AND
GENERALIZATIONS THEOREM
APPROXIMATION by ~. P. M a y
In its basic form,
the approximation t h e o r e m referred to provides simple ~ E X, w h e r e X
n n
combinatorial m o d e l s for spaces T h e first such
is a connected based space. is equiva
result w a s given by J a m e s construction MX.
[26], w h o s h o w e d that ~ E X
lent to the J a m e s
T h e unpublished preprint f o r m of D y e r and = lira ~ n E n x , and M i l g r a m [41]
gashof's paper [25] gave an approximation to Q X gave a cellular m o d e l for ~2nEnx Starting f r o m B o a r d m a n for all finite n.
and Vogt's spaces
[5], Dold and Thorn's treatment
of jtuples of little ncubes n,j of the infinite s y m m e t r i c product N X in t e r m s of
~
quasifibrations [24], and the category theorists' c o m p a r i s o n between finitary algebraic theories and m o n a d s
n n
(as for e x a m p l e in B e c k [4]), I gave a n e w a p p r o x i m a 
tion
C X
n
to 12 E X
in [36]. This m o d e l has proven m o s t useful for practical n > I, and it is its applications and generalizations This will be a survey of w o r k by various people, and
calculational purposes w h e n that I wish to discuss here.
I would like to mention that I have also given a survey of other recent developments in iterated loop space theory in [39], updating m y T h e first section will give background, 1976summary [38]. relevant work,
mention miscellaneous
and discuss generalizations, notably C a r u s o and W a n e r ' s recent homotopical approximation to ~ n E n x for general nonconnected spaces X [9,11]. T h e second Both are based
and third sections will outline the two m a i n lines of applications.
n
on certain stable splittings of C X, due originally to Snaith [47]. One line, initiated by M a h o w a l d [33] and with other m a j o r contributors B r o w n and Peterson
[7, 8] and Ralph C o h e n [Zl], is primarily concerned with a detailed analysis of the pieces in the resulting splitting of 122Sq and leads to n e w infinite families of elem e n t s in the stable stems. The other line, primarily due to F r e d Cohen, Taylor,
and myself [1619] but also contributed to by C a r u s o [10] and K o s c h o r k e and Sanderson [30], is based on a detailed analysis of the splitting m a p s and their homotopical implications and leads to an unstable f o r m of the K a h n  P r i d d y theorem, a m o n g various other things. T h e s e lines, and thus sections 2 and 3, are
essentially independent of each other.
39 § 1. B a c k g r o u n d and generalizations Tlie construction of the approximating spaces is naively simple. Suppose
given a collection of ~.spaces ~. with suitable degeneracy operators J J th cri:~._ij " ~ . ,j i < i< j. (Here Z. is the j s y m m e t r i c group.) Given a space X J with (nondegenerate) basepoint *, construct a space C X = I ] ~j )<~.xJ/(~), where the equivalence relation is generated by (c,~xI ..... xj) "~ (c0i,x ..... Xi_l,Xi+ I ..... xj) I if x.1 = * J
If each ~. = E., J J the resulting space is M X . If each ~. is a point, the resulting space is NX. J W e shall largely be concerned with examples C(Y,X) obtained f r o m the configuration spaces
B(Y,j) Artin's
See [16,§~i, Z] for details, examples, naturality properties, etc.
~j(Y)
= F(Y,j)
of jtuples of distinct points of Y, and w e let
F(Y,j)/Zj. B ( R Z , j) : K ( B j , 1 ) , where B.j i s [30], we
be the orbit (braid) space g r o u p of j  s t r a n d e d braids.
Following 14oschorke and Sanderson
think of C(Y,X) subset of Y and
as the space of pairs X'L *X
(L,X), w h e r e
L
is a finite (unordered)
is a function.
Here w e impose the equivalence rela
tion generated by
(L,)~) ~ (L  {y},X IL{y})
if X(y) = "~ • L
The crucial example
C X
n
m a y be described similarly, with the sets
I
n
t a k e n to h a v e a f f i n e e m b e d d i n g s s e e [36,§ 4]. homotopy
~ I
n
with disjoint interiors In as R n, b y a b u s e ,
as their elements; and obtain a natural
We t h i n k of t h e i n t e r i o r
of
equivalence gC
n
X
~" C ( R n , X )
by restriction of little ncubes to their center points.
(The proof that g is an
equivalence in [36, 4.8] is not quite right; it is corrected in [14, p. 485] and also in
[30].)
Define points s ~ Sn a n : C n X ~ flnEnx = In/01 n by I X(c)^cl(s) ~n(L,X)(s) : ] if s ~ I m c for c ~ L . k The approximation t h e o r e m [36, 6.1] asserts that
n
by letting an(L,k):S n * X ^ S n be specified on
if s ~ I m c for c ~ L
is a w e a k equivalence if X is ~ is a group completion n w0f~nEnx is the universal
connected.
Segal [45] and C o h e n [14] later proved that case. This m e a n s that
in the general, nonconnected,
40
g r o u p associated to the m o n o i d
~r0CnX
(which is e a s y [36.8.14]) and t h a t H , ~ n ~ n x by localizing at its s u b m o n o i d i n n n hold for ~ng .'C(R ,X) ~ ~ ~n X.
is obtained f r o m the P o n t r y a g i n ring
H,CnX
~0Cn
X.
Of course, X
the same = S O , MoDuff
conclusions [40] gave
In the case property, between suitable
another
proof of the group homological sphere
completion
viewing it as a special C(M,S 0) manifolds and the space M.
case of a general of sections
relationship bundle of M for
of the tangent
She also gave thought
a construction and
C±(M,S O ) of pairs particles interest
of finite
sets in M, annihilation homotopical
with points properties.
of as positive
negative is of some
with suitable and yields in
fails to
While this construction to the space of sections
a
approximation
of a bundle,
the bundle
question is not the tangent s p h e r e bundle of M . n n be a h o m o t o p i c a l a p p r o x i m a t i o n to f~ S .
In particular, C ± (R n , S 0)
V a r i o u s other people h a v e tried to obtain h o m o t o p i c a l (rather than m e r e l y homological) a p p r o x i m a t i o n s to ~ n ~ n x problem is quite delicate. for general n o n  c o n n e c t e d spaces X. The
It is v e r y e a s y to give intuitive a r g u m e n t s
for plaus
ible candidates but v e r y h a r d to pin d o w n correct details. h a s recently b e e n obtained by C a r u s o ~X n for ~ n ~ n x and Waner [II].
S u c h an a p p r o x i m a t i o n
T h e y construct a m o d e l nI ~ In , w h e r e c"'l nl ~I
•
by use of partial little c u b e s
c'Xc":[a,b]Xl
c': [a,b]  I
is a linear m a p
(increasing or decreasing) and
nI is an
affine little (nl)cube.
These
partial little c u b e s are required to a p p e a r in be thought of as piecewise linear m a p s In ~ In
closed configurations, w h i c h m a y
given b y a piecewise linear path in the first coordinate a n d a single affine e m b e d d ing in the r e m a i n i n g coordinates. T h e labels in X of the c o m p o n e n t partial little
c u b e s of a closed configuration are all required to be the s a m e . Caruso theorem [9] has generalized both this result and the original a p p r o x i m a t i o n n n by proving that $] C ( y , ~ n x ) is a g r o u p c o m p l e t i o n of C ( Y X R ,X) a n d ~
obtaining a h o m o t o p i c a l a p p r o x i m a t i o n Y
(Y,X) to ~2nc(y, ~ n x ) . T h e case w h e n n is a point reduces to the earlier a p p r o x i m a t i o n s , a n d the use of general Y Further are in
allows a quick inductive reduction of the entire result to the case n = i. generalizations, b a s e d on a c o m b i n a t i o n of the ideas of C a r u s o the w o r k s .
and McDuff,
Related to these ideas are C o h e n and Taylor's extensive calculations of
H,C(M,X) M = N
for certain X R n for some homology
manifolds positive of C(M,X) n.
M
[Z0].
Their
arguments
work
best
when on im
In particular, for such M,
they give complete these calculations
information having direct
the rational plications
for GelfandFuks
cohomology.
41 T h e r e is also an e quivariant generalization of the approximation theorem, the present status of which is discussed in [39, § 5]. H o w e v e r , w e shall mainly concentrate on the specific approximations C(Rn, X )  g C X n n ~n ~ n X
and their applications in the rest of this paper. P e r h a p s I should first explain just w h y these approximations are so useful a O n e reason is that C X has internal structure faithfully reflecting that of n iterated loop spaces. M u c h of this is captured by the assertion that C is a m o n a d n and ~ is a m a p of m o n a d s [36, 5.2]. Less cryptically, the three displayed spaces n allhave actions by the little cubes operad ~ n and g and ~ are b o t h ~ n  m a p s n [16,6.Z and 36,5.Z]. In particular, they are H  m a p s , but this is only a fragment of the full structure preserved. CmXACn Y Further, there are s m a s h and composition products ) and C n X X C n SO + C n X tool.
~ C m + n ( X ^ Y
which are carried by the ~ iterated loop spaces
to the standard s m a s h and composition products for n [36,§8]. There is a similar and compatible s m a s h product on
the C(Rn, X), but there is no precise point set level (as opposed to homotopical) n composition product on the C ( R ,X). B y specialization to X = S O , ~ :C S O ~ ~nsn is a m a p of topological n n monoids. A s C o h e n has recently observed [13], this leads to approximations for the localizations of the classifying spaces BSF(n) for snfibrations (with section).
