t V b e a AN r

F o r a l l o t h e r k n o w n a p p l i c a t i o n s , o n l y the c a s e Definitions 2.1. ~r b e a s u b g r o u p of ~
r

Let .

A Let

be a c o m m u t a t i v e r i n g , l e t

W be a A ~ r - f r e e r e s o l u t i o n of A, l e t j:W-->V

f r e e r e s o l u t i o n of A, a n d i e t Assume that W
O

b e a m o r p h i s m of A ~ r - c o m p l e x e s o v e r A. e .
O

= AT w i t h g e n e r a t o r W a n d V. are pairs

Let

0 Kn<oo
--

and let ~(~r,n,A)

W (n) a n d V (n) as follows.

d e n o t e the n - s k e l e t o n s of T h e o b j e c t s of ~ ( r r , n , A ) differential A-algebra and such that
(i)

Define a category (K,@), w h e r e

K is a h o m o t o p y a s s o c i a t i v e

O:w(n)(~K r->

K is a m o r p h i s m of A ~ r - c o m p l e x e s

T h e r e s t r i c t i o n of

@ to

e ~K r o

is

A - h o r n ® t o p i c to the i t e r a t e d p r o d u c t and ~®1 >v(n)®Kr ¢ > K,

K r - - > K, a s s o c i a t e d i n ~ m e f i x e d o r d e r ,
(ii)

@ i s A ~ r - h o m o t o p i c to a c o m p o s i t e

w(n)~K r

where
A morphism

¢ is a m o r p h i s m of A N
r

-complexes.
~(w,n,A) is a m o r p h i s m of A - c o m p l e x e s

f.(K, 0)--> (K',0')

in

f, K ---> K' such that the diagram
w(n)

® Kr
I ®fr

,

0

....

> K

w ( n ) ® ( K , ) r ........

I

[f 8,

> K,

is A~r-homotopy commutative.

A morphism

f is said to be perfect if

~(I@ fr) = f@, with no homotopy required, and @ ( 7 , n,A) denotes the subc a t e g o r y of ~(%n,A) having the same objects (K, 0) a n d a l l p e r f e c t m o r p h i s m s

between them.

A i s i t s e l f a n o b j e c t of

~ (7, n, A), w i t h

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@= e @ l : W ( n ) ( ~ A

r

> A r = A , and an o b j e c t

(K,@)e

~(w,n,A)

is s a i d t o b e

unital if K has a t w o - s i d e d h o m o t o p y i d e n t i t y

e s u c h that ~]:A ---> K, n(1) = e,

is a m o r p h i s m in ~'~(w,n,A). The tensor product of objects (K, @) and (L, O') in ~(~,n,A) is the pair ( K e L , ~ ) , where ~ is the composite 1 @ T @ 1> w(n)@i<r@w(n) @ L r

W (n) @ (K(~ L) r ~ ) U > w ( n ) @ w(n) ~) K r ( ~ L r

e®e, > K ( ~ L
Here U is the evident shuffling i s o m o r p h i s m , --->W(~W T ( x ~ y ) = (-1) deg x deg y y ~ x (i) and (ii) ,

and ~ : W

is any fixed A ~ r - m o r p h i s m o v e r A; conditions

are clearly satisfied by the pair ( K ~ L , ~ ) .

A n object (K,O) e ~(~r,n,A) is said is a m o r p h i s m in ~(w,n,A). to be the explicit ~ ( p , n)

to be a Caftan object if the product K ~ K ---> K When

w is cyclic of prime order p, w e agree to choose W W(p,A) of D e f i n i t i o n 1. Z, and we abbreviate

resolution
and

~(1T, n, Zp) to

(~(~,n, Zp) to

~O(p,n). Anobject (K,e)~ C(p,n)

is said to be reduced

rood p if (K,O) is obtained by reduction m o d p from an object (K,~) ~ ~(w,n, Z) such that ~ is a flat Z-module. W e can now define the Steenrod operations in the homology (K,@) ( ~(p,n). H(K) of an object

Observe that if x e H(K) and 0 < i< n, then e . ~ x p is a well1 K P) -~-- ( w ( n ) ~ H(K) p) by L e m m a s H
W W

defined element of H ( w ( n ) ~ (iv) of L e m m a
I

I. 1 and 1.3; here

I. i applies, since

w C E

P

contains only even permutations, and K p for any representative
W

shows that e . ~ x p is represented by e i ~ ape w ( n ) ~ cycle a of x. Definitions Z. 2. L e t (K,O) ( ~ ( p , n ) and let

x e H (K). q

For

0 <_i<_n, If p = Z,

define Di(x ) e Hpq+i(K ) by Di(x ) = O~.,~(ei®x @,:H(W(n)(~wK p) ---> H(K). ~, define % : Hq(K) --> Hq+s(K ) for s <__q+n by the formula (i) Ps(x) = 0 if s < q ; P s ( X ) = D (x) if s _ > q .

s-q

If p > Z, define Ps:Hq(K)--> Hq+2s,p_l,(I<)~) for Zs(p-l)_< q(p-1)+n and define

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~Ps:Hq(K) (ii)

> Hq+Zs(p_l )_ I(K) for 2s(p-l) <_q(p-l)+n+l if 2 s < q ; 2s < q ; Ps(X)=(-1)Sv(q)O(Zs_q)(p_l)(X)

by the formulas if Z s > q a n d if Zs > q, 1 ~(p-1), (ml) q

Ps(X)=0

~Ps(S) = 0 i f where or,

~Ps(X) = ( - 1 ) S v ( q ) D ( z s . q ) ( p _ t ) _ l ( X ) ~= 0or 1, m =

v ( Z j + e ) = (_ 1)J(m: )g , j a n y i n t e g e r ,

equivalently since

( m ' ) 2 --- ( - 1 ) m + l m o d p , v(q) = ( - 1 ) q ( q - t ) m / 2 Ps a n d , if p > Z, t h e ~Ps are defined for all

Observe that, integers

if n = co, t h e ~Ps The

s and that

is a single symbol which is not a priori P
s

r e l a t e d to a n y

Bockstein operation. to h o m o l o g y ;

and

~P

s

are appropriately

defined for applications

a s s h o w n in s e c t i o n 5, t h e a p p r o p r i a t e

formulation for cohomology is

o b t a i n e d b y a s i m p l e c h a n g e of n o t a t i o n . T h e f o l l o w i n g p r o p o s i t i o n c o n t a i n s m o s t of t h e e l e m e n t a r y D.,i Ps' and ~Ps" In particular, if p > Z, it shows that the Ps D. and that i ~P s properties and of t h e

~Ps account s and the

for all non-trivial operations Bockstein

is the composition of P

~ p r o v i d e d that (K,O) Let

i s r e d u c e d m o d p. Di: Hq(K) ---> Hpq+i(K ).

Proposition 2.3. (i) (ii) (iii) If f : K - - > K'

(K, 0) ( ~(p, n) and consider

is a m o r p h i s m

in ~(p,n), then Dif;:.= f~D i .

If i < n, then D. is a h o m o m o r p h i s m . I D o is the p-th power operation in the algebra H(K) and if (K, 0) is unital,

then Di(e ) = 0 for i ~ 0, w h e r e (iv) If p > Z and

e e H o ( K ) is the identity.

i < n, then D. = 0 unless either i i = 2t(p-l) or i = (2t+l)(p-1) i = gt(p-l)-I or for s o m e t, or for some t.

(a) q is even and (b) q i s o d d a n d (v)

i = (Zt+l)(p-1)-i then

If (K, 8) i s r e d u c e d m o d p a n d (a) ~Dzi = D2i_l (b) ~D2i+l = Dzi

~ is the Bockstein,

if either p > 2 or q is even, and if p = 2 and q is odd, and

2i < n

2i+i < n.

-

1 6 3

-

Proof.

Part (i) is immediate f r o m the definitions and f r o m Z e m m a

I. I (iv),

and p a r t (iii) is i m m e d i a t e f r o m the definitions.
(ii) Let a,b ¢ K q be cycles and define A(a,b) = (a+b) p - ap - b p ~ K p. involving both a's and b's, and ~(a,b) is

a s u m of m o n o m i a l s freely. Let

~r permutes such m o n o m i a l s w give

c c K p be a s u m of m o n o m i a l s w h o s e permutations under of A(a, b) exactly once. andif Then A(a,b) = Nc.

each m o n o m i a l

If i is odd, then = e.•Ncl in and

d(ei+l~C)__ = ei~Nc__ w(n)~ K p, i < n , ~r D.
I

i is even, then d ( T P - Z e i + l @ C ) Thus e.~ZX(a,b)

since TP-I = N in Z w. p i < n.

is a b o u n d a r y

therefore (iv)

is a h o m o m o r p h i s m ,

In the notations of Definition/~. i, w e have that O is homotopic to a composite

v ( n ) ~ E Kp ~ > K. Since nothing is changed P b y t e n s o r i n g with two copies of Z (q), this c o m p o s i t e can equally well be w r i t t e n as P
w(n)(q)%KP(q) Let a ( K be a cycle. j~ I >v(n)(q)~E P q Then, bythe definition of KP(q), Therefore, ap is a basis for a Kp(q ) ~ > K.

w(n)~Kp

1 >v(n)~Kp_..>

trivial E -subcomplex of KP(q). P v(n)~ For E

if _ J(ei) = d(f) in

Z (q)= v(n)(q)~ E Z , then d ( f ~ a p) = J(ei)(~aP in v(n)(q)(~ E KP(q). p p P P P i < n, j induces j.: Hi(w; Zp(q)) ~ > Hi(Ep; Zp(q)), and the desired conclusion I. 4.

n o w follows immediately f r o m L e m m a

(v)

Let (K, O) be the mod p r e d u c t i o n of (K,~). up
,

Let a ~ ~

q

s a t i s f y d(a) = pb.

A n easy calculation demonstrates that, in K d(a p) = p N b a p-1 d(a 2) = 2Tab

if p > 2 or q is even, q is odd.

if p = 2 and

In the f o r m e r case, if 2i< n, then, in W(p, z)(n)~Ir~P , d(e2i ~ a p ) = ezi-i ~ N a p + P e z i ~ NbaP-I Z - p[ezi.l~aP since TP-l= N rood p. + d(TP-gezi+1~baP-l)] mod p , In the latter case, if 2i+I <n, then - 2 [ e z i ~ a 2 - d(egi+z~ab)] rood 4.

d ( e z i + l ~ a 2) = e z i ~ r a Z - 2 e Z i + l ~ T a b

-

164

-

T h u s , in H(W(p, Zp)(n)~TrKT,.,~t if K is the rood p r e d u c t i o n of a, t h e n [3{egi@~P } = { e Z i _ l ~ g P } Since incase (a)and p{eZi+l@g2} --2} in c a s e (b). = {ezi@a > K , ~8,.. = @,.~, , -,-

@ is the rood p r e d u c t i o n of the m a p @: W(p, z ) ( n ) o ~rK p

and the r e s u l t f o l l o w s . Of c o u r s e , (i) and (ii) i m p l y t h a t the P
s

and ~P

s

are natural homomorphisms

(except, if n < co, for the last operation). corollary of part (iii). Corollary 2.4. Let (K,O) e ~'~(p,n).

A check of constants gives the following

Then

P q ( x ) = x p if p = 2 and X e Hq(K)

or if p > 2 and x e HZq(K ). If (K, 8) is unital, then Ps(e) = 0 for s J 0. T h e i m p l i c a t i o n s of (iv) and (v) f o r the Ps and ~Ps a r e c l e a r if p > 2. If

p = 2, w e have the following corollary of (v). C0,,r,ollary 2.5. If (K,@) e ~'(2,CO) is r e d u c e d rood 2, t h e n ~Ps+l = SPs.

The following result is the external Cartan formula.

Proposition 2.6.
x e H (K) 9 and

Let

(K,@) and Consider

(L,@')

be o b j e c t s of

~(p,n),

Let

y • H (L). r

x@y • H(K)@H(L):

H(K@L).

(i) (ii)

If p = g, t h e n

Di(x@y) =

~ Dj(x)@Dk(Y ) j+k= i

for i<_n .

If p > 2, then D z i ( x ~ y ) = (-I) m q r

~ D2j(x)~ngk(y ) j+k= i

for 2i<_n, and

D Dgi+l(x@y) = (-1) m q rj+k=i~(gj~rl(x)~Dzk(Y) + (-1)qDgj(x)(~D2k+l(Y)) 2i+I <__n.

for

Proof. Since

By L e m m a s

1. 1 and 1 . 3 , we m a y w o r k in w(n)(~Tr[H(K)(~H(L)]P. O , ( e i ~, x ~ y ) P ) , ( , by m e a n s The re-

~r operates trivially on ( x ~ y ) p, w e m a y compute

of the induced coproduct on w ( n ) ~ Z p , sult follows by direct calculation f r o m

as given in (Z) of Definition I. 2.

0,(%® (x® y)P) = (0,®%)(1®

1)(¢®U)(ei®(x®y)P).

-

165

-

A trivial verification of constants, together with part (iv) of Proposition 2.3,
yields the following corollary.

Corollary g.7. and y ~ Hr(L ).

Let (K, 0) and (L, 0') be objects of

~(p,n).

Let x e H q (K)

Then Ps(X(~y)= ~ Pi(x)(~Pj(y) and, if p > Z, i+j =s

~P+I(xOY) = ~ (OPi+l(X) OPj(Y) +(-1)qPi(x)O~Pj+l(Y)) • i+j= s Of course, if (K, 0) is a Cartan object in ~ ( p , n ) , then the corollary and the
naturality of the operations imply that the P
S

and, if p > 2, the

~P
S

on

H(l~)

satisfy the internal Cartan formulas

:

>_5
i+j : s

Pi(x)pj(y)

and

(1)
~Ps+l (xy) = ~ (~Pi+I(X)Pj (y) + (-1)degxp'(x)~P:+l I ( y )2 ) i+j= s

-

1 6 6

-

3.

Chain

tevel

operations,

suspension,

and spectral

sequences

In t h i s s e c t i o n , w e d e f i n e c h a i n l e v e l S t e e n r o d o p e r a t i o n s a n d u s e t h e m to p r o v e that the homology operations c o m m u t e wSth s u s p e n s i o n . The chain level operations in s p e c t r a l sequences

c a n a l s o b e u s e d to s t u d y t h e b e h a v i o r of S t e e n r o d o p e r a t i o n s a n d , in p a r t i c u l a r , theorem. Theorem 3.1. Let (K, O) e ~ ( p , co).

w e s h a l l p r o v e a g e n e r a l v e r s i o n of t h e K u d o t r a n s g r e s s i o n

Then there exist functions

P :K --->K s q q+s

if p=

2 and

P :K - - > K s q q+Zs(p-l)

and

~ P s : K -q > -

Kq+zs(p-l) - 1

if p > 2 w h i c h s a t i s f y t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o p e r t i e s .

(i) (ii)

dPs = P d s

and

d~Ps=-~Ps

d x e H(K), then Ps(a) and ~Ps(X). in ~3(p, co), so that fO = O'(l®fP), ~Ps(a) are

If a i s a cycle which represents cycles which represent Ps(x) and

(iii)

If f:(K,O)--> (K',O') is a m o r p h i s m
then Proof. fP
S

= P f and
S

fBP = ~Pf.
~S

Let

a ( Kq a n d w r i t e

b = d(a) e Kq_ 1.

In t h e c a s e

p = 2, d e f i n e

(1)

P s ( a ) = 0(c), w h e r e

c = es_q+l•b@a

+ es_qOaOa

e WOlf KZ" that p > Z. K p. Let (a,b)

The verification

of (i), ( i i ) , a n d ( i i i )

is t r i v i a l . a and

Thus assume b, s o t h a t s(b) = a. 1 on

denote the subcomplex of K with basis s:(a,b)--> (a,b). Let ( a , b ) , of d e g r e e o n e , b y S = 1P-l~s on ( a , b ) p.

(a,b)Pc Then

Define

s(a) = 0 and Then

ds + sd = 1 on S is given

dS + S d =

(a,b) p and

explicitly by S(ea) = 0 and

S(eb) = (-I) deg eea

for e e (a,b) p-I.

Define t.e (a,b)p i

for 0 <_ i <_ p by the inductive formula
(Z) t

o =

be; t 1

bp - 1 = S(¢~-1 = a', tZk

t2k_l t2k_l ) ; tZk+l = S(Nt2k ) -

Since (3)

dS + S d = I, an easy calculation demonstrates that d(tl) = to , d(tzk) = (~-I 1)tZk_1 and d(t2k+1) = Ntzk , l<__k<_m.

A straightforward induction, which uses the explicit formula for S , yields

-

I 6 7

-

(4)

tZk = E I

( - 1 ) k q ( k - 1 ) ' b i l a Z b i Z a Z ' ' " bikaZ , 1 _< k_< m ,

summed

over all

k-tuples
(5)

I = (iI ..... ik) such that

E
o

ij = p-Zk ; and
a, 0 < _ k < m, s u m m e d o v e r ij = p - l - Z k . Now let following ali

tZk+l = E ( - 1 ) k q k l b I (k+l)-tuples I = (i 1 .

it

a

2

..

, hlkaZblk+l

. . . .

ik+l)

such that ~

In p a r t i c u l a r ,

tp = t Z m + l = (-1)mq'm~ a p ( s i n c e e a c h i.j = 0). and d e f i n e c h a i n s
1

j = (Zs-q+l)(p-1) formulas

c and

c'

in W ~

rr

Np b y t h e

(where, by convention,
m

e. = 0 if i < 0):
m

(6)

c = k=OE (-I
ITI

)kej_Zk~

tZk+l

- E

k=l
m

(-1)k ej+l_Zk~(a-1

-

1)P'Z

tZk;

(7)

c' = E(-1) k=0

k

ej_l.ZkOtZk+l

+ E (-1)k ej_zk~tZk k=l 1 . 2 and (3), g i v e s

T h e n an e a s y c o m p u t a t i o n ,

which uses Definitim d(c') = -ej_l~)bP

(8)

d(c) = e p@Jb .

and

(j = (ZS - q + l ) ( p - 1 ) ) are that Nt = 0, that and t h a t

In c a l c u l a t i n g ae.~t
1 1

d(c), the s a l i e n t o b s e r v a t i o n s

P

= e.~a-lt

f o r t e K p b y the v e r y d e f i n i t i o n of a t e n s o r p r o d u c t , Z w. F i n a l l y , P and define ~ P s ( a ) = ( - 1 ) S u ( q - 1 ) 0 ( e ') . i < p and t

(a - 1 - 1) p-1 = N in (9) If

Ps(a) = ( - 1 ) S v ( q - 1 ) O ( e ) a is a c y c l e , b = 0, t h e n

t. = 0 f o r 1

p

= ( - 1 ) m q m ' a p, h e n c e

(i0)

c= (-l)m(q+l)m'e(zs_q)(p_l)@a

p and

c' = (-1)m(cl+l)m.'e(zs_q)(p_l)_l@a p

It is easy to verify that

w(q) = (-l)m(q+l)m' v(q-l) and now (ii) is obvious from
be K q-l"

(9) a n d (10) a n d (i) f o l l o w s f r o m (8), (9), and (10), a p p l i e d to the c y c l e P a r t (iii) is i m m e d i a t e The remaining proof. f r o m 49). of the t h e o r e m

r e s u l t s of this s e c t i o n a r e c o r o l l a r i e s

and its

We f i r s t define and s t u d y a v e r y g e n e r a l notion of s u s p e n s i o n .

-

168

-

Definition. Let such that where
that o-

f:K'--> K

and

g:K---> K"

be m o r p h i s m s

of A - c o m p l e x e s ~{b'} = {g(a)},

gf = O.

Define

0-: K e r f,.~--> C o k e r g. by the formula d(a) = f(b') in K.

b'

represents

{b'} ~ K e r f,~ and w e call
that the P
S

It is trivial to verify

is well-defined, and
We can now prove

o ~

the suspension.
commute with suspension. We remark that

if n = oo, the hypotheses of the next t h e o r e m simplify to the requirement that and g be m o r p h i s m s in ~(p, oo) s u c h that gf = O. For n < oo, the stated

f

hypotheses arise in practice in the study of iterated loop spaces. Theorem3.3. K

Let

(K',8') E #(p,n+l)
K and

and let (K", @") e
K"

C(p,n).

Let

be a Z - c o m p l e x and let f:K' m > P gf = O.

g:K--> "~

be m o r p h i s m s

of c o m -

plexes such that

Define a s u b c o m p l e x

K of W

(n+l)

~

Kp

by

= w ( n + l ) ~ f(K,)p + ~ ( n + l ) ~

f(K,)p-1 ~ K + w ( n ) ~ ~P ,
--

w h e r e -~(n+l) = w(n)~D Zpen+ 1 (that is, en+l e w ( n + l ) i <_ i < p).

but ~ en+ 1 ¢

i

~ (n+l)

for

Suppose g i v e n a T r - m o r p h i s m 0: ~ - - > K ( w h e r e , by c o n v e n t i o n , Tr does

not a c t on en+ 1 ~ f(K') p- 1 0 K) such that the following d i a g r a m is c o m m u t a t i v e :

w(n+l) ~ (x,)P l(~f p > ~

i (~ gP

> w(n) (~ (K,,)p

K'

f

> K

g

>

K"

(Here closed Coker

gf = under g,.

