by Z. Fiedorowicz,
H. Hauschild, and J.P. May
There are many ways that group actions enter into algebraic Ktheory and there are various theories that fit under the rubric of our title. To anyone familiar with
both equivariant topological Ktheory and Quillen's original definition and calculations of algebraic Ktheory, there is a perfectly obvious program for the definition
of the equivariant algebraic Ktheory of rings and its calculation for finite fields. While this program surely must have occurred to others, there are no pubThat
lished accounts and the technical details have not been worked out before.
part of the program which pertains to the complex Adams conjecture was outlined in a letter to one of us from Graeme Segal, and the real analog was assumed without proof by tom Dieck [10,11.3.8]. by Loday [19]. From a topological point of view, one way of thinking about Quillen's original definition runs as follows. has a notion of a principal When H Let ~ be a topological group, perhaps discrete. space One Negatively indexed equivariant Kgroups were introduced
Kbundle and a classifying
B~ for such bundles. (possibly with dis
is discrete, a principal
~bundle is just a covering ~.
connected total space) with fibre and group groups BH n N n with union
Given any increasing sequence of
H, we obtain an increasing sequence of classifying spaces We then think of B~ as a classifying space for stable
with union B~. When the ~ n
bundles.
are discrete,
B~ may have desirable homology groups but In the cases of interest, we can use the (BN) + with the same
will have trivial higher homotopy groups. plus construction to convert homology. When
B~ to a Hopf space (= Hspace) ~q(B~) + = Kq(A) (B~) +.
~n = GL(n,A), we define
for q > 0. In practice, we have sum While this can
There is a more structured way of looking at maps {9 :~
m
x ~
n
÷ ~m+n B~
and a corresponding Whitney sum of bundles.
he used to give
a product, it is generally not a Hopf space, although it is so
24
in the classical bundle theory cases obtained from When ~ = ~ ~ n~0 n
~
n
= U(n)
and B~
~
n
= O(n). inherits a
is a permutative category under @ , B ~ ~BBQ,
= II n~0
n
structure of topological monoid and we can form ifying space of B ~ .
the loop space on the class~ :B~ ÷ ~ B B ~ (B~) +. Deeper ~BB~
Homological analysis of the natural map ~0BB~ is equivalent to
shows that the basepoint component analysis shows that B B ~ and thus (BH) +
also has a classifying space, and so on, so that
are actually infinite loop spaces. We mimic the outline just given. (G,~)bundle p:E ÷ B. For a topological This is just a
Let G be a finite group.
group ~, one has a notion of a principal principal is a map of ~bundle
and a Gmap between Gspaces such that the action by each g c G That is, the actions of G and H on the total space commute One has a classifying G
~bundles.
(we think of ~ as acting on the right and G on the left). space B(G,~) for such (G,~)bundles. sentations of G in ~. In particular,
This space carries information about the repreone has the following basic fact.
Proposition 0. I. ~O
Let H be a subgroup of G.
For a homomorphism
p :H + ~,
define
to be the centralizer of 0, namely {~Io(h)~ = ~p(h) for all h c H}.
Then the fixed point subspace B(G,~) H has the homotopy type of union runs over a set R+(H,~) of representatives
Jl m
B~ O '
where the of H in ~.
for the representations
That is, R+(H,~) consists of one p in each conjugacy class of homomorphisms H ÷ ~. Note that, with H = e, this says that the underlying nonequivariant homo
topy type of B(G,~) is just B~. Again, we are interested in increasing sequences {~n } with union ~. While
the third author has conbtructed an equivariant plus construction for Gconnected Gspaces X, namely those X for which all X H are path connected, we shall not use it. Instead, we shall prove that, in the cases of interest to us, equivalent to a topological Gmonoid B ~(G). J~n B(G,~n ) is G
This means that B ~ (G) is a Gspace
and a topological monoid such that its unit is a fixed point and its product is a G
28
map.
Since the standard
classifying
space functor takes Gmonoids to Gspaces,
to Gspaces and
the loop space functor takes Gspaces the Gspace ~BB~(G)
this will allow us to construct
together with a natural Gmap ~:B ~(G)
+
flBB~ (G).
These ideas lead us to the following
definition.
Definition
0.2.
For a discrete ring A, let K(A,G) = ~ B B ~ ( A , G )
be the Gspace obtained by setting ~n = GL(n,A) in the discussion above. algebraically closed field A of characteristic KO(A,G) unequal to 2, let
For an
= ~BBO(A,G) Let
be the Gspace obtained by setting ~n = O(n,A). K(G) = ~ B B ~ ( G ) be the Gspaces obtained and
KO(G) = ~BB O(G)
by setting ~n = U(n) and Rn = O(n).
The appropriate use of more general
definition of KO(A,G) orthogonal
for general
commutative
rings A requires 2. 1 and 2, first
groups and will be given in section in sections
We shall give the details behind this definition giving precise models for the general classifying Proposition
spaces B(G,R) and verifying B(G,R n) relevant
0. I and then giving different models for the particular
to the definition.
The second model is needed to obtain the required monoid strucin H. The most important problems to nontool
tures since the first model is not productpreserving in equivariant equivariant the simplest homotopy
theory is the reduction of equivariant
ones by passage
to fixed point spaces, and we study the fixed points of introduced in Definition 0.2 in section 3.
examples of the Gspaces
For based Gspaces X and Y (with Gfixed basepoints), of Ghomotopy classes of based Gmaps X + Y. to define
let IX,Y] G denote the set for H C G, it is stan
In particular,
dard and natural
26
H(y) q
= [(G/H)+ A sq,Y] G = [sq,Y H] = ~ (yH), q Here and henceforward, X+ denotes
where S q is the qsphere with trivial Gaction.
the union of a Gspace X and a disjoint Gfixed basepoint. to be a weak Gequivalence have the homotopy consider,
A Gmap f:X + Y is said If X and Y
if each fH:xH ÷ yH is a weak equivalence.
types of GCW complexes,
as holds for all Gspaces we shall equivalence [7,53]. It is also
such an f is necessarily
a Ghomotopy
natural to consider
the "homotopy groups" ~(Y) = [sV,Y]G , of a real representation topological V of G.
where Sv is the onepoint
compactification
As we shall see in section 5, equivariant over compact Gspaces X is represented KG(X) = [X+,K(G)]G and
Ktheory of Gbundles
in the form KOG(X) = [X+,KO(G)]G, Kgroups when Y = K(G)
hence the homotopy groups above are all examples of (reduced) or Y = KO(G). equivariant We regard the corresponding We write invariants
of K(A,G) and K0(A,G) as
algebraic Kgroups.