Indeed, C n S 0 = l J ~ n , / ~ q and ~nsn = I I ~nsnq , w h e r e ~nsn consists of q>__0 q q~ Z q the m a p s of degree q. If p is any prime, then the m a p of classifying spaces m~ n "B( ~ _ ~n,pi/~pi) i>_0 ~ B( [ I i>0 ~ . S n) n pl
is an equivalence, and the universal cover of the target is the localization of BSF(n) a w a y f r o m p. When n  co, this result is due to T o r n e h a v e and is a
special case of a general p h e n o m e n o n [37,VII § 5]. A key reason for the usefulness of the approximation t h e o r e m is that spaces of the general f o r m CX c o m e with an evident natural filtration. The successive and x [q] q where X [q] denotes the qfold s m a s h p o w e r of X. C X n are D X = ~+ A n,q Z x [q] q
(and equivalent) quotients of C(Rn, X) Dq(Rn, x) = F(IRn, q)+ A S
and
n,q
'
Just as the simplicial version
42
of the J a m e s
construction admits the splitting ~IVfX ~ V ~X[q] found by Milnor q [42], so K a h n in 197Z proved that Barratt's simplicial m o d e l [Z] for Q X splits stably as the w e d g e of its filtration quotients; K a h n has just recently published a
proof [Z7], a different a r g u m e n t having been given by Barratt and Eccles [3]. W h e n w o r d of Kahn's splitting reached C a m b r i d g e , mation theorem, w h e r e I w a s lecturing on the approxi
Snaith [47] w o r k e d out a corresponding stable splitting ~°°C X ~ V ~°°D X , n q>_l n,q
where my
Z °o is the stabilization functor f r o m spaces to spectra (denoted Q New proofs of such splittings by Cohen,
earlier papers)°
in all oo Taylor, and myself
[16] are the starting point of the w o r k discussed in section 3.
Incidentally, by w o r k
of Kirley [29], these splittings for n >_Z cannot be realized after any finite n u m b e r of suspensions (see also [16, 5.10]). There are two points of view on these splittings. One can either ignore h o w they w e r e obtained and concentrate on analyzing the pieces or one can concentrate on the splitting m a p s and see what kind of extra information they yield. T h e s e two
viewpoints are taken respectively in the following two sections. T h e crucial reason for the usefulness of the approximation t h e o r e m is that w e have very good homological understanding of the filtered spaces Historical background and complete calculations of H,~..~QX and X = S O , w h e n the latter is ~ H~..BZq) q>_0 complete calculations of H,~n~,nx and [lZ, App] and also in [7].) C Xo n H,~.,~CcoX (including
are in [14,11. C o h e n [14,111] has given H, C n X . (Some m i n o r corrections are in as Hopf algebras over the
H e r e "complete" m e a n s
Steenrod algebra, with full information on all relevant h o m o l o g y operations , Since these operations are nicely related to the geometric filtration, complete calculations of all H.Dn, qX drop out. H e r e h o m o l o g y is understood to be taken rood p for s o m e prime p, but w e also give complete information on the Bockstein spectral sequences of all spaces in sight. A m a j o r d r a w b a c k to these calculations is that they give inductive formulae for the Steenrod operations, but not a global picture. as a m o d u l e over the Steenrod algebra Ao for n = Z and X X n,q The solution to this dualization p r o b l e m One wants to k n o w H D
a sphere is basic to the w o r k of the next section, and w e shall n > Z. Before turning to this, however, I
also say what little is k n o w n w h e n
should mention the related w o r k of Wellington [51].
lie has solved the analogous
dualization p r o b l e m for the algebra structure, giving a precise global description * n of H ~ ~,nX for all c o n n e c t e d X (or allX if p = Z; corrections of [51] are needed
43 when p > Z. ) He has also studied the problem of determining the Aannihilated
n n
primitive elements in H, fl E X.
M o r e is said about this in [39,§4]
(but the
description there should have been restricted to connected X).
§Z. The spaces Dq(Rn, S r) andthe BrownGitler spectra
The w o r k discussed in this section began with and w a s inspired by Mahowald's brilli~nt paper [33]. I shall reverse historical order by first discussing the w o r k of B r o w n and Peterson [7,8] and Ralph C o h e n [ZI] on the structure of the spaces R (nr ) ~D sr and then briefly explaining the use of this analysis ,S n,q for the detection of elements of the stable stems. I a m very grateful to C o h e n for lucid explanations of s o m e of this material. (In case anyone has not yet noticed, it
is to be emphasized that there are two different Cohens at w o r k in this area. ) Let ~ be the qplane bundle n,q F(Rn, q) X E (RI) q ~ q B(R n, q) .
With Thorn spaces of vector bundles defined by onepoint compactification of fibres followed by identification of all points at infinity, it is obvious that the Thorn space of ~n,q is precisely Dq(Rn,SI). Replacing R 1 by R r in this construction, the
Thorn space is Dq(Rn, sr). connected. fibration). Lemma
resulting bundle is the rfold Whitney s u m of ~ with itself and the resulting n,q n r Here DI(R ,S ) ~ S r and Dq(Rn,S r) is (rql)• Let Jn,q denote the order of ~n,q (or better, ofits associated S q
W e have the following evident periodicity (see e.g. [37,111 §I]). Z.l.
D q( R n "
,S r+jn'q~ }is equivalent to E°Dn'qmq(R n, sr). Dq(R n,S r) is to determine what is presently known.
Thus the first problem in analyzing the spaces the n u m b e r s Let • in, q" The following lelcama s u m m a r i z e s
Vp(j) denote the porder of j (the exponent of p in j). Theorem Z.Z.
z~(nl)
(i) Jz,q , where
g for all q >_ Z . 9~(nl) is the vector fields n u m b e r (namely the n u m 0 < i < n).
(ii)
Jn,Z
•
=
ber of i  0, I,Z, 4 rood 8 with (iii) Jn, q divides Jn, q+l (iv) F o r an odd prime
(and, trivially, Jn,q divides Jn+1,q ) . q < p and Vp(Jn,p) = [nl/Z].
p, Vp(Jn,q) = 0 for
44
(v) (vi)
For any prime J4,4 = 12 .
p,
Vp(Jn,q ) = Vp(Jn,pi) if p i < q < pi+l .
N o n e of t h e s e is v e r y h a r d .
P a r t (i) w a s f i r s t p r o v e n by C o h e n , M a h o w a l d ,
a n d M i l g r a m by u s e of v a r i o u s r e s u l t s of m i n e i n i n f i n i t e loop s p a c e t h e o r y , but B r o w n l a t e r found the t r i v i a l t r i v i a l i z a t i o n of 2 ~ Z , q = ~ 2 , 2 q d i s p l a y e d i n [15].
(ii), B(R n, 2) ~ R P nI are in Y a n g of F.Cohen. and ~n,Z is the canonical bundle
For
~ (g& . Parts (iii)(v)
[SZ] and w e r e also proven by Kuhn.
Part (vi) is an unpublished result
It remains to determine the n u m b e r s Vp(Jn ' pi) for i >__Z and n >_>3 ,
and this is an interesting and apparently difficult problem. In connection with this, the only general w o r k on the Ktheory of spaces n n ~ X for I < n < oo that I a m aware of is the computation by Saitoti [43] and for X a finite torsionfree C W  c o m p l e x . However,
Snaith [48] of K~,(eZE3x;zz)
there is w o r k in progress by Kuhn. As would be expected f r o m the l e m m a , D q ( R n,S r) when n = Z than w h e n n > Z. m u c h m o r e is k n o w n about the spaces Before restricting to n = 2, however,
we summarize
the results of B r o w n and Peterson [8] in the general case. Their n r m a i n result gives the following splitting of certain of the D (R ,S ). It is provenby q using (ii) of T h e o r e m 2.2, the Thorn construction, and various structure m a p s f r o m [36} to write d o w n explicit splitting m a p s and then using F. Cohen's calcula
tions in [14,111 and IV] to check that they do indeed produce a splitting. W e adopt the convention that Theorem D0(R n ,X) =
O" S
Then
Z.3. Let t >__1 (except that t > 1 if n = 2, 4, or 8).
Dq (Rn' stY(n l)t  n) is h o m o t o p y equivalent to [q/Z] ni z~(n l)tn) S2 ~(n i) ÷itn I) V Dq_zi(R ,S A Di(R n, . i=0
As u s u a l , [m] d e n o t e s the g r e a t e s t i n t e g e r
<_m.
B r o w n a n d P e t e r s o n [8] cohomologi
a l s o o b s e r v e t h a t the N i s h i d a r e l a t i o n s i m p l y the f o l l o w i n g 2  p r i m a r y
cal periodicity. Lemma 2.4.
L e t ~ ( n  l ) be d e f i n e d by 2 J # ( n  l )  I < n_< 2 ~ ( n  1 )
~,* n z¢(n i) + r) H Dq(R ,S y q?~(nl) ~,Dq(Rn,sr).
Then
45
Since one can add a multiple number 2~(n1)un, the previous
Zkb(nl)s lemma
to any
z~(n1)t
n
s o a s to r e a c h
a
and theorem
have the following conse
quence. Corollary Z.5. As a module over the m o d Z Steenrod algebra, ~* n Z ~(n l)t n H Dq(R ,S  ) is isomorphic to
[~]i=0 H DN~= qZi( RnI,S Z¢(nl)tn) ~
H~*Di(R ,n sZ~(n1)tn I )
Brown
and Peterson [8] note one further cohomological As a module over the m o d ) ~ ~ i=0
splitting.