0 ensures the P
S

that and

(l~gP)(~) C w(n)~(K") p.) Observe that Ker f, is
S

~P
f,.

and that there are well-defined induced
o-P(x) = Pc(x)

P
S

on

Let x

e Ker

Then

and

c~Ps(X)=-~PsC(X)

when-

ever

P(x)

and

are

defined.

Proof.

Let

deg(x)= q-I

and let b' E I<' represent

x.

Let

b = f(b') and

let

d(a)

= b in K, so that
or

g(a)

represents

g(x).

The h y p o t h e s i s g u a r a n t e e s that
Ps(a)

if S iS sueh that Ps(X) or ~Ps(a)

~Ps(X)

is defined, then the chain level operation

constructed in the previous proof is also defined.

Of course, this is

-

169

-

clear if n = co; if n <co, w e need only verify that all elements involved in the definition of Ps(a) or operation ~Ps(a) are present in K. F o r example, if p = 2, the last

Ps(x) occurs for s = q + n a + e ~ a ( ~ a, and
n

and then Ps(a)= @(c), w h e r e
~v

c = en+ l ~ b ~

c is indeed in K.

N o w our d i a g r a m ensures

that fPs(b')= Pf(b'), hence

fPs(b') = dPs(a), and that gPs(a)= Psg(a). (r~pS(x) =

O-Ps(X) = Ps0-(x) follows f r o m the definition of o% and the proof that -~Ps~(X) is equally simple.

Note that if p > 2 and all objects are reduced rood p, then which is consistent with the theorem. that 0-~Ps(x) = 0 if p > 2 and

0-~ = -~o-,

The t h e o r e m implies that 0-(x = 0 and p) is reduced rood p, the

deg(x) = 2s-l; if (K",O") The operation

latter statement b e c o m e s

~0-(x) = 0. p

~Ps(x), deg(x) = 2s - i, plays

a special role in m a n y applications; the following very useful technical result about about this operation is k n o w n as the Kudo transgression theorem. It applies to the

D y e r - L a s h o f operations in the h o m o l o g y Serre spectral sequence of the path-space fibration ~ n x --> Izhqn-Ix --> ~n-Ix, to the Steenrod operations in the c o h o m o l o g y Serre spectral sequence of a fibration F --> E --> B (with K' --> K --> K" being

C":"(B) --> C;:'(E)--> C '(F), graded by subscripts) and to the spectral sequence of Adams [I, p. Zl0] for c o c o m m u t a t i v e Hopf algebras. Theorem K 3.4. Assume, in addition to the hypotheses of T h e o r e m that Ho(K' ) = Z
' p

3.3, that

has an increasing titration {FiK } of complexes u: K ~

= H
o

(K"), and that there is

a morphism

f(I<')--> K

such that either if i>__0,

(i)

K',K, and K" f(K') C F o K

are positively graded, F.I< = 0 if i < 0, F.K. = X
i 1 1

, ~ ( F i K ~ f(K')) C F i K

, and f and g induce i s o m o r p h i s m s w induces a m o r p h i s m

EZf:H.(K')-->EZ.K 3 oj Z 2

and EZg:K----> Hi(K" ) and Z

EZ'rr: Eij K ~ Eok K --> El, j+k K such that the c o m p o s i t e m o r p h i s m EZrr[(EZg) -1 ~ EZf]: Hi(K")(~ Hj(K') --> E..2 K is an i s o m o r p h i s m | 1j or

- 170

-

(ii)

K',K,

a n d K"

F . K = K if i > 0, F i _ I K i = 0 i f i < 0, 1 and f and g induce isomorphisms

f(K~) C F i K ,

=(FiK®f(Kj))CF i + j K ,
2
oj

Ezf:Hi(K,)__> ~z K and ~ : ~
i, o
EZw:

K---> H (K") and . induces a morphism
J

EZ.. K ~ Eko K ----> E Z j 2 lJ i+k, .K such that the composite m o r p h i s m

EZw[(EEg) -I 8 EZf]: H / K " ) e Hi(K' ) --> EZijE is an isomorphism. Let 7 be the transgression, ~- = dt:EttoK--> E t0,t_lK m = d l.t:El-t K _ >
ot

in (i) and

E 1-t

t-l,o

K

(t < 0) in (ii). Then m is the inverse additive

relationto cr, and if y ~ Hq(K") transgresses to x • Hq_l(K'), then Ps(y) and if p > Z, ~Ps(y ) transgresses to Ps(X) and -~P(x), whenever the operations transgresses to

are defined. -~P(x)

Moreover, if p > 2 and q = 2s, then yp-i ~ x

(that is, dq(p_l)(yp-i ~ x ) = -~Ps(x) in case (i) and

dl_q(p_l)(yp-l~x) = -~Ps(X) in case (ii) provided that

(iii) (iv)

if a.j c F i . K , t h e n J The restriction

0(ek(~a I ~...

~ap)

¢ FiK , i = ~

ij+k,

and

of @ to
;:'~

e ~K p-l(~f(K') o

induces a morphism
~O

E20:(E~oK)P-I~E 2 K--> E2K
• 0

in (i)and E20:(EoZ.K)P-I~E2 K--> E Z K

in (ii) such t h a t

EZo =

Eaw[(EZgl-I@(EZg)p-I~ w h e r e I],
By the definition of the differentials in the

~:H(K") p-I ---->H(E") is the iterated product. Proof. Let y ~ Hq(K").

spectral sequence of a filtered complex, T(y) is defined if and only if y is
represented by g(a) for some a • K q such that d(a) = f ( b ' ) for some cycle

b' • K' q-l' and then x = T(y) = {b'}. Thus the first statement follows from the properties of the chains Ps(a) and ~Ps(a). F o r the second statement, consider as above, it suffices to

~%(a), q = 2s. Since d~P(a) = -~Psf(b'), a and b' prove that ~Ps(a) represents yp-I e x in EZK.

~Ps(a) = - m v.o(c') by (9) of the v(Zs-l) = (-l)S'im~.

proof of T h e o r e m 3. 1 and the observation that v(q-l) = In the definition (7) of c', the term with k = m

in the first s u m involves e_l (since

-

171

-

q = 2s

implies j = p-l) and is therefore zero.

The term with k = m

in the

m - 1 aZiba2(m.i ) m second s u m is (-I) e o ~ t p _ I where, by (4), tp. 1 = ( m - t ) : ~ i=O b = d(a). It is easy to see that m-I m zi-I --~.a2iba 2(m'i) = P(a)aP-lb , where i=0 i=l a n d d i r e c t c a l c u l a t i o n s h o w s t h a t P(~) = m + Q(a), in Z w, w h e r e m P Q(~) = ~ j ( a 2j + aZJ+l). Let c" = (-l)m(m-l) ' e l ~ Q ( a ) a p - l ( ~ b ¢ W @ K p. Then j=l e' - d(e") = (-l)mm:e ~ a P - l b plus a linear combination of terms e i ~ g such o that g has i+l factors b and p-i-1 factors a. Condition (iii)ensures that

each O(ei~ g) has lower filtrationthan does 0(eo~ aP'Ib) and condition (iv) ensures that 8 ( e o ~ a P - l b ) represents y p - l ~ x -m: e(c' - d(c")) = 8(eo~ aP'ib) represent is c o m p l e t e . The following proposition gives a general prescription for the study of Steenrod operations in spectral sequences; it will be useful in the study of the cohomology of the Steenrod algebra in [18]. In the applications, the determination of the function f is often quite difficult and depends on h o w the given O was constructed. Proposition 3.5. Let (K, O) be an increasingly filtered object of ~ (p, co) e EZK. Since ~Ps(a) and

the same element of E2K, the proof

Suppose given a function f(i,j,k) such that (i) If ate FitKit+Jt , where O(ek@al@... (ii) (iii) Let ~ i = i and ~ t Ji = j' then

@ap) e Ff(i,j,k)Ki+j+ k ; and r >_ i. y) e and

f(i,j,k) > f(i-r,j+r- I, k+ I), r>_l;

f(i,j,k)> r + f(i-pr,j+p(r-l),k+p-l),

r y e E.K. tJ

Then there exist elements such that dtPs(g)= psdr(g)

Et k

K and, if p > 2 , where

~Ps(y) e Eti,~,

dt ' ~ P s ( y ) = - ~ P s d r ( y ) ,

-

172

-

(iv)

If p = 2, t h e n

k = f(Zi, 2j, s - i - j ) ,

g = i+j+s-k,

and

t = k-f(2i-2r, 2j+2(r-l),s+ (v) If p > 2, then

l-i-j) , g = i+j+2s(p-l)-k , and

k = f(pi, pj,(Zs-i-j)(p-l)),

t = k - f ( p i - p r , pj+p(r-l), (vi) If p > 2, then

(2s+l -i-j)(p-l)). g' = i + j + 2 s ( p - 1 ) - l - k , and

k' = f(pi, pj,(Zs-i-j)(p-1)-l),

t' = k' - f(pi-pr, pj+p(r-l),

( 2 s + I -i-j)(p-1)- I).

Proof.

Let

a ~ FiKi+ j represent %(a) constructed enGaP

y

and let b = d(a) ~ Fi_rKi+j_ 1 3.1. B y (ii), all s u m m a n d s n) have lower of

C o n s i d e r the chain Ps(a)

in T h e o r e m

other than that involving k

(for the appropriate

filtration than

and, by (i), O(e n O a p) h a s f i l t r a t i o n

k.

Since

dPs(b), w h e r e P(y) follows.

Ps(b) ~ F k _ t K b y (i)
T h e proof for

and

k-t

~ r by (iii), the statement about

~Ps(y ) is similar.

4.

relations relations are valid for the Steenrod operations The general algeare able to exploit a relations, and this since

W e here s h o w that the A d e n in H(K) if (K,O) ~

~ ( p , co) satisfies certain hypotheses. in the proof. We

braic context is distinctly advantageous trick (Lemma 4.3) used by A d e n

to prove the classical A d e n

trick w o u l d not be available in a categorical approach to Steenrod operations it depends on the usage of objects of C(P,°°) which are not present in m a n y

categories of interest, such as infinite loop spaces and c o c o m m u t a t i v e bras.

Hopf alge-

We require
proof.

s o m e n o t a t i o n s a n d d e f i n i t i o n s b e f o r e we c a n p r o c e e d to t h e

2 act as permutations on {(i,j) I l ~ i < _ p , l<__j<__p}. P in ~n 2 by letting ~(i,j) = (i+ 1 j). Define ~. ~ Z 1 <i < p, by ' 1 P pZ' -- -Let ~

Embed

-

173

-

ai(i,j) = (i,j+l) 13(i,j) = ( i , j + l ) .

and Then

ozi(k,j) = ( k , j ) f o r k / i ,

and let

~ = ~l.-.C~p

so that

(I) Let Let

ozozi = ~i+l ~ ; ~iozj = ajoti ; a n d oz. generate
I

c~ = ~oz . v are cyclic of o r d e r p.

~.

I

and

~

generate v, so that ~. a n d i

0- = ~v

and let

T be g e n e r a t e d

by the

oe. a n d 1

o~. T h e n 0 - C T , T by

is a rr.

p - S y l o w s u b g r o u p of 2~p2,

and

T i s a s p l i t e x t e n s i o n of ~ l . . . ~ p respectively,

Let

W 1 = W and
Z P . Let

W 2 = W regarded, v

a s Tr-free a n d v - f r e e

resolutions of andlet of Z. P If M o

operate trivially on W1, let
WI~W Z. Then WI~W

w o p e r a t e t r i v i a l l y on WZ,
g is a 0 - f r e e resolution

operate diagonally o n

is a n y v - m o d u l e ,

let T operate o n

M p by letting ~ operate b y cyclic M as does ~. Let ~. i

p e r m u t a t i o n and b y letting ~i operate on the operate trivially on W I. on Then

i-th factor

T operates on W l and w e let T operate diagonally

W 1 ( ~ M p. Let

In p a r t i c u l a r ,

W 1 ~W?

is then a We l e t

K be any Zp-complex.

T-free resolution of Z . P 2 2~pZ o p e r a t e on K t~ b y p e r m u t a t i o n s

w i t h t h e ( i , j ) - t h f a c t o r K b e i n g t h e j - t h f a c t o r K in t h e i - t h f a c t o r K p o f 2 Kp = (KP)P. We l e t v o p e r a t e in t h e s t a n d a r d f a s h i o n on W Z ( ~ K p (13 a c t i n g as cyclic permutation of T on on KP)o By the previous paragraph, this fixes an operation

W I~(wZ~Kp)p. Y be any over 2~ _ - f r e e pZ Z . P resoiutionof Z p and let w:W I~W P z --->Y be

Let any
of w

T-morphism
are

w exists since

Y is acyclic,

a n d a n y two c h o i c e s

T-homotopic.

W i t h these notations, w e h a v e the following definition.

Definition 4. I. object if there exists a ing d i a g r a m

L e t (K,@) e ~ ( p , n ) .
~ P 2_morphism commutative:

We s a y t h a t ( K , @ )
> K

i s an A d e m

~ : y ( n ) ~ K p2

such that the follow-

is T - h o m o t o p y

-

1 7 4

-

(WI @ W } ) ( n ) @ Kp 2

w@l

> y ( n ) @ Kp z K

Wl(n )

(wJn)~

Kp)p

11~ e p

> Wl(n)l ~ Kp

Here

U

is the evident shuffle map, and is clearly a T - m o r p h i s m (~. p2

acts

t r i v i a l l y on K and

a.1 a c t s t r i v i a l l y on W l ( n ) ~ KP).
The relations obtained ~(p,n), pro-

F o r clarity, w e only treat the case n = co below. will be valid f o r o p e r a t i o n s

on H (K), (K, 0) an A d e m q

object of

vided that n is sufficiently large relative to q.

We f i r s t show t h a t the t e n s o r p r o d u c t of A d e m o b j e c t s is an A d e m o b j e c t and t h e n u s e this f a c t to s h o w t h a t a n y r e l a t i o n s v a l i d on H objects q. Lemma 4.2. If (I<,0) and (L, 0') a r e A d e m o b j e c t s of ~ ( p , co), then (K, 0) and s u i t a b l e qi will n e c e s s a r i l y (K) f o r all A d e m qi be v a l i d on H (K) f o r a r b i t r a r y q

( @L , ~ ) is an A d e m object of K
Proof. and 6'

¢ ( p , oo). By h y p o t h e s i s , we a r e g i v e n

"~ is as d e f i n e d in D e f i n i t i o n s 2. 1. (K,~) and (K,B')

such that

a r e o b j e c t s of
~

m a y define

a s in D e f i n i t i o n s 2. 1 so t h a t

(K~

L, 6)

~'(]E Z, co, Zp), hence we P (~]p2' co, Zp). We must T-homotopy commutative,

s h o w t h a t the d i a g r a m of D e f i n i t i o n 4 . 1 , f o r

K ~ L, is

and this follows easily f r o m a simple chase of a large diagram and the definition

of ~ and g.
and Y ~ Y V

The crueial point is the observation that since W, ® W 2

is T free

is acyclic, the following diagram is T-homotopy commutative where ~ :Y -->Y ~ Y is any given ~p2-Coproduct:

is the evident shuffle and

-

175

-

w

iw®w
.... ~ > Y@Y denote the free associative algebra generated by {PslS ¢ Z} Let JpC Fp d e n o t e the t w o - s i d e d i d e a l c o n s i s t i n g x • H(K) and all Adem objects a e F P such that ax = 0 f o r a l l

y Let F

P

a n d , if p > 2, {~P_ls s e Z}. of a l l e l e m e n t s

(K, 8) e ~ (p, oo). Let Bp = Fp/Jp.

Bp

is a universal Steenrod algebra.

Both

the classical Steenrod algebra and the Dyer-Lashof algebra [17] are quotients of B . P
L e m m a 4. 3. s e q u e n c e of i n t e g e r s . objects Let a • F . p Let { q i i i > 0} be a s t r i c t l y d e c r e a s i n g i > 0, a n d a l l A d e m

Suppose that Then

a x = 0 f o r a l l x e Hq (K),
t

(K, 0) ¢ ~ (p, oo). Proof. Let

a • J . P

K be an A d e m object in Choose ( L r , Or) • r < 0

~(p, co) a n d l e t
q + r = q.
1

x•

H (K). q i.

We There

must prove that

ax = 0.

such that

for some

~ (p, co) a n d a c l a s s

y • Hr(Lr)

such that

Po(y) = y, Ps(y) = 0 for s ~ 0, and ~Ps(y) = 0 for all s. Such an object can easily be constructed explicitly, but it is quicker to appeal to the results of section 8, which show that the singular cochains of a (-r)-sphere, graded by non-positive subscripts, provide such an object. N o w by the previous l e m m a .
a(x@y) = ax@y.

(K~Lr,~)

is an A d e m object of ~(p,oo)

B y the external Cartan formula, Corollary 2.7,
, a(x@y) = 0 and therefore a x = 0,

Since x@y e Hqi(K~Lr)

a s w a s to be s h o w n .

The A d e m relations will be proven by chosing the diagram of Definition 4.1,
a n d we s h a l l n e e d s o m e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t the h o m o l o g y of ~, 7, a n d ~:W I~W 2--> WI~W 7 be a 0 - - m o r p h i s m o v e r 2 :E ~. Let

Zp.

Define N ( Ep2

by

~(i,j) = (j,i). Observe that ~

= 1 and ~ a =

~'~. For

q • Z, conjugation by

-

176

-

gives a commutative diagram

~#

W~

G~(~; Z p ( q ) ) >

H.(.;, z p (q))

> H,~,(z z " z p(q))

H.(¢; Z p ( q ) )
Thus

> H.(T; Z p (q)) ,-

>H=(G Z; Z p (q)) ," P
Nz~ and ~ . Note that

w:,(~,- @,N.~) = 0. The following l e m m a s compute

H,(T; Zp(q)) = H,(T; Zp) since T contains only even p e r m u t a t i o n s .
Lemma Proof. 4.4. ~.,. is given on Ii,~(¢;, Zp(q)) by ~(ei~, ej) = (-l)ij+mqe.~e..3 l W l~V Z by the formula

Define "~# : W I ~ W Z - >

"f#(~kei@~f ej) = (_l)iJ~ej~ ~kei. Then d'f# = N#d and X#(~x)= (Np'f-l)f#(x) for ~ ~ 0 and xE W I ~ W 2. Thus

,~#~:

(Wl@Wz)~Zp(q)-->

(W I ~ W Z ) ~ Z p ( q )

induces

N,.

Sincethe signor

"f is (-I)m, N.I = (-I)m q Before computing

in Zp(q), and the result follows. @~=. we fix notations concerning binomial coefficients.

Notations 4.5.
j >__0

Let i and j be i n t e g e r s .

Define (i,j) = ( i + j ) ' / i ' j '

if i k 0 and

(0' = I) and define (i,j) = 0 if i< 0 or j < 0. Recall that if i >__0 and i= ~ akP k and j = ~ b k, then kp

j > 0 have p-adic expansions

(i,j) - U (ak,b k) rood p° Clearly (ak, bk) ~ 0 rood p if and only if a k + b k < p, k k hence (i,j) ~ 0 rood p if and only if ~ ( a k + bk)p is the p-adic expansion

of i + j . L e m m a 4.6. H,~.,~.(T; Zp) = H (~r;Hl,(v,-Zp) p) and ~ , : H , ( ~ ; Z p ) - - > H~.,..(T;Zp)

is given by the following formulas (with sums taken over the integers). (i) If p
=

Z, ~,(er~es)

=

~(k,s_Zk)er+zk_s k

~ es_ k , . Z and

(ii)

If p > Z, ~ , = . ( e r ~ e s ) =

~.(-1)kv(s)(k,[s/Z]-pk) k

er~2pk_s)(p_i)~esP_2k(p_l)

-6(r)8(s- I) .~(-l)k~s-l)(k, IS'i/z] - pk)e r+p +(Zpk - s)(p- l)~eP-zk(p- I)-i ' k

-

1 7 7

-

where

v(Zj +E) = (-1)J(m~)~
Proof. Let W Z = W 2 %

and 6(Zj+~) =E , j any integer,
Z

~= 0 or 1.

P

= H•(w ; Z ). By the definition of the action of P

on

and the f i r s t part follows. ~,

Of c o u r s e ,

P P HI~(T; Zp) is now computed by L e m m a 1.3. Let

Z

could be computed d i r e c t l y , but it is s i m p l e r to use topology.

K(Zp, 1) = E/v , w h e r e v o p e r a t e s p r o p e r l y o n t h e acyctic space E, so that, by C . ( E ) = Z v ~ C , ( E / v ) , with Z coefficients. Let D:E---~'~ E p be ,-~ p P the iterated diagonal. Then 1 ~ D : W I ~ C,(E) --> W I ~C:~(E p) is a 0-morphism,
and we shall obtain a ~ - m o r p h i s m Let d = ~: W 1 ~ C.(E p) ---->W 1 ~ C~(E) p in L e m m a v - m o r p h i s m over Z p . Since 7. i.