KGA = ~GK(A,G) q q and similarly Ghomotopy in the orthogonal case.
and
KGA = ~GK(A,G) v v we are really more interested in the
However,
types K(A;G) than in these invariants. the orthogonal
While the general linear case is in applications from
the central one algebraically, algebra to topology. 4. In particular,
case is important
We develop formal properties
of these definitions
in section
we discuss the naturality
in A of K(A,G),
G prove that K,(A) is a formula. We
commutative
graded ring if A is commutative,
and prove the projection
also verify that [X,K(A,G)] G is naturally Algebraically, construction
a module over the Burnside ring A(G). the equivariant Qsecond
the obvious next step is to introduce give the equivariant
on exact categories,
version of Quillen's
definition of algebraic Ktheory,
and prove the equivalence
of the two notions. [5]. With this
This can all be done, and an exposition will appear in Benioff
27
approach,
Quillen's
devissage
theorem applies directly to the computation algebraic Kgroups. the appropriate
of fixed
point categories
and thus of equivariant
Another obvious step is to introduce
notion of a permutative We have carried out
G
category and prove that K(A,G) is an infinite loop Gspace. this step and will present it in [12].
We prefer to be elementary
in this paper and
so will only make a few remarks about this in passing. We shall concentrate here on another obvious step, namely the equivariant We shall first prove the
analogs of Quillen's basic calculations following result.
in [28] and [29].
Theorem 0.3.
Let ~
q
be the algebraic closure of the field of q elements,
where q
is a prime which does not divide the order of G.
Then there are Brauer lift Gmaps
B:K(~q,G) ÷ K(G)
and
B:KO(~q,G)
÷ KO(G)
whose fixed point maps BH induce isomorphisms prime to q.
on mod n cohomology
for all integers n
The outline of the proof is obvious.
We simply use our study of classifying
spaces to write down an explicit map and check that on fixed point sets it reduces to a product of maps of the form studied by Quillen. section 6 after first developing representation We give the argument in
general facts about the relationship equivariant Ktheory
between
rings and topological
in section 5. Dold
As we discuss briefly in section 7, this result and the equivariant theorem mod k of Hauschild and Waner equivariant
[13] can be used to prove the following
version of the Adams conjecture.
Theorem 0.4. k s E ~i
Let k be prime to the order of G and let s be minimal such that Then for any stable real Gvector bundle $ over a
modulo the order of G. base space,
compact Gconnected kes~k(~)
there exists an integer e > 0 such that kes~ and equivalent.
are stably fibre Ghomotopy
28
That is,
kes(~k~  ~) is in the kernel of the real equivariant Jhomomorphism. Using different techniques,
The same assertion is also valid in the complex case.
McClure [25] has recently obtained a sharper result, identifying all of the kernel of the Jhomomorphism. The factor s cannot be eliminated : it is already necessary
when the base space is a point and one is asking about stable Ghomotopy equivalence of Gspheres associated to representations. Finally, in section 8, we obtain the expected relationship between the equivariant algebraic Ktheory of finite fields and the Adams operations in equivariant topological Ktheory.
Theorem 0.5.
Let k r be the field with r = qa elements, where q is a prime which Let F~r(G) and Four(G) be the homotopy fibres of Then Brauer lifting induces
does not divide the order of G. the Gmaps ~rI:K(G) + K(G) and
~rI:KO(G) + KO(G).
Ghomotopy equivalences
B:K(kr,G) ÷ F~r(G)
and
~ :KO(kr,G) ÷ Four(G).
By the five lemma, this allows application of the reservoir of known information about KG(X) to the calculation of the functor [X,K(kr,G)]G, and similarly in the (technically deeper) orthogonal ease. It is a pleasure to thank Martin Isaacs, Irving Kaplansky, and David Leep for helpful conversations.
§i.
The classifying spaces B(G,~)
As is wellknown (e.g. [17,18]), an appropriate iterated join construction can be used to obtain classifying spaces B(G,~). peripherally in Waner his definition. A nicer construction appears
[34, §3.2], and we shall give a categorical reformulation of
29
Throughout groups.
this section,
both G and ~ can be essentially should be imposed;
arbitrary
topological or
(Some minor technical restraints
G and ~ Lie groups,
discrete groups, more than suffices.) By a Gcategory we understand morphism a small topological target, category ~ w h o s e identity, object and
spaces are Gspaces and whose source, We require the identity space, determined by ~
and composition The
functions are Gmaps. nerve, or simplicial realization B~
function to be a Gcofibration. Gspace.
is a simpllcial
Its geometric ~.
is therefore a Gspace, where
called the classifying
Gspace of
Observe that ( B ~ ) H = B ( ~ H ) , morphisms of ~.
O H denotes the category of Hfixed objects and
We have the concomitant transformation of Gfunctors B~
notions of a (continuous) (qgx = gqx
Gfunctor and of a natural A Gfunctor S:~ +
for objects x).
induces a Gmap B S : B ~ + homotopy Bq:BS = BT.
and a natural transformation
n:S ÷ T induces a Gcategories or type of GCW
If each SH is an equivalence and B ~
of topological
admits a left or right adjoint and if B ~ complexes,
are of the homotopy
as holds if the object and morphism spaces of ~
and ~ are so, then BS is
a Ghomotopy equivalence.
Definition
i.i.
Define B(G,H) to be the classifying The objects are all pairs
space of the Gcategory
~(G,K)
specified as follows.
(p,x) such that p is a continuous
homomorphism H ÷ ~ for some closed subgroup H of G and x is an element of the space G/H of right cosets. [ [ G/H. P This object set is regarded as the left Gspace (p,x) + (~,y) are the morphisms of principal (G,~)bundles
The morphisms
G x H II
B p
= G x K II
3O
such that a(x) = y. and similarly for
Here ~p denotes ~ with the left Haction induced by o:K + #; ~ is a Gmap and B is a
p :H ÷ H
G × ~map, where G and ~ act of G and ~.
on the left and right of
G x H Hpand G ×K ~o
via the multiplications
This morphism set is given trivial Gaction, B as a subspace of the disjoint union over G XH lip + G XK ~O"
g(~,B) = (a,B), and is topologized via p and o of the function spaces of maps
Remark 1.2.
A morphism
(~,B):(p,x) + (o,y) and
is specified by
~(gH) = gfK
B(g,P) = (gf,qP)
for g ~ G and p c ~, where f e G and q ~ H are fixed elements such that fK ¢ (G/K) H for h e H. Two pairs and qp(H) = o(flhf)q
(f,q) and (fk,klq) define the same morphism (~,B) and, if
x = g0 H, then y = g0fK.
Waner bundles.