Proposition 2.6.
Z Steenrod algebra,
H Dq(R ,S X~ K 0 = Z2and
~ (qzi)zk~(nml)t K i ~I DZI(R n,S Z•(n 1 )t)
where
~ K., i>0, is dual to the sub A  m o d u l e
1
of
spanned by a n m o n o m i a l s mental class of S Z~(nl)t
in the
Ql(L)
not divisible by ~ (where L is the funda
and the suspensions are realized by multiplication with
qzi).
These last two cohomological metrically. splittings m a y or m a y not be realizable geo
B r o w n and Peterson conjecture that they exhaust the Zprimary as
possibilities in the sense that ~eDq(Rn, S r) has no nontrivial direct s u m m a n d s an A  m o d u l e unless r  0 or r ~ n rood 2 ~(nl), They point out explicitly at
the end of [8] that, at least w h e n
n = 3, there can be finer splittings than those are satisfied. The analysis is not yet
displayed w h e n the specified congruences complete and there remains m u c h
w o r k to be done.
In particular, virtually structure of the indecomposable
nothing is k n o w n about the explicit global A  m o d u l e surnmands w h e n n >_ 3.
The splittings of Cohen, together with g e m m a
Taylor, and myself in [17] (see T h e o r e m
3.7 below)
Z.1. and an easy homological inspection (compare [17, 3.3]) Z.3.
imply the following analog of T h e o r e m
46
Theorem
Z 7.
Dq(R n,S3n'qt) is stably equivalent to
~.jn, q(so qt

[o72]B(Rn,
i=2
V
2i)/B(R n ,2i1))
.
Specializing n o w to the case imply that (i) Here Dq(RZ, S 2r+l)
n = Z, note that L e m m a
2.i and T h e o r e m
2.2(i)
~ EZqrDq(R2,SI)
and
D (R2,S 2r) ~ Y,Z q r D (R2, S 0) . q q
Dq(R 2, S O) : B(R 2, c~ + .
(The disjoint basepoint was omitted in [15, p. 226].) Theorem 2.3 implies that
Since ~(i) = i and Dq("R i, S t,) ~S tq
D q (R z, s zt) ~ [o/21 V
i=0
EZt(q2i)Di(R2, S4t+l) ,
t >_ 1 .
Setting t = i and combining with (i), w e find the splitting (Z) Z 2 q D q (Rz's°) ~ sZq ~ ( [o/Z] z Z q D i (R2, s:)) . V i=1 Z.7 and [17, 3.3]. Its original proof
This splitting is also immediate from T h e o r e m is in B r o w n and Peterson [7].
Clearly, then, analysis of the stable homotopy type of Zsr+2 V Dq(R 2,S r) reduces to analysis of the stable homotopy q> 1 R2 ' type of the spaces Dq( S l'). W e therefore abbreviate Xq= in what follows. Dq(a z,s:) The s
W e fix a prime p and localize all spaces and spectra at p.
results to follow are due to M a h o w a l d
[33], B r o w n and Gitler [6], and B r o w n and p >Z.
Peterson [7] at p : 2 and to R. C o h e n [ZI] at
The starting point of the analysis of the X rood p cohomologies. Define M(q) : A/A{x(~Spi)I i If p = 2, we let pi = Sq
xpP greases by direct i>q
Let X
is the determination of their q be the conjugation in the m o d p Steenrod algebra A.
and
~: 0 or i}. Davis' result [23] that
+ p
and suppress the Bockstein.
_(i+0
: (_l)i+lpp
i
pp
i:
...
pppi
I
p(i+i) : i +p + ..
i
t
s o m e of t h e c o m p u t a t i o n s . inductive calculation
The following result is not too hard to prove Cohen's results on H Xq [14,III].
from F.
47 Mahowald's original a r g u m e n t w h e n Abbreviate M([q/p]) Z.8. = M[q/p]. H (Xq; Zz) ~ ZqM[q/2] and there is a stable 2primary p = z [33] is s o m e w h a t different.
Theorem
c ofibration se quenc e EX2q_ i which on m o d sequence 0 " where ~ is the A  m a p Here ~2X2q_l M(qI)~ f ~X z q g _ EZq X q
2 cohomology realizes the Zq ~
suspension of the short exact ~ EqM[q/2] * 0 ,
M(c 0
specified by ~(Eql)
= x(Sq q) and
~ is the natural A  m a p . EZX2q_2 . The
m a y be replaced by its 21ocal equivalent
key to the cofibration is the const@uction of g which, as M i l g r a m pointed out, is an easy exercise in the use of the classical J a m e s maps. the geometric and homological properties of the spaces The rest follows by use of C2S r in [36] and [14,111];
see [15, T h m . 2] or [33, 5.5]. The analog at odd primes is m o r e complicated but r r r+ 1 proceeds along similar lines [21]. Let M denote the M o o r e space S u e P Theorem hold. 2.9. Localize all spaces at p > 2. Then the following conclusions
(i)
(ii)
X
q
is contractible unless
q = 0 or
q I rood p.
E l ~ S 1 and X pq+l ~ E X pq M 2r(pl) ~ X p 2 q + p r
if q > O. if q > 0 and 1 <_r<_pi .
(iii) X p 2 q ^
(iv)
H (Xpq;Zp)
~ Egq(pI)A/A{x(~ 'P:I I pi+g > 0}, in particular, if q ~ 0 rnod p.
H'~>~(Xpq;Zp) =~ EZq(pl)M[q/p]
(v)
There is a stable m a p g:Xpi+Z+pwhich on rood p eohornology realizes Z i 0z:~ p (PI)M(p:I) ~ M ( p i) is the A  m a p 2 i i ~(Z p (P'I)I) = × ( P P ) 2 i+ l(p 1)X >n p pi+l + p ~E2(pi+l + l)(pl)~ , w h e r e specified by
48
In order to obtain hornotopical information f r o m these cohornological calculations, one wants to determine kinvariants. Now B r o w n and Gitler [6] have dis
w h e n p = 2, and q R. C o h e n [21] has generalized their constructions to odd primes. C o m b i n i n g results, one obtains the following theorem. Theorem ing properties. Z.i0. T h e r e exist finite plocal C W  s p e c t r a B(q) with the follow
played certain spectra with the s a m e c o h o m o l o g y as the X
(i) (ii)
H (B(c~;Zp) If i : B ( q )  ~
is isomorphic K(Z,0)
to t h e A  m o d u l e the generator,
M(q). then the induced map X if e i t h e r
represents
i , : B ( q ) r ( X ) ~ H r ( X ; Zp) p = Z (iii) If M v and
is an epirnorphism or p > 2
for all spaces and
r <__2 q + l
r < 2 p ( q + l )  1. bundle
is a compact
smooth nmanifold Tv, then
embedded in R n+j with normal
and Thorn space
i , : B ( q ) r ( T v ) ~ H r ( T v ; Zp)
is an epirnorphisrn
if either p = 2 (iv) and n+jr < 2q+l or p > 2 and n + j  r <__2 p ( q + l ) 1. in
~kB(q) is a known Z vector P d e g r e e k) if e i t h e r p = 2 and k< Zq
s p a c e (a c e r t a i n
q u o t i e n t of t h e A  a l g e b r a
or
p > 2 and duality,
k<
2p(q+l)2 M
.
H e r e (3) f o l l o w s f r o m (Z) b y A l e x a n d e r Tv. Particularly Let for the case T
since
i s a n n+j S  d u a l of
p > Z, a l i t t l e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n
of t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s and let
appropriate. v ~ H S ( T ; Z ). P (a)
(b)
be an m Sdual (T,v)
of s o m e f i n i t e C W  c o r n p l e x M(q) if ms ~ 2p(q+l)is A { X ( ~ P i ) ]
Say that ms
i s a d a p t e d to or p > 2
p = 2 and
< 2q+l
and
1;
and
the kernel of v:A ~" H * (T; Zp) , v(a) = av, Brown
i > q} .
and Peterson [7] at p = 2 and R. C o h e n [21] at p > 2 proved the followB(q).
ing characterization of the spectra Theorem 2.11.
Let • be a s p e c t r u m which is trivial at all primes other
than p and satisfies M(q) t h e r e
y SM(q) to
H (E; Zp)  2~SM(q). "~:EO°T ~E
S u p p o s e t h a t f o r s o m e ( T , v ) a d a p t e d to v carries the generator of
exists a map
v.
such that ESB(q).
T h e n E i s e q u i v a l e n t to
49
T h e y used this characterization to prove the following basic t h e o r e m on the structure of the Xq. to spectra. Theorem EC°X Pq 2.12. At p = 2, E°°X is equivalent to EqB[q/2]. At p > 2, Recall that E c° denotes the stabilization functor f r o m spaces
is equivalent to E zq(pl) B[q/p] if q ~ 0 rood p. q 9(iii), it suffices to consider q= Z rood p w h e n p > Z.
q
B e c a u s e of T h e o r e m
In both cases, one inductively constructs degree q o r 2q(pl), together with m a p s which realize uq.
(Tq, Vq) adapted to M[q/p], with u u
of
from ~°°T to ~,°°X or ~°°X q q q Pq M o d u l o certain constructions and calculations based on the geo
metric and homological properties of the C 2 S r in [36] and [i4,11I], the construction of the (Tq, Uq) and Theorem ~ q reduces to the verification of the following result.