[14, IV l l ] ,

~(I ~)D) and let f:W Z ~ > C,(E) be a ~

W 1 ~ W Z is 0~-free and W I ~ C ~ ; ( E ) p is acyclic (and T-free, with the evident
-r-action), the following diagram is ~-homotopy commutative.

W1]W2
lef W 1 (~ C , ( E ) Therefore

¢

> WliWPz
l~f p

d

> W1 @ C , ( E ) p

~, = d~: H:~(cr;Zp) ---> H,(T; Zp), and this can clearly be computed from d : W l ( ~ r C ;.(E/v) --> W l ~ rG:..(E/v)P. We shall prove the

the quotient m a p

following f o r m u l a s in P r o p o s i t i o n 9 . 1 .
(a) (b) If p = Z, d,(er~ e s) = ~ er+2k_s ~P,k(es)Z • and ~,. ;,., k If p > Z, d;~(er~es ) = ~(-l)kv(s)er+(Zpk_sl(p_l)~P,k(es )p k
-

6(r) ~-~.(-l)kv(s-I )er+p+(Zpk_sl(p.l) e p.k ~(eslP . k

Here the p~:~k are the duals to the Steenrod operations in H * (K( Zp, i); Zp) = H (v; Zp). The latter operations satisfy pO = I and the internal Cartan formula, hence, by (1.2), if w t is dual to et, then

(c)

If p = Z, pk(wt) = (k,t-k)Wk+ t, hence

pk(es),:, = (k, s-2k)es_ k ; and

-

1 7 8

-

(d)

If p > Z,

pk(wt) : (k, [t/Z] - k)wt+zk(p_l)

, hence

P;k(es) = (k, [s/Z] - pk)es_zk(p_l )

C o m b i n i n g (a) and (c), w e o b t a i n (i). we o b t a i n (ii). Theorem 4.7.

Combining (b),(d),

and

~(ei) = 6 ( i - 1 ) e i _ l ,

T h e f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s a m o n g the P ~ ( p , oo).

S

and

~P

are valid

on all h o m o l o g y c l a s s e s of all A d e m o b j e c t s in

(i) (ii)

If p

=

z

and

a > Zb,

PaPb = Z(Zi-a,a-b-i-l)Pa+b_iPi i i

p > 2 and

a > pb, PaPb = ~ ( - 1 ) a + i ( p i - a , a - ( p - 1 ) b - i - 1 ) P a + b _ i P i

and

~PaPb = E ( - 1 ) a + i ( p i - a , a - ( p - 1 ) b - i - 1 ) ~ P a + b _ i P i i
Pa~Pb = E(-l)a+i(pi-a,a i - (p-l)b-i)~Pa+b_iPi

(iii)

If p > 2 and a > pb,

- E(-1)a+i(pi
1

- a-l, a-(p-1)b-i)Pa+b_i~Pi

and
~Pa~Pb = - E ( - l ) a + i ( p i i - a-l,a - (p-l)b-i)~Pa+b_i~Pi

Proof.

Note f i r s t t h a t the s e c o n d r e l a t i o n s of (ii) and (iii) a r e i m p l i e d by

the f i r s t f o r o b j e c t s w h i c h a r e r e d u c e d m o d p, but a r e l o g i c a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t in o u r general setting. Let (K,O) be an A d e m o b j e c t in C ( p , oo) and l e t x ¢ H (K). q

D e f i n i t i o n 4. 1 i m p l i e s that we h a v e a Z - h o m o t o p y c o m m u t a t i v e P (WI~W7)~ KPZ(q) w~l > Y~E KPZ(q)

diagram

I® u

P

K(q)

W ®=(Wz® KP)P(q) l®0P-- WI® KP(q)/~e
I Z Since xp is E pZ Z invariant in K p (q), w e have, for all Z Z r and s,

(a)

~,:,(w®l)*(er ® esP®XP ) = ~*(w,(er® asp)®xp

)"

-

1 7 9

-

In the other direction,

U

introduces the sign (-i) m q s Z

and w e have

(b) Since (c)

0*(l~oP)*(l{~U)~(er~eP~xPs w,#, = w , # , ~/,, L e m m a

) = (-1)mqsDrDs(X)

"

4.4 gives the formula er).

w,#;:.(er ~ es) = (-1) rs +mqw,#,(es~

Combining formulas

(a) a n d ( c ) . w e o b t a i n t h e f o r m u l a 2 Z

(d)

~,(w®l),(L(er®es)®xP ) =(-1)rs +mq<:,(w® 1),(#.:.(es®er)®xP ).
and these relations are

In v i e w of (b), (d) g i v e s r e l a t i o n s on i t e r a t e d o p e r a t i o n s , explicit since In a l l p a r t s , ~, is known.

W e p r o v e t h e t h r e e p a r t s of t h e t h e o r e m

successiveIy

the statements

about binomial coefficients are verified by writing out in

t h e p - a d i c e x p a n s i o n s o f t h e r e l e v a n t i n t e g e r s a n d a p p e a l i n g to t h e r e m a r k s Notations 4.5. (i) {e) By (b) a n d (d), L e m m a 4.6 implies the formula = ~(~,r-Zl)Ds+zl_rDr_~(x) ~ r = a-Zq and and . s = b-q

~(k,s-Zk)Dr+Zk_sDs_k(X) k (e) i s v a l i d f o r a l l

Formula fixed

r a n d s, a n d w e s e t to

for our

a>Zb.

If w e t h e n c h a n g e v a r i a b l e s

j=b-k

i = a-q-I

and apply

Definition 2. 2, w e obtain (f) ~(b-j,2j-b-q)Pa+b_jPj(x) j guarantees = ~(a-q-i, i that the s a m e Zi-a)Pa+b_iPi(x). t e r m s do not appear with non-zero q = b-2 t + 1 for s o m e t > 0.

T h e condition a > 2b

coefficients on both sides of (f). N o w Then, if j ~ b, (b-j, Zj-b- c 0 =

suppose that

(b-j, Zt-l-Z(b-j))

=

0. while if

O n the right side of (f), Pa+b_iPi(x) = 0 unless Zt > 2i-a, then (a-q-i, Zi-a) Thus Lemma

Z t-I = b - q ~ 2i-a,

= (Zi-a,a-b-i-l+Z t) = (gi-a,a-b-i-1). q = b-Zt+l for s o m e t > 0. By

(f) reduces to the desired relation (i) w h e n 4. 3, it follows that (i) holds for all q.

-

180

-

(ii) Observe that ~w, = w , ~ the Bockstein operation where

and that, by the proof of part (v) of Proposition 2. 3, ~(ek@eP ) = ~(ek)~eP ~@g., so does

~ in H,(-q Zp) is given by

~(ek) = 5(k-l)ek_ I. N o w

since (c) holds with ~.:.. replaced by

(d); that is,

(d')

~g.(w~ 1),(~¢,(er~ e s ) ~ X p2) = (-1)

rs + m q

2

~ , ( w ~ 1),(~¢,(es~ e r ) ~ x P ).

Replace r and s by 2r and 2-s in (d) and (d') and let 8 = 0 or 1; then, by (b)
and L e m m a respectively. 4.6, (d) and (d') imply the following formula for ~ = 0 and ~ = i,

(g)

~ ( - 1 ) k v ( g s ) ( k , s-pk)Dzr+(gpk_gs)(p_ I)_E Dgs-gk(p- t)(x) k
=

~ (-l)e+mqv(2r)(e, r-pC
and

)Des +(2p~ -2r)(p-l)-£ D z r - Z~ (p-l) (x)"

In (g), set r = a ( p - l ) - p q m and i = a-mq-i. Let

s = b(p-l)-qm
I

and change variables to j = b-k

~°P s = Ps and

~ Ps = ~Ps' by abuse; then, by Definitions

Z. 2 and a check of constants, w e obtain (h) ~(-1)b+J(b-j, p j - b - m q ) ~ Pa+b_j~(x)

J
= ~ i Again, a > pb (-1)a+i(a - m q - i , p i a)~ Pa+b_iq(x)

ensures that the s a m e terms do not appear on both sides of (h). q = 2b- 2(I+p +... + pt-1), t > 0. Then (b-j, pj-b-mq) = 0

N o w suppose that unless I +...

j = b and, on the other side of (h), ~E Pa+b_iPi(x ) = 0 unless + pt-I = b-q/2 > pi - a, w h e n pt > pi - a implies

(a - mq-i, pi-a) =

(el-a, a-(p-l)b + pt_ 1-i) = (pi-a, a-(p-l)b-i-1). q = Zb-2(I +... + pt-1) for

Thus (h) reduces to the desired relations (ii) w h e n some (iii) t > 0. Replace By Lemma

4. 3, it follows that (ii) holds for all q. 2s-i in (d) and (d'); then, by (b) and L e m m a ~ = 0 and ~ = I, respectively.

r and s by Zr and

4.6, (d) and (d') imply the following formula for

-

181

-

(i)

~(-l)k+mqk

~Zs-1)(k, s-l-pk)D2r+{Zpk_2s+1)(p_l)_ED2s_l_Zk(p_1)(x) (-I)~ +mqv(2r)(~ , r-p~ )Des_1+(Zp ~ _2r)(p_ l)DZr.2~ (p_1)(x)

= (i - a) ~

~
and i = a-mq-~.

(-i) ~ v(Zr-l)(i,r-l-p~)D2s+{2p ~_2r+~(p_l)_~D2r_l_2~(p_l) (x)" and s = b(p-l)-qm and change variables to j = b-k

In (i), set r = a(p-l)-pqm

B y Definitions 2. 2, w e obtain

(J)

~(-1)b+J(b-j, pj-b-mq-t)~ ~ Pa+b_j~Pj(x)
J
= (1-8) ~ i ~(i (-l)a+i(a-mq-i, pi-a)~Pa+b_iPi(x)

l)a+i(a-mq-i, pi-a- I)~~ Pa+b_i~Pi(x)

Again, a >__pb ensures that the s a m e terms do not occur on both sides of the equation. j = b. Now suppose that q = 2b-2p t, t > 0. Then (b-j, pj-b-mq-l) = 0 unless t p > pi-a, w h e n

O n the other side of (j), (a-mq-i, pi-a)

~Pa+b_iPi(x) = 0 unless

= (pi-a,a-(p-l)b-i + (p-1)p t) = (pi-a,a-(p-l)b-i), pt > pi-a-1, w h e n . t < 0,

and

~E Pa+b_i~Pi(x) = 0 unless

(a-mq-i, pi-a-])

= (pi-a-l, a-(p-l)b - i +(p-1)p t) = (pi-a-I, a-(p-l)b-i)

Thus (j) reduces to the desired relations (iii) w h e n and L e m m a Remark 4. 3 implies that (iii) holds for all q. It should be observed,

q = 2b-Zp t for s o m e

4. 8.

for use in section 9, that the relations (f), a and b

(h), and (j) derived in the proof above are valid for arbitrary integers (without the restrictions a > pb or

a > pb). Indeed, these conditions on a and

b w e r e only required in order to obtain disjoint non-trivial terms on the two sides of the cited equations.

-

182

-

5.

Re i n d e x i n g f o r c o h o m o l o g y : We h a v e g e a r e d o u r d i s c u s s i o n to h o m o l o g y , but the reformulation approThus If

p r i a t e to c o h o m o l o g y is o b t a i n e d b y a m i n o r a n d s t a n d a r d c h a n g e of n o t a t i o n . let K be a Z - c o m p l e x P IK b y Z-graded by superscripts, with d of d e g r e e p l u s o n e . sections applies. and reformulate

the theory. with IK and

tK- q = K q, t h e n t h e t h e o r y o f t h e p r e v i o u s W by non-positive superscripts

Obviously, W

this in no w a y changes the proofs. and let x ¢ Hq(K), define ~pS(x)

Let Then

(K,@) ~ ~ ( p , oo)~

Di(x ) = @ , ( e - i ~ x p) ~ HPq-i(K), p > 2, f3pS(x) = ~Ps(X).

and w e m a y pS(x) and

pS(x) = P s ( X )

and, if

Explicitly,

are defined by the

formulas

(i)

If p = 2, p S ( x ) = Dq_s(X ) ~ H q + s ( K ) , w h e r e
If p > Z, pS(x) =(-l)Sv(-q)D(q_2s)(p_l)(X)

D.I = 0 f o r

i < O; a n d
and

(2)

~ Hq+Zs(p-I)(K)

~ p S ( x ) = ( - 1 ) s v ( - q ) D ( q _ Z s ) ( p _ l ) _ l(X) ~ H q + Z s ( p ' l ) + l ( K ) , D. = 0 f o r
1

where

i < 0 a n d if q = Z j - ~ , E = 0 o r 1, t h e n
S

v(-q) = (-1)J(m!) ¢ .

Of course,

if p = 2, w e should write

p S = Sq

in order to c o n f o r m pS. In this way, the

to

standard notations, but w e prefer to retain the notation C a r t a n f o r m u l a and A d e m p>2. The integers (3) (4) s. ps and ~pS are natural h o m o m o r p h i s m s

relations are formally the s a m e

in the cases p = 2 and

and are defined for all

If (K,O) ~

C ( p , oo) a n d

x ~ Hq(K), t h e n pq
(x) = x

If p = 2, If p > 2,

pS(x) = 0 if s > q and

Z

; and

pS(x) = 0 if 2s > q, ~pS(x) = 0 if 2s ~ q, and pS(x) = x p if 2s = q. pS(x) = 0 if s < 0 or that is unital, then p O = i; these formulas s ~ 0. If (IK, @)

Note that w e do not claim that are not true in general. is reduced m o d p, then

If (IK, @)

pS(e) -- 0 for

-

183

-

(5)

~pS-I = spS if p > 2 .

if p = 2 and

~ps

is the composition of pS

and the Bockstein

The external Caftan formula n o w reads

(6)

pS(x~)y)

=

~ Pi(x)(~PJ(y) i+j = s = ~
i+j =s

and, if p > 2,

~pS+l(x @y)

(~pi+l(x)~)Pj(y)+(_l)degxPi(x)~Pj+l(y)).

W e have

~pS = p S

and

0 ~ P s = -~pS0-

and of course the Kudo transgression

t h e o r e m takes on a m o r e familiar f o r m with grading by superscripts in case (ii). The A d e m relations, reformulated in terms of the pS, take on the f o r m given in

the following corollary. Corollary 5. I. The following relations a m o n g the pS objects in ~(p, oo) and ~pS are

valid on all c o h o m o l o g y classes of all A d e m (i) If p >__2, a < pb, and papb

~ = 0 or 1 if p > Z, 6 = 0 if p = Z, then

: ~(-1)a+i(a
i

- pi,(p-1)b - a+i-1)~ ~ pa+b-ipi

(ii)

If p > 2, a <_pb, and ~pa~pb

a = 0 or i, then

= (I -~) ~ ( - 1 ) a + i ( a - p i , ( p - l ) b - a + i - l ) ~ p a + b - i p i i ~(I

l)a+i(a-pi- 1, (p- l)b-a+i)~ ~ pa+b-i~pi ~OpS = ps and ips = ~pS), 4.7 and the

(where, by abuse of notation,

While the two forms of the Adern relations given in T h e o r e m

corollary are completely equivalent, they w o r k out quite differently in practice. The relations of T h e o r e m a,b >_0; but a,b >_ 0 4.7 apply to positive complexes, in homology, with in the corollary,

in T h e o r e m

4.7 corresponds to a,b <_ 0

which is designed for use in c o h o m o l o g y with a, b _> 0.

F o r this reason, the Dyer-

Lashof algebra [ 17 ], which operates on the h o m o l o g y of infinite loop spaces, is a very different algebraic object than the classical Steenrod algebra.

-

1 8 4

-

6.

Cup-i products, B r o w d e r operations, and higher Bocksteins. W e here discuss v.-products and certain h o m o l o g y operations of two
i

variables, which w e r e first studied by B r o w d e r in [4]; these operations occur in the presence of a Vn-product and the absence of a ~n+l-product and are central We shall also obtain a In section

to the study of the h o m o l o g y of (n+l)-fold loop spaces.

very useful result, Proposition 6.8, on higher Bockstein operations.

i0, w e shall show that this result suffices to give a complete computation of the rood p c o h o m o l o g y Bockstein spectral sequence of K(~r,n) for any Abelian group and any prime p. /i is a commutative ring, ir is the cyclic group of W is the canonicalA~r-free resolutionof A. Z~iei_I for i > I. If (K,O) ~ ~(~,n,A),
O

Throughout this section, order Z with generator i = o~ + ( - 1 ) i ~ Aw, so ~, and

Let then

that d(ei) =

w e m a y a s s u m e that the restriction of 0 to e ~ K ~ K product on K by (i) of Definition g. i. Let (K,@) ~ ~(Tr, n,A)

agrees with the given

Definition 6. I.
0 < i < n, d e f i n e a n d if i > 0, t h e n to

and let x ~ K
Then U
O

q

and y ~ K

r

. For
K

! i(i+l ) x •. y = (-1) 2 @ ( e i. ~ ) x Q y ) _
1

i s the p r o d u c t o n i from •i-1

w:K~K1

- - > K is a c h a i n h o m o t o p y of d e g r e e

( - 1 ) i - l ~ i _ 1- e: ; t h a t i s ,

(i)

d(x~.1y) = (-l)id(x)wi y +(-l)i+qx r i d ( Y ) + x ~ i - i

Y +('l)l+qry vi-i x.

If A = Z2

and x ~ K q

is a cycle, then Pi+q{X}

= Di{x} = {xw.1 x}, We now

which, in cohomology, w a s Steenrod's first definition [Z5] of the squares.
d e f i n e the B r o w d e r o p e r a t i o n s f o r D e f i n i t i o n 6. Z. y c H r ( K ). Let (K, 0) ~ ~(~r,n,A). n <oo, andlet xe Hq(K)

(K,O) a ~ ( ~ , n , A ) ,

and

O b s e r v e t h a t if a a n d b

are representative

c y c l e s f o r x a n d y, t h e n

An+len~a~b

is a cycle in w ( n ) ~ K y. Define

Z w h o s e h o m o l o g y class ~ n + l e n ~ X ~ y kn(x,y ) ~ H q + r + n ( K ) by

depends only on x and

-

185

-

kn(X,y) = ( - 1 ) n q + 1 0 , ( A n + l e n O X O y ) . equivariant homology;

Note that we have c h o s e n not to pass to K z,

of c o u r s e , we can do so, and, in w ( n ) ~

(-l)nq+IAn+lenOaOb = (-l)nq+nenO a O b - (-1)nq+qren(~boa" nq+n + in(n+l) Thus kn(X,y) is represented by ( - I ) (a~.~nb-(-l)n+qrb%2n a). The following propositioncontains many of the elementary properties of the kn; its proof is i m m e d i a t e from the definition.
P r o p o s i t i o n 6.3. L e t (K, 0) > Hq+r+n (K). kn: H q ( K ) O H r ( I K ) - - > Hq+r+n(K) ~(~r,n,A), then Xn(f, O f ~ ) = f , k n thenk = 0
n

~'(lr, n , A ) , n < c o , and c o n s i d e r

Xn:H q (Z) X Hr(K)
(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)

kn i n d u c e s a h o m o m o r p h i s m If f : K - - > I K ' If O i s t h e

is a m o r p h i s m in r e s t r i c t i o n to

w ( n ) @ K 2 of O ' : w ( n + I ) ~ ) K Z - - > K ,

If n = 0, t h e n k ( x , y ) = x y - ( - t ) q r y x
O

If (K, e) is unital and the r e s t r i c t i o n of e to w ( n ) o ( e O K h o m o t o p i c to ~ O~,

+ K O e) is

~ the p r o d u c t , then kn(X , e) = 0 = kn(e , y). kn(X,X)
=

(vi)

kn(X,y )

:

(-1) q r + l + n ( q + r + l ) k n ( Y , X ) and, if 2 = 0 i n / i ,

0

(Note that the f i r s t p a r t i m p l i e s The k
n

Zkn(X , x) = 0 if n+q is even. )

s a t i s f y the following a n a l o g of the e x t e r n a l G a r t a n f o r m u l a . L e t (K,O) and (L, 0') be in ~(lr, n , A ) , n <oo and Then

P r o p o s i t i o n 6.4. A a field.

L e t x e Hq(K), x' e Hr(K), y e H s ( L ) and y' e Ht(L ).

kn(xOy, x ' O y ' )

= (-1)r(s+n)xx'Okn(y,y')+(-1)s(r+t+n)kn(X,X')Oy'y.
Let

Proof. Let a,a',b,b' represent x,x',y ,y' r e s p e c t i v e l y .
c = (-1)n(q+s)+l ~ ( A n + l e n @ a @ b @ a ' ( ~ b ' ) , By (1) of Definition 1.2,

so that c r e p r e s e n t s kn(x(~y , x ' ~ y').