[34] proved that B(G,~) is a classifying Gspace for principal Indeed, if one replaces the object space of ~(G,~) by ~
(G,~)the
G x H ~p,
same definition gives another Gcategory The evident projection ~(B,N) ÷ ~(G,~)
~ ( G , ~ ) with classifying Gspace E(G,~). becomes a universal principal (G,~)bundle
on passage to classifying spaces.
Although much of our motivation comes from bundle
theory, we shall work entirely on the classifying space level in this paper. We regard a group or monoid as a category with a single object. result gives a proof of Proposition 0.1. The following
Proposition
1.3.
There is an inclusion of categories
i:
11 p e R+(H,H)
~P ÷ ~ ( G , ~ ) H
such that i has a right adjoint.
Therefore Bi is a homotopy equivalence.
Proof.
Define i by sending the unique object of the category ~P to the object (1,B):(p,eH) + (p,eH), where
(p,eH) and sending an element q c~ p to the morphism
31
8(g,p) = (g,qp);
compare Remark 1.2.
let
~(H,G,H) be the subcategory of and all morphisms
P ~
d(G,N) H
which consists of all objects conjugate to some
P c
(o,eH), o :H + H,
(l,y). Since o is
R+(H,~),
it is easy to see that i maps ~(H,G,H).
I1 ~p R+(H,~ )
isomorphically onto a skeleton of
It therefore suffices to construct a ~(H,G,H) in C~(G,H) H. ~(G,N) H. Define
right adjoint k to the inclusion, j say, of Let (T,y), T:K ÷ ~ and y = fK E(G/K) H,
be a typical object of
k(T,y) = o, where o:H + ~ is specified by o(h) = T(flhf). map G/H + G/K, we see that the pullback of G xK K ÷ G/K
Regarding y as a Galong y is G x H ~o + G/H
and that the resulting pullback square is a morphism :(o,eH) + (T,y). For a morphism (~,8):(T,y) ÷ (V,z) in ~(G,A) H, ~:L ÷ A and z ~ (G/L) H, we obtain ~ = j(v,z):
the following commutative diagram by passage to pullbacks, where
/ / ' ~
G
xK ~[T
,,.
/ / ~ a r ~
G x .uI~ ]
G XHg q . . . . . . . .
~'G x H K u
G/K
~
~=
G/L
G / H / / ~
G/H f
The dotted arrow gives
k(~,8).
With these specifications, k is a functor and Visibly kj = Id and $ o j and k o ~ are
is a natural transformation jk + Id. identity transformations.
This proves the result.
We shall need the following naturality property of the categories
$(G,A).
Lemma 1.4.
Let
o:~ ÷ ~
be a continuous homomorphism. o,: ~ ( G , ~ ) +
~(G,~)
Then o induces a Gfunctor
whose restriction to any ~P is
o:Np ÷ ~o o p
Moreover, conjugate homomorphisms
induce naturally isomorphic Gfunctors.
32
Proof.
On objects,
o,(0,x) = (o o O,x).
On morphisms
(e,8)
with
B(g,p) = (gf,qP)
as in Remark 1.2, o,8(g,p) = (gf, o(q)p).
o,(a,8) = (e,o,B), where
The requisite verifications are immediate from the definitions.
A defect of the construction is that inclusions ~(G,E) ÷ ~(H,E).
H C G
do not induce functors
A related defect is that the natural Gfunctor ~(G, n x Z) + ~(G,n) x C,(G,Z) However, it does restrict to the obvious
is not an isomorphism of Gcategories. identification
(p,O) cR+(H)~ × Z)
p ~ R+(H,H)
O E R+(H,Z)
and therefore induces a Ghomotopy equivalence B(G,n × Z) ÷ B(G,H) × B(G,Z). Due to this last defect, an associative sum on l l n n does not induce a Gmonoid structure on J_[B(G,Hn). To remedy this, we introduce different categorical models
for the relevant Ghomotopy types B(G,Hn).
§2.
The general linear and orthogonal Gcategories
Except where explicitly specified otherwise, we assume henceforward that the ambient group G is finite. Let A be a topological ring and consider Aisomorphism classes of finite A representation is
representations of G, by which we understand dimensional
Afree left modules over the group ring A[G].
indecomposable
if it is not a proper direct sum of representations.
88
Definition
2.1.
Let U(A,G) be a direct sum of countably many copies of a of each indecomposable Arepresentation of G and let U(A,G) n be the to be the category whose
representative
direct sum of n copies of U(A,G). objects are the ndlmensional are the Alinear isomorphisms given the discrete topology; set of morphisms M on ~(n,A,G) r gV and
Define~(n,A,G)
Afree sub Amodules of U(A,G) n and whose morphisms between such modules. Here the set of objects is topology and the Let G act that
free Amodules are given the product space topology.
÷ N is then given the function
by translation f ; > gfg i
of submodules and conjugation Define Gfunctors x ~(n,A,G) ÷ ~(m+n,A,G)
of isomorphisms;
is, V~
~) : ~ ( m , A , G )
via direct sums of modules and isomorphisms; canonical identifications
this makes sense by virtue of the
U(A,G)m~)U(A,G) n = U(A,G) m+n. The unique object 0 c ~.~(0,A,G) is a unit for ~) , andS) is strictly associative. of Gfunctors. Define
It is commutative up to coherent natural
isomorphism
~.~(A,G)
= n J ~ 0 .~.~ (n,A,G).
Of course, we are primarily discrete variant fields. However,
interested
in the case of discrete rings and indeed real and complex numbers lead to equito
the topologized
topological
Ktheory.
Here we could just as well restrict attention and to linear isometric isomorphisms, we
orthogonal
and unitary representations ~(G) and
obtaining Gcategories obtain ~ ( G ) similarly,
~(G).
Since A need not be commutative,
by use of quaternions. is "weakly'" permutative. Genuine permutative G
The Gcategory ~ ( A , G ) categories structure appropriate [5,12].
for equivariant
infinite loop space theory must have more is clearly sufficient to ensure
The structure we have prescribed commutative
that B ~ , ~ ( A , G )
is a Ghomotopy
topological
Gmonoid.
The following section.
result connects
this definition
to that given in the previous
34
Proposition
2.2.