F o r each i >__0, there is a c o m p a c t s m o o t h closed manifold i+ 2 of dimension 2i if p = 2 or p + p2 if p > Z with stable n o r m a l bundle u. and a
1
2.13.
bundle m a p fi:vi~ ~2,2i suchthat w . if p = 2 or fi:vi~Z,pi+2+p if p > Z
2i  1
(vi) / 0 if p = 2 or
(Tfi) pp(i+
*
l)ui)
/ 0 if p > 2, w h e r e as an A  m o d u l e .
p(i+i) = l + p + ... + pi and
u.1 generate
H*(T~2,pi+2+p)
W h e n p > 2, the cohomological condition looks like but isn't a statement about W u classes (since the relevant bundles ~n,qare not orientable).
Unfortunately, the proof of this last t h e o r e m is not very pleasant, being based on a detailed study of the A d a m s spectral sequance for the suspension This analysis is based on 2.8 and 2.9 provide the
s p e c t r u m of T(~Z,Q)_ ^ K(Zp, I) for the relevant q.
ideas of M a h o w a l d [33]; the m a p s g displayed in T h e o r e m s key geometric input.
Several people have considered the p r o b l e m of directly constructing explicit manifolds as claimed in the t h e o r e m above. H o w e v e r , as far as I know, not even
the requisite fourdimensional manifold has been concretely identified. T h e m a p s f. are called M a h o w a l d orientations, or braid orientations.
i
O n the classifying
space level, one is asking for a lift of v.:M. ~ B O
to the appropriate braid space
B(R z, q) = K(Bq, 11.
mutative d i a g r a m
i
I
F. C o h e n [12] has used results of [36 and 37] to prove that there is a c o m 
50
i
~(t3oo, l)
* K(~oo, 1) ,
d
f22S3 where ~ ~ BO ]3
OO
I
~ )2
(DO
i is induced by the natural h o m o m o r p h i s m
, j is induced by the and ~ is the second
regular representation c o
~ O, ~ i s a h o m o l o g y i s o m o r p h i s m , S I~ IBO.
loop m a p induced f r o m the nontrivial m a p original proof of, (i) of T h e o r e m trum M~
(This implies, and w a s the
2.2.) M a h o w a l d
[33] proved that the Thorn spec
of ~ is I((Z2,0), and it follows that the Thorn spectrum of ji is also (See Lewis [31] for a thorough study of the Thorn spectra of maps. ) In for any space X is represented
K(Z2, 0).
turn, this implies that any element of H.(X, Z2) by a braid orientable manifold.
This fact says that such manifolds m u s t abound, F.Cohen [12] shows that solv
but they are still very hard to find directly.
manifolds and certain Bieberbach manifolds admit braid orientations. In view of all this, it is very natural to ask precisely what it m e a n s metrically for an nmanifold M to admit a braid orientation. geo
Sanderson [44] a canonical i m in
a n s w e r s this question by associating to a braid orientation of M mersion M N X I + M,
d i m N  nl, factored through an e m b e d d i n g of N X I can be recovered f r o m the
X R 2 and showing h o w the n o r m a l bundle of M
immersion.
I shall say no m o r e about this here since Sanderson's paper appears
in these proceedings. Incidentally, if ~n is the restriction of ~ to ~ F C 2 S I C C 2 Si ~ ~22S3, then
Mahowald [33] also p r o v e d that H (M~n; 22) ~ M(n).
recently proven that M~n is in fact equivalent to B(n).
R. Cohen [22] has just
Returning to our m a i n line of development, lead to infinite families of elements in the ring spheres.
w e sketch h o w the results above s w. of stable h o m o t o p y groups of X q to ~2sr+2 on the w,B(q) on the
T h e essential point is the connection of the spaces
one hand and the relative ease of analyzing the h o m o t o p y groups other. M a h o w a l d ' s w o r k actually preceded that s u m m a r i z e d
above.
In particular,
he conjectured T h e o r e m Adams
2.12 (its implicit assumption being an error caught by given the results above,
in a preliminary version of [33]). H o w e v e r , arguments b:S 8~ B O go as follows. generate w8BO Let = Z
Mahowald's Let
and let ~ : ~ S 9 ~ B O "~ B O map
be the unique loop
m a p which restricts to b on S 8"
~'.~2S9
be the adjoint of Qb, ~I,~2S9 "~~2S 9. It is easy to
n a m e l y the composite of ~ with the evaluation
51
check that b (wzi) / 0 for i Z 3 [33, p.250].
and [31,2.3.4]) that the Thorn spectrum 9:~°°f22S9 ~ ~°°S0 = S Mb
It is w e l l  k n o w n
(see [14,II. 5.15]
is the cofibre of the m a p
of spectra adjoint to the composite m a p of spaces J ,, SF = QI S0 *[i]  Q o S O C QS0 Zi ~t / 0 for
[2S 9 [2b ~ f20BO ~S O
(where the subscripts indicate the relevant components). i _> 3, w h e r e b is the Thorn class of M b . Now
Of course, Sq
V zcoDq(R2, sv)
q>_l hence ~is a s u m of m a p s ~q:~co(~6qXq) ~ S.
V zco( 6%q),
q>l Let
~ Z i  Z + 2 i1
Y'x = Xzi_3 and fi = #zi3""Zoo Yi ~ S, Let Cf i> 3. denote the
Mahowald's m a i n result [33,Thin. Z] reads as follows. cofibre of a m a p f (of spaces or spectra), Theorem properties. 2i (i) Yi has dimension connected. i sqZ ~t / 0, w h e r e 2ii, H l(Yi;Zz) = Z 2 , and Yi 2.14. The spaces Y. and stable m a p s
i
f. have the following
1
is (212i3i)
~ generates H0(Cfi;Z2 ). 2i (iii) There is a (stable) m a p gi:S ~ Y. w h o s e composite with the projection
i
(ii)
Zi Z i Yi ~ Yi/Yi ~ S 21
is essential.
Here (i) is immediate f r o m the filtration and h o m o l o g y of C2S i and (ii) is immediate f r o m the paragraph above. Part (iii) requires a little m o r e w o r k since 2.I0
~rziYi = ~vzi_3B(Zi4), and this is the first group beyond the range of T h e o r e m (iv) and the first in which 4torsion can occur.
(The preprint version of [7] gave Nevertheless, the
a range one higher, this being an error caught by Mahowald.)
explicit construction of the B(q) m a k e s detection of the required gi via the A d a m s spectral sequence quite easy. Standard arguments show that fio~ Ez co gi:~ co 2i S ~ S projects to hlh i in i
2, 2 +2
of therood 2 A d a m s
spectral sequence.
cycles and represent nonzero elements
Thus the hlh i are permanent s ~i in w, . This was the starting point
of Mahowald's Aarhus talk, in which he noted that one could start the argument above with b:S 4~ B O instead of b:S 8 ~ B O and so obtain a different family of
52 Z ~]i's. He asserted that 2~]i+i = I]i for both families, this being zero if i = 4 and nonzero if i >__5 (for both families) but the reader is referred to Mahowald's contribution [35] to these proceedings for further information. R. C o h e n [Zl] gives the following analogous development at odd primes. b:S 2pZ  B S O generate = 2 p _ z B S O = Z. ~ B S F The composite and ~ Bjob:S 2pZ~" B S F Let de
termines a loop m a p Here
~ : ~ S 2pI
has adjoint ~ : ~ 2 Z S 2pI ~BSF.
b (w i) / 0 for i>__ I, w h e r e w k is the k th rood p W u class. The Thorn P spectrum M ~ is the cofibre of the adjoint @:~°°f~ZsZPi  S of the composite f~Zs2pI pi P ,  ~ B S F ~ SF = Q1 s 0
*[t] ~ QoS0C
QS °
Of course, P
~ / 0 for i >_ i, w h e r e
~ is the Thorn class of M ~ .
Now
N°°~2ZsZP1 ~
hence ~ is a s u m of m a p s
V
q>_l
NO°Dq(RZ,SZp3) ~
V
q>_l
N°°(%(zP4)qxq) ,
Let "~ S, i > i.
~q: ~°°(~(ZP4)qXq) ~S, and fi : @pi" C O Y i
Y'I : N(ZP4)PlXpI' Theorem Z.15, The spaces
Y. and stable m a p s
1
f. have the following pro1
perties (where cohomology is taken rood p). (i) Yi has dimension Z(pl)p I I, • H Z(pI)pi l(Yi) and y and x i H 2 (pl)p2(yi)
are both Zp with respective generators Yi is (2(pl)p I 2p I  l)connected. (ill ppl =~ and Fi_i~  ~
such that ~(x) = y, and
(up to nonzero constants), where
~ generates
H 0 (Cfi) ,
1
and
* ~ are the images in lI (Cfi) of ~ x and ~ y in H * (~Yi) , and
F. is the s e c o n d a r y
c o h o m o l o g y o p e r a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d to the A d e m r e l a t i o n
for
P (p t ) p i PP i ; the s e c o n d e q u a t i o n h o l d s rnodulo z e r o i n d e t e r m i n a c y . i
gi:S 2(p +l)(pl)3 ~ y. such that Plxfl 0 in

(iii) There is a (stable) m a p
H*(Cgi),
where
x
pulls back to x c
H
*
1
(Yi).