-

186

-

n

5 ~(e n) = "=

eJ®aJen-j

in W, and the definition of ~ shows that

c = E

n

(_ I) rs+ n(1 +r+s)_j(q+r)e(ej

ea~a'l®8'(~en_j®b®b')

j=O

- ~
n

n

(-1)rs+n(r+s)-J(q÷r)e(~e.®a®a')®e'(~+le
.1 n-j

.®h®b')

j--O

Let

e = ~

(-1) r s + n ( r + s ) - ( J + l ) ( q + r ) e ( e j calculation demonstrates r( s-Pn)+sn+n

a @ a ' ) ® 8'(alien+ l_j ® b ® b ' ) . that

Then

j=l a straightforward

c +d(e)= (-1)

e(eo® a®a')®e'(~n+len®b®b')

+ (- l)s(r+n)+qn+%(Z~n+len ® a® a') @ e'(n+leo ® y® y').
Since L is h o m o t o p y c o m m u t a t i v e for n > 0, 6 ' ( ~ n + l e o ®b®b') represents

(-1)Sty'y

f o r a n y n, and the r e s u l t f o l l o w s .
commute
n

W e next prove that the k Proposition6.5. Let K be a A - c o m p l e x Let

with suspension. and g : K - - > K"

(K',O')(C(w,n+l,A)
and

(K",O")~

~(w,n,-A-). of

and let f:K' --> K Define

be m o r p h i s m s

complexes such that gf = 0.

= w(n+l)@f(K,) 2 + w(n+I)@f(K')@K
where ~(n+l) = w(n) + A e n + 1 (aen+l / ~(n+l)).

+ w(n)@K 2 ,

Suppose given a w - m o r p h i s m

O: K - - > K s u c h that t h e f o l l o w i n g d i a g r a m is c o m m u t a t i v e : w(n+I)oK,@K ,
i®f®f

>~

iQg~g

> W ' n ' • K" (~ K" 0" g
> K"

f ~

io,
K'
Let x, y e M e t f,. Proof. Then

f

io
>K

O-kn+l(X , y) = kn(O-X,~y) e C o k e r g,. x and y respectively. Let

Let a' e K' and b' ~ K' represent q r

a = f(a') and h = f(b') and choose

u ~ Kq+ 1 and v e Kr+ 1 such that d(u) = a

-

187

-

and d(v) = b. Define c ~ ~ by c = ( - l ) q A n + l e n ~ U ( ~ V - (-l)n+qen+l(~ a ~ v Then a straightforward calculation demonstrates that d(c) = e n + l @ a ~ b Thus - (-l)r(q+l)en+ 1 ( ~ b O u .

- -n+qr + (-i) en+l@b@a

n = (-i) ~ n + z e n + l ~ a @ b

(-1) (n+ 1)q + ] f O ' ( A n + 2 e n + l ( ~ a' O b') = (- l) (n+l)(q+l)dO(c) (-l)(n+l)(q+l)go(c)

and

= (-1)n(q+1)+Io"(An+lenOg(u)Og(v)), a n d this p r o v e s the r e s u l t .

by our commutative diagram,

T h e a n a l o g f o r the B r o w d e r o p e r a t i o n s of the A d e m r e l a t i o n s is the f o l l o w ing Jacobi identity: let x ~ Hq(K), y E Hr(L), and z ~ Hs(K); then, under appropriate hypotheses, ( i~(q+~)(s+~)× % X
j n ~
l

n k, Y

z)) + (-1)(r+:n)(q+n)kn(Y, kn(Z ,x)) + (_l)(s+n)(r+n)kn(Z, kn(X , Y))
= 0,

and, if 3 = 0 in A

and q+n is odd,

kn(X ,kn(x ,x))=0. W e omit the proof as an

easier geometric argument can be obtained for the homology of (n+l)-fold loop spaces. This identity, and the identity of (vi) of Proposition 6.3, lead to a notion There is In

of k -algebra which generalizes that of Lie algebra (or k -algebra). n o

also a notion of restricted k -algebra which is important for the applications. n

the case A = Z2, the restriction is already present in our algebraic context; it is the last Steenrod operation for an object (K, 8) ~ ~ (2, n). The following addendum to Proposition Z.3 gives s o m e properties of this operation that are needed in the study of (n+l)-fold loop spaces. Proposition 6" 5. Then Let (K, 8)

~(Z,n). Let ~n = Pq+~:Hq(K)-->HZq+~(K)"

(i)

~n(X+y) : ~n(X) + ~n(y) + ×n(X,y), and

-

1 8 8

-

(ii)

~n(X) Proof.

: (q+n-l)Pq+n_l(X) + kn(X , ~x) if F o r (i), if a and b represent

(K,O)

is reduced m o d

2

x and y, then, in K Z, An+len~ a~b yields the stated

(a+b) z = a Z + b 2 + ~n+lab, and the error t e r m
deviation f r o m additivity of ~n" (v) of Proposition 2.3. W e n o w relate the k
n

Part (ii) follows f r o m a glance at the proof of

to the Bockstein operations on H(K)

when

(K, 8) c

C(w,n, Zp) is reduced m o d p.

In contrast to the Steenrod operations,

the higher Bocksteins are all of interest. Proposition 6.7. x,y ~ H(K), deg(x) = q. Let (K, 8) ~ ~(~, n, Zp) be reduced m o d p. Assume that ~r(X) and ~r(y ) are defined. Let

Then

~rkn(X, y) is defined and, modulo indeterminacy,
~rkn(X, y) Proof. Let
:

kn(~rX ,y) + (-l)n÷qkn(X , ~ry ). Let x and y. a, b e K be such that their

(K,O) = ( ~ Z p , ~ Z p ) . ~ , ~ ~ I< represent

rood p reductions and and

We may

a s s u m e that d(a) = pra' ~r(X)

d(b)= prb'; the rood p reduction a' and ~' of a' and b' represent ~r(y ). In W ( n ) ~ g d(An+len~aOb)

= (-l) n p rAn+le n o ( a ' ~ b + ( - l ) q a ~ b ' ) -

B y reduction m o d p and a check of signs, this implies the result. Surprisingly, the following fundamental result appears not to be in the literature, although it is presumably well-known. It allows complete calculation for any

of the m o d p h o m o l o g y Bockstein spectral sequence of Q X = lim ~ n s n x space X

and, as w e shall show later, the m o d p cohomology Bockstein spectral Together with the previous result, it also suffices for the

sequence of K(w,n).

computation of the rood p h o m o l o g y Bockstein spectral sequence of ~nsnx, n >__I. Proposition 6.8. Let K Let be a Z-graded associative differential ring K have a u l-product such that

which is flat as a Z-module. (a) d(a Vl b) :-d(a) v I b
-

(-i)deg aa ~i d(b) + ab - (-i) dega d e g b b a

-

1 8 9

-

and, f o r c a s e (ii), s u c h t h a t the H i r s c h f o r m u l a (b) h o l d s

(b)
Let

abv I c = (-1)degaa(bUl c) + (-l)degbdegc(at~ 1 c)b.
~r d e n o t e the r - t h m o d p B o c k s t e i n on H ( K ~ Zp), ~1 = ~" Let ~r(y p) is de-

y ~ Hzq(K~) Zp) and assume that ~r_l(y) is defined, r >2. fined and, modulo indeterminacy,
(i) (ii) If p = 2 and r = 2, ~2(y2) = ~(y) y + Pzq~(y )
m

Then

If p > 2 and

r = 2, ~2(y p) = ~ ( y ) y p - 1 + E j=l

JXI({3(Y)yj-I'~(Y)YP-J-1)

(iii) If p > 2 and r > 3 ,
Proof. Let

~r(y p) = ~r_l(y)y p-I.
~ represents y.

b ~ K2q be s u c h t h a t its m o d p r e d u c t i o n d(b) = p r-1 a, and t h e n

We m a y a s s u m e t h a t

a is a c y c l e w h o s e rood p r e d u c t i o n

a represents

~r_l(y ). Clearly we have d(b p) = pr-i ~ bi-i ab p-1 , i=l
and

d(abP-iul b i-l) =-- ab p-I - bi-lab p-i m o d p r-i , 2 K i < p
Therefore d(bP + p r - 1 i=2 If r >_ 3, t h e n 2r-2 > r and p a r t (iii) f o l l o w s . arising from d(b) = pa T h u s let abP'l~l
"

.

bi-l)

-

p r a b p-1

rood p 2 r - 2

r = 2; we m u s t now t a k e If p = 2, t h e n

into a c c o u n t the t e r m s

in d ( a b P - i v l b i - 1 ) .

d(b 2 + 2a~l b) = 4ab + 4 a v 1 a. Since the m o d 2 reduction of assume that p > 2. Then d(b p + p ~ abP-i~l b i-l) = p2ab p-I + p2c + p2c' , i=2 c =~ ~ i abJ_labP_i_j ~i bi.l i=2 j=l and c' = ~ l<_j <i<_p where a ~I a represents P2q~(y), this proves (i). Thus

abP-1 bJ-lab1"J'l ~I

By the Hirsch formula, and a separate reindexing of the two resulting sums, we
find t h a t

-

190

-

c =

~ Z<j<i<p

[(abi-j-l~l bJ-l)abP-i - abP-i(abi-j-I ~i bJ-1)].

Therefore if e = 2<j<i<p

abP-i~l (abi-j-i ~i bJ-l), t h e n

d(e) m - c +

~ a b P - l•• l 2<j<i< p

( a b l~-°

. - bJ-lab 1-j-l)

rood p .

Comparing

d(e) to

c ' , we e a s i l y find t h a t

P p-i bi-1 d(bp + p ~ ab ~i i=2

+ pZe) =pZabP-

1

+

p2 ~

" i-2 (i-l)abP-l~l ab

i=2

2 m " " 3 = pZabP-I + P ~ j(abP-J-I Ul ab3-1 - ab3-1 ~I abP-J-l) rood p j=l By Definition 6.2 , this implies (ii) and so completes the proof.
Of c o u r s e , •2-product. the t e r m s involving k 1 in (ii) a r e z e r o if K a d m i t s a The Hirsch

T h e g e n e r a l r e s u l t is n e e d e d f o r s e c o n d l o o p s p a c e s .

f o r m u l a is v a l i d f o r the c o c h a i n s of a s p a c e [8, 16], f o r the c h a i n s of a s e c o n d

loop space [I0], and for the dual of the bar construction of a cocommutative Hopf algebra [i 6]. In connection with this formula, we m a k e the following remarks. R e m a r k s 6.9. Let K be an associative differential Z -algebra, p > 2, with a P Define

v l-product which satisfies the Hirsch formula.

< > P : H z s _ I ( K )---->H2sp_2(K ) as follows. Let a I represent x e H2s_I(K ) and 1 i-I define ai = ~- ai. lul al for 2 < i< p. Then d(ai) = j ~ a.a. and p-i "= J 1-j = ~ a.a is a cycle. A computation demonstrates that if {a~l i < i< p} j=l J P-J is a n y set of e l e m e n t s of K s u c h t h a t a~ r e p r e s e n t s x and
d(a~) = a[ a~ j 1-j for 2 Ki< p, t h e n ~ ' = ~ a!a' is h o m o l o g o u s t o ~ . j=l J p-j T h u s the

class of ~ depends only on x, and we define < x > p = {~}.
is o f t e n the case t h a t if (K,@) e ~(p,p-2),

In the applications, it
K r a i n e s [11]

t h e n < x > p = -~Ps(X).

h a s p r o v e n t h i s r e s u l t f o r the c o h o m o l o g y of s p a c e s ,

w h e r e it r e a d s

-

191

-

<x> p

=

-~pS(x)

for

x e

H Zs+l

(K), a n d K o c h m a n [10] h a s p r o v e n it f o r t h e h o m o A general proof within our algebraic context should

logy of iterated loop spaces. be possible, but appears

to b e d i f f i c u l t .

7. The category of simplicial A-modules W e here develop some machinery that will allow us to apply the theory of
the previous s e c t i o n s to a l a r g e s i m p l i c i a l of i n t e r e s t category ~.. We s h a l l s p e c i a l i z e familiarity with

to s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r i e s

in t h e n e x t s e c t i o n .

We a s s u m e

t h e b a s i c d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e t h e o r y of s i m p l i c i a l o b j e c t s a n d of a c y c l i c m o d e l s

(see, e.g., [15, §1,2,28,29]). and ~ d e n o t e

Let A

be a commutative ring, andlet ~ ,

~-~

the categories of (ungraded) A-modules, positively graded Let C: /~--> ~0-- be the normalized
i s t h e q u o t i e n t o f K, r e g a r d e d as a

A-complexes, and simplicial A-modules.
chain complex functor (for chain complex with simplices). d = ~ K eJ~ , C(K)

( - 1 ) i d i , b y the s u b c o m p l e x H(C(K)) and

generated by the degenerate

Define H , ( K ) =

H * ( K ) = H(C*(K)), w h e r e 6(f)(k) = ( - 1 ) q + l f ( d k ) for

C*(K) = H o m A ( C ( K ) , A ) i s g i v e n t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l f • Cq(K) Dold[ 5 ]. Lemma r e s o l u t i o n of A K 1....
'

and

k e C q + I ( K ).

The following key lemma

i s b a s e d on i d e a s of

7.1.

L e t w b e a s u b g r o u p of W
O

~

r

and let e .
O

W be aAw-free Let

such that

= Aw w i t h A w - g e n e r a t o r

K

r

e J~

" then there exists a morphism "W®C(KI~
1

of A - c o m p l e x e s @ C ( K r)

. . . . ~ K r)

> W@C(K1)•...

w h i c h i s n a t u r a l i n t he K. a n d s a t i s f i e s t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o p e r t i e s :

-

192

-

(i)

For

c~ • ~r, t h e following d i a g r a m W@C(K lx
... X K r)

is c o m m u t a t i v e : > WI~C(KI)@...
@ C ( K r)

W@C(K0~I) (ii) (iii)

X...

X K (r)) on

> W®C(K (1))® ... ® C(K~(r)).
W(~Co(K 1 X ... ~kr) X Kr).

~ is the i d e n t i t y h o m o m o r p h i s m ¢(eo~kl(~... where
map.

@kr) = eo@ X Kr)-->

~(kl®...

if k i • K i is a j - s i m p l e x ,

~'C(K 1 × ...

C(K1)®...

( ~ C ( K r ) is the A l e x a n d e r - W h i t n e y

(iv)

e(w®cj(~ 1 x...

x Kr)) C >-2 W®[C(K1)®--'~C(Kr)]k"
k < rj

Moreover,

any two such • are naturally equivariantly homotopic Since (K X L)j = K . @ L . formulas (ii) and (iii) m a k e sense. J J'

Proof.

Write

A.j = Cj(K 1 X . . .
i j

X Mr)

and

B.j = [C(K1) ~ . . .

@C(Kr)]j.

We c o n s t r u c t Formula for (ii)

on W. ~ A . defines •

b y i n d u c t i o n on i and f o r f i x e d j = 0 a n d all

i b y i n d u c t i o n on j. •

for

i and f o r m u l a s (i) a n d ( i l l ) define

i = 0 and

all j. Thus let i k l

and j > i and a s s u m e that • is defined for i' < i and for Aw-basis { w k} for W..1 It suffices to • can then be uniquely

the given i and j' < j. Choose a define # on w ~ x for w

• { w k } and x • Aj, since

extended to all of W i ~ Aj by (i). Let AA[j]

denote the free simplicial [15,p. 14]. Then the

A - m o d u l e generated by the standard simplicial j-simplex funetor w O

A. is represented by the r-fold Cartesian product AA[j] r, and J Therefore ~(w~.~j ... ~ A j ) c a n b e definedby

W ~ B ( A A [ j ] r) is acyclic. choosing

a chain whose boundary is r

~ d ( w ~ Aj ~ ... ~ Aj), and • can be carried by representability. N o w (i),(ii), and (iii) are

over to a r b i t r a r y w ~ k I ~ . . . ~ k

clearly satisfied and (iv) follows from the fact that Ck(AA[j]) = 0 for k > j. The proof that • is unique up to natural equivariant homotopy is equally simple.

-

193

-

Remarks = I~] Since

7. Z.

Define k g : W ~ C ( K I ) ~ 9 . . .

~ C ( K r)--> W ~ C ( K X ... X K r )

1 X ... × Kr) by is the shuffle m a p .

where

I]:C(KI)~... ~C(Kr)--->C(KI •

~] , unlike [ , is commutative, and ~

is equivariant.

B y an easy acyclic

models proof, ~ maps.

are equivarlantly homotopic to the respective identity

W e shall only be interested in the case • :W~ C ( K r) ---->W ~

K 1 = ... = Kr; here The

C(K) r is a natural rnorphism of A T - c o m p l e x e s .

general case w a s required in the proof in order to have the representability of the functors A.. J Starting with objects of the following category ~ , w e shall use

to obtain diagonal approximations and so to pass to the category p ( w, oo, A) < C(w, co, A) defined in Definitions Z.I. Let where ~ denote the following category. and D:K---> K X K The objects of ~]-

Definitions 7.3. ~ are pairs (K,D)

K a ~

is a m o r p h i s m i n

suchthat

( D × 1) = ( I X D ) D

and tD = D, w h e r e are those m o r p h i s m s

t(x~y) = y~x. f: K --> K'

The rnorphisms such that

f: (K, D) ---->(K', D') in ~ (f X f)D = D'f. Each I< ¢ 7a-

in : ~

admits the natural diagonal D(k) = k e k, and ~d~ is thereHowever, an object K ~ . ~ may

by e m b e d d e d as a full subcategory of ~2, admit other interesting diagonals.

F o r example, if I< is a simplicial cocorn~ :K --> K X I< is a

rnutative coassociative A-coalgebra, then the coproduct permissible diagonal; that is,

(K, ~ ) ~ ~.b . The following r e m a r k s will be of

use in the study of relative and reduced cohornology. Remarks 7.4. (i) If L C K in ~ define H.(K,L) = H(C(K/L)) and D(L) and

H • (K, L) = H(C*(K/L)). then K / L K D >KX

If (K, D) E ~i,

is contained in L X K + K X L,

admits the diagonal ~ K w× w > K/LX in ~ - . K/L,

induced f r o m the composite where w:K--> K/L is the projection, and

then w is a m o r p h i s m

-

194

(ii) Let ~ : hAlO] ~ / ~
and C ( ~ ) : C (~k) : A .
O

; thus ~ Give X

n

= A for n > O, each d. and s. is the identity,
1 1

t h e natural d i a g o n a l .

We s a y t h a t (K, D) e and an epimorphism

i s u n i t a l if w e a r e g i v e n a m o n o m o r p h i s m

v : A ---> K i n ~ L

6:K-->~

in ~

such that ev = i and (~.X I)D = (I X £ )D (where
If ( K , D ) is u n i t a l and IK = K e r ~ , t h e n K = v

" X K = K = KXA).

(X)~) IK
Clearly,

and

for k c IK, D(k) = k ®
(IK,~)

v(1) + v ( 1 ) ® k
(K/v(~Y),D)

+D(k), in ~0- .

where

D(k) ~ I K X IK.

i s i s o m o r p h i c to

If ( K , D ) e

~L

, then C (K) is an associative differential A-algebra, with

c u p p r o d u c t d e f i n e d as t h e c o m p o s i t e

(i) ~:C*(K)®C*(K)
Here a

~ >[C(K)®C(K)]*

>C*(K×K)
) = (-i) d e g y d e g k

,

D

* >c (K).
~ is

is the natural map, c~(x~ y)(k®~ map. If (K, D)

x(k)y(g ), and

the Alexander-Whitney
and augmented

is unital, then C*(K)

is unital (via v*)

(via ~;:"). F: ~H*(K) --> for ~9(Tr, oo, A) a n d t h e n s h o w h o w to u s e

We n o w d e f i n e a f u n c t o r F to a p p l y o u r g e n e r a l t h e o r y to

(K,D) e k065 in the c a s e A D

= Z . P

Definitions 7.5. K - - > K r. Define Let ~ C E
r

Let (K, D) e J~[b and write and let W

for the iterated diagonal with W
o

be aA~r-free resolution of A

= ATr.