There
is a Gfunctor v: C~(G,GL(n,A)) functor v H + .~.~(n,A,G) is an equivalence + B2~;~ (n,A,G) the following diagram commutes up to natural of categories. Therefore
such that each fixed point
By :B(G,GL(n,A)) is a Ghomotopy isomorphism equivalence. Moreover,
of Gfunctors:
~(G,GL(m,A))
x
~(G,GL(n,A))
v
x
v
, .~(m,A,G)
x ~(n,A,G)
~.(G,GL(m,A)
T
x GL(n,A))
@
~(c,Ce(m+n~ A))
~
(re+n,A,G)
J_[ B(G,GL(n,A)) n)0 to the Ghomotopy commutative Proof. module For each homomorphism
Therefore
is a Hopf Gspace topological
and is equivalent B~(A,G).
as a Hopf Gspace
Gmonoid
p:H + GL(n,A),
let A n denote P
the corresponding
A[H]
and choose an Hisomorphism i P :An + V C U(A,G) n. P P contains a copy of the A[G]module by v(p,x) = XVp. G x H An . P For a
There exists For
such a Vp since U(A,G) xVp = gYp.
x = gH ~ G/H, let
Define v on objects = (gf,qp)
morphism v(=,B)
(e,B) :(p,x) + (o,y), with B(g,p) to be the following composite:
as in Remark
1.2, define
I XVp = gYp g ~ Vp
.I i P ~ Anp
i q ~ Ano¢ = AnO o ~ Vo gf ~'gfVo = YVo "
Here ¢ :H + K is specified qp(h) = (o¢)(h)q; being posite the Kmodule
by ¢(h) = flhf
and
q ¢ GL(n,A)
satisfies An+
p
thus q may be viewed as an Hisomorphism A~ regarded as an Hmodule the total by pullback composite
An
o¢'
the target Since the comof the
along ¢.
fioqilp :V + fV p o
is an Hmap,
is independent
35
choice of coset representative g E x. functor
It is easy to see that v is a welldefined G
(continuity on morphisms requiring GL(n,A) to have the function space An + An). Clearly v H restricts to an isomorphism from H. For the last statement,
topology of maps ~L H p, p c R+(H,~)
~ = GL(n,A), to a skeleton of ~ ( n , A , G )
composites of the form
i xV p ~o" g ~ V p ~o"
i I P @°~
i Am+n = Am@A p ~o" p n o P
@ i °,V p @ V g ~xV ~)xV o" p o
provide the required natural isomorphism.
There are variants of the discussion above in terms of the various classical subgroups of general linear groups. We single out the orthogonal case. that A is commutative. the group Thus assume then
If the scalar 2 is nonzero and is not a zerodivisor,
O(n,A) of matrices X c GL(n,A) such that X  I = X t is the group of Q(~ sic i) = ~ a~. However, We it is
automorphisms of An which fix the standard quadratic form
could repeat the discussion above with GL(n,A) replaced by O(n,A).
more appropriate to allow general quadratic forms and, to avoid restrictions concerning orthogonal 2, to work with bilinear forms rather than quadratic forms. Amodule, we understand a finite dimensional symmetric bilinear form. Thus, by an
free Amodule V together
with a nondegenerate orthogonal
We then write O(V) for the group of
isomorphisms V + V.
By an orthogonal Arepresentation of G, we Amodule with a Ginvariant
understand an Arepresentation of G and an orthogonal form.
Definition 2.3.
Let Q(A,G) be a direct sum of countably many copies of a repreArepresentation of G. Define O(n,A,G)
sentative of each indecomposable orthogonal to be the Gcategory of ndimensional orthogonal isomorphisms between them.
orthogonal Define
sub Amodules of Q(A,G) n and
O(A,G)
= J~. n~ 0
O(n,A,G).
36
Again
O(A,G)
is a weakly permutative topological Gmonoid,
Gcategory,
hence B O (A,G) is a G
homotopy commutative
and we define
KO(A,G)
= ~BBO(A,G).
When A is an algebraically modules are isomorphic Definiton 0.2.
closed field of characteristic
# 2, all orthogonal reduces to that of
A
to standard ones and this definition
The following analog of Proposition
2.2 admits the same proof.
Proposition
2.4.
Let
{Vi}
be a set of representatives
for the isomorphism classes
of orthogonal
Amodules.
There is a Gfunctor
~:
U dim V. = n 1
~(G,O(Vi,A))
÷
O(n,A,G)
such that each fixed point functor ~H is an equivalence
of categories.
Therefore
B~: [ [
dimV, 1 =n
B(G,O(Vi,A))
+ BO(n,A,G)
is a Ghomotopy
equivalence.
Moreover,
up to natural isomorphism ~i" B(G,O(Vi,A))
of Gfunctors, is equivalent
the as a
functors ~ are compatible wit~ sums. Hopf Gspace to B O(A,G).
Therefore
Remark 2.5.
If
~ c A,
1
any orthogonal argument
Amodule is a direct summand of a hyperbolic com
one, hence a cofinality
(as in section 4) shows that the basepoint to the plus construction on
ponent of KO(A) = KO(A,e)
is equivalent
l~m O(hAn).
Thus the groups ~,KO(A) are examples of the higher Witt groups of Wall [32], Karoubi [15], and others; equivariant see Loday [20] for a survey. Clearly our procedures also yield
generalizations
of the other examples of such theories.
37
Remark 2.6.
We could just as well have used finitely generated projective Amodules The evident analogs of Propositions only ~0 would be altered in the
rather than finite dimensional free ones above. 2.2 and 2.4 would hold. nonequivariant case. Again, by cofinality,
Remark 2.7.
Consider H C G.
In situations where complete reducibility holds, Therefore, when regarded as J~(A,G) is isomorphic
U(A,G) is evidently isomorphic as an Hspace to U(A,H). a weakly permutative Hcategory by neglect of structure, to ~ ( A , H ) . In particular, the fixed point category
J ~ ( A , G ) H is independent of
the ambient group G.
The same is true in the orthogonal case.
Remarks 2.8.
The definitions in this section apply perfectly well to general but the proof of Proposition Never2.2 and
topological groups G and continuous representations,
2.2 fails because the functor ~ fails to be continuous on object spaces. theless, for suitably restricted G and A, the equivalences of Propositions 2.4 can be recovered by use of equivarlant bundle theory. Define ~(n,A,G)
We sketch the idea.
to be the category whose objects consist of pairs (V,v), where V is
an Afree sub Amodule of U(A,G) n and v is an element of V, and whose morphisms (V,v) + (W,w) are the Alinear isomorphisms f:V ÷ W such that f(v) = w. Here the
object set is topologized as i[ V and the morphism sets are topologized via the triples (v,f,w) as subspaces of V × W V x W; the factors V and W ensure continuity
of the source and target functions.
Again, G acts via translation of objects and
conjugation of morphisms, and there is an obvious projection of Gcategories
: ~(n,A,G) + ~.~(n,A,G).
One checks first that B~ is a (G,A)bundle with fibre An .
One then checks that if a
closed subgroup H of G acts through any continuous homomorphlsm p :H + GL(n,A) on the total space E of the principal and contractible. (G,A)bundle associated to B~, then EH is nonempty
By consideration of bundles over fixed point spaces, it follows
38
that the classifying Gmap B~ (n,A,G) ÷ B(G,GL(n,A))
induces an equivalence on fixed point subspaces and is therefore a Gequivalence; see [17,2.14]. In particular, such an argument works to prove
B ~ (n,G) = B(G,U(n))
and
B O (n,G) = B(G,O(n)).