H e r e (i) is a g a i n i m m e d i a t e
f r o m the f i l t r a t i o n and h o m o l o g y of C2S t , the a b o v e , and the s e c o n d p a r t of (ii) i f a c t o r i z a t i o n of PP v i a s e c o n d a r y 2.9(iii) a n d 2 . t 2 g i v e t h a t
f i r s t p a r t of (ii) i s i m m e d i a t e
f r o m the p a r a g r a p h
i s a d i r e c t c o n s e q u e n c e in v i e w of L i u l e v i c i u s ' c o h o m o l o g y o p e r a t i o n s [32].
F o r (iii), T h e o r e m s
X P
i • MZ(PI)
~
X
s y Z(p_i)(pii+ i)B(pi_2 ) • ~ p1+p
53
This time the desired element is just within the range of T h e o r e m gives a h o m o t o p y class 2.10(iv), which
~ p ( i  i ) ¢ Wq B ( p l  Z ) '
The required m a p E2(pl)(p11+l)
q = ZP(PlZ+ l )
4.
gi is obtained by suspension of the composite of with the projection Xp1+p ~ E Z P  I x . pX induced by the
~ p ( i  t)
projection
M 2 ( p  t )  S 2 p  t .
co gi: EcosZ(p f)(p1+1)  3 ~ S proHere
Standard arguments n o w s h o w that floe jects to h0Xi_ I in E 3,2(pl)(p1+l) Z
of the rood p A d a m s
spectral sequence.
E 2'2(pI)pi+I corresponds to F. and is also denoted b i (or bl, io r bi) ; up I ki ~ 2 i to sign, it is the pfold s y m m e t r i c M a s s e y product <hi,...,h i>. Thus the h0X i are permanent cycles which represent nonzero elements Of course, ~
1
~i of order p in w.
S
.
extends to Y.: r z(p0(p~+I+ i) Z M  i
1
, S, where
M I is the
rood p M o o r e spectrum with bottom cell in dimension I.
If w: M  I ~ S is the
projection onto the top cell, then C o h e n shows further that "~i is represented by w * (h0 h i+i) in E Z of the rood p A d a m s spectral sequence converging to the stable
cohomotopy of M l, but the m e t h o d fails to detect the h0hi+ I themselves.
§3.
Splitting theorems;
J a m e s m a p s and Segal m a p s
The material to be discussed here is simpler, but in an earlier stage of development, than that discussed in the previous section. It is potentially at least
as rich, and should lead to a later generation of concrete homotopical applications. The calculations of the previous section presupposed f r o m iterated loop space theory only the geometric properties of the approximation existence of the stable splitting C ( R homologies of c(Rn, x)
n
C(Rn, X) ~ ~ n E n x ,
the
,X)
and the pieces
V Dq(Rn, X), and understanding of the q>__l Dq(Rn, X). The analogous information for NiX ~ 2 ~ X , the splitting
s
first loop spaces would be the approximation EMX
~ V E x [q], and the homologies of M X and the X [q]. The latter informaq>_l tion is utterly trivial, and the J a m e s approximation acquires m u c h of its force jq:MX • ~ WLX[q] ~ ~ E X [q] w h o s e
f r o m homological calculation of the Jamesr ]maps adjoint J a m e s  H o p f m a p s
h :• M X ~ E X LqJ yield the splitting. F o r example, it q was just such homological information which led to the homological understanding of the key m a p s g of T h e o r e m s 2.8 and Z.9.
54
T h e deepest part of the theory to follow (and the part in m o s t rudimentary form) will in principle lead to complete information on the homological behavior of the J a m e s
S
maps
jq:C(Rn, X) ~ Q D q ( R n , x )
w h o s e adjoint stable J a m e s  H o p f However,
maps
h q :~C°C(Rn, X)~ ~,c°5(Rn, x ) yield the stable splitting.
while the geo
m e t r y leading to such computations is m o r e or less understood, begun the actual calculations.
w e have not yet
Thus the present state of the theory is analogous to
the status of the original approximation t h e o r e m after the w o r k of [36] but before that of [14]. Before proceeding further, I should say that virtually everything discussed in this section is joint w o r k of Cohen, Taylor, and myself [1619] and also C a r u s o
[i0], the only exception being the closely related w o r k of K o s e h o r k e and Sanderson [3O]. I shall first explain the various splitting t h e o r e m s of [16 and 17] and then discuss the multiplicative properties of the J a m e s maps, m a p s and certain analogous shall see that an
the definition of which is based on ideas of Segal [46]. W e
unstable version of the K a h n  P r i d d y
t h e o r e m follows directly f r o m these proper
ties, and w e shall obtain a result on the Z  p r i m a r y exponent of the h o m o t o p y group groups of spheres as an obvious corollary. Another fairly i m m e d i a t e application K(Z,0) as
is a simple proof of M a h o w a l d ' s t h e o r e m [34, 6.Z.8] on h o w to represent a Thorn spectrum. belong to the future. Return to the general context established in section one. Nevertheless, I am
sure that the m o s t interesting applications
A collection of
~..spaces ~. with degeneracy operators is denoted ~ and called a coefficient J J system. A collection X = {Xq) of based spaces with all the formal properties th that would be present if X w e r e the q p o w e r of a based space X is called a q Ifspace. Given ~ a n d X , there results a filtered based space C X . See [16,§§l,Z] for details of this generalization of the construction C X of section one. be P ^ X q for based spaces P a n d X , splitting theorems. and this example leads to useful However, the reader m a y prefer to think of X q might
"parametrized" X q as X q
T h e splitting t h e o r e m s of [I 6] all fit into a single general f r a m e w o r k w e n o w sketch. Let ~ and ~' be coefficient systems and let q be given.
=
which Let
Dq(e,x)
~qcx/~_tc_x
 eq ^Z q X[q] ,
a
+
w h e r e X[q] is the quotient of X q b y
the generalized fat w e d g e present i n X q f o r
55 Hspace X. These spaces for ~' will be irrelevant, and we abbreviate
nq(~, _X) :
certain
nq_X.
system diagrams ~ ~ ' is a collection [16,4.1]. of maps A James C r ~ 09 ( % r  q ) system induces such that a James map commute
A James simple
j q : C X ~ C ' D qX for any H  s p a c e X [16,4.2]. for generalllspaces). In practice, C ' X is an H  s p a c e for spaces X (but not
If w e are given J a m e s s y s t e m s ~  ~ ' for i<_ q<_ r, then r w e c a n d e f i n e k r : C X _ ~ C'( V DqX)_ to be the s u m over q o f t h e c o m p o s i t e s of q=l r the _jqwith the evident inclusions C ' D X * C'( V DqX). W e can also restrict k qr q=l to the finite filtrations of C X_. A n y c h o s e n basepoint of ~ I' gives rise to a natural m a p diagram:
L iT
~] : X * C ' X
for spaces X.
We
can thus write d o w n the following
Fr_ l CX
(*) k
 FCX r 
•
DX r
r1 C'~ '
r1
r
1
DqE)
C'( V DqX_) q:l
C'( V
q=l
Chr
I
, C'Dr_X
In to NX comes from
H e r e ~ a n d ~ are u s e d generically for evident cofibrations a n d quotient m a p s . practice, the left s q u a r e a l w a y s c o m m u t e s limits o v e r r w h e n w e h a v e J a m e s commutes We up to h o m o t o p y . are interested in h o m o t o p i c a l splittings, but w e digress m o m e n t a r i l y T h e infinite s y m m e t r i c product on the nose
(which allows p a s s a g e to
s y s t e m s for all q) a n d the right s q u a r e at least
discuss h o m o l o g i c a l splittings.
the coefficient s y s t e m ~ with e a c h ~j a point. give a J a m e s s y s t e m for e a c h q. Here
T h e unique m a p s ApplyingN
~ r ~ ~(q,rq) to (*) and using
(*) c o m m u t e s .
the natural t r a n s f o r m a t i o n N N
* N, w e obtain the c o m m u t a t i v e NL Nw
diagram
NF
rI
CX 
~ N F C X r 
~ ND X
r
r1
1
DqX)

r
J
N.
Ii
~ ND X
r
N( V
q=l
N~
, N( V nqX)
q= i
56 U s i n g the fact that N converts cofibrations to quasifibrations and the relationship b e t w e e n N and integral h o m o l o g y [24], and playing g a m e s with p a r a m e t e r [l 6, 4.10]. spaces P,
w e derive the following general h o m o l o g i c a l Theorem 3.1.
splitting t h e o r e m
F o r all coefficient s y s t e m s
~, H  s p a c e s X, Abelian groups G,
and
r >__I ( i n c l u d i n g r = co),
~,(FrCX;G
) is i s o m o r p h i c
These isomorphisms
operations.
a r e n a t u r a l in ~ , X ,
to ~ ~,(Dq_X;G). q=l and G and c o m m u t e w i t h B o c k s t e i n
T h e case duced symmetric
C. : ~
recovers
Steenrod's h o m o l o g i c a l
splitting [49] of the re
powers
a stable homotopical
F NX and this e x a m p l e s h o w s that w e could not hope for r splitting without s o m e restriction on ~. splittings, ~ will always be Efree in the sense that E.
