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- The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution
- Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future
- Dispatches from Pluto: Lost and Found in the Mississippi Delta
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- Devil in the Grove: Thurgood Marshall, the Groveland Boys, and the Dawn of a New America
- The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & Power
- Grand Pursuit: The Story of Economic Genius
- This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate
- A Heartbreaking Work Of Staggering Genius: A Memoir Based on a True Story
- The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer
- Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln
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- Rise of ISIS: A Threat We Can't Ignore
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- How To Win Friends and Influence People
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- The Silver Linings Playbook: A Novel
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- The Love Affairs of Nathaniel P.: A Novel
- We Are Not Ourselves: A Novel
- The First Bad Man: A Novel
- The Rosie Project: A Novel
- The Blazing World: A Novel
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orth4idlan

OfPure

and

thematks, Jerusalem, Istad

Communicatedby J.F. Adams

Received April 23

This paper contains a calculation of H*Spin(n) as a Hopf algebra over tRe Steenrod algebra A (where all homology and cohomology is to be taken with Z2 coefficients). The calculation was carried out independently by the authors some

eight or nine years ago. Since then, a great deal of progress has been made in

determining which A -algebras can possibly be realized as the cohomology of finite H-spaces. While all such results depend vitally on the existence of a Hopf algebra structure, they shed little light on the coalgebra structure. Our reason for publishing the calculation at this time is to advertise the efficacy of the methods involved. Briefly, they amount to this. Suppose given a finite H-space G which admits a classifying space BG and suppose one can calculate H *BG as an algebra (in an appropriate range of dimensions). Then one can calculate the Es-term of the Eilenberg-Moore spectral sequence converging to H *G. With luck, the differentiais nd extensions will be manpgeable, and complete information will be obtained. Th essential point is that the Eilenberg-Moore spectral sequence can well be an efficient tool for the calculation of the coalgebra structure in situations al sequence is virtually ram can succeed even if dimensions well belo

194

**J.P. May, A. ZabrodskyJH*Sptn(n) as a Hopf algebra
**

.’

notation. Of course, H*BSO(n) = P{w, 12 s i s n}, where the wi are the Stiefel-I.:++ r,iuney classes. Write w. = 1, w1= 0, and wi = 0 for i > n. We then have the Wu formula Sq’wj = i (k,j - i

k=O

- l)Wi_kwj+k

if i < j, where (u, b) = (a + b)!/a

,’

! b!

l

**In particular we have
**

21-3

Sqj”Wj

=

W2j-1

+

c

k=i

Wkw2/-l-k*

Define elements vi E H’BSO(n) by the equations

(3)

Vi

= wi if i #

2 +

1, v2

= w2,

and

v 21+1+1 =

Sq2’(~24

if j 3 0.

By (2), H *BSO(n) = t*‘{vi12 G i G n}, and we shall always worL with the Vi rather than with the wj. We agree to write n in the form (4) n = 2”+ t with s 3 1 and 0 < t < 2’.

With these notations, our main theorem reads as follows. Recall that the cohomology suspension c *: Hq BG + fiq-‘G has image contained in the primitive elemeqts. *

,

**Theorem 1. H *Spin(n) has a simple system of generators
**

{ui 13Gi <n,i#2’}U{u

where

Ui = u *(vi+l)

ldegu =25+‘-I},

satisfies Sq’(ui) = (Y,i - r)ui+, (with uj = 0 for j = 2k or j 2 n). If ns9,thenu = (r *x for some x, and Sq’u = 0 for f > 0. If n 2 10, then u is not in the image of u*, and the coproduct and Steenrod operations on u are given by the following formulas : (i) e(u) = u @ 1 + Il(i,jltar@ uj + 1 @u, where the sum is taken over all paint (i,j) such thatn>i>ja3, i+j=2’+‘1, and neither i nor j is a power of two. (ii) Sq’u = C (p,q) aMuPus r > 0, where the sum is taken over all pairs (p, q) such if thatn>p>qa3,p+q = 2’+l+ r - 1, and neitherp nor q is a power of two and where a, = IZci,j,@- i, 2i - p)(q - j, 2j - q) summed over all pairs (i, j) as in (i). In particular, Sq’u = 0 and Sq’u = 0 for r > 2(t - 1), hence u 2 = 0, If n = 2” + 1, then u is primitive and Sq’u = 0 for I > 0.