Here again, since any unitary or orthogonal representation of a closed subgroup H of G is contained in a unitary or orthogonal representation of G and we have complete reducibility, ~(G) H and O(G) H are independent of the ambient group G.
§3.
Analysis of fixed point categories
The first step in the study of the Gspaces introduced in Definition 0.2 must be the analysis of their fixed points. have (~BM) H = ~B(MH). M H = B(~H) When M = B ~ For any topological Gmonoid M, we evidently Q ,
for a weakly permutative Gcategory
has the monoid structure determined by the induced structure of a Thus we must analyze the permutative categories we have already observed that a skeleton of where p ranges through R+(H,~n ). By itself
permutative category on ~ H . ~ ( A , G ) H. With ~ n
= GL(n,A),
~ ( n , A , G ) H is isomorphic to
li~ p p n'
this tells us little about the permutative structure on ~ ( A , G ) the lack of complete reducibility obstructs easy analysis of the
H, and in general ~P. n By Remark
2.7, we may take H = G without loss of generality when complete reducibility holds. It will clarify the arguments of this section if we change our point of view slightly. Use of the ambient A[G]spaces U(A,G) n in Definition 2.1 served to allow The non
the precise specification of a small weakly permutative Gcategory. equivariant permutative category ~(A,G)
G may be viewed as a pedantically careful Afree
model for the large symmetric monoidal category of all finite dimensional A[G]modules and all A[G]isomorphisms between them.
We agree to use the same
3g
notation for the latter category. categories but draw conclusions
In general, we agree to work with such large small permutative categories. There
for equivalent
is no loss of rigor since passage to skeleta and then to permutative (e.g. via [21, 4.2; 23, VI.3.2]) allows functorial replacement
categories
of symmetric monoidal permutative
categories with sets of isomorphism categories. dimensional
classes of objects by equivalent
In this spirit, we let ~ Z ( A )
mean both the category of finite and its skeletal
free (right) Amodules and their isomorphisms lIGL(n,A) (e.g. [23, p.162]). We let
permutative model
K(A) = ~ B B ~ ( A )
= BGL(A) + × Z.
Proposition S = {V i}
3.1.
Let F be a field of characteristic
prime to the order of G. representations
Let
be a set of representatives
for the irreducible Then ~
of G over
F and let D i be the division ring HomF[G](Vi,Vi). a permutative category to
(F,G) G is equivalent as
x ~ 2 ( D i ) . Therefore K(F,G) G is equivalent to × K(Di). i i Proof. Define O i: ~ ( D i) ÷ ~ x ( A , G ) G by @i(M) = M ~D.Vi and pi(f) = f ® 1 i for a finite dimensional Dimodule M and an isomorphism f:M ÷ M'. Certainly O i commutes with sums. the full subcategory It is immediate of ~ from Schur's lemma that pi is an equivalence F[G]modules to of The
(A,G) G whose objects are the isotypical G is isomorphic
type V i and that ~ ( A , G ) conclusion
to the product of these subcategories. mutative equivalents.
follows on passage to small
Since
K~(F)C = ~qK(F,G)G,
we can Kgroups 0
e our new equivariant "i" That is,
Kgroups of F
in terms of the nonequivariant
KG(F)~ = ~)Kq(Di). Recall that, if char F # 0, each D i is necessarily a field since 1 V i is obtained by extension of scalars from an irreducible representation U i defined over some finite subfield k i of F and thus
D i = HomF[G](Vi,Vi)
~ F~ k i
H°mki[G](Ui,Ui)"
40
We need some preliminaries analog. Consider
(related
to [28, App]) to obtain V = HomF(V,F) ,
the orthogonal Let to V*
the duality operator,
on F[G]modules.
S O C S consist and let
of one V from each pair
(V,V*) such that V is not isomorphic a selfdual F[G]module V ~ S with
S O = {V*IV ¢S O }. division ring D. to a Ginvariant
Now consider
associated adjunction
Clearly an F[G]isomorphism nondegenerate b0:V~F bilinear V + F,
V ÷ V* corresponds Gform
by
form, abbreviated
henceforward. in the forms
Given one Gform
any other Gform b can be written
b(v,w) = b0(dv,w) for nonzero elements d , ~ E D; the function
= b0(v,dw) d + d specifies an involution of D
(which depends
on the choice of the fixed initially given Gform b0). then b0(dv,w ) = b0(dw,v ) = b0(w,~v) = b0(dv,w)
If b 0 and b
are both symmetric,
and thus
d = d.
The same conclusion
holds if both b 0 and b are skew syrmmetric. then the involution then is trivial in
If all b are symmetric and D is necessarily particular, ~ = d
or all b are skew symmetric, If b 0 is symmetric Let
a field.
and b is not,
d ~ ~;
if b is skew symmetric.
S+ = {VIv ~ V* and every b is symmetric} S_ = {VIv ~ V* and no b is symmetric} and ,
,
S± = {VIV ~ V* and some b is and some b is not symmetric}.
Visibly, we have a decomposition
s = so i l s
olis+U.sll,
s,.
Since c is sym
If V ¢ S_ and b is a Gform on V, let c(v,w) metric~ it must be degenerate. Thus
= b(v,w) + b(w,v).
Rad(V,c) is a nonzero zero.
= {wlh(w,V)
= 0}
sub Gspace of V and must be all of V, hence c must be identically and S_ is empty. If char F # 2,
If char F = 2, this is a contradiction
41
this implies
that S = {VIv ~ v* and every b is skew symmetric }.
If V ¢ S, and b is not s y ~ e t r i c , nondegenerate S
then a(v,w) = b(v,w)  b(w,v) must be If char F ~ 2, this gives G'forms}. orthogonal F[G]
and is thus a skew symmetric Gform.
= {V I V admits both symmetric and skew symmetric
For an F[G]module V, let hV = (V ~ V * , module. The Gform h is specified by h((v,f),(w,g)) Note that hV = hV*. prematurely = g(v) + f(w)
h) be the hyperbolic
for v,wE V and f,g~ V*. For simplicity, we assume
We need the following observations.
that the characteristic
of F is prime to the order of G. if b(v,v) = 0 for all v ~ V. basis [14, Thm 19].
Recall that a form b on V is said to be alternate It follows that V is even dimensional Of course, alternate
and admits a symplectic and conversely
forms are skew symmetric,
if char F # 2.
Lemma 3.2. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) If
Let (V,b) be an irreducible
orthogonal
F[G]module.
char F ~ 2, then (V,b) ~) (V,b) ~ hV. and 3(V,b) ~ (V,b) ~ hV.