F o r the h o m o t o p i c a l
acts freely on ~. for each j. Returning to the general context, a s s u m e given a J natural m a p ~t:C'X *[2tEtx for spaces X and s o m e t > i. T h e k e y e x a m p l e is
C ' X = C (R t, X)
and
~3 = c~tg  1 as in s e c t i o n o n e . t
Composing the diagram diagram
~ • >ntD
(*) w i t h
~3 and t a k i n g a d j o i n t s , t EtID
X
r
we o b t a i n a h o m o t o p y c o m m u t a t i v e
6
EtFr 1 CX
 
~
 ~tF CX
r  
X
r
kr_ 1
kr
rI V EtD x q=1 q
~ r ~ ..... ~ V ~ t D x q=l q
~
,. E t D
x r
Assuming that
inductively that ~
r1
isan equivalence,
a trivial d i a g r a m r
chase implies
6 '~0 in the top cofibration sequence.
This implies that ~
is an equiva
lence.
T h e s a m e s o r t of a r g u m e n t
With ~ : ~i = ~, w h e r e
works when
t = oo.
~j : 2.j, this recovers and generalizes Milnor's
s p l i t t i n g [4Z] of N M X
Theorem 3.Z.
[t6,3.7].
F o r all H  s p a c e s
r
X

and
r > i (including
r = oo), E F
r
MX

nV_ E x =l [q] " of restrictions of J a m e s  H o p f maps h
is naturally equivalent to
T h e equivalence is given by s u m s q :EMX  E X [q] . 61:MX
over q
Note that no connectivity hypothesis is needed; but do not require it to be an equivalence. there is a natural w e a k b a s e d spaces X. equivalence Eg~EX
w e use a m a p
~ f~EX that
It is an i m m e d i a t e ~ V q>l E x [q]
consequence
for all connected
57 In [16,§5], w e introduce "separated" coefficient systems. F o r such ~, if / and ~tq) is the coefficient s y s t e m given by the configuration spaces = ~ ~Eq [~ F(~qDj), there are tautological J a m e s systems ~  ~ ~ for each q >_I. W h e n
~q
= ~(Y)
is itself the configuration space coefficient s y s t e m of a space Y, w e shall If 8 q e m b e d s in R t for
write d o w n the resulting J a m e s m a p s explicitly below.
q<__ r, then ~j(q) m a p s to ~ ( R t) and w e can apply the theory above w i t h ~ ' = ~(Rt). T h e product of any coefficient s y s t e m with a separated s y s t e m is separated, and by use of tricks involving both pairs of projections • ~ X ~ ( R c°) ,C~(I~ °°) and ~(~= ~(gJ X ~ ( R 0°)  ~ ( R °°)
w e prove the following general splitting t h e o r e m [16, 8.Z]. The second pair of projections plays a critical role in the naturality, leads to a uniqueness assertion for the stable Jamesllopf m a p s , ings. and allows one to avoid any choices of e m b e d d 
This precision is crucial to the deeper theory discussed at the end of the O n the other hand, as discussed in [16,§5], use of e m b e d d i n g s gives a
section.
good hold on the destabilization properties of the J a m e s  H o p f m a p s . T h e o r e m 3.3. F o r all Zfree coefficient systems ~, llspaces X, and r >__i r (including r = oo), ~ ° ° F C X is equivalent to \/ ~C°DqX_, naturally in ~ and X. r q'l T h e equivalence is given by restrictions of staSle $ a m e s  H o p f m a p s h s : Z c ° C X ~ N ° ° D X. q qSpecializing either to ~ = ~ ( R n) or @ = @n' compatibly in view of
g: @ n  ~ ~(Rn)' w e obtain the following i m m e d i a t e consequence [16,8.4]. Corollary 3.4. F o r all connected based spaces X, there is a natural equivaV ~ ° ° D (Rn, X), n >_I or q>__l q n = oo, and these equivalences are compatible as n varles. Such equivalences w e r e first obtained by Snaith [48], but our proof has a n u m b e r of advantages (discussed in [16, § 7]). In particular, it is not clear that ~ t F C X  ~ t D X can be extended over all of ~tc X; r n n,q n that is, they are not given by globally defined S a m e s  H o p f m a p s . W e shall c o m e back to these splittings shortly, but I want first to explain the further splittings obtained in [17], which partially r e m o v e the restriction to connected spaces in the corollary above. In [17,§i], w e introduce the notion of a "directed" coefficient system. details are rather delicate and the range of e x a m p l e s is peculiar; ~ directed but the ~ n are not; ~(Y) is directed if Y and ~ The are Snaith's splitting m a p s lence in the stable category between ~°°~n~nx and
is an open manifold but is
58 not directed if Y is a c o m p a c t A N R . When ~ is directed, there are inclusions ~ C'r+l X
~r: ~ r X ~ r X r
for
a Hspace X, and w e define
CX
Xr+ 1 r+l to be the resulting eolimit.
If ~,  ~ '
is a
James
system, there result J a m e s m a p s
j
X q : C X ~ C ' D q , Just as before,
where
Dq_X is a certain spaCer equivalent to the cofibre of ~ql" :CX*
r 
w e define k the diagram
C'(q LIV ~ q X )
_ 
by s u m m i n g t h e
~ for H
q <__r and write d o w n
L
~ri X ~riiXr_l kri rI [
C~ r
X.X,
r
r
w
X r
P
DrX
c,( V
q=l
nq_X)
the derivation
C'~
r
.c,( V ~x_)
q=l
C'~
. c,5~x
the same as in
From
here,
of splitting theorems
is precisely [17,§Z].
the discussion
Theorem groups G, and
above,
and we obtain the following theorems
3.5. F o r all directed coefficient systems ~, llspaces X , r k i, there are i s o m o r p h i s m s
r
Abelian
~*(OrXE r which
Xr;G) ~
E ~,.(DqX;G) q=l
and
~.,,(CX;G)., ~
E q~l
~,(DqX;G)
are natural in ~, X,
and G and commute
with Bocksteins.
[49]
With ~ = ~, this recovers Steenrod's i s o m o r p h i s m s
r
~ H,(X
for the unreduced
Theorem lences
r/~r;G)~
symmetric
3.6. r
E ~:.(X q/~q. xql/~q_l; G) q=l powersof a space.
X and r > i, there are natural equiva
F o r all Hspaces
ZXr~ V Z(Xq/ImXq_I) and Z~X~ V
q=l
For
Z(Xq/ImXq_1)"
q>_l
spaces X, IVlX is the w e a k infinite product of countably m a n y copies being e m b e d d e d as points
o r e and the successive quotients are x q / x ql, X qI with last coordinate the basepoint.
89 Theorem 3.7. F o r all Efree directed coefficient systems 0. and all
llspaces X, there are natural equivalences r ~°°(~~rX3q X r) ~ V 32°°DqX and r q=l
~ ° ° ~ X ~ V o o ~ qX. q>__l for a topological
F o r example, with 0. = ~(RC°), the case of spaces B G m o n o i d G gives that B ( E o o [ G )_
is stably equivalent to the w e d g e of the cofibres of
the n a t u r a l m a p s
B ( E q _ I ; G) ~ B ( E q ] G ) .
F o r the p r o m i s e d a n a l o g of C o r o l l a r y 3.4, we u s e a n a p p r o x i m a t i o n of the
form ~(Rn, x ) , Here X 7 ~ n ( X +) ~" n n , [20 n ( x + ) .
is a connected space and X +
is the union of X and a disjoint basepoint.
T h e space < ( X
+) is the telescope of a sequence of "right translations" x X ' r Er+l is a h o m o l o g y i s o m o r p h i s m constructed at the end of [14,1§5]. n,r ~ n,r+1 x X
r
~ ~
r+l
and the m a p While [
~n
is defined there for g e n e r a l X , it is only a h o m o l o g y i s o m o r p h i s m for n connected X; in general, the twovariable B r o w d e r operations m i x c o m p o n e n t s nontrivially in H.f20
n n(x+ )
but not in H,
(X+).
The m a p
~ is an equiva
lence analogous to g [17, 3.1]. F o r all connected based spaces X, there is a natural equivaco n n. + V oon fence in the stable category between E ~0 E ( X ) and q>i E Dq(R ,X), n >__2 or n = oo, and these equivalences are compatible as n varies. T h e s e results by no m e a n s exhaust the possibilities of the basic line of argument, and there are various other such splittings k n o w n to Cohen, Taylor, and myself but not written down. F o r example, Joe Neisendorfer r e m i n d e d us of En(X ,A) for a based pair Corollary 3.8.
[36,6.6], in which I introduced a relative construction (X,A). When A ~X
is a cofibration and A is connected, there is a quasifibering
C nA

En(X,A)
 C n _ I ( X / A ) ,
n>__l ,
w h e r e C 0 is the i d e n t i t y f u n c t o r [36, 7.3].
sions C n A C E (X,A) C C X
n n
There are filtration preserving inclus
and it is perfectly straightforward to trace through and see that it restricts to give a stable
n
the proof of the stable splitting of C X splitting of E n ( X ,A).