A:W@C(K)

--> C(K) r to he the composite

(z)
Let

~:w®c(K)

I®~W®C(K

r)

~

> weC(K)

r

~®l

>C(K) r

¢~:C~(K)r---> [C(K) r] ~ be the natural m a p

and define a AII-rnorphism

8:W®C*(K)
(3) Since

r - > C*(K)

by the formula
w ~ W, x e C*(K) r , k e C(K). j : W ---> V a s i n

0(wex)(k)

= (-1)degwdegx=(x)(Z~(wek)),
w= ~
r

0 may be defined for

and then factored through

Definition 2.1,

a n d t h e r e s u l t i n g c o m p o s i t e i s A ~ - h o m o t o p i c to t h e o r i g i n a l 0 d e s a t i s f i e s c o n d i t i o n (ii) of D e f i n i t i o n Z. 1. By L e m m a 7 . 1 ,

f i n e d i n t e r m s of W, 0

f o r m u l a (3) s p e c i a l i z e s to give

(4)

0 ( e o ® X ) = D* ~*a(x) for any x ~ C*(K) r, and

-

1 9 5

-

(5)

O(w(~9x) = \$(w)D\$e~(x)

if x • C°(K) r

a n d w e W. Since O is n a t u r a l on

B y (1) and (4), O s a t i s f i e s c o n d i t i o n (i) of D e f i n i t i o n Z. 1. morphisms by letting if ( K , D ) in ~)6u , we thus o b t a i n a c o n t r a v a r i a n t

functor

F : ~96L- - > ~9 (% oo, A) B y (5),

F(K,D) = (C"(K),0) is u n i t a t in gg0~ t h e n

on o b j e c t s and F(f) = C*(f) F(K,D)

on m o r p h i s m s . IfA
=

is u n i t a l in ~ ( % c o , A ) . Zp) w h e r e ~

Zp, ~r is

c y c l i c of o r d e r p, and Z-module, then

(K,D) = (~

Zp,5~

is a Z - f r e e s i m p l i c i a l ~ ; is

we a g r e e to c h o o s e is r e d u c e d m o d p

0 for (since

K to be the m o d p r e d u c t i o n of 0 f o r C(~) is Z - f r e e a n d t h e r e f o r e C*(~)

F(K,D)

Z - f l a t , a s r e q u i r e d by D e f i n i t i o n 2 . 1 ) . Observe that, by Definition
any (K,D) e ~(L . W h e n

6.1,

we now h a v e

~.-products
1

in C"(K)

for

A = Zp, the results of Proposition 2.3 will clearly apply pS defined on the c o h o m o l o g y of objects (K,D) ¢ ~0- •

to the Steenrod operations

If (K, D) and ( L , D ' )

a r e o b j e c t s of kgCL , t h e n

K X L a d m i t s the d i a g o n a l
Thus

D = (i X t X I)(DX D'); if D a n d D '

are the natural diagonals, then so is D.

(C*(K X L), O) is d e f i n e d in

¢ (w, oo, A).

The f o l l o w i n g l e m m a c o m p a r e s

(C*(K X L), 0) to (C*(K) ~ C*(L), ~) and will imply the applicability of the external Cartan formula to H * ( K X L) w h e n gemma 7.6 . F o r any objects A = Z . P (L,D') in k~0~ , the following

(I{,D) and

d i a g r a m is A w - h o m o t o p y

commutative
>

W~ C*(K X L)r l®(~*)r l[ l®(£~r
W @ [C*(K) ~ C*(L)] r
That is, * ~* N and are morphisms Proof.
to show

c*(~

x

L)

~* i n*

> C"~(K)@C*(L)
in the c a t e g o r y ~(~r, c o , A ) . 1)(~ U), it s u f f i c e s

B y the d e f i n i t i o n s of O a n d @= ( 0 ~ O)(1 ~ T ~
is Aw-homotopy

that the following diagram

commutative:

-

196

-

W @ C ( K × L)

-- (e® 1){~ ® 5 )

> C(K X L) r

1~}111 11@6 W @ C(K) ~ C(L) U(A@A)(I® T® 1)(~®1®1) > [G(K)@C(L)] r

Since we let

(I~D~

I@D')(I@T@

1)(~

1(~1) = ( I @ T ~ I ) ( ~ @ I @

1)(I~D~D'),

if

~ = (E@ 1)~

and let u : K r × L r - - ~ ( K

X L) be the evident shuffle, so that

= u(D × D ' ) , t h e n this d i a g r a m b e c o m e s

w@c(~x L)

I@DX

D ' > W @ C ( K r X L r) ! @ U > w ~ C ( [ K X

L]r)

~ > C ( K X L) r

io[Io
W@C(K)@C(L) I@D~D'>

l 111o
W@C(Er)@C(L r) U ( @ @ @ ~ I ~ T @ I ) ( ~ @ I @ I ) )

rI[
[C(IQ @ C ( L )]r

The left-hand square c o m m u t e s by the naturality of ~] and 6- Since the diagonals are not involved inthe right-hand square, w e can prove that it c o m m u t e s up to A w - h o m o t o p y by an acyclic models argument, with K r and L r replaced by

K 1 × ...

× Kr

and L 1 × . . .

× Lr

so as to h a v e d o m a i n s g i v e n b y r e p r e s e n t a b l e

f u n c t o r s f o r fixed w e W. w e W and on e o

On z e r o s i m p l i c e s , the d i a g r a m c o m m u t e s f o r any

{ W, as the s i m p l i c e s v a r y , the d i a g r a m is A - h o m o t o p y c o m T h i s s t a r t s the inductive c o n -

m u t a t i v e by a s t a n d a r d a c y c l i c m o d e l s a r g u m e n t .

s t r u c t i o n of the d e s i r e d h o m o t o p i e s , and the p r o o f is c o m p l e t e d p r e c i s e l y as w a s the p r o o f of L e m m a 7 . 1 . C o r o l l a r y T ~ 7. If (K,D) { ~(k , then F ( K , D ) is a C a r t a n o b j e c t of

(% oo,A).
Proof. Since D: K --->K X K is commutative and associative, it is a

m o r p h i ~ m in @0- . Therefore the cup product (1) is a m o r p h i s m in
as required.

C (%oo,A),

197

Lemma 7.8.
of

If

(K,D)~ ~9C6 , A : Zp, then F(K,D) is an Adem object

~(p, co).
Proof. In the notations of Definition 4. I (with Yo = ZpEpZ), it suffices

to

prove that the following diagram is T-homotopy commutative: Z

w~,

Z

Wl~ Wff~ C*(K)P
I I@U

> y ~ C*(K)P
~ C*(K)

Wl ~ (Wz 0 C*(K)P)P
All m a p s

looP

> W, ~ C * ( K ) P ~

0 are as defined in Definition 7.5; by dualization, it suffices to prove

that the following diagram is T-homotopy commutative Z >Y 0 C(K) > C(K) p

W1 ® W ? O C(K)
TO'

w@l

W ? ~ W , OC(K)
Let @=

> W? ~ C(K) p
a = @(wO,):W,OW?~C(K

U

> (Wz 0 C(K))P Z 2

(~,O1)@

anddefine

p

)

> C(K) p

Since

Z
A = ¢(I~D), A ( w O , ) = a(IO I O D), D:C(K)--> C(KP ). By the naturality of ~, the following diagram is commutative:

IOWP c(KIT®D>WfO ,OcIKP> lliOD I 'OD I
W,OW Z ~C(K p )
I p 2 T®I ¥ 2

>Writ<KIP I'Op
"

> (Wz®C(K))P
(l@D) p U > ( W Z ® c(KP)) p

> Wf®W,~C(K p ) ' ® ~ > Wf~c(KP) p

Z Let ~ = ~Pu(1x~)(TX1)'W1 X W ? X C(KP )
APu(I X A)(T X I) = 6(' X i X D). "r-homotopic.

Z >C(K) p . Bythe diagram above,

Thus it suffices to prove that ~ and ~ are

Since a and ~ do not involve the diagonal, this can easily be shown

by acyclic models precisely as in our previous proofs.

-

198

-

The following t h e o r e m s u m m a r i z e s

properties of the Steenrod operations ~ , A = Z . Of course, P we

that are valid for arbitrary objects of the category

use the notations of section 5 since w e are dealing with cohomology. Theorem homomorphisms 7.9, pS Let (K,D) c k961. , A = Z P and, if p > 2, ~pS defined on each Hq(K); degree (pS) = s . T h e n there exist natural

if p = Z and d e g ( ~ £ P s) = 2s(p-l) +6 operations on (i) ~pS ~

, ~ = 0 or i, if p > g.

These c o h o m o l o g y

satisfy the properties (6 = 0) and s > q or if p > 2 and 2s+E > q.

= 0 if s < 0 or if p = 2

(ii)

pS(x) = x Z if p = 2 and s = q; pS(x) = x p if p > Z and 2 s = q
if p = 2

(iii) If ( K , D ) = (K(~ Z p , ~ O Zp), where K is Z - f r e e , then ~pS-I = spS and ~pS is the composition of ~ and pS if p > 2.
(iv)

pS=

~

piops-i

and ~pS = ~ ( ~ p i o p s - i + p i o ~ p S - i

) on H * ( K X

L);

the internal Cartan f o r m u l a is s a t i s f i e d in H*(K)
(v)
then

If f:K' --> K
:

and

g:K---> K"
, where

are m o r p h i s m s
->

in [9~

such that

gf = 0,

H q - I ( K ') is the suspension

associated with (vi) If L ~ i

C*(K") ---> C*(K) ---> C*(K'). and D(L)C LX L, then 6~£pS = (-l)£~PS 6 w h e r e

6 : H q ( L ) - - > Hq+l(K, L) is the connecting h o m o m o r p h i s m .
(vii) The ~[pS satisfy the A d e m relations as stated in Corollary 5. I. ~pS = 0 for s < 0 (the rest is the

Proof. convention

F o r (i), w e m u s t prove that

e. = 0 for i < 0), by formulas (5. I) and (5.2), it suffices to s h o w that 1

D.(x) = 0 for i > (p-l)q, deg (x) = q. B y (3) of Definition 7.5, it suffices to s h o w
1

that A ( e i O k ) = 0 for k ~ Cpq_i(K ).
Lemma 7. I, if i > (p-l)q, then ~(ei~

Now A = ( £ @ I ) @ ( I e D ) and, b y ( i v ) of

D(k)) ~ ~

j < pq

Pq-J

W

~[C(K)]~

C

Ker ( { ~ l).

(ii) and (iii) follow f r o m P r o p o s i t i o n 2.3; (iv) follows f r o m C o r o l l a r y 2.7, L e m m a 7 . 6 , and C o r o l l a r y 7.7; (v) and (vi) follow f r o m T h e o r e m 3.3, noting for

-

1 9 9

-

(vi) that the s u s p e n s i o n a s s o c i a t e d with C a ( K / L ) --> Ca(K) ---> Ca(L) i n v e r s e additive r e l a t i o n to the c o n n e c t i n g h o m o m o r p h i s m 5 ; T h e o r e m 4.7 and L e m m a 7 . 8 .

is the

(vii) follows f r o m

By T h e o r e m 3 . 4 , the K u d o t r a n s g r e s s i o n t h e o r e m applies to a p p r o p r i a t e s p e c t r a l s e q u e n c e s involving o b j e c t s of ~0~ and, u n d e r the h y p o t h e s e s of (iii) of the t h e o r e m , P r o p o s i t i o n 6 . 8 applies to c o m p u t e the h i g h e r B o c k s t e i n s on p - t h
powers of elements of Ha(K), (K,D) ( ~)(3L. In the next section, w e shall show h o w to eompoute pO for arbitrary objects (K, D) ~ ~(L and shall give non-trivial

examples to show that p o / I in general.

8.

Simpli_cial sets and s i m p l i c i a l r e s t r i c t e d Lie a l g e b r a s We shall h e r e obtain the S t e e n r o d o p e r a t i o n s on the c o h o m o l o g y of

topological spaces, simplicial sets, and simplicial restricted Lie algebras, and shall consider the evaluation of po Let \$ on Ha(K) for any (K,D) ~ ~ K ~ ~ , A = Zp, ,let ~ denote

denote the category of simplicial sets. F o r Let A

the free simplicial Abelian group generated by K. and define a functor A: ~ ---> ~CL

be a commutative ring with its natural dia-

by letting A(K) = ~ @ A

gonal D; here 190~ is as defined in Definition 7. 3 and D diagonal k--> (k,k) on K. Composing A with F E
r

is induced f r o m the

of Definition 7.5, w e obtain ~ denote the category

a functor FA: ,~ ---~ ~ (w, oo,A) for any ~ C of topological spaces and let S: T ~ ~

. Let

be the total singular complex functor. If (K, L) is a simplicial pair, define 2Z of simplicial pairs Since the normaliz-

Then FAS: ~- - - > A(K,L) = K/L(~A.

~(Tr, oo,A) Then FA

is defined.

is defined on the category

and FAS is defined on the c a t e t o g y
ed cochains with coefficients in A pair (X,Y) m a y bedefinedas

YZ of t o p o l o g i c a l pairs.

of a simplicial pair (K, L) and of a topological and

C'(K,L)= ca(~/~@A)

# C*(X, Y) = C (SX, SY), the results of the previous section apply to the cohomology

- 200 -

of simplicial and topological pairs. F o r the r e m a i n d e r of this section, w e take A = Z P of order on p. Via FA: ~Z----> ~(p' oo), w e have Steenrod operations 7 z , hence on H (X,Y) Sqs. pS, s > 0, Of and w e let ~ be cyclic

H (K,L)

for all (E,L) E

for all (X,Y) ~ 7 Z .

course, if p = Z, pS

is usually dencfed by pS except

Theorem

7.9 gives all of the

standard properties of the fromthe

pO = I.

W e n o w s h o w that pO = 1 follows mS.

previously obtained properties of the Proposition 8. I. pO

is the identity operation and, if p = Z, pl is the

Bockstein operation on the c o h o m o l o g y of simplicial (or topological) pairs. Proof. (K, L) ~ complex. Since ~mO = pl then if p = Z, it suffices to prove that H (K, L) = H'~(K/L, P), w h e r e P pO = 1. If

, L non-empty,

is a point

Thus it suffices to prove that L

P°(x) = x for x ~ ~n(K) = Hn(l<, P), If E (n) is the n-skeleton of that such

since the result for K, then

e m p t y will follow trivially. is a m o n o m o r p h i s m ,

~n(l<) ---> ~n(K(n))

and w e m a y thus a s s u m e f: K ----> Sn

K = K (n). Then, by the Hopf T h e o r e m that f (in) = x, w h e r e n-sphere. i~"ne ~n(sn)

[Z4, p. 431], there exists

is the fundamental class of the simplicial P (in) = i n N o w for any K, the

It therefore suffices to prove that S;:": Hq+l(sK)

suspension i s o m o r p h i s m Hq+I(sK) ---> H q + I ( c K , K) hence S* commutes

> ~{q(K) m a y be defined as the composite CI~ is the simplicial cone of K,
* = in_ 1 for n_> 1 and

> H (K), w h e r e pS. Since

with the (where i o

s*(* "n)

P°(i:~ = (i P = i o We

generates

S° ) =

), this proves the result.

n o w use the fact that pO = 1 on the c o h o m o l o g y of simplicial sets to pO on H ~-~ (K) for any object T. 1 w h e n (K,D) ~ ~0~ . In fact, w e have

s h o w h o w to compute the following a d d e n d u m tion of Z P Lemma Then, for any 8. Z. .

to L e m m a

9f is the canonical Z w-free resoluP

Let

K. e ~0~ l

, 1 <__i <__p, and let k. be a q-simplex of K.. i 1 ~... ~C(Kp) which satisfies

@:W~C(K

I × ... X K p ) - - > W ~ C ( K I )

-

201

-

satisfies the conclusions of L e m m a

7. I, ® k p ) = (-1) m q v ( - q ) _ikl ~ . . . ~)kp ,

(£®1)~(eq(p_l)®kl®...
where v ( - q ) = 1 if p = Z and

v ( - a j + ~ ) = ( - 1 ) J ( m ')~" , a= 0 o r 1, if p > Z.

Proof.

Let

A

q

be the fundamental q-simplex of AA[q].

Since ~

q

is a

Z -basis for Cq(AZk[q]), we clearly have that P (i) ¢ ( e q ( p _ l ) ® ~ q ® ... ® A q ) = Y e o ® A q ® . . .

~)Ziq rood Eer(F~® I), y e Zp~.

By the n a t u r a l i t y of • ( o r b y the p r o o f of L e m m a 7 . 1 ) , (i) i m p l i e s

(ii)

(e× l)~(eq(p.1)®k I ®. "" ®kp) = ~(~)kl®... ® k p for any k i ~ (Ki) q

"

To evaluate

6(y), let iq e Cq(S q) represent the fundamental class of H q (sq); we

m a y take S q = z~[q]/~[q] so that i is a basis for Cq(Sq) and i~ e Cq(S q) is q q well-defined. • By (ii) and D(iq) = iq®... ®lq, Definition 7.5 gives

(iii) 0(eq(p_ I) ® i~qP)(iq = =(iq P)[(e® 1)• (eq(p_ 1)® i\$)] = (- 1)mq ~(y). ) Since

,q} = ~_q)Dq(p.l){ i: } = iq , v(-q)@(eq(p_l) ®(i : P) = iq * * pO{.~

Thus

(-i)m q v(-o~(y) = i and the result is proven.
Corollary 8.3. Let (K,D) e ~ . W r i t e D(k) = E k(1)®'''®k(P)e Cq (Kp)

for k ~ Cq(K), and regard each k (i) as an element of Cq(K). acocycle. y(k) = E Then P°{x}

Let x ( C ~ K ) suchthat

be

is represented by that cocycle yE Cq(K)

for each k e C (K). in particular, if P q D(k) = N i e K p f o r e a c h k ( K, whe re N = E ai e Z w, then p o = 0 on H':"(K). P Proof. po {x} By formulas (5.1) and(5. Z), y = v(-q)O(eq(p_l)®xP) represents

x(k(1))''"x(k(P)) e Z

, and the r esult follows by an easy computation from Definition 7.5 and

the lemma. W e now give a useful application of the theory for which the Steenrod operations satisfy the results of T h e o r e m 7.9 and pO = 0. Let ~ and ~ denote

the categories of restricted Lie algebras and of primitively generated Hopf algebras

-

202

-

over V: ~

Z . Let P > ~

F: (~_ ---> ~

denote the free restricted Lie algebra functor, let

denote the universal enveloping algebra functor, and let P : ~ - - > ~ H c 24 its restricted Lie algebra of primitive 6.1~], PV(L) = L for

denote the functor which assigns to elements. L e~ and

B y a result of Milnor and M o o r e [19, T h e o r e m VPH = H for H e 94 By T h e o r e m s

of Witt and Friedrich [9, if E ~ F K = PT(K) , J~ and

Theorems and T(K) in ~ ~9~

7 and 9, p.168-170],

extended to restricted Lie algebras, in ~ and

is the tensor algebra of K, then V ( F K ) = T(K)

These statements clearly remain valid for the categories ~ of simplicial objects in 0-, ~ , and ~

[see 15, DefinitionZ.l]. W e

shall need

the following algebraic l e m m a . Lemma 8.4. Let L be a restricted Lie algebra and let IV(L) = K e r ~, Let Then, for

: V(L) --> Z P ~:V(L) each

, be its augmentation ideal.

> V(L) p = V(L) @ ... @ V ( L ) y ~ V(L) p

denote the iterated coproduct. such that L ~(x) = Ny.

x e IV(L), there exists Proof. Let w:FK~> g

represent

as a quotient of a free restricted is an e p i m o r p h i s m of Hopf algebras, that K is a finite

Lie algebra. and w e m a y

Then

V(w) = V ( F K ) ---> V(L) L = FK. Since

a s s u m e that

Clearly w e m a y T(K)

also a s s u m e

dimensional Z -module. P

admits a grading under which it is connected, ~ is zero on the

[19, Proposition 4.20] implies that the p-th p o w e r operation augmentation ideal of the dual Hopf algebra implies that, for x e IT(K), (x) = N y zi = 0 + ~ z ~... i ~(x) T(K)*.

The cocommutativity of T(K)

can be written in the f o r m B y the triviality of ~ on IT(K)*, each

~ z.l in T(K) p.

and the result follows. for the study of h o m o t o p y invariants '~2 M ~2-as follows. The

W e n o w sketch a definitional f r a m e w o r k of simplicial restricted Lie algebras. objects of ideal of L ~2 are pairs (L,M)

Define a category L e ~ in and

such that

is a restricted Lie are m o r p h i s m s

and the

morphisms

f: (L, M) ---> (L',M')

- 203 -

f : L ----> L '

in ~ ~

s u c h that

f(M) C M'.

Two s u c h m o r p h i s m s ,

f and g, a r e

s a i d to be L i e h o m o t o p i c if t h e r e e x i s t m o r p h i s m s of r e s t r i c t e d Lie a l g e b r a s h.s L q --->L' q+l ' 0 _< i_< q, such that hi(Mq) C M'q+1and the identities (i) - (iii)

of [15, Definition 5. I] are satisfied. Define the homotopy, homology, and eohomology groups of (L, M) ~ (i) (Z)
The

~Z by
and and H*(L, M) = H*(IV(L/M)) are as

~;.(L, M) = H.(L/M)

H. (L, M) = H.,.(IV(L/M)) homology and eohomology

groupson the right sides of these equations L/M and IV(L/M) 5.3] shows

defined at the start of section 7, with Z -modules. P m o r p h i s m s in cohomology. The ~Z

regarded simplicial as that Lie homotopic

argument of [15, Proposition

induce the same m o r p h i s m s on homotopy, homology, and and H,(L, M) are, respectively,

B y [15, T h e o r e m ZZ. l], ~r,(L,M) and of IV(L/M)

the homotopy groups of L / M Hurewicz h o m o m o r p h i s m

regarded as simplicial sets. The m a y thus be defined as the m a p Since

h: ~r,(L,M) --> H,(L, M)

induced on homotopy from the inclusion L/Ivl---->IV(L/M).