If char F = 2 and V e S+, then hV is irreducible If char F = 2 and V s S@, then 2(V,b) ~ hV. If char F = 2 and V is nontrivial,
then b is alternate and V e S± if and quadratic form.
only if V admits an invariant nonsingular Proof. Identify V with V* via V ++ b(v,?).
For (i), (v,v') + (v + v',v  v') runs through all sym
specifies an isomorphism metric Gforms as b does.
1 1 hV ÷ (V, ~b ) ~) (V,  ~b), and ~
For (ii), hV ~ (V,b) + (V,b') is easily checked to be im
possible and (v,v',v") + (v + v' + v", v + v', v + v') specifies an isomorphism (V,b) ~ hV + 3(V,b). 2(V,b') ÷ hV, where For (iii), (v,v') + (dv + dv,v') specifies an isomorphism and b' runs through all symof D. For (iv), the of V and is zero
d ~ ~ and b'(v,w) = (dv + ~v,w),
metric Gforms as d runs through all noninvariant kernel of the function v ÷ b(v,v) is an invariant only if V is trivial; q(v) = b'(v,v) since any nonsingular
elements
sub F[G]module
quadratic
form q can be written as
for some nonsymmetric
bilinear form b' and since b' can be made
invariant by averaging,
the last clause is clear.
42
Lemma
3.3.
Any orthogonal
F[G]module
is an orthogonal forms:
direct
sum of orthogonal
F[G]modules (i) (ii)
of one of the following
(V,b), where V ~ S+II S~ hV, where Proof.
(and b is a symmetric
Gform)
V ~ SO lIS  if char F # 2 and V ~ SO II s+ if char F = 2. on the dimension, forms. il: suffices Forgetting to show that any (W,b) has a that V c W
By induction
direct
summand
of one of the cited
b, we may assume
for some V c S. (W,b) = (V,b) ~ degenerate. and, (~,b) since
If blV is nondegenerate, (~,b), where ~
then V ~ S+II S± and = 0}. Thus assume that blV is C (~)i
= {wlb(w,V)
Then
Rad(V,b)
= V and thus blV = 0.
Therefore
V c Rad(~,b)
dim V = dim (Vi) i , where
these are equalities. bIW' is nondegenerate.
This implies Let U = (W') i C W. Then
= (V,0) ~ (W',b), (W',b).
(W,b) = (U,b) • sequences
Define T :W ÷ V* by T(w)(v)
= b(w,v).
We clearly have exact
0 ~ and, by restriction, 0 Let o :V* ÷ U split U. that blU is given by b((v,f) If (oV ,b)
~
~ W
T
V*
~ 0
, V
, U ~l~V *
> 0 .
Regarding
U as V ~ V* via o, we see from blV = 0 and To = 1
+ (w,g)) = g(v) + f(w) + b(gf,og). then bloV* = 0 and and the splitting (U,b) = hV. If (oV*,b) is
is degenerate,
nondegenerate, gives
then V c S + ~ L S e
(U,b) = (oV ,b) ~
((gv*)l,b)
the conclusion.
For a field F, let Fspaces and orthogonal
O(F) be the symmetric isomorphisms 2.3.
monoidal
category
of orthogonal category, such
or some equivalent
permutative
as O (F,e) of Definition then II O(n,F)
If F is algebraically permutative
closed and
char F # 2, model in the
is the most efficient is given
model.
An efficient
case F = kr, r odd, of O(F) If finite
in [II, II.4.8]. = ~BBO(F).
See [14,
Ii0]
for the structure
when char F = 2. char F ~ 2, let
Let KO(F) ~(F)
be the category
of symplectic
Fspaces bilinear
(namely form) and
dimensional
Fspaces
with a nondegenerate
skew symmetric
43
symplectic isomorphisms
or some equivalent permutative category.
Since all is a
symplectic Fspaces are isomorphic to standard ones [14, p. 22], llSp(2n,F) suitable model [II, p.l13]. Let KSp(F) = ~BB let ~(F).
For a division ring D with involution,
~(D) be the category of unitary DHermitian form Let
spaces (namely finite dimensional right Dspaces with a nondegenerate [14]) and unitary isomorphisms or some equivalent permutative KU(D) = nBB~(D).
category.
Proposition 3.4.
Let F be a field of characteristic
prime to the order of G.
If
char F # 2, then ~ (F,G) G is equivalent as a permutative category to the product
[
× ~f(Di) ] × [ × C)(Di) ] x [ × +(Di) ] × [ × ~(Di) ]. V i ~ SO V i~ S+ V. ~ SV. ~ S/: 1 O(F,G) G is equivalent to the product
If char F = 2,
[ ×
Vi
~Z(Di)] × [ ×
V i c S+
O(Di) ] × [ ×
Vi ~ S
~(Di)].
~ SO
Therefore KO(F,G) G is equivalent KO(Di) , KSp(Di) , and KU(Di). Proof. Regard
to the corresponding
product of spaces K(Di),
O(F,G) G as the category of all orthogonal First consider V i ~ S O .
F[G]modules and
orthogonal Gisomorphisms.
Passage to duals specifies an M ~)Do.P V i
1
isomorphism D~ p  HomF[G](Vi,Vi) canonically isomorphic to M to the F[G]module
and, for a right Dispace M,
,
is by sending
(M~) D. Vi) " 1
Define
pi:~£
(D i) ÷
O(F,G) G
(M ~DiVi) ~) (M % o p 1
Vi)
with the hyperbolic
symmetric
Gform and sending an isomorphism f :M ÷ M' to
(f ~ I) @ ((fl)* @ i).
Observe that every orthogonal Gisomorphism
44
Pi(M) ÷ Pi(M')
is of the form pi(f) for some f.
Next, consider V i ~ S + R S _ l l S ~ =
and recall that D i is a field if V i c S+~i S_. form b i on Vi; otherwise, a symmetric b if V i ¢ S..
If V i ~ S_, fix a skew symmetric GLet M be a right Dispace with
fix a symmetric Gform b i.
form b if V i c S+, a skew symmetric Then, in all three cases,
form b if V i c S_, or a Hermitian form Gform
the tensorial
(b ~ bi)(m ~ v,m ~ ~ v') = bi(b(m,m')v,v') on M ~DiV i is symmetric. Moreover, if f :M + M' is an isometric isomorphism, is of this then
so is f ~ form.
i, and every orthogonal
Gisomorphism
M ~ D i V i + M' ~D'Vil
Thus we obtain functors Pi with the appropriate Pi (M) = M ~ D i V. l and pi(f) = f ~ i.
domain and with target of
(~(F'G)G via
Note that a decomposition
(M,b) as a sum of onedimensional decomposition
forms (in the S+ or S± case) gives a corresponding symmetric Gforms, = hV i and
of Pi(M,b) as a sum of copies of V i with different
and all such sums are so realized. hD i is orthogonally isomorphic irreducible.