60 Theorem 3.9. Let A ~ X be a cofibration. F o r all r > l (including r = oo),
and all n >_ l (including n = co), there is a natural equivalence r
~co~En(X,A)
These equivalences the stable splittings of C A
~
V
q=1 as
~ c o ( ~ n (x, a)/rq_iEn(X, a)).
r and n v a r y and are also compatible with
are compatible n and
C X. n and of C nI(X/A) is
T h e relationship b e t w e e n the splittings of E n ( X , A ) unclear and deserves Again, theorems, study.
it is a simple matter to give equivariant versions of our splitting
putting actions of a finite group G on all spaces in sight (see [39,§5]),
and this in turn is surely a special case of a general categorical version of the argument. We return to the original splitting t h e o r e m ~(Y), the case and specialize to configuration
space coefficient s y s t e m s Actually,
Y = R n being of m o s t interest. in the rest of the paper, as a topic of inde
w e are wholly uninterested in splitting t h e o r e m s
being c o n c e r n e d instead with the analysis of the J a m e s pendent interest. A s in section one, think of points of C ( Y , X ) finite subset of Y and A s m e n t i o n e d above, maps jq: C ( Y , X ) Explicitly, jq(h,k) = (M,g), w h e r e M X" L ~ X is a function.
maps
as pairs
(L,X), w h e r e
L is a
Recall that systems
B(Y, q) = F(Y, q)/~q.
there are canonical J a m e s
w h i c h give rise to / a m e s
~ C(B(Y, q), mq(Y,X)). is the set of all subsets of b with q e l e m e n t s ~ D q ( Y , X )
(such a set of q elements of Y being a typical point of B(Y, q))and ~: M
sends a point m c Mto
it is not i m m e d i a t e l y combinatorial
t h e i m a g e i n D q ( Y , X ) of ( m , k l m ) • F q C ( Y , X ) .
apparent that j is welldefined.
Of c o u r s e ,
q description in [16,§5] is perhaps m o r e that B(Y, c~ e m b e d s map
T o c h e c k this, the m o r e appropriate. To p r o c e e d
corn
further, one can a s s u m e pose with
in R t , say via eq, and then
C(eq, l) to obtain a J a m e s
J q: c(~ x) ~ C(R t,Dq(Y,x)).
WhenY = R , we may take
n
t : 2qn
(or (Zq1)n, by [16,5.7]).
maps is due to K o s c h o r k e and Taylor. and (To see
This functional description of these J a m e s Sanderson [30], w h o discovered t h e m
independently of C o h e n
the comparison, their C~m(X) is our C(B(Rm, k),X).) Their emphasis is not on
the m a p s and their homotopical implications but rather on their geometrical
61 interpretation. Let V be a smooth manifold without boundary with onepoint c o m 
pactification V . Also, let ~ be a vector bundle over s o m e space B, with Thorn c m Bk c o m p l e x T~ , and let ~ m , k be the evident derived bundle over Bk= F(R ,k) × Z k Consider i m m e r s i o n data consisting of a smooth closed manifold M, an i m m e r s i o n g l : M ~ V with n o r m a l bundle v, and a bundle m a p (gl'g2):M* V X B ( R m , k) is" an embedding, w h e r e ~: v~" ~ m , k such that
g z : M ~ B ( R m , k) is the c o m Let 4 ( V , ~ )
posite of the base space m a p of g and the projection B k~ B(R re,k). be the set of b o r d i s m classes of such immersions. first prove that Ckm(T~) classifies this set,
Koschorke and Sanderson
Jkm(V,~)
~ [V c,Ck(T~)], jqabOve (for X a Thom space) in terms
and then explain how to interpret the maps
of certain operations sion g l , M ~ V Im(V,~) ~km(V,$)
specified by associating to an i m m e r k with n o r m a l bundle ~ an i m m e r s i o n gl:M(k) ~ V with n o r m a l M(k) C B(M, k) is the manifold of
bundle m a p p i n g appropriately to ~m,k' where ktuple selfintersection points of gl"
In this context, they obtain geometric maps
proofs and interpretations of s o m e of the multiplicative properties of J a m e s w e are about to discuss. In [i0], w e shall discuss multiplicative properties of J a m e s axiomatic generality. Given suitably related J a m e s systems
m a p s in full
~~ ~(q) and suitable
structure on ~ and the ~(q), there is a ring space structure on the infinite product
q>_0
X
C(~DqX
and the m a p
(jq): CX is an e x p o n e n t i a l H  m a p . Here
× C(OJDqX qk0 CX to 1 ~S 0 r C(0)S 0.
, the trivial
D0X = S 0 and J0 c a r r i e s
F o r any coefficient system ~ with appropriate s u m s James systems C, ~ ~ used to prove T h e o r e m
Up X ~q  ~ p + q
3.1 satisfy the relevant axioms. systems ~ ~_,(~q) satisfy
F o r any separatedC, with sums, the canonical J a m e s the axioms.
If ~ = ~(Y), w h e r e Y admits an injection YJJ.Y  Y each c o m p o n e n t
of which is homotopic through injections to the identity map, then~, admits s u m s of the sort required. all H  m a p s In particular, this applies to Y = R n. Here the following are
with respect to the appropriate multiplication on the infinite products:
62
x
× C(B(R n, q),Dq(Rn,X)) q>_O
(Jq)
C(eq, 0
~, X
q>_0
q>O
C(R Zqn, Dq(R n , x ) ) g
. C(Rn, X ) . . . . . . . . . . . .q). .
i
(J
IP x
q>O
[2Zq n E Z qnDq( R n ,x )
W e continue to write jqfor the composite
azqng
C(eq, l)jq.
W e could also have
stabilized, replacing Z q n by co on the right. The product on the loop space level is induced in an evident w a y f r o m s m a s h products f21YX~2JZ~f/I+J(Y^Z) and the pairings % ( R n , X ) ^ Dt(Rn,x) ~ D s + t ( R n , x ) n ,X).
induced by the additive H  s p a c e structure on C ( R
W e digress to mention an application to Thorn spectra in [18]. There w e give a simple proof, based solely on use of Steenrod operations, of the following theorem. Let $ 3 < 3 > 3.10. denote the 3connective cover of $3. (i) The Thorn s p e c t r u m associated to any H  m a p
Theorem ~Zs3 ~ B F
with nonzero first StiefelWhitney class is K ( Z Z,0). ~Zs3<3> ~ BSF with nonzero
(ii) T h e Thorn s p e c t r u m associated to any H  m a p
second StiefelWhitney class and nonzero first W u class at each odd prime is K(Z, 0). Part (i) gives a n e w proof of M a h o w a l d ' s result that M { : K ( Z z , 0 ). .At p > Z ,
Di(RZ, s Z q  1 ) ~ 0 for l < i < p c u s s i o n above that is a p  l o c a l H  m a p .
spectrum.
and D (R2,SZql) "~ M 2pq2. It follows f r o m t h e d i s L"
.
Z~Zq+I
CzsZq1
QMZpq1
As explained in [18], with q = 1 this e a s i l y leads to an H  m a p
is a Thorn
as prescribed in part (ii) and so gives M a h o w a l d ' s result that K(Z,0)
Returning to the w o r k in [i0], w e n o w head towards the K a h n ~ P r i d d y theorem. W e follow the ideas" of Segal [46], but w e w o r k unstably with general
spaces X and thus introduce a great deal of n e w structure into iterated loop space theory. W e want first to extend the J a m e s m a p s over [2 IE X.
n n
T h e r e is no prob
lem whenX
is connected, but it is the case X = S O in which w e are m o s t interested.
A s Segal points out [46], the following obstruction theoretical observation allows use of the exponential H  m a p property above to extend the jq simultaneously for
63
all q.
Henceforward, all H  s p a c e s are to be h o m o t o p y associative and c o m 
mutative. Lemma 3.11. Let g:X ~ Y be a group completion of Hspaces, w h e r e w0X T h e n for any grouplike H  s p a c e Z and w e a k f:Y ~ Z such that is weakly
has a countable cofinal sequence. Hmap
f:X ~ Z, there is a unique w e a k H  m a p
homotopic to f. The "weak" aspect is that w e are ignoring liraI terms. that, on finitedimensional C W  c o m p l e x e s A, The interpretation is is universal with
g:[A,X]~ [A,Y]
respect to natural transformations of monoidvalued functors f r o m [A,X] to groupvalued represented functors [A,Z]. classes. Zqn Zqn , n (1, × ~ z~ mq(m , X ) ) is g r o u p l i k e ; that q>_l i s , its m o n o i d of c o m p o n e n t s is a g r o u p . This gives the following generaiization W e take [ , ] in the sense of based h o m o t o p y
By a p o w e r s e r i e s
argument,
of r e s u l t s of S e g a l [46]. natural inclusion homotopy groups.
Theorem 3.12.
We a s s u m e
t h a t ~0 X is c o u n t a b l e and w r i t e ~](r,s) f o r the 1](r,s) i n d u c e s ( s  r )  f o l d s u s p e n s i o n on
arzrx
 f 2 S z S x , s > r;
F o r n >__2 and aliX, there exist m a p s
jq.. anznx

aZnqzZnq~(R n, x )
such that J0 is constant at i ¢ S 0, Jl is q(n,2n), and Jr(O~+ ~3)= for if, ~ ~ [A,g2nEnx]. H e r e the s u m s are loop addition and the products are those specified above. ~ Jp(~)Jq(~) p+q= r
S e g a l [46] a l s o i n t r o d u c e d v e r y s p e c i a l c a s e s of the g e n e r a l m a p s
s :C(Z,Dq(Y,X)) ~ C(Z x Y q , X [q]) q specified by Sq(M,M) ment = (N,v) w h e r e if ~x(m) is the i m a g e in Dq(Y,X) of an elesuch that L m C Y has qelements,
. . . . .
(Lm, Xm) ~ FqC(Y,X)
then
N =
and u(m,~(l) .....
U
m ( M , £ i ~ L m , c~e 2 q
(m,~(~)
~(q)) C Z xYn
~(q))
= Xm[~(t))
^ "'" ^ lm(~(q)
)'
It is easy to analyze the additive and multiplicative properties of the S q C O m 
64
binatorially,
Let
and w e arrive at the following c o m p l e m e n t
to the previous result.