IV(L/M) = IV(L)/IV(M), we have natural long exact homotopy, homology, and cohomology sequences on pairs (L, M) E ~ 2 ' formation of long exact sequences. of the Hopf algebra H,(V(L/M)) and h defines a natural trans-

Note that H ~(L, M) is the augmentation ideal is of finite type. Consider It can be proven that

if H,(V(L/M))

F A S n = F(~ n ~ Zp),where Sn is the simplicial n-sphere.

Wn(L) is the Z -module of Lie homotopy equivalence classes of m o r p h i s m s P F A S n - > L for L ~ ~ and that H . ( F A S n) - - - -~;,..(, Sn+l) is the augmentation ~ ideal of the free commutative algebra on one primitive generator of degree n. Our theory immediately yields Steenrod operations on H*(L,M). T h e o r e m 8.5. ~pS There exist natural h o m o m o r p h i s m s pS and ,if p > 2,

defined on H#(L, M) for (L, M) ~ ~ Z "

These operations satisfy the con-

- 204 -

clusions of T h e o r e m 7.9 (except that the hypothesis of (iii) is not satisfied in general) and, in addition, the operation pO
Proof. diagonal Theorem We may regard

is identically zero.
as an object of ~,,, 7.4(ii). with Thus

G,(L, M) = C(IV(L/M))

D = ~b , t h e r e d u c e d c o p r o d u c t a s d e f i n e d in R e m a r k s 7.9 applies directly, and

pO = 0 f o l l o w s f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s l e m m a a n d

corollary. In [22], Priddy has given a different definition of H, (g) and H~'~(L) be the functor from simplicial Z -algebras to ~(G P is a simplicial Z -algebra, then % ( A ) p q > 0, as
[15, p. 87]. Let W

defined by M o o r e [20]. If A o'

= Zp

and Wq(A) = A q i (~" ~A ""

Z -modules. P
For L ~ t~

The face and degeneracy operators are as defined in
, WV(L) is a simplicial cocommutative coalgebra with

coproduct ~ given by
!

~(aq_l~... ~ao) = ~ where ai ~ Vi(L ) satisfies ~ (ai) = ~

(aq_l®... ~ a ' o ) @ ( a " a _ l ~ . . . a ! ~ a!' . Priddy defines
1 1

~gao)'

H~,¢(L) = I-I~(IWV(L)) and H~T'(L) = H;:~'(IWV(L)), where simplicial Z -module. P

IWV(L)

is regarded as a

For spectra, Priddy's definition and ours clearly differ

only by a shift of degree; with his definition, H ~ ( F A S n) -----~'~(Sn+l) = Z . By P Definition 7.3 and R e m a r k s 7.4(ii), (C(IW-V(L),-~) H\$(L) • L@0~ and therefore Priddy's

alos admits Steenrod operations which satisfy the conclusions of T h e o r e m

7.9 (except, in general, for (iii)) and pO = O.

9. The dual homology operations; Nishida's theorem For applications to loop spaces and to obtain a result used in the proof of the Adem relations, w e shall discuss the homology operations P~
S

whose duals are the

Steenrod operations on the rood p cohomology of a space X.
H#(X)" = H;:,(X) 'l' : Horn Z (H:.(X), Zp) "

Of course,

a n d , if H:~(X) i s of f i n i t e t y p e , H~(X) = H (X).

Define

P~¢ on H~(X)

s

by

P

pS

s ~ " pS = (P.#) ; # is clearly well-defined if H:~(X) is of

- 205 -

finite type, and either a direct limit argument or the next proposition imply that pS ~ . is well-defined in general, : if p > 2. Our results on the pS W e shall write the operations Adem P/ p ~ s lowers degrees by s if p = 2 and by 2s(p-l) immediately yield the dual results for the Pf. on the left; the order of composition in the dual is a left module over the

relations must thus be reversed (that is, H~(X)

opposite algebra of the Steenrod algebra). the proof of L e m m a tion [30] of the D..
1

The following proposition was used in

4.6.

F o r m u l a (2) of the proof is essentially Steenrod's defini-

Proposition W % C g , ( X ) p.

9. t . Consider

Let

X be a s p a c e a n d l e t

d = ~(t@D):W@wCt(X Let

)-> Then

d . : H , ( ~ ; H ~ ( X ) ) , . - - > H-'-(w;H,',(x)P)'.,. . o ,

x ~ Hs(X).

(i) (ii)

If p = 2, d l~(er~X ) = ~ e r + z k _ s ~ P k ( x ) ~ p . k ( x . ~ , ) k If p > Z, dg,(er@X ) = v ( s ) ~ ( - l ) k er+(Zpk_s)(p_l)@Pgk(x)P k - 6 (r) ~ s - l ) ~ k where Proof. v(2j+E) = (- t) j (m : )e and 6(2j+e) =e , g= 0 or i. is of finite type. W e shall compute (-l)ker+p+(Zpk_s)(p_l)~ p k ~(x)p.

W e m a y a s s u m e that H~(X) H*(w)~H;I"(X) Z w~B P

d g':H(w;* H *:'(x) ) - > p Lemma 1.3,

and then dualize.

In the notations of

H,(x)P~ A@

as a w-module, and

H,(~; H,(X) P) ~Hg,(~) @ A (~)B. W e claim first that d~'~(B = 0. ¢) from B

It follows that H*(~ ; Hg'~(X) -~ H~(w) @ A* (~) B*. p) To see this, w e m a k e explicit the isomorphism Z n~B)*. p For y ~ B , define

to the homology of ( W ~ Z ~@B)*
p

~c ( W @

by
= ~(w)y(b) for w ~ W, 0 K i < p, b ~ B.

~(w@ aiOb)

Then
v:Z P

y is a cocylce and y---->~
w--> Z P by v(t) = I and

induces the desired isomorphism.
v ( a i ) = 0, t < i < p, a n d d e f i n e

Define
P w@B)*

y~ (W@Z

for y ~ B

by
y ( w ~ c ~ l ~•b ) = 6(w) v ( i ) y ( b ) for wc W, 0 < _ i < p, b ~ B.

-

206

-

Clearly

~(w@aiOb)

= V(N[wO~i@b]).

Therefore = ~d,(Nw~x) = 0

d*(~)(wOx) =~d,(w~x) f o r w ~ W and x ~ H,(X) since Nw~x

is a b o u n d a r y in W~H.~..(X)

(because

d(ezi ) = ne2i_l and d(TP-Zezi+l) = Ne2i in W). W e next compute d on H (~r)~A.

This p r o v e s that d""(B*) = 0.

.(X). By Let y ~ Hq(x) and x c H pq-:

Definition 7.5, we have the formula (:) Di(Y)(X) = @.(ei@ yP)(x) = (-:)iqd~:~(e@ l)*(yP)(ei~)x) from the tensor product of duals to the dual of tensor

(where the isomorphism

products has been omitted from the notation). * p Let w.1 be dual to e..: Then (E~l) (y) = w o ~ y p and therefore

d (WoO yP)(eiO x) = (-0iqDi(Y)(x).
F o r any z ~ H P q - i ( x ) , the sign in the definition of a gives (w i O z)(e i O x) : ( - t ) i ( p q - i ) z ( x ) . C o m p a r i n g t h e s e f o r m u l a s , we see that (2) d*(w o O y p )

= ~

(-l)iwi@Di(Y)

To compute

d (wjOyP)

for j > 0, observe that if p " W - - > W

= Zp~wW

is the

natural epimorphism, then we have the commutative diagram: d#

(W@W) @~r H,(X)

> t@d,

(W @ W) ~ H . , ( X ) p

p@l@l I W@ (W ~ . H . t (X))

\$ p@i@l > ~ @ (W % H,(X)p) Dually, d is

(The upper rectangle requires an easy acyclic models argument.) a morphism of H (w)-modules.
wjw i = w i + j if p = 2 o r e i t h e r

Now

wj(w O @ yP) = w j ~ y P

and, in H (w),

i o r j is even and ~ w i = 0 if p > 2 and i and j

are odd by formula (1.2). Therefore (2) implies the formulas

- 207 -

(3) (4)

if p = 2, d ( w j ~ y P ) = i ~ wi+ j ~ D i ( y )

and ® DZi+t(Y).

if p > 2, d (wjl~y p) = . ~ W z i + j ( ~ D z i ( y ) - 6(j+t) E w z i + t + j
1

By formulas (5. t) and (5. Z) and a reindexing, (3) and (4) become (5) if p = 2, d (wjO yP) = k~Wj+q_k@ pk(y) if p > Z, d (wj@yP) = v(-q) -t E ( k -t)k
k

and pk(y) @ ~pk(y).
wj+(q- Zk)(P-i)-I

(6)

wj+(q- Zk)(P- 1) ~

- 6 (j+1) v(-q) -i E ( - I ) k

We now dualize,

d~..(H..(~)@H,,(X))C H,.(w)~A

since d'~:"(B = 0o F o r xe H (X), '1')

w e m a y therefore write

d.(er~X) = E Let y ~ Hq(X). (7)

e r + s _ p q ~ E q r ( x ) P ' Eqr(X) ~ Hq(X) .

Using the K r o n e c k e r pairing < , >, we have = ( - t ) ( r + s ' q + m ) q < y , Eqr(X)> .

<Wr+s_pq@yP , d , ( e r @ X ) >

Since < p k ( y ) , x >

= <y, lmk(x)> , (5) implies that if p = 2, then

(8)
Thus

<d ( W r + s _ Z q ~ y Z ) , e r ~ X >
E qr (x) = P~, -.

= <Wr@PS-q(y),er@X>

= <Y'P*'s-q(x)>"

s-q

(x) if p = 2 and, with k = s-q, this implies (i). N o w a s s u m e

that 'p > 2. By (6),
q = s-Zk(p-i)-E, For

d * ( W r + s _ p q ~ y p) has a summand involving Wr only if
and E= 0 or i, hence E qr (x) = 0 for other values of q.

k>_0

q = s-Zk(p-i),

(6) gives

(9)

< d (Wr+(Zpk_s)(p_t)~yP), k+mq

er•X>= -t

v ( - q ) - t ( - t ) k + r q < y , plk(x)>. k
if q = s-Zk(p-l); since

B y (7) and (9), Eqr(X) = (-I) (-I) m q v(-q) -I = that < ~ y , x > v(q) =

v(-q) P,(x)

v(s), this yields the first s u m of (ii). Observe next by the chain and cochain definitions of the 6 (f) = (-1)degf+Ifd used in defining C~(X).

= (-l)q+l<y, ~x>

Bockstein and the sign convention N o w for q = s-2k(p-1)-i, (6) gives

- 208 -

(10)

<d ( W r + p + ( Z p k _ s ) ( p _ t ) ~ y P ) , e r ( ~ X > = 6 ( r ) w ( - q ) - t ( - t ) k+r(q+l)+q<y,pk~B(x)>;r.
since

B y (7) a n d ( t 0 ) , E q r ( X ) : (-1)k+r+mqw(-q)-16 (r)p:k~(x) if q = s - Z k ( p - t ) - l ; 6 (r) = 0 if r is e v e n and (-1)mqw(-q) "t = w(q) = v ( s - t ) ,

t h i s y i e l d s the s e c o n d

s u m of (ii) and so c o m p l e t e s the proof. Remark 9.2. The p r o o f a b o v e u s e d no p r o p e r t i e s s p e c i f i c to t o p o l o g i c a l s p a c e s

a n d so a p p l i e s to c o m p u t e d , = <~,(1 O D ) , : H,(w ; H , ( K ) ) - - > H,(w ; H , ( K ) p)

in terms of

,

and ~P,

s

(where ~P:: is defined by

(.6

<s), =-~3P s

if no

Bockstein is present) for arbitrary objects (IK, e ~ D)
We now give a n e w p r o o f of a r e s u l t due to N i s h i d a [Zt], w h i c h is e s s e n t i a l to the c o m p u t a t i o n of S t e e n r o d o p e r a t i o n s in i t e r a t e d l o o p s p a c e s . K(Zp, 1) : E/w w h e r e C , ( E ) = Z p rr@ C , ( E / r r ) . be a w - m o r p h i s m o v e r w o p e r a t e s p r o p e r l y on the a c y c l i c s p a c e Let Z . p Let

E; by [14, I V l l ] ,
f: W ----> C,(E) ;,"

or: E - - > E/Tr be the p r o j e c t i o n and let If W = Z ~ W, t h e n f i n d u c e s p ~r

f: W - - > C~.(E/w), and

-fp

is homotopic to

~ f, 9 :W --> W.

By Remarks 7. 2, if I] is the shuffle
X:

m a p , t h e n we h a v e the f o l l o w i n g h o m o t o p y c o m m u t a t i v e d i a g r a m f o r a n y s p a c e

wif<xl
w%

f® 1

>

c,(E)® c,(x)

> c,(E x
T[

x)

I I®D
>

I IXD

c,(x)P
,1 ¢ ® t
%C,(X) p
|

Ce.(E) {~,w C,(xP)
"

> C,(E x X p)
~ DX 1
rl > C...(EX E'X X p)

~ DOl

W e W

,n(f® f)® n> c,(E x E ) ~ c , ( x p)
o- x 1 ® 1

~" I

o-X

I X1T l

W'O W

%C.(X) p

n(7®f)® ~ >c,(s/~
"

x E) @c,(x p)
"p) "

n >C,(E/~xEx
Tr

X p)
hori-

Let

1¢, = ""I . 9 ~ I ~ I ) , [ j ~ @ I ) ; : . ' H , [ w ; " , [ X ) " " H

> H ,i w ;w ) ,@x ),P ) . " " I H" ~ H

"

" " The

zontal arrows are homology isomorphisms and we therefore have Steenrod operations p hes
O n

H.(w,H.(X)), H:~(w;H,=(X) ' and H.,.(w)~H, (w; H,,(X)p) such that d,~ p) , , .~. ~,¢ ,¢ 4

- 209 -

and },g. c o m m u t e w i t h the
evaluate the p,.S on

pS

The following theorem uses

d~ and bt,. to

H~(~r; H~(x)P).

O u r result differs f r o m Nishida's by a sign;

the reason for this is that our formulas (2) and (6) in the proof above differ f r o m the corresponding formulas in [30,p. I03 and p. li9]. W e w e r e pedantic about W e shall need the

signs in the preceding proof because of this disagreement.

following identity on binomial coefficients in the proof of the theorem. Lemma Proof. 9.3.

~Q(i,a-i)(n-i,i+b-n) i

= (n,a+b-n)

for

a > _ 0 , b > _ 0 , and n > _ 0 .
gives the only non-zero

The result is obvious if b = 0, w h e n

i= n

s u m m a n d on the left.
the triples (a,b-l,n)

Using
and

(c-i,d)

+ (c,d-t)

= ( c , d ) , we find that the r e s u l t f o r
(a,b,n).

(a,b-l,n-l)

implies the result for the triple

Theorem9.4. (i)
(ii)

L e t X be a s p a c e , x ~ Hq(X).
S

T h e n , in H.,.(~r;H,(x)P),.,. :'; P..,}(x)z .

If p = 2,

Ps,c ( e r @ x2) = ~ - ( s - Z i , r + q - Z s + Z i ) e r _ s + 2 i ~ i
S

If p > 2, P:= (er ~ x p) = ~

(s-pi,[~ ] + q m - p s

r

+pi)er+z(pi_s)(p.l) ~ P..jI(x)P

+ 6(r)~(q) ~ ( s - p i - l ,

[ r+l l L--j-- J + q m - p s + p i ) e r + p + Z ( p i . s ) ( p _ i )

~ P,~ ~(x) p I.

i
where

~(q)

=

v(q)-lv(q-l)

=

-(-l)mqm. ~

and

6(2j+a)

=E

,

~.= 0 o r

Proof. then eo ~ x p

W e a s s u m e that

s > 0, since the result is trivial for s = 0. If r = 0, In H,.(E,.X xP),

is in the image of H~(E. X X p) ---> H,(E,..X xP).

P,,S(e ° ~ x p) = ~ .
such that ~

ii e ° ~ P.:~ ( x ) ~ . . .
The s u m

i ~ P:,..,P(x) s u m m e d o v e r all p - t u p l e s ( i l , ,.. , ip)
i. / ik lies in e •NH.,.(X) p 3 o ,s = pt, w h e n

i = s. p

of all terms with any
S

and is thus zero in H,..(E XTrXp)"

Therefore P:. ( e o ~ x P ) = 0 unless

P;:i(eo e x p) = e° ~ P~¢ (x)p, which is in agreement with (i) and (ii). Recall that, by Definition i. 2 and the proof of L e m m a 4.6, w e have the following relations in

H :..(Tr). (a) i If p = 2, % (%) -- ( i , j - Z i ) e j _ i and , ( % ) -- ~ ej®er_ j

-

2 1 0

-

(b)

i If p > Z, P~(ej)= ( i , [ j / Z ] - p i ) e j _ z i ( p _ l ) where 6(r,j) = i unless

and ~(e r) = ~ 6 ( r , j ) e j O e r .

j

r is even and j is odd, when 6 ( r , j ) = O.

If q = 0, then d ~ ( e r ® X ) = e r ~ x p and t h e r e f o r e
p,S(er @ xp ) : d~.,(P~:(er) ® x) s
s = P~, (er) ~ xp ;

b y (a) and (b), the r e s u l t holds in this c a s e .
and for fixed q by induction on our fixed q and r' < r. Let r.

We now p r o c e e d by i n d u c t i o n on q

Thus a s s u m e the result for q' < q and for

z = P:S(er(~.. x) and let z' denote the right side of z - z' = ~ e l ® Yi e H#(~; H.~.(x)P). W e shall

the equation to be proven. first prove that

Write

~,(z-z'). = e® ~ (z-z'); this will imply that Yi = 0 for all i > 0 such that Yi ~ 0, then e.x® e® ~ Yi clearly occurs as a Y® = 0 by explicit c o m -

since if i is m a x i m a l non-zero s u m m a n d

of }*.:..(z-z'). W e

shall then prove that

putation and so complete the proof. p = Z and p> Z.
S

W e give the details separately in the cases

(i) p = Z. Since F~:,(z) = 1D~ ~ # ( e r ~ X 2 ) ,

we find by (a), the C a r t a n formula in
r, that

H , ( ~ ) ® H#(~;I~.(x)Z), and the induction hypothesis on

(c)

~,(z) = P : ( ~ e j ~ e r _ j ® x Z
J

) =~(i,j-Zi)ej.i®P:,
1, J

s-i

(er_j~xZ),

where if j > 0.

psS-i(er_ j ® x Z ) = ~ k ( s ' i ' Z k ' r - j + q - Z s + Z i + Z ~ e r - j - s + i + z k ~ P " k ( x ) Z " The t e r m s with j = i > 0 a r e z e r o s i n c e
(i,j) such that j-i = i>0, with

(i, -i) = O. Applying the l e m m a to t h o s e
n = s-Zk, w e see that

a = ~, b = r-i +q-s, and

(c) r e d u c e s to the f o r m u l a

(d)

~,(~) = eo®Z + ~
k,~ >0

(s-Zk,r+q-Zs+Zk)e~ ®er.s+Zk_~ ® P,k(x)Z

A glance at the right side of (i) shows that ~t~.=(z-z') = e® ® (z-z'), hence Yi = 0 fo r i > 0. To c o m p u t e Yo' observe that p® = 1 and Proposition 9. I imply

(e)

er ®

x2 : d # ( e r + q O X ) + ~
k>0

e r + Z k ~ P - ~k(x)Z "

-

211

-

.q

Pg:d,.. = d , P : : , the C a f t a n f o r m u l a on I-{,(w)~ H , ( X ) , and P r o p o s i t i o n evaluate pS d , ( e r + q ~ ,

9. i

x), and the induction hypothesis on q evaluates k > 0. Carrying out t h e s e c o m p u t a t i o n s , we find t h a t

pS k Z , ( e r + z k ( ~ P,,~..(x) ) f o r (e) i m p l i e s the f o r m u l a

(f)

z

=

r+q-Zs+Z

k,£ +

)er.s+Zk+Z

p,~ (x) z

~ ( s - 2 ~ , r + q + k - Z s + Z ~ ) e r _ s + Z k + Z ~ ® P,~,,.. e,.k(x) z,0 k>0,~ but o u r a r g u m e n t w i t h e o, w i t h Z(k+l ) = s - r . ~ , s h o w s t h a t we Let t = k+l -s

In p r i n c i p l e ,

(f) m u s t i m p l y (i) d i r e c t l y , involving

need only consider those terms and c = q-k-l;

then these terms

become

(g)

~ (k-t,t+c-Zk)eo~ , k>O

~

+ ~ < s+t

-s,

By formula (f) of the proof of T h e o r e m 4. 7, rephrased as in section 5 and dualized (with the o r d e r of c o m p o s i t i o n operations p,s reversed u n d e r d u a l i z a t i o n s i n c e we a r e w r i t i n g the 4. 8, (g) w o u l d be z e r o if I = s+t

on the left), and by R e m a r k s

w e r e a l l o w e d in the s e c o n d s u m ; thus (g) r e d u c e s to (h) (c+t,-s-Zt)eo~: `
_ s+t,

(x) = (q-s,r)eo@

,g

P 1/2 ( s - r )

:=

(x)2.
=

Since (h) is equal to the s u m m a n d of z' involving e , it follows that Yo
0

O.