If char F = 2 and V i ~ S+, then Pi(hDi) By Schur's lemma and Lemma 3.3,
C>(F,G) G is
to a product of full subcategories
such that Pi maps via an equivalence
to the i th subcategory.
We shall need the corresponding
facts about topological
equivariant
Ktheory.
The following pair of results do not appear in the literature Their consequences KG(X) = R(G) ~ K(X) and KOG(X) ~ [R(G;R) (~ KO(X)] @ [R(G;C) ~ K(X)] @
in quite this form.
[R(G;U) 0 KSp(X)] [30]. Here and below,
for a compact space X with trivial Gaction are due to Segal
G may be a compact Lie group and R(G;F) denotes the free Abelian group generated by those irreducible
F.
real orthogonal
representations
of G with associated
division ring
Let ~ ,
O , and
~denote
either the categories
of finite dimensional isomorphisms
complex,
real, and quaternionic
inner product
spaces and isometric
or their
45
permutative skeleta l ~ U ( n ) , KO = ~BB O , and KSp = ~ B B +
ilO(n),
and ~ S p ( n )
([23, p.163]).
Let K = ~ B B ~
,
; these spaces represent complex, real, and
quaternionic Ktheory. × Xi i consisting of those points with all but finitely many coordinates the basepoint. Similarly, the weak product of based categories ~ i has all but finitely many Recall that the weak product of based spaces X i is the subspace of
coordinates of each object and morphism the base object and its identity morphism.
Proposition 3.5.
Let
S = {V i}
be a set of representatives for the irreducible Then ~(G) G is equivalent as a ~ for each V i. Therefore
unitary representations of a compact Lie group G.
permutative category to the weak product of one copy of
K(G) G is equivalent to the weak product of one copy of K for each V i. Proof. Regard ~(G) G as the category of unitary representations of G and pi: ~ + ~(G) G by Pi(M) = M ~ C Vi and pi(f) = f ~ i,
their isomorphisms, define
and argue as in the proofs above.
Let t:R(G) + R(G), r:R(G) ÷ RO(G), c':RSp(G) + R(G), c:RO(G) + R(G), and q:R(G) ÷ RSp(G) be conjugation and the evident neglect of structure and extension of scalars homomorphisms; of course, tV ~ V*. By [3, 3.57], we may choose sets
{Ui} , {Vj}, and (Wk} t i o n s of G such that
of ~rreducible o r t h o g o n a l , u n i t a r y ,
and s y ~ p l e c t i c r e p r e s e n t a 
s = s011 s0 II s+l[ s
where SO = {Vj}, SO = {tVj}, S+ = {cUi} , and S_ = {C'Wk}. Moreover, complete sets
of inequivalent irreducible orthogonal and symplectic representations of G are given by { U i } ~ i { r V j } i [ { r c ' W k} and {qcUi}~i{qVj} ~i{W k} •
Proposition 3.6.
Let G be a compact Lie group.
Then
O(G) G is equivalent as a for each Ui, one copy
permutative category to the weak product of one copy of O
46
of ~
for each rVj, and one copy of
~
for each rc'W k.
Therefore KO(G) G is
equivalent Proof.
to the weak product of correspondingly Regard
indexed copies of KO, K, and KSp. representations of G and where from to throw
O(G) G as the category of orthogonal Via M + M ~F Z
their isomorphisms.
on objects and f + f ®
1 on morphisms, Pi' Pj' and Pk
Z is Ui, Vj, or W k and F is R, C, or H, we obtain functors O,~, and ~ to O(G) G. Alternatively, we can use Adams
[3, 3.503.57] 3.4.
the proof onto an argument
just like the case F = C of Proposition
Remark 3.7.
A similar argument applies
to equivariant
symplectlc Ktheory,
where
the conclusion
is that KSp(G) G is equivalent
to the weak product
of one copy of KSp
for each qcUi, one copy of K for each qVj, and one copy of K0 for each Wk; compare Kawakubo [16].
§4.
Group completions;
naturality
and products
The natural map substitutes
~ :M ÷ ~BM
for Ghomotopy plus construction properties.
commutative
topological
Gmonoids M
for an equivariant
in our work, and we begin this We then use this information the spaces K(A,G). Even nonto
section by discussing construct
its universal
naturality maps and pairings relating this approach to products [19].
equivariantly,
seems cleaner than that based on use of the spectrum level
plus construction treatment,
We shall give a much more structured
like that of [24], in [12]. specified, G can be an arbitrary topological group. Consider
Until otherwise Hopf Gspaces,
namely Gspaces X with a Gmap
X x X ÷ X
and a Gfixed basepoint
which acts as a twosided unit up to Ghomotopy. the product to be associative
For present purposes, we require We say that X is We say that a Hopf
and commutative up to Ghomotopy.
grouplike if ~0(X H) is a group for each closed subgroup H of G. Gmap f:X ÷ Y is a group completion fH ~ H + yH is a group completion.
if Y is grouplike and if each Hopf map This means that fH induces group completion on
47
n 0 and induces localization of H.(xH;R) at its submonoid ~0(X H) for each commutative coefficient ring R; see [21, §I] for discussion. If X itself is grouplike, then
each fH is an equivalence and thus f is a Gequivalence. For M as above, application of the "group completion theorem" fixed point spaces implies that ~ :M ÷ ~ I is a group completion. [22, 26, 27] to To e~plolt this
fact, we need the following notion.
Definition 4.1.
A cofinal sequence in a Hopf Gspace X is a sequence of points
a t ~ X G, with a 0 the unit, such that at+ 1 is in the same path component of X G as bta t for some b t ~ X G and such that, for each H C G and c ~ X H, there exists d ~X H
and t ~ 0 such that dc and a t are in the same path component of X H.
Given such a sequence,
let X t be a copy of X and let bt :Xt ÷ Xt+ 1.
X
be the telescope of then each b t Indeed, if X t
the sequence of left translations
If X is grouplike,
is a Gequivalence and the natural map X = X 0 + X is a Gequivalence.
is given the basepoint a t and the multiplication obtained by composing the product on X with translation by a point in the component of ~0(X G) inverse to at, then each b t is an equivalence of Hopf Gspaces. If f:X ÷ Y is a group completion and we form X and ~ with respect to a
cofinal sequence in X and its image in Y, then f commutes up to Ghomotopy with the translations and therefore factors up to Ghomotopy as a composite X+~ ~ = Y.