Remark 2. The set (1, t(i,u} is ’ a Z2-basis for a sub restricted coalgebra of H*Spin(n), and H *Spin(n) is characterized as the universal enveloping Hopf algebra W(C) of C. The definitions behind this observation are given in 181. The following corollaries will be obvious from the proof. If p : Spin(n) + SO(n) is the covering projection, then p *c~‘wi+t = us

12p *cr*w2i+1=

0.

I.P. May, A. Zabrodsky I H*Spin(n)

as a

Hopfalgebra

19s

Corollary 4. If i, : Spin(n) --) Spin@ + 1) is the inclusion, then i X(Uj) = Uj, i X(U) = u if 2’ L” n < 2’+l, and i X(u) = 0 if n = 25. Therefore i Z is an epimorphism for 2” < n < 2’+l.

The fact that pu = 0 leads to a simple proof of the following result of Bore1 [3]. Corollary 5. Spin(n) has 2-torsion if and only if n a 7, and then all of its torsion is

precisely of order 2. Proof. Let {E,} denote the mod 2 cohomology Bockstein spectral sequence of Spin(n). E1 = H*Spin(n) with &-s = U2j, pU2j = 0, and PU = 0. Therefore El = E2

if and only if n 6 6 and, for all n, E2 is the exterior algebra on the fnllowing set of generators: {x,-,~3~jcn/2 and j#2k}U(u2~-~~2~~~s}W{u}U{u,,-I’n even},

**where x4i-1= U2/-1U2j I+.~.Modulo torsion, the integral cohomology of Spin(n) is + the exterior algebra generated by
**

{p+U*PiIlci<n/2}U{p*onXIn

even},

where Pi and x are the Pontryagin and Euler classes of H*BSO(n). E2 = E,, by a comparison of dimensions and the conclusion follows. To begin the proof of the theorem, define (5) 0 = ~I~s+*+~ = Sq2’U2~+I H *““‘BSO(n). in

The element u is decomposable, and how it decomposes is crucial to the properties of the exceptional generator u of H*Spin(n). Write IR for the augmentation ideal of a connected algebra R. Define ideals J(k) of H*BSO(n) by (6) J(k), k 2 0, is the ideal generated by {o~r,~ s j 6 k}. IO

**Lemma 6. If n G 9, then o E J(s). If II a 10, then ZIe J(s) and 0 = C OiVj mod J(s) + (IH*BSOy, 04)
**

where (i, j) funs otret the set specified in (i) of Theorem 1.

Proof. Observe first that if X is a space and if ai E WX for 16 i s q, then

Clearly this implies the assertion (8) e I with deg 6 = j, then 4 by (2) For II 3 5,

Now o2 = w2, v3 = w3,and thus v = Sq2v3 E

1%

J,P. May, A. Zabrodsky/ H*Spin(n) as a Hopfaigebra

hence ws E J(2), and thus v = Sq4vsE J(2) if 5 G n G 8 by (2) and E (8). For n 3 9, v9= w9mod J(2), hence w9E J(3), and thus v = Sq8v9 J(3) if n = 9 by (2) ano (8). Assume that n a 10 and abbreviate I = IH*BSO(n). By (7), if x e I4 has degree j, then Sq’-‘(x)E 12’-‘. Since v21+1 w 21+1 I2 for 0 e j s s, v = = mod sq2”w mod 13. The congruence asserted in the lemma follows immediately from 2”+1 (2). When n# 2” + 1, v e J(s) follows. When n = 2’ + 1, v = 0 mod J(s) + 13. However, by use of (2), (3), and (7), it is easy to verify that

~2~3,

uS = ws +

v=

2

j =2”‘+2

(v~v~,,.-~~.-~ + v,~,,-~v,,_~) J(s) + I4 mod

when n = 2” + 1 with s 2 4, and v 5f J(s) follows. We turn to the calculaticln of H*BSpin(n) in the degrees needed. Actually, Quillen [9] has computed K*BSpin(iz) in all degrees, but we shall only use the following trivial lemma. De!-ane quotient algebras R (n) and S(n) of H *BSO(n) by (9) R(n) = H*BSO$n)/J(s); thus R(n) = P(v~ 12 s S(n) = H*BSO(n)/J(s + 1) = R(n)/@), image of v in R(n).