X [0] = S O.
Theorem
3.13.
For
m >_ Z, n >_ i, and aliX, there exist w e a k H  m a p s s q :e m ~ m Dq(R n ,X)~ ~m+nq m+nqx[q ] and
such that so is the identity m a p
of f2ms m ,
s I is D(n,m+n),
Sr(~'f) = for ~ ~ [A,f~tp~tPD (Rn, x)] m m ~ for ~ ~ [A,~ ~ X], q where A:X ~ Y[q] and
(p,q)Sp(~)Sq(7),
r = p+ q, t >_ 2. Moreover,
? ~ [A,f~tq~tqDq(Rn, x)],
(s o~mzm~)(~)
= q:(~q(m,m+nojo~mEmA)(~),
 Dq(Rn, X) is induced f r o m A (via
is the diagonal and ~ : X
any chosen basepoint in F ( R n, oJ). T h e product ~? of maps. Here s is that above, while that on the right is just s m a s h product
structures,
is obtained by application of L e m m a 3.11 to the additive H  s p a c e q and the uniqueness clause of that l e m m a implies the last formula. The
passage f r o m the combinatorial level product formula to the loop space level is more subtle and requires use of the following result (the need for which w a s over
looked in [46]). Lemma ~0 X and ~0 X' 3.14. Let g:X " Y and g':X' " Y' be group completions, where
have countable cofinal sequences. f : X ^ X '  Z
T h e n for any grouplike H  s p a c e there exists a unique weakly is weakly hornotopic to f.
Z and weakly h o m o t o p y bilinear m a p hornotopy bilinear m a p Setting m ~ : Y ^ y '  Z
such that ?(gAg') S q w i t h jq.
= 2nq, w e can c o m p o s e
To analyze this composite, [ ]
w e need the m a p
k specified by k (U,~) q = (m,~)
q
:C(Y,X) M
 G(Yq, X Lqj) is the set of allordered qtuples of ele
where
mentsofLand
~(~I ..... fq) = ~ ( ~ ) .... ^ ~(~q).
and use of L e m m a
Again, easycombinatorics,
a p o w e r series argument, Theorem 3.15.
3.11 give the following result.
F o r n>__ Z and aliX, there exist m a p s k q :$]nznx  ~nqznqx[q] and
such that k 0 is constant at 1 c S O ' kr(~+8)
k I is the identity m a p , :
~ (p, q)kp(~)k(8 ) p+q= r
65
for e , ~
~ [A,f2n~r~]. Moreover,
(~q(nq, 3 n q ) o k q ) ( a )
= (Sq*jq)(C~) .
While a l l t h i s g e n e r a l s t r u c t u r e is b o u n d to p r o v e u s e f u l , the c o m b i n a t o r i c s f o r the l a s t s t e p t o w a r d s the K a h n  P r i d d y i d e n t i t y m a p , that is to s a y X = S O. Let theorem require A : X ~X [q] to be the
c. be t h e n u m b e r of w a y s of d i v i d i n g a lq set of q e l e m e n t s into i u n o r d e r e d s u b s e t s . The " t h e r e f o r e " i n the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t
comes from a purely algebraic argument. Theorem 3.16. For n>_2 e Therefore
n n
a n d e e [A,~2 S ], = q ~. i=l Ciq(n (ni, nq) o ki) (c~). r c
n
n
q
kq(C~) = ~ ( e  1 ) . . .
( a  q + 1) if A = B +, w h e r e If, f u r t h e r ,
[a,ans n] is
r times
t h e m a p w h i c h s e n d s B to 1. ~0 S , t h e n
B is a s u s p e n s i o n and c~ m a p s B to
kq(e) = (  1 ) q  I ( q  1 ) ' 1 3 (n, nq)(~) . The last assertion holds since e~ = 0 by the standard argument that cup products are trivial for a suspension. n + Note t h a t Dq(R n , S O) = B(R , q) a n d let B(R n, q) to 1. that Let Fq(n,t) n 0 0 6 : D (R ,S )~ S m a p 0 to 0 a n d t t qt t n 0 t t be the f i b r e of f~0 N 6:~0 ~, Dq(R ,S ) f20S a n d note
F (n, oo) ~ Q B ( R n, q). A n y c h o i c e of b a s e p o i n t in B(R n, q) y i e i d s q S 0 ~ Dq(Rn, S0), a n d t h e r e r e s u l t s a c o m p o s i t e e q u i v a l e n c e Fq(n,t) X a t s t  a t N t D (Rn,S °) X a t ~ t D q ( R n, S °) * at~.tD (R n, S °) . "~ q Let jq:f2ns n ~ e n q N n q D q(R n, S 0) have components Theorem nsn 3.15 gives a homotopy commutative (J . .'.J. q ) q •,, jlq and Jq in Fq(n,t) and ets t.
diagram a Z n q z Z n q D (Rn, S 0) q q
i F (n, Znq) X a Z n q s Z n q ~ q
q an~nq ~](nq, 3 n ~ •
n3n~3nq
O n ~r~O Sn , r > 0, T h e o r e m s (si')(e) qq
3.13 and 3.16 yield the formula
e
= (l)ql(ql)! ~ 3 n q  n

q'
~
n q . jq ,
(4)
D
66 This is our unstable version of the K a h n  P r i d d y theorem. prime p, w e conclude that, up to a constant, iterated suspension h o m o m o r p h i s m . Since B ( R c°,p) ~ B E Taking qto be a
Sqj'q_iS congruent rood p to the
All m a p s in sight are compatible as n varies.
, w e obtain Segal's version [46] of the usual K a h n  P r i d d y P t h e o r e m on passage to limits.
.I
Theorem
3.17.
The composite
Q 0 S0
QBE P
s P~ Q o S 0
is a plocal
h o m o t o p y equivalence. is an infinite loop map. A c c o r d i n g to A d a m s P this is a necessary and sufficient condition that s agree with the map used by P K a h n a n d P r i d d y [28]. By construction, ~2n n 0S we have the commutative diagram It i s n o t c l e a r to us that s [1 ],
Q B ( R n, Z)  Q ( R P n  I )
~IS0 Q0
Theorem
Jz'
S
, QB(RC°,z) ~, Q ( R p °°) Q(RpnI).
1
sz
~ Q 0 S0 .
T h u s stabilization factors through
This has the following consequence.
3.18. If ~ ~ ~ is a Ztorsion element in the i m a g e under stahilir Zn+ 1 2n+~ zation of WZn+l+r S , then = 0, w h e r e g= 0 if n  0 or 3 rood 4 and E= 1 if n = 1 or 2 m o d 4. has this order.
Indeed, T o d a [50] proves that the identity of E 2 n R p 2 n All of this is quite easy. We close with s o m e
r e m a r k s o n t h e deeper theory, maps is not just
to appear in [19], which explains what structure the J a m e s jq:C(Rn, X) "~ QDq(Rn, x) an H  s p a c e but a %  s p a c e . really carry. Since H,C(R
As mentioned before, C(Rn, X)
n
,X)
is functorially determined by H . X
via h o m o l o g y operations derived f r o m this structure, one wants to k n o w h o w this structure behaves with respect to the J a m e s m a p s . Consider the infinite product n X Q D (R ,X). W e have said that this is a ring space. In fact, it is an E ring q>0 q n space ( m o r e precisely, it has an equivalent subspace so structured). This m e a n s that there is an operad pair (~,~) in the sense of [37,VI.1.6] such that ~ is an (that is, ~, is equivalent to On) and there is an (For the
]72oo operad and .~ is an E n operad
action in the sense of [37,VI.I.I0] of (~.,.~) on qX 0> QDq(Rn,X). aficionados, ~ is the little convex bodies operad ~ao
and ~ = ~n X ~[, w h e r e ~ i s
the linear isometrics operad.) action.
The additive action, by ~, is the evident product
T h e multiplicative action, by ~,, is a parametrization of the multiplicative
67
H  s p a c e structure described earlier.
~ also acts on c(Rn, x)
(viathe pro
jection ~ ~ % ) , and the crucial fact is that (jq):G(Rn,x)~ i s a m a p of J  s p a c e s . coordinate Upon restriction X q>0 n QDq(IR , X ) th
of i t s t a r g e t to t h e u n i t s p a c e ( z e r o that the extension
1), t h e r e c o g n i t i o n
p r i n c i p l e of [36] i m p l i e s ~
n (jq):a Z n X
(i, X Q D q(R n, X )) q>_l
is actually an nfold loop m a p for a suitable nfold delooping of the target (not, of course, the obvious additive one). To c o m p u t e all the jq on homology, it suffices to determine the multiplicative h o m o l o g y operations on the target. In principle, these are completely determined rela
by the k n o w n additive operations and general m i x e d Cartan and m i x e d A d e m tions for E n ring spaces like those developed for E
ring spaces in [14, II]. oo I have no doubt that such calculations will eventually b e c o m e a powerful tool for the working h o m o t o p y theorist, just as the earlier calculations of [14], which once s e e m e d impossibly complicated, are n o w being assimilated and exploited by m a n y w o r k e r s in the field. Bibliography i. Z. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. J.F. A d a m s . 4555. The K a h n  P r i d d y theorem. Proc. G a m b . Phil. Soc. 73(1973), lmroc. S y r u p . P u r e of
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