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# PROCEEDINGS OF THE

AMERICAN MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY
Volume 83, Number 1, September 1981

THE BOCKSTEIN AND THE ADAMS SPECI'RAL SEQUENCES
J. P. MAY AND R. J. MILGRAM
ABSTRACT. We show that, above the appropriate "vanishing line", the Adspectral sequence of a wmective spectrum can be read off from its Bockstein spectral sequence.

In this short note, we prove a basic folklore theorem which relates the modp homology Bockstein spectral sequence of X to the Adams spectral sequence {ErX) converging from E,X = ExtA(H*X, 2,) to a,X where X is a bounded below spectrum with integral homology of finite type. As usual, we grade {ErX) so that

'-I with dr : E?'X + E,S+','+ X, the total degree being t - s. We have a natural homomorphism EO;* X + H,X which factors the mod p Hurewicz homomorphism, and we shall sometimes identify elements of H,X with their inverse images in E ~ X We have a pairing of spectral sequences ErS @ ErX + ErX, where S is . the sphere spectrum. Finally, we have an infinite cycle a, E E;,'S such that if x E E2tX and if y E Fsr,-,X projects to x, then py E FS+'r,-,X and py projects to a& Our main theorem will be a consequence of the following vanishing theorem, which is due to Adams [I] when p = 2 and to Liulevicius [4] when p > 2. Let A, = E { p ) c A and recall that an A,-module M is free if and only if H(M; P) = 0.

THEOREM Let M be an (m + 1)-connected Ao-free A-module. Then 1. ExCf(M, 2,) = 0 for s > 1 and t - s < m + f(s), where f(s) = 2(p - 1)s ifp > 2 and, if p = 2, f(4k) = 8k + 1, f(4k + 1) = 8k + 2, f(4k + 2) = 8k + 3, and f(4k + 3) = 8k + 5.
DEFINITION 2. Let M be an A-module. We say that x E ExtA(M,2,) generates a spike if x is not of the form aox' and if a h # 0 for all i . The set of spikes in ExtA(M,2,) has its evident meaning. The same language will be applied to each ErX. Let K(R, n) denote the nth Eilenberg-Mac Lane spectrum of R and abbreviate HR = K(R, 0). Let y denote the canonical generator of Ho(HZp,) and let Pr denote the rth modp Bockstein (in homology or cohomology according to context); let Y = PJ.

~ e c e i v e d the editors September 23, 1980. by 1980 Mgthematics Subject Classification Primary 55T15;Secondary 55P42. O American Mathematical Society
0002-9939/81/0000-0429/\$0
1.75

129

LEMMA (i) E2HZp = EmHZp is Zp in bidegree (0, 0). 3. (ii)For r > 2, E2HZp,is the sum of a spike generated by y E E ~ ~ O H Z , , and a spike generated by z E moreover, dr(ah) = a;+? and E,HZp, has basis {aAy10 < i < r). (iii)E2HZ = E m H Z is a spike generated by y E E ~ O H Z .

EP'Hz,,;

PROOF. H*(HZp)= A . 1, H*(HZp,) = ( A / AD) . 1 6 ( A/ A P ) fir& for r > 2, 3 and H * ( H Z ) = ( A / A P ) 1, where 1 denotes the fundamental class. The calculation o f the specified E2 terms is immediate by change o f rings [2, VI.4.131, and the differentials in (ii) follow (up to a nonzero constant) by convergence. That the constant is 1 can be checked b y a comparison o f the constructions of the Adams and the Bockstein spectral sequences. W e also record the following triviality.

LEMMA Er(X V Y ) = ErX 63 Er Y , with dr = dr 63 dr. 4.
Here, now, is the main result. Its proof derives from a discussion of the edge theorem one o f us had with Mark Mahowald many years ago.

THEOREMLet X be an ( m - 1)-connected spectrum with integral homology of 5. finite type. Let Cr, r > 1, be a basis for the rth term ErX of the m o d p homology Bockstein spectral sequence of X and assume the Cr chosen so that
Cr = Dr U PrDr U Cr+l, where Dr, PrDr, and Cr+, are disjoint linearly independent subsets of ErX such that Pror= { Prdld E Dr) and Cr+, is a set of cycles under Pr which projects to the chosen basis for Er+'X. is (i) The set of spikes in ErX, 2 < r and r = a, in one-to-one correspondence with C,; if c E Cr has degree q and y E E,""X generates the corresponding spike, then f(s) + m < q = t - s. (ii) If d E Dr and if 6 E E>'X and & E E Y X , v - u = t - s - 1, generate the spikes corresponding to d and to Prd, then d r ( a i ~= ) & provided that m

+ f(i + s) > t - s.

PROOF. Modulo torsion prime t o p , H,(X; Z ) is the direct sum o f cyclic groups o f orderpr whose generators reduce m o d p to the elements o f PrDr and o f infinite cyclic groups whose generators reduce modp to the elements o f C,. By exploiting the universal coefficientstheorem and the representability o f integral and mod pr cohomology, we can use this decomposition to construct maps

(pi:

X + K(Hi(X;Z ) , i )

which induce isomorphisms (modulo torsion prime to p) on integral homology in degree 5. The map
(p = X (pi:

X + V K(Hi(X;Z ) , i ) = Y
i

130

J. P. MAY AND R. J. MILGRAM

induces a monomorphism on modpr homology for all r. In particular, we have a short exact sequence
(*)

o + H,(x;
M,

zp) + H,(Y; zp) + M* + 0,

and closer inspection of the construction of the cpi shows that

2
q>i+2

H,(K(H,(x; z), i ) ; 2,).

Since H(A/AP; P ) = 0, we find (from the proof of Lemma 3) that the dual M of M, is A,-free and (m + 1)-connected. The exact sequence (*) gives rise to a long exact sequence

. . + Exti-','(M,

2,) + E2'X + E2'Y + Ext;'(M, 2,) + . . . .

By Theorem 1, E2'X + E2'Y is an epimorphism if s > 1 and t - s < m f(s) and is an isomorphism if s > 2 and t - s < m + f(s - 1). The conclusions follow directly from Lemmas 3 and 4, by naturality. REMARK Spikes of E,X can be generated by elements lying in lower filtration 6. degree than the range of isomorphism. Such generators can have nontrivial differentials earlier than predicted by the theorem (jutting classes annihilated by appropriate powers of a,); in particular, such differentials can occur on the bottoms of spikes the top parts of which survive to E,X. When X is a ring spectrum, such anomalous behavior is sometimes prevented by the relationship between the algebra structure of H,X and its Bockstein spectral sequence. We shall apply Theorem 5 to the study of the Adams spectral sequence converging to T , M S Top in [3]. As will be illustrated there, the result can be a powerful tool for the computation of differentials in the A d a m spectral sequence.

+

1. J. F. Adams, Stable homoropy theory, Lecture Notes in Math., vol 3, Springer-Verlag, Berlin and New York, 1966. 2. H. Cartan and S. Eilenberg, Homological algebra, Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1956. f 3. H. Ligaard, B. Mann, J. P. May and R. J. Milgram, The odd primary torsion o the topological cobordism ring (to appear). 4. A. ~iulevicius,~~eroes cohomology of the Steenrod algebra, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 14 (1%3), o the f 972-976.