Lemma 7. rfn ~9, thenH”BSpin(n)=

i s n, if

2i + 1)

where u’ denotes the

R(n)@P(x},

degx =2?

rfn alO, then

**H*BSpin(n) = S(n) in degrees less than 2s+2.
**

Proof. BSpin(n) is the fibre of w2: BSO -+ K(Z2, 1). We therefore have a fibration

7~ BSpin(n)+ BSO(n) with fibre K(Z2, 1) in which the fundamental class i E (Z,, 1) transgresses to w2 in the Serre spectral sequence {E,a}. For k 3 0, i2’ transgresses to v 2k+lsince sq2’T= TSq2’.Therefore

W’K

E 2k+27f kI*BSO(n)/.T(k) @P{i 2k+‘} = for 0 G k G s. If n s 9, i2’+ltransgresses to zero, since v E J(s), and thus E 29+27~ = E,w. The first statement follows, with x projecting to i2’+l EA If n a 10, E 7(i ‘*+I)# 0 since v e J(s). Since R(n) is a polynomial algebra, v is not a zero divisor in E2s+l and therefore E2a+*+1?r S(n)@ P{i2’+‘1). +lrr = The second statement follows. The crux of the proof of Theorem 1 is the following homological result.

Proposition 8. Tars (n ,(Z,, Z,) =E{~i(4~isn,i#2’+1)@T(u}asanalgebrtl, where bideg u = (- 2,25+* 1) and where, with ur = c(vi+l), the coproduct ma u is + given by formulcl (i) of Theorem 1.

. Here torsion products are bigraded, the first or homological degree being given by non-positive superscripts and the second degree being the internal degree. For

J.P. Muy,A. Zabrodsky ! H*Spin(n)

as a Hopf algebra

197

any connected &-algebra R, a is the composite of the projection of IR onto the indecomposable elements QB and the natural isomorphism between Q B and Tori’**(&, 2,). Elements in the image of 0 are primitive. Before proceeding to its proof, we show how Proposition 8 implies Theorem 1. Let {E,} denote the Eilenberg-Moore spectral sequence of the universal bundle of Spin(n) [l, 4, 5, 10, 111. This is a spectral sequence of differential Hopf algebras over the Steenrod algebra which converges from E2 = TorH*BSpin(n)(Z2, to 2,) H *Spin(n). It satisfies

Ep = 0 if p > 0, q < 0, or - 4p > q and d,:

EF+ EYq-*+'.

**Here Ey = 0 for - 4p > q because HqBSpin(n) U* factors as the composite HqBSpin(n)L
**

E;‘*qA

= 0 for 0 c q c 4. The suspension

EG’*qCfiq Spin(n),

where v is the natural epimorphism. We first dispose of the case n < 9 of Theorem 1. Since Torp(,+(ZZ, 2,) = E {oy } for any y, we have

E2 = E, since E+‘** consists of permanent cycles. The Steenrod operations on are obviously determined by Vi = 7r*wi and (1). Sq’u is primitive since Ui -1 = O*Oi = V”X is primitive, and no non-zero primitive elements have degree greater. than ;s+* - 1 =degu. Thus Sq’u =0 for r >O. Henceforward, assume that n 2 10. We have a morphism of algebras j: S(n)+H*BSpin(n)since7r*: RI*BSO(n)-, H*BSpin(n) factors through S(n). We therefore have a morphism of Hopf algebras j * : Torscn&Z2,Z2) + EZ, and j $ is an isomorphism in internal degrees q < 25+* by Lemma 7. As an algebra, the divided polynomial algebra T(u) of Proposition 8 may be written E{y2i (u) 1j 2 0). Let D = E{Ot)i} @E {u}. Then D is a sub iiopf algebra of TorS&Z2, 2,). All primitive elements of D have internal degree q c 2r+2, hence j $ is a monomorphism when restricted to D. Identify D with j.,J3 C E2. All elements of D are permanent cycles since its generators have homological degrees - 1 or - 2. We claim that no element of D bounds. Indeed, assume the contrary, let r be minimal such that some non-zero d,x is in D and let x be of minimal total degree with this property. As usual, since +d,x = (d, @ 1 + 1~ &)3,(x), d,x must be primitive. Thus either x E E;‘-r**+r-’ and d,x = ui or n = 2” + 1, x E E;-‘**‘+‘+‘, and d,x = u. Since EF=O for - 4p > q, it is trivial to check that x has internal degree q < 2’+* and therefore lies in D. This contradicts d,x # 0 and proves our claim. We now have that D is a sub Hopf algebra of E,, and it follows that Em = D QD ’ D as a vector space. Of course, Spin(n) is a compact manifold of dimension in (n - 1). Since