(ii)

p > Z.

For brevity of notation, write d = g(p-J). As in the case p = Z, we r that s-i ~ (er_j@xP) , where, if j > 0,

find b y (b) a n d i n d u c t i o n on (i) ~,(z) =~

5(r,j)(i,[j/Zl-pi)ej_di@P.

ij
pss-i(er_ J.~xp) = ~] (s "i-Pk' [ r~" k -z + q m - PS +pi+pk)e r -J+d(pk- s +i)~ P"k(x) P "

+ 5(r-j)a(q) ~(s-i-pk-i, [r-~z+l + qm-ps+pi+pk)er_j+p+d(pk_s+i )~ p k ~(x)p ]
k The terms with j = di > 0 a r e z e r o . B y the l e m m a , a p p l i e d to t h o s e (i, j) s u c h

that j-di=~>O, with a = [~/Z], b = [ ~ ]

+qm-s(p-1), and n = s-pk forthe

-

212

-

f i r s t s u m and a =

[~/2],

b

= [r-~-t -

Z

]+ q m - s ( p - t ) ,

and n = s - p k - i

for the second

s u m , (i) r e d u c e s to (j) ~,(z) = e ~ z o + Z 6 ( r , g ) ( s ' p k , [ ~ ] + q m - p s + p k ) e i ~ e r + d ( p k _ s ) _ I ~P~k(x)P
r

k,~>O

~

+ ~ 6(r,~ )5(r-~ )a(q)(s-pk-l, [~]+qm-ps+pk)eg~ er+p+d(pk_s)_ g ¢9 P:~(x)p . k, i >0
Now 6 ( r , l )5(r-£ ) = 5 ( r ) 6 ( r + t , l ), and it follows f r o m a glance at (ii) that Thus Yi = 0 for i > 0, To compute Yo' o b s e r v e that

~(z-z'), = eo ~ ( z - z ' ) "

Proposition 9. 1 implies that (k) e ~x p= u(q)-ld,(er+q(p_l)~x ) - ~
r k>O (-t)ker+dpk~l='~k(x)P '

+ 5(r)~(q) ~(-1)ker+p+dpk~ P~k~(x)P . k Precisely as in the case p = 2, we can compute Pj on the right side of (k);
c a r r y i n g out this computation, we find

(J[)

z = ~(-i)k(s-i,[r/Z]+qm-ps+p~)er+d(pk+p~_s)~P~ k P~/(x)p

k,~ - 6(r)~(q)~(-i)k(s-~, [r/g] + qm-ps+pt )er+p+d(pk+p~ -s) ~ PJ ~P~,f(x)p k,~
- ~ ( - l ) k ( s - P ~, [ r / Z ] + k ( p - l ) + q m - p s + p ~ ) e r + d ( p k + p ~ _ s ) ~ P~ Plk(x) p r+l

k>O,l 6(r)~(q) ~ ( - t ) k ( s - p ~ - i , [ - - ~ ] +k(p-1)+qm-ps+p~ )er+p+d(pk+p ~ _ s ) @ ~ ~ k (x)p k>O,f + 6(r)~(q)~(-1)k(s-p~
k,~ C o n s i d e r the f i r s t and t h i r d s u m s , with r+d(pk+p~-s) = 0.
c = q-d(k+f).

,

[~]+k(p-l)+qm-ps+p~)er+p+d(pk+pi_s)(~ ,

p~

p k~(~)p

Let t = k+~-s and

Then these two sums b e c o m e

(m)
k

(_l)k(k.t,t+mc _pk)eo~ p:,k +t-k.(x) p,s "p
-

~

( - i ) s+t+~ (~ + m c - s , s - p ~ ) e o ~ P~: p~?+t-~ (x)p r is odd, hence

~<s+t
C o n s i d e r the r e m a i n i n g sums of (~), with r+p+d(pk+p~-s) = 0; 6(r) = t. Let t be as above and let c' = c - l .

Then these t h r e e sums become

-

213

-

(n)

-~(q) ~ k

(-l)k(k-t,t+mc'-pk-t)eo

~

pk pf , ~ , (x)p +t-f(x) p

- (~(q) ~ ( - t ) s + t + f (f + m c ' - s , s - p f - t ) e o ~ P . : ~ B P x ? ~<s+t

+~(q) 2 (-i)s+t+~(:~+mc'-s's-pl)eo~Pfp.:+t-i(B(x)p
By formulas (h) and (j) of the p r o o f of T h e o r e m 4. 7 (with e = 0), r e p h r a s e d as in

section 5 and dualized,

we s e e t h a t (m) and (n) w o u l d be z e r o if ~ = s + t w e r e Therefore, by an e a s y v e r i f i c a t i o n , (m) a n d (n) r e i = k+i = s+t.

a l l o w e d in t h e s e c o n d s u m s .

duce to the following expressions, w h e r e (o) (s-pi, ~ + qm - ps+pi)eo~P (x)p

with dpi = ds-r, and with dpi = ds-r-p. in its first s u m and (p) is
0

(p)

~(q)(s-pi-t,

r+l + q m - ps + p i ) e o ~ P!:~(x)p z

C l e a r l y (o) is e q u a l to the s u m m a n d of z' e q u a l to the s u m m a n d of z'
the proof is complete.

involving e

involving

e
O

in its second sum.

Thus

Yo

=

0 and

10.

The c o h o m o l o g y O f K ( % n) and the axiomatization of the pS

We r e c a l l the s t r u c t u r e

of H * ( K ( % n ) ; Z p )

= H*(Tr, n, Zp)

and c o m p u t e c o m -

p l e t e l y the rood p c o h o m o l o g y B o c k s t e i n s p e c t r a l
section.

s e q u e n c e of K(Tr, n) in t h i s

W e also s h o w (as should be well-known) that Serre's proof [Z3 ] of the K(Z2, n) can be simply modified so as to apply w = Z pt '

axiomatization of the Sq I using in the case of oddprimes.

W e shall consider only the cyclic groups pco

I <_ t <__co, where, by convention, Z monomials relative to t. (a) p = 2. sk ~ l . For

= Z. W e first fix conventions on admissible

Notations i0. i. s i>_ 2si+ l and

I = (s I ..... Sk) , w e say that

The length, degree, and excess of I are defined by and, if I = (s,J), e(I)= s-d(/). Define

~(I) = k, d(I)= ~ s j ,

-

2 1 4

-

pI
t

= P

sI

.
""

pSk_ l

P
t

sk
'

where

P
t

s

=

pS

if s > 2,
--

ptI

= ~t if t < co, and

P

I
co

= 0",

thus,

if t = co, we a g r e e t h a t a d m i s s i b i l i t y

requires

s k>_ 2.

The empty sequence

with length, degree, and excess zero, and

I determines the

identity o pe ration. (b) p > 2. For I= (El,s I ..... &k, Sk, £k+l), and 6.1 = 0 or I, w e say that I is I = (~). Define

~(I) = k, d(I) = ~ £j + ~

sk >__i or if k = 0, w h e n
a n d , if I -- ( £ , s , J ) ,

2sj(p-t),

e(I) = 2 s + e - d ( J ) .

Define

pl g s £ k Sk ek+l t = ~ I p l... ~ P ~t , where

o i ~t = I for all t, [5 = ~t for t < co, t ~ k+l =0.

and ~1 = 0; thus, if t = co, w e agree that admissibility requires co
We now givea quick calculation of H*(Z pt' n, Zp).

Lemma

10. 2.

H (Z,l,Zp) = E(il)

and

H*(Z,2, Zp) = P(i2).

If t < co, then if

* H (Zgt ,I, Z2) = P(il), with p>2. Proof.

2 ~t(il) = iI , and

H*(Zpt, l, Zp) = E(il)@P(~t(il))

K(Z,I) = S I and

K(Z,2) = CPco,

so the first statement is obvious.

F o r the second statement,

H*(Zpt, l,Zp) = H (Zpt; Zp), and w e can define a precisely as in Definition 1.2 (with ring A. T h e result follows by an

A Z p t - f r e e resolution of A, with coproduct, p there replaced by easy computation. Theorem H*(Z
t ' n , Zp)

pt) for any c o m m u t a t i v e

10. 3.

If n >

2 (or if n = I and either
algebra

p > Z or t < co), then

is the free commutative and e(I) < n o r ,

generated by the following set: t = t}. More-

I p {Pt i n l I is a d m i s s i b l e over, H*(Z Proof. n = 2. Assume pt'

if p > 2, e(I) = n a n d I-Iopf a l g e b r a . and

n, Z ) i s a p r i m i t i v e l y p The lemma the result

generated

gives the result for for n-l. Of course,

t < co

n = 1 and for spectral

t = co a n d

the Serre

sequence

{Er}

of I<(Zpt,n-l ) ---> E - - >
E Z = H*(Z

K(Z

pt'

n), E

acyclic

satisfies
and E

pt' n, Zp)

~H*(Z

pt' n-i , Zp)

co

: PZ

-

215

-

First,

let

p = 2; t h e n ,

r e g a r d i n g s q u a r e s as S t e e n r o d o p e r a t i o n s , H*(Z2t, n - t , Z2), a d d i t i v e l y ,

we s e e t h a t we as the e x t e r i o r

m a y r e w r i t e the p o l y n o m i a l a l g e b r a algebra E(S), w h e r e

S = { P:in_ I I I is admissible and By Theorem 3. 4, P:in. I transgresses to P:i n.

e(1) < n }.

Define an abstract spectral where 7(S)

sequence of differential algebras, {E'r}
'

by letting E' = P ( T S ) ~ E ( S ) ,
2

is a copy of S with degrees augmented by one, and by requiring dress to TS e T(S). Clearly f :E' ---->E r r r by f2 = g ~ l ' E' = ZZ. co where Define a m o r p h i s m zt'

s ~ S

to trans-

of spectral sequences is the m o r p h i s m

g'.P(TS)--> H*(Z g(TPtlin_l)

n, Z2)

of algebras defined on generators by with the differentials determines morphisms,

= Pt lin; clearly commutation o, fz and f are isoco

f for r > 2. Since r

*o f2 = g is an i s o m o r p h i s m m a y rewrite

by the comparison t h e o r e m [14, p. 355]. where

N o w let p > Z. W e

H*(Zpt, n, Zp), additively, as E ( S ) ~ Q ( T ) , (xp = 0 for x ~ T) and where e(1)< n-i, d ( 1 ) + n

Q denotes a truncated polynomial algebra
s =

even},

T = {Pt I" I I I is admissible, In_ (Note that e(1) - d(1) n o d Z, hence By Theorem d(1)+n even and

e(1) < n, d(1)+n odd}. e(1) = n-I is impossible.) and, if Define an Let

3.4, Ptlin_i transgresses

to (-l)d(1)Ptli n

d(1)+n= 2q+l, pli n ~(P:in_i) p-i

transgresses to (-i) n ~ P q P : i n.

abstract spectral sequence of differential algebras , {Er} , as follows. E 'Z = [P(~S) @ E ( T ) • (the b r a c k e t e d e x p r e s s i o n s TT P ( ~ T ) ] @ [ E ( S ) @ Q(T)] respectively). ~T Here

a r e the b a s e and f i b r e ,

TS and

are copies of S and T with degrees augmented by one and p and then augmented by two.

is a copy of T

with degrees multiplied by {E'} r

The differentials in to trans-

are specified by requiring Tt ~ TT, and Ttl~lt p - t

s ~ S to transgress to ~s E TS, t ~ T to transgress to ~t e ~T.

g r e s s to

A n easy computation

demonstrates that E' = Z . Define a m o r p h i s m co p

of spectral sequences

-

216

-

!

f :E' r r

> Er

by

f2 = g @ l ,

where

g:P(TS)@E(TT)~P(~T)-->

H * ( Z p t , n, Zp)

is the m o r p h i s m
g(,PtIin.t)

of algebras defined on generators by
g(~P[in_l)=~ p q p I i n if d ( I ) + n = by commutation 2q+t. with the The last

= (-t)d(I)PtIi n and f r for

As in

t h e c a s e p = 2, t h e differentials, and

r > 2 are determined

g is an isomorphism

by the comparison

theorem.

statement follows since, by the external Cartan formula, if X
x~ H~'(X) satisfies ~b(x) = ~ x'e x", then

is an H-space and

~PS(x) = ~
i+j = s Thus, since i
n

•pi(x,)®PJ(x,,)
and ~t(in)

and,~(x) = ~-~(~(x')®x"+(-t) degx' x' ® ~(x")).
s o a r e a l l of t h e pI t in spectral sequence

are primitive,

We c a n now c o m p u t e t h e

rood p cohomology Bockstein

{ E r ) of K(Zpt, n ).
algebras such that I3r for

Recall that {Er} ~¢ t E t = H (p , n , Zp)
r > t. pr Since

is a spectral sequence of differential
and Er+ t i s t h e h o m o l o g y of E r with

r e s p e c t to

H (p , n , Z)

i s a d i r e c t s u m of c y c l i c g r o u p s w i t h Ira(13. __ C E r r)
OO

one g e n e r a t o r generator of

of o r d e r

f o r e a c h b a s i s e l e m e n t of

and

one

of i n f i n i t e o r d e r f o r e a c h b a s i s e l e m e n t o f E determined, E l = E t and additively, by Et+ t = E oo

, the integral cohomology If t < oo a n d n = t,

K(Zpt, n ) is completely t0, Z implies that

{Er}°

Lemma

; Z , hence we need only conp

sider the case Theorem

n ~ 2. i0.4. Let n ~ 2. Define a subset S of the set of generators for 10.3 by ~(I) > 0}.

El = H~(Zpt' n, Zp) (a) (b) For

given in T h e o r e m

If p = Z, S = {Ptlin I sI and If p > 2,

d(1) + n are even and

S = {ptlin I ~I = 0, d(I) + n z(y) = ~(y)y + pZq~(y)

is even, and ~(I) > 0}. if p = Z and degree (y) = Zq and define Ar(n,t ) by

y c S, define

z(y) = ~(y)yp-1 (c)

if p > Z. Define an algebra

Ar(Zn ,00) = P(in}

and Ar(Zn+l ,cO) = E{in}if r < t < o o and

(d) Ar(Zn,t)= P{iZn} ®E{~t(Zn)}

-

217

-

r-t

r-t

Ar(Zn, t ) = P { i p 2n
where

} @E{m(izn)iP n 2n .

- P} if r > t , t = t

z(izn ) = ~(iZn)iZn+ P

~(12n ) if p = 2 and

and
(e) A r(2n+l,t)

z(i2n ) =

12n)1

if e i t h e r
if

p> 2 or

t > t

= E( iZn+t} @ P { ~t(iZn+~ )}

r <_t < co and

A (2n+J,t) = Z

r

p

if r > t. r r I yeS} ~ E{z(y)y p "

T h e n , if r _ > t ,
r

Er+i = P{yP
r

Pl

y e s} @ A r + i ( n , t ) ,

~ r + t ( y p ) = z(y)y p - P
Proof.

for

y ~ S, and

r r ~ r + t ( i P n ) = z(izn)iP n- P. p > 2. Let

W e first compute E 2 separately in the cases p = 2 and T and U of the set of generators of E l by ~(1) > 0}

p = 2 and define subsets

T = {PIinl sI is even, d(I)+n is odd, e(1) < n-i, and U = {P[inl d(1)+n Recall that ~pS-i = spS d(J) + n = 2q+l, and is odd, e(1)= n-l, and ~(1)> 0}.

and observe that if Ptlin e U, then I = (2q, I), w h e r e be the (additive) s u b c o m p l e x of E l

~ID lin = (P ff in) Z . Let C t

which is the tensor product of the following collections of subcomplexes:

(i)

P{~(y)} @ E { y }
E{y}

for

y e T, and
deg(z) = 2q+l. Then H(IC) = 0 under 6, and

(ii) P{z 2 } ~

for y = PZqz e U,

Let IC be the positive degree elements of C. therefore E 2 is isomorphic to H(EI/IC). C

If y e T U U, then p Z q y e U, is a

deg y = 2q+l, and therefore

is actually a subalgebra of E l and EI/IC

quotient differential algebra of E l . It is easy to see that

Et/IC = P{ytye where

S} ~

E{~(y) l y e

S} •

A~(n,t),

,

A~(n, t) is the q u o t i e n t of the p o l y n o m i a l a l g e b r a g e n e r a t e d by i and, if n

.2 t < oo, ~t(in) by the i d e a l g e n e r a t e d by in2 if n is odd o r b y ~t (in ) if n is even. Therefore

-

2 1 8

-

H(Et/IC) = P{yZ [ y~ S} O E{~(y)yl y~ S} ~ A'2 (n,t),
where A~(n,t) A~(n,t)= Az(n,t ) unless n is evenand For y e S or t = t, when y = i n if n is even and t = 1,

= P { i n 2} ( ~ E { ~ ( i n ) i n } .

z ( y ) = ~(y)y + p 2 q ~ ( y ) , d e g y = 2q, i s a c y c l e in E t ~(y)y i n Et/IC. Since Next, z(y) 2 b o u n d s in let Et,

w h i c h p r o j e c t s to t h e c y c l e E 2 has the stated

it f o l l o w s t h a t

f o r m i f p = 2. of E l by T =

p > 2 and define a subset

T of t h e s e t of g e n e r a t o r s

{ Ptlin I 5

= O, d(1)+n

is odd, and

~(I) > 0 }.

Then, as a differential algebra, E l breaks up into the tensor product of the following collection of subalgebras: (iii) (iv) (v) P { y } ~ E{~(y)} E{y}~ P{~(y)} for y ~ S for y e T

The free commutative algebra generated by in and, if t < oo, ~t(in). P{yP} ~ E{z(y)}, those of (iv) are acyclic, hence E 2 is as stated. Now a s s u m e ~r+t that and

The algebras in (iii) have h o m o l o g y a n d t h a t o f (v) h a s h o m o l o g y Er+ 1 is as stated, r >_ I A2(n,t), p.

and any

Then Proposition

6.8 computes

E r + 1 b r e a k s up i n t o t h e t e n s o r P{x}• E{~r+l(X)} , where

p r o d u c t o f A r + l ( n , t) w i t h s u b a l g e b r a s r x = yP , y e S. T h i s p r o v e s t h e r e s u l t .

of the form

Finally, w e prove the axiomatization of the pS

on topological spaces. commute with

Recall first that the Caftan formula and p O = I imply that the pS

suspension [28, 30] and that w e have shown in Proposition 8.1 that pO = i is implied by the c o m m u t a t i o n of pO with S ~ and the fact that pO a zero dimensional class. are in fact redundant. is the p-th power on

Thus the axioms w e choose (for convenience of proof)

-

2 1 9

-

Theorem

I0.5.

T h e r e exists a unique family

{ P S I s .>_0}

of natural h o m o -

morphisms

H (X; Zp) ---> H (X; Zp) if p > Z, and

s u c h that

d e g ( P s) = s if p = Z,

d e g ( P s) - Z s ( p - t ) (i)
(ii) (iii)

pO is the i d e n t i t y h o m o m o r p h i s m
pS(x) = x p if p = 2 and s = deg x s > deg x or or p > 2 and 2s = deg x

pS(x) = 0 if p = Z and

p > Z and

2s > deg x

(iv)
(v)

pS(xey)=

~ pi(x) @ PJ(y) f o r x @ y e i+j=s
~ { Rsl

H*(XXY)

at"pS = pScr , w h e r e Proof. S u p p o s e given

is the suspension of a fibration. s > 0} w h i c h also satisfy the axioms. If

x ~ Hn(x, Zp), then x -- f*(in) for s o m e
that pS(in) = RS(i ). n n = Z.

f: X --> K(Zp, n), hence it suffices to prove

T h e result is obvious f r o m (i), (ii), and (iii) if n = I or if that pS(i n_1) = RS(in_l) for all s and consider B y (v), 0"(y) = 0,

p > Z and

Assume

y = pS(in) - RS(in ), 0 < s < n if p = 2 and w h e re

0 < Zs < n if p > Z.

• *: H*(Zp, n, Zp) --> H~"(Zp, n-l, Z ). P If p = Z, oLet p > Z. is an i s o m o r p h i s m in degrees less than Zn and therefore y = 0.

A s s h o w n in the proof of T h e o r e m

i0.3, (i) and (iv) i m p l y that both

pS(in)

and

RS(in ) a r e p r i m i t i v e .

By T h e o r e m

t 0 . 3 , we s e e that e(I) <

n}
T h e o n l y e l e m e n t s of this /3Pq(y),

is a b a s i s f o r the p r i m i t i v e e l e m e n t s of H*(Zp, n, Zp).

s e t w h i c h a r e in N e t ~* a r e p - t h p o w e r s and e l e m e n t s of the f o r m deg y = 2q+t, w h i c h h a v e d e g r e e and is thus z e r o . at l e a s t 2pq + 2. If n is odd, t h e n

y has odd d e g r e e

If n is e v e n , t h e n all p r i m i t i v e e l e m e n t s in K e r ~* have d e g r e e y = 0.

pn, which is g r e a t e r t h a n the d e g r e e of y, and a g a i n

- 220 -

11.

Cocommutative

Hopf algebras ~ . The objects of Hopf algebra

In this section, w e consider the following category are triples C = (E,A,F) ring where A,E Thus E A

over a c o m m u t a t i v e

is a right and and F

is a left (Z-graded) c o c o m and c o c o m m u t a t i v e ~ are co-

mutative A-coalgebra.

are A - m o d u l e s

algebras (not necessarily unital or augmented), morphisms of A - m o d u l e s . We say that C

and their coproducts

is unital if E and F are m o r p h i s m s

are unital and A is a

a u g m e n t e d and their units and augmentations morphism morphism morphisms a e A, and ~ : C - - > C' in ~is atriple

of A - m o d u l e s . k:A--> are A'

~ = (~,k ,~), w h e r e and ~:F --> F' and

of Hopf algebras and of coalgebras; thus f e F. We

~ : E --> E'

k -equivariant for e e E,

~(ea)=~(e)k(a)

~(af) =k(a)~(f)

say that "f is unital if c~ and ~ are m o r p h i s m s For C and C' in ~ , define C~C'

of unital

a u g m e n t e d coalgebras0 F~F') e ~

= (E~E',A~A',

and observe that ~ (E@E, is unital if C ~" by
st

~b = (~,~,~):C = (E,A,F) is a m o r p h i s m in ~ ; clearly ~

A@A,

F~F)

= C@C

is unital. Define h o m o l o g y and

c o h o m o l o g y functors on the category (I) We Hst(C) = Tor(A'A)(E,F) st and

Hst(c) = Ext(A,A)(E,

F*)
m

shall define and study Steenrod operations on

H%'(C) w h e n

71 = Z P

. The

results here generalize w o r k of Liulevicius [13]. In the following definitions, w e recall the description of H*(C), with its product, in t e r m s of the bar construction. Definitions il.l. Let IA For C = (E,A,F) e ~, let C'= (A,A,F) e ¢ Define the bar construction where T(JA) B(C)

be the cokernel of the unit A --~ A. B(C) = E~) T ( J A ) ~ F JA.

as follows. algebra on

as a A - m o d u l e ,

is the tensor

Write elements of B(C)

in the f o r m

e[all.., las]f; such an t = deg e + ~ d e g ai + deg f,

element has homological degree

s, internal degree

-

221

-

a n d t o t a l d e g r e e s+t,. Define

e.:B(C)--->E ~

A

F and d:B

,(C) by s, . ( C ) - - > Bs_I,

(2)

~(e[ ]f) = e~f,

~(e[all... ]as]f) = O, and

(3)

d(e[a l l - - - l as]f) = --@al[aZl.-. l as]f s-i

- ~ ~[~11...

i=i --~[:il... l:s_l]asf , w h e r e : = (-i)i+deg x
dS + S d = t - ~ ,

I ~i_ll~iai+llai+zl""

laslf

If E = A, then d is a m o r p h i s m of left A - m o d u l e s and

where ¢: F ---~B(~) and S: Bs,.,..,.(~) Bs+l, ,,.(~),.are defined by the formulas ---~
(4) Clearly ¢(f) = [ ]f and S ( a [ a l l . . . d : l~Ad las]f ) = [ a t a l l . . . tas]f
.

on B ( C ) : E ~ A B ( ~ ).

By adjoint a s s o c i a t i v i t y ,

HomA(B(U), E*) ~ B*(C) =~ HomA(B(E , A, A), F\$). T h e r e f o r e (1) admits the equivalent r e f o r m u l a t i o n (5) H,(C) = H(B(C)) Definitions 11. Z. Whitney map and H*(C) = H(B;'(C)) = Ext(A,A)(F, E'*). be objects of ~ . Define the A l e x a n d e r -

Let C and C'

~:B(C~C')

~ B(C)(~B(C') and the shuffle map by the formulas

:B(C)®B(C')---~ B(C@C')

(6)

~ ( e ® e ' [ a l ® a~ I . . . I as ~ a's]f® f')

= ~s( - I )~(k)e[a 1 1* * * k=O
where

l aklak+ 1. • .a S f®e'a~...a~[a~+ll k

**t

la']f' sj

~(k) = deg e'(k+deg a l . . . a s f ) + ~ deg a: ( k - i + d e g a i + t . . . a s f ) i=t
S

+

~ (I +deg aj)degaj+l...asf j =k+l
l as+t If')

,

and

(7)

~](e[atl... las]f®e'[as+il..,

=
where
1

~ (-t) v ( " ) e ® e ' [ a ( ~ ) l . . . l % ( s ~ ) ] f ® f '
7r 1

,

a. e A if i<__ s, a. e A' lr (see [ t 5 , p .

if i > s, the s u m is taken o v e r all t7]), and

(s,t)-shuffles

- 222 -

( t + deg a i ) ( t + deg a s + j ) . (~) = ~(i) > ~ ( s + j ) The u n n o r m a l i z e d b a r c o n s t r u c t i o n E (~ T ( A ) ~ F graded A-module u n d e r which ~ and a d m i t s a s t r u c t u r e of s i m p l i c i a l

~ a r e in fact the c l a s s i c a l n o r m a l i z e d
Define D = ~ B ( ~ ):B(C)---> B ( C ) @ B ( C ) .

A l e x a n d e r - W h i t n e y and shuffle m a p s . Then D gives

B(C) a s t r u c t u r e of c o a s s o c i a t i v e c o a l g e b r a ; if C is unital, t h e n If E = A, t h e n D c o i n c i d e s with the m o r p h i s m

B(C) is unital and a u g m e n t e d .
of left A - m o d u l e s

defined inductively by

(8)
(9)

D([ ]f) =

~

[ ]f'@[
S = S@

]f"

if

~(f) = ~
on

f'~f",

and

DS = SD , where

I + fie @ S

B(~)eB(~).

Clearly

D on B(C) = E ~ A B ( ~ ) is the c o m p o s i t e E~AB(~)~ B(C-) ~ ~ T ~ t> E ~ A B ~ ) ~ E ~ A B ( C - ).

E~AB(-~) ¢@ D >E~
We (I0)

define the cup product on

IB~:=(C) to be the composite >[B(C)eB(C)]* D * > B*(C).

u:B*(C)~gB*(C)'~

We h a v e the following analog of L e m m a 7 . t ;
of

a m o r e p r e c i s e analog (in t e r m s

~ ) could also be proven, and an alternative proof by semi-simplicial rather

than homological techniques is available. Lemma of A W~B(C) bigraded 11.3 . Let o =Aw Ir be a subgroup of with A~r generator = ~ WiGBjt(C i+j=s ). ~ and let W be a A w - f r e e . Bigrade of resolution

r

such that W by

e . Let o

C e ~

[W~B(C)]st

T h e n there exists a m o r p h i s m

Aw-complexes

A: W ~ B(C) --> B(C) r which is natural in C

and satis-

fie s the following prope rtie s :

(i)

~(w~b)
~(eo@b

= 0 if b e B
) = D(b) A

o,

,(C)

and w e W. f o r i > 0 1
D is the iterated coproduct where A operates

(ii) (iii)

if b e B(C), w h e r e is a m o r p h i s m

If E = A, then

of left A - m o d u l e s ,

- 223 -

on

WOB(G)

by

a(wOb)

= (-t) deg w deg a WOab.

(iv)

A(WiOBst(G))

= 0 if i > ( r - t ) s . Z~ a r e n a t u r a l l y A~r-homotopic. of A e n s u r e s that (iii) is

Moreover, Proof.

a n y two s u c h

Observe first that the cocommutativity of A

compatible with the =-equivariance the result when

O b s e r v e n e x t t h a t i t s u f f i c e s to p r o v e A on WeB(G)= EOAWOB(-'C~ )

E = A, s i n c e w e c a n t h e n d e f i n e

to b e t h e c o m p o s i t e EOAWOB(~ where ) ,OZk> ErOAB(~)r.. We d e f i n e
s. Formula defines

U

> [E ®AB(~)]r
WiG B s t ( ~ ) by induction on d~ for i

U is t h e e v i d e n t s h u f f l e .
i by induction on

A on

and for fixed

(i) defines ix for i= 0

s = 0 and all i> 0 Let i ~ 1

and f o r m u l a (ii) and w-equivariance and s > i and a s s u m e Let { Wk} that A

and all s.

has b e e n defined for W.. 1

i' < i and for our given i and it suffices

s' < s.

be a diw-basis for for w ~ {Wk}

B y (iii) a n d w-equivariance, s-i, ~:~). Let

to define A ( w O S ( y ) ) r s = ~ (~)i®s O i=1

and

y e B

~r-i-1 on

B(~) r.

Then

dS + Sd = i - (~6

)r.

We

define

(v)

d~(w@ S(y)~) :

( - 1 ) d o g w S A ( w O y) + S a ( d ( w ) O S(y)).
w = e o and that (v) is well-defined by the

O b s e r v e that

(v) is equivalent to (ii) on T o verify that Then:

induction hypothesis.

d & = d~d, write (v) in the f o r m

A ( I ~ ) S ) = SZ~(I ~)i + d O S ) .

dA(tOS)

= dSA(IO t + dOS) = [a - Sa(dOi

= (1 - S d ) A ( I O

1 + dOS)

+ lOd)](iO

I + dOS)

= A + A(d O S) - S A ( d O t ) - S A ( i O d) + S A ( d O dS)

= a + a(d®S)

- S a ( d O t ) - S a ( t O d) + S A ( d O t) - S a ( d O Sd)

= a + a ( d O S) - a ( i O dS) = a + a ( d O S) - a + a ( t O dS) = a(dOi + iOd)(iOS)

( w h e r e no t e r m s

involving

c E a r e r e l e v a n t b y (i) a n d a n e a s y v e r i f i c a t i o n ) .

Thus

- 224 -

(i), ( i i ) , ( i i i ) , a n d (v), t o g e t h e r w i t h ~ r - e q u i v a r i a n c e , of a natural morphism A of A~r-complexes.

provide an explicit construction observe that

To s e e t h a t (iv) h o l d s ,

if w ~ {Wk} C W

i and y = al[a21.., las]f, then ~(w~S(y))
i

is a linear combina-

tion in B(~) r of terms involving precisely the factors a.(j) and f(J) in the B(~), where ,(ai) = ~ a~i)~... ~a'(r)1 and ,(f) = ~ f ( 1 ) ~ . . . Thus no s u m m a n d of A(w~S(y)) ~f(r) give

the iterated coproducts. degree greater than rs.

can have homological

Since A ( w ~ S(y)) has homological degree i+s > rs if

i > (r-l)s, this proves (iv). The uniqueness of A up to A1r-homotopy follows easily by use of the contracting homotopy W e now pass to the category Definition ii.4. Let C ~ ~ S on B(~) r.

~D(Tr, oo,A) of Defitions 2. i. Let ~:B=~(C) r - > [B(C)r] ~" be the natural

m a p and define a A ~ - m o r p h i s m
(tt) Since

@:W~B*(C)-->

B~"(C) by the formula r
w e W, x e B"(C) r, k e B(C). j: W ~ V a s in

@(w@x)(k) = (-1) degw degx~(x)A(w@k), @ m a y be d e f i n e d f o r T~= X

r

and then factored through

D e f i n i t i o n 2. t , a n d t h e r e s u l t i n g c o m p o s i t e i s n a t u r a l l y A ~ r - h o m o t o p i c to t h e original @ defined in terms of W, @ s a t i s f i e s to g i v e c o n d i t i o n (ii) o f D e f i n i t i o n Z. 1. By

the lemma, (12) (t3)

f o r m u l a (11) s p e c i a l i z e s for any

@(eo@X ) = D*~(x)

x e B*(C) r

and and w ~ W. Since @ is natural by setting is

@(w(~ x) =

~(w)D * ~(x) f o r a n y x e

B ° ' *(C) r

B y ( t 0 ) a n d (12), @ s a t i s f i e s on morphisms r(c)= in ~,

c o n d i t i o n (i) of D e f i n i t i o n 2. t . F: ~ -->

we thus obtain a functor and

~O(~r,o o , A )

(B*(C),@) ~ , then

onobjects F(C) P

] ? ( ~ ) = B*(,~) o n m o r p h i s m s . ~ (%co,A).

B y (13), i f C

unital in

is unital in

If A = Z p , ~r i s c y c l i c of

order

p, and C = ~ ® Z

where

~ is Z - f r e e

(that is, ~ , 2 ,

and ~

are Z-free),
C; I~(C)

t h e n w e a g r e e to c h o o s e w i l l t h u s be r e d u c e d

@ for

C to b e t h e

r o o d p r e d u c t i o n of @ f o r

r o o d p.

N o t e t h a t if x e B * ( C )

h a s b i d e g r e e ( s , t), t h e n

@(w@x) has b i d e g r e e

(s - degw, t).

W ( ~ B * ( C ) r and B*(C) should be thought of

- 225 -

as regarded by total degree in defining the functor Observe that, by Definition 6. i, w e n o w have C e ~ . When

F. vi-products in B*(C) for any

A = Zp, the results of Proposition 2.3 will clearly apply to the (C), and the following l e m m a s will imply the applicability

Steenrod operations in H

of the e x t e r n a l C a f t a n f o r m u l a and the Adem r e l a t i o n s .
Lemma i i. 5. F o r any objects C and C' in ~ , the following d i a g r a m

is A • - h o m o t o p y

commutative.

w ® B*(C ®C,) r

e

>

B*(C ® C,)

W @ [B*(C) (~ B'*(C')] r
Proof.

~

> B*(C) @ B*'(C') commutativity of the d i a g r a m

It suffices to prove the A ~ - h o m o t o p y

W ® B(C)(~ B(C') u(z~® z~)(1@ T @ i)(~® l® I) > [B(C)® B(C,)]r I®~ [ i®n
...........

W®B(C®C')-,,

a
C and C'

> B(C ® c')r
replaced by C and C'. the

and this d i a g r a m need only be studied with Since B ~ ' ) r and

[B(~)~B(C-')] r have obvious contracting homotopies,

result follows by an easy double induction like that in the proof of L e m m a Corollary 11.6. Lemma Proof. it.7. If C e ~ If C e ~ , then F(C) is a Cartan object of F(C) is an A d e m

i i. 3.

~(%co,A)

, A = Z , then P

object of ~(p, oo).

Precisely as inthe proof of L e m m a

7.8, it suffices to prove the

"r-homotopy commutativity of the following diagram:

-

226

-

2 Wi@W:@B(C) ' w@i
>Y~B(C)

....... A

> B(C) p AP

[
W?~Wi
H*(C)

r~l

~B(C)

I (~ &mw?~

B(C) p

U

> ( w z ® B(C)) p

Z We need only consider this diagram with C replaced by "C, and, since B(~) p
has a contracting homotopy, the result then holds by another easy double induction. the properties of the pS and ~ps on

T h e following t h e o r e m s u m m a r i z e s for C ~ ~ , A = Z P . We

shall be very precise as to grading since there is W e are thinking of H*(C) A n alternative

considerable confusion on this point in the literature.

as regraded by total degree in applying our general theory.

formulation Theorem
isms pi

that is sometimes II.8. Let C
~pl

convenient will be given after the theorem. • ~ , A = Z Then . P there exist natural homomorph-

and, if p > 2,

defined on

H (C), with

(a) (b)

p i : H s,t(C ) p i HSt(c) ~Pi: HSt(c)

> Hs + i ' t ' z t ( C )

if p = 2 ; and if p > 2 .

> H s ~ Z i - t ) ( p - i ) ' Pt(c) > HS +i +(2i-t)(P- i)' Pt(c)

T h e s e operations satisfy the following properties: (i) pi = 0 if p = Z and either i < t or 2i<t or i > s+t 2 i > s+t

pi

= 0 if p > Z and either

~p1 = 0 if p > 2 and either (ii) (iii) pi(x) = x p if p = 2 and if C = ~ Z p , where ~

2i< t or 2i >__s + t 2i = s+t

i = s +t or if p > Z and is Z-free, then pi if p > 2.

~pi-i = ipi if p = Z and ~pi

is the composition of ~ and

(iv)

pj= ~

pi~)pj-i

and ~ P J = ~

(~pi@pj-i+pi@~pj-i)

or H*(C@C');

the internal Cartan formula is satisfied in H"(C).

- 227 -

(v)

If 7:C' --> C

and

¢:C---> C"

are unital m o r p h i s m s

in

~

such that

~N = 0 on the cokernels of the units, then where (vi) The Proof.

uP i = pi0- and

u~Pi = _ ~pi0_'

u:HSt(c '')--> HS-l't(c ') is the suspension. pi and ~pi satisfy the A d e n relations as stated in Corollary 5. I. The pi and

If x c Hst(c), then Di(x ) = 8:¢(ei~xP ) e HPS-i'pt(c).

~p1 are defined by formulas (5. i) and (5.2), with x having its total degree q = s +t ; thus (a) and (b) are valid. The vanishing of pi(x) for i < t if p = 2 ll.3. The

and of ~ pi(x) for 2i< t if p > 2 follows f r o m part (iv) of L e m m a

remainder of the t h e o r e m follows immediately f r o m our general theory and the previous l e m m a s . BXC(C '') B~(~) F o r (v), note that the composite

> B (C)

*

B*(~)>B":"(C,) is zero on the kernel of the augmentation

B (C") --> Z . A n alternative formulation of (v) in the non-unital case can easily P be obtained. In addition to (v), the I~udo transgression theorem, appropriate spectral sequences involving objects of is seldom satisfied in practice, and ~pl ~ Theorem 3.4, applies to

. The hypothesis of (iii)

is generally an independent operation There is an alternative definition of the

having nothing to do with any Bockstein.

operations, which amounts to the following regrading of our operations . Define (c)
(d)

~i

" =Sq I= pi+t: HSt(c) ~ Hs+i, Zt(c) if p = Z ; ~i = pi+t: H s, 2t(c ) -'- Hs+2i(p-i)' 2pt(c) and ~i= ~pi+t:HS, Zt(c ) ~ H'+Zi(P-i)+i'2Pt(c) if p >2.

This regrading is reasonable if p = 2, but has the effect of eliminating all operations on Hst(c) for

t odd if p > 2; of course, these operations are non-trivial
is non-trivial in ~P ;

since, if s and t are odd, the p-th power operation on HSt(c) general.

The results of the t h e o r e m can easily be transcribed for the P~ and

for example, the A d e n pi and ~pi

relations are still correct precisely as stated but with all and ~i The motivation for the reindexing is just This operation is of

replaced by ~i ~o

the desire to m a k e

the first non-trivial operation.

- 228 -

particular i m p o r t a n c e Definition I i. 9.

in the applications, Let

and w e n o w evaluate it. , where E, A, and F are positively

C = (E, A, F) ~ ~ Then B#(C) may

g r a d e d and of finite type. E ~T(IA ~')~F . Define

be identified with by

k :BSt(c)

> B s'pt(C)

>~(e[++i ]. . .
Then k commutes

I%]@)

= eP[=IPl-.-l+s

p]~p "
k~ : H s t ( c ) - - > H s'pt(C). Of

with the differential and induces

course, if p > z ,
and thus k~.. = 0

then

×(~[~ll...f%]~)=0

if E,~,I or ~ has odd degree

if t is odd. Let C = (E,A,F) Let ( ~ , where E,A, andF are

Proposition 11.10.

positively g r a d e d and of finite type. Then

x ~ M s , t(c) w h e r e

t is even if p > 2.

T°(x)= Proof.

k~,(x). Let y = e[a I ]... that (-i) ms v(-s)-l(e'[a~l... summands ]a's]f' ) + N z , e'~... ~e',a!~... 1 ~ a 1. , ' ] a s ] f ( B s , pt(C). A straightforward, but t e d i o u s ,

calculation demonstrates A(es(p_l)~y

) = ~

w h e r e the s u m is t a k e n o v e r the s y m m e t r i c and f'~... ~f' of the i t e r a t e d c o p r o d u c t s . G is a g r o u p ,

(A m o m e n t ' s

r e f l e c t i o n on the c a s e

C = (Zp, ZpG, Zp), w h e r e

and a g l a n c e at L e m m a 8 . 2 s h o u l d c o n T h e r e s u l t now f o l l o w s

v i n c e the r e a d e r of the p l a u s i b i l i t y of this s t a t e m e n t . ) e a s i l y f r o m the d e f i n i t i o n s . Remarks -~°(x) 1 1, l i .

If p > 2, t h e n it c a n be s h o w n b y a t e d i o u s c a l c u l a t i o n t h a t where C = ( Z p , A, Zp) e ~
-

= < x > p for x ~ H l ' 2 t ( C ) ,
6.9

and < x > p is as
2t(c) '

defined in R e m a r k s and any C c ~

It is possible that

~S(x)

= < x > p for x ~ H 2s+i

, but this appears to be difficult to prove.

- 229 -

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