I)” can have no elements of positive total degree and E, = D. The fact that the ui

and u lift to a simple system of generators for H*Spin(n) is standard. Since n *(wl) = q azd ul_+= CF it only remains to verify (i) and (ii) of Theorem I. *Up, Observe first that the lifting of 2.4 EZ2* to F12H *Spin(n) is unique if n # 2’+’and E * admits two choices which differ by unel if n = 2’+’ since the lifting is well-defined modulo ,im Q *. Since u,-+ is primitive and Sq’u,-1 = Qfor t > 0, the choice of lifting can have no effect on the validity of (i) and (ii), Consider q(u). If x ’ qp x ” is a non-zero summand of $(u), its filtration must be at least - 2 and therefore precisely - 2 if x ’ and x I’both have positive degree. Thus the coproduct on ti E ~*~pin(~) must be the same as on u,E &, wkich proves (i). Similarly~summands of ?A# have ~ltration at least - 2 and therefore precisely - 2 if t > 0 since deg uf a~ de 4 U, We can thus write Sq’u izl the form x(p.,,,QPPU~~ for some constants am E Z2 ,:nd the range of summation stated in (ii). To evaluate the 4,, we use $4q’u = Sq $84.Clearly

**On the other hand, by (i) and the Wu and Cartan formulas, Sq’+u =Sq’u@l+
**

(b.c)

z (x (b -i,2i-b)(c-j,2j-~))u,*u,+l*Sq?u

0.j)

summed over all pairs (i, j ) as in (i) and all pairs (b, c) such that 6 + c = 2’+’+ t - 1. Formula (ii) of Theorem 1 follows upon equating coefficients. We must still prove Proposition 8. To simplify the notation and clarify the nature of the argument, we generalize the context. Thus let R be a polynomial algebra on positive degree generators x1,. . . , & and let S = R/(W), where w is a non-zero j decomposable element of R. Write w = xk p1 JQX~with yj E IR and write yj = ti + 4 with 21 a linear combination of the xi and dj E (IR)“. Thus w E xFm1 mod (IRr. 2~~ Proposition 8 is a special case of the following result. Proposition 9. Tars (Z,, Z,) = E{ax, bideg u = (- 2, deg w ) and where

11

s

i S

k}@r{u}

QS an algebra, where

Proof. Define a differential S-algebra X = S @z by letting % = E(oxi}@f’{u} and’ specifying the differential on generators by d(uxc) = x1 and dyV = (u) c iL,I yj(mj)Y,-,(U). We claim that X is acyclic and is thus a minimal S-free resolution of Z2, minimal meaning that the induced differential on Z2&X is zero. The description of Tars (Z,, Z2) as an algebra will follow. To prove the claim, write X = Y @r(u), where Y is the subdifferential S-algebra S @B (xi}. As a complex, Y is a quotient of the differential R-algebra

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**

pTk = rJ qnurJo~ arrgmpu!

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pampui aqi

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**aq3 xq x rally MON
**

%w~3auuo3 aqi lapun saw3 aql UC adaaxa udo = * M zsow uaw

apA3 3~3 jo x) ssel3 aqt rCq pawaua% &.,H away ‘0 = 01 sd8tu

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aqt fPz z ~~~~~ N pue ez = ~~~~~ = a sap ,a? s ‘8Jqa@! f@UO

0 = &.&g

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* 0

{ Fm}9@ 2f = 2

u!8:y3 jo

amanbas i3exa

uoqs

aqi anay ah pue

‘!x = (!m)p

qlW

200

J.P. May, A. Zabrodsky J W+Spi:n(n) as a Hopf algebra

[7]1J.P. May, The cohomology of restricted Lie algebras and of Hopf algebras, J. Algebra 3 (1966) 123-146, [8] J.P. May, Some remarks on the structure of Hopf algebras, Proc. Amer. Math. Sot. 23 (1969) 70s713. [9] D. Quillen, The rnqd 2 cohomology rings of extra-special 2-groups and the spinor groups, Math. Ann. 194 (1971) 197-212. [lo) D, Rector, Steenrod operations in the Eilenberg-Moore spectral sequence, Comm. Math. Helv. 45 (1970) 540-552. [ 1l] L. Smith, Lectures on the Eilenberg-Moore spectral sequence, Lecture Notes in Mathematics, Vol. 134 (Springer, 1970). 1121 J. Tate, Homology of Noetherian rings and of local rings, Illinois J. Math. 1 (1957) 14-27.

,

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