The construction commutes with passage to fixed point spaces, and it is a direct consequence of the group completion property that each on homology. ~H induces an isomorphism this implies the
By an easy (but not obvious) homotopical argument,
following universal property of f; see [8] for details.
Proposition 4.2.
Let f :X + Y be a group completion, where X contains a cofinal be any Hopf Gmap, where Z is grouplike. such that ~f Then there is a
sequence, and let g:X + Z Hopf Gmap g:Y + Z,
unique up to Ghomotopy,
is Ghomotopic to g.
48
By a function space argument, is due to Caruso; see [8].
this result has the following consequence, which
Proposition 4.3.
Let f:X ÷ Y
and
f' :X' + Y' be group completions, where X and X'
contain cofinal sequences, and let g :XA X' + Z be any Ghomotopy bilinear Gmap, where Z is a grouplike Hopf Gspace. ~AY' + Z, unique up to Ghomotopy, Then there is a Ghomotopy bilinear Gmap such that g(f ^ f ' ) is Ghomotopic to g.
Remarks 4.4.
We have deliberately misstated the previous two results: all
conclusions concerning Ghomotopies really only hold up to "weak" Ghomotopy in general. Here two Gmaps f,f' :X + Y are weakly Ghomotopic if their composites In other
fk,f'k:K ÷ Y are Ghomotopic for any compact Gspace K and Gmap k:K + X.
words, the results are correct on the level of represented functors defined on compact Gspaces. The lim I exact sequences associated with the telescopes we have We leave it to the reader to insert the word
used are the source of the ambiguity.
"weak" where needed, doing so once in a while ourselves as a reminder.
The reader who would like to see the simpler nonequivariant to [7].
proofs is referred
While the results are true for any G, we shall only use them when G is T and T' are Gequlvalences.
finite and, peripherally, when G is compact Lie and
Assume that G is finite in the rest of this section.
We restrict attention to
the general linear case, but everything we say applies equally well in the orthogonal case. BQ We first verify our cofinality assumptions. Recall that components of ~ is a groupoid.
correspond bijectively to isomorphism classes of objects when
Lemma 4.5. Proof. cofinal. let
B~(A,G) Write
contains a cofinal sequence. r r U(A,G) = ~ V~. and let W t = i ~IV~ .
i=l
Certainly Wt+ I = W I ~)W t. Then Z ~ Y' ~)Y
H
1
We claim that C
{Wt} U(A,G),
is
For H C
G and an Afree Hfixed Y
Z = G ×.~ Y.
as an A[H]space and Z' ~ Z ~ W t as an A[G]~ W t.
space for appropriate Y' and Z' in U(A,G) and some t, hence (Z' ~ Y') G Y
49
Remarks 4.6. ~IB(G,GL(n,A))
It would not be useful with respect
to form the telescope
of copies of
to the maps induced by the inclusions {W t} by the noncofinal telescope is Gequivalent
GL(n,A) + GL(n+I,A). sequence {A t }
This would amount to replacing
of trivial representations.
The resulting
to B(G,GLA) × Z, and its irrelevance our theory. telescope By cofinality, B~(A,G)
explains why B(G,GLA)
plays no explicit role in
we do have a natural Gmap from B(G,GLA) x Z to the to the sequence {Wt}.
defined as above the respect
We illustrate maps.
the force of Proposition
4.2 by using it to construct Applying
naturality
Let f :B ÷ A be a ring homomorphism.
f to matrix entries, we obtain
homomorphisms f#:GL(n,B) + GL(n,A).
By Lemma 1.4 and the Gequivalences Gmaps f By the evident compatibility its composite with ~.
of Proposition
2.2, these homomorphisms
induce
:B~Z(B,G)
+ B~(A,G).
with sums of the f#, f* is a Hopf Gmap, hence so is 4.2, there results a Hopf Gmap
By Proposition f
~(B,G) + K(A,G) free left Bmodule homomorphisms by pullback along
such that
f ~ = ~f .
If A is a ddimensional
f, then a choice of basis for A over B determines
f#:GL(n,A) ÷ GL(nd,B).
Again, there results a Hopf Gmap
f, :B~.~ (A,G) + B ~
(B,G)
and thus a Hopf Gmap
f,:K(A,G) ÷ K(B,G)
such that
f,~ = ~f,.
50
These particular ambiguity, isomorphic
maps can also be obtained,
and with no weak homotopy Indeed, A®B U(B,G) is
by direct use of our categorical models.
to a direct summand of U(A,G) and, if A is Bfree, to U(B,G).
U(A,G) is isomorphic of weakly per
as a B[G]module
Therefore we have evident morphisms
mutative Gcategories
f#:~(B,G)
+~(A,G)
and
f#:~(A,G)
÷ ~(B,G).
The uniqueness
claim of Proposition
4.2 implies
that the resulting maps of Ktheory paragraph. Of course,
spaces agree with those constructed Proposition argument
in the previous
4.2 may be applied in situations where no such precise categorical
is available. ring and write ~ n = GL(n,A). The tensor product
Now let A be a commutative homomorphisms ~ m × H n + ~ mn
induce Gmaps
B(G,~m) x B(G,~n) = B(G, Hm × ~n ) + B(G, ~mn )
via Lemma
1.4.
since 9 0 is the trivial group,
C ( G , ~ 0) has object space Using the
J~H G/H
and terminal
object * = G/G, hence B(G,~ 0) is Gcontractible. of ~ over ~ and Proposition bilinear Gmap
distributivity
2.2, we find easily that these maps give
rise to a Ghomotopy
@
:B~(A,G)
A B@~(A,G)
+ B~(A,G).
Composing with ~ and applying Proposition
4.3, we obtain a Ghomotopy
bilinear Gmap
:K(A,G)AK(A,G)
+ K(A,G).
Indeed, K(A,G) is a Hopf ring Gspace in the sense that the axioms for a commutative ring hold up to (weak) Ghomotopy. with ~ and the uniqueness o (f A f ) = f following B~(A,G) result, o ~ . For a ring homomorphism f :B ÷ A, f# commutes
claim of Proposition
4.3 implies that groups, this implies the
On passage to Ghomotopy
its last statement
being a consequence
of the defintion of
and the group completion
property.
51
Let
R~A(G) denote the Grothendieck ring of finite dimensional Afree A
representations of G under the additivity relations generated by A[G]split short exact sequences.
Proposition 4.7. ring.
For commutative rings A, K~(A)
K~(A)
is naturally a commutative graded R?(G).
In particular,
is isomorphic to the ring
The appropriate relationship between products and f, is given by the following "projection formula".
Proposition 4.8.
Let f:B ÷ A
be a homomorphism of commutative rings such that A is Then
a finite dimensional free Bmodule.
f,(xf (y)) = f,(x)y in K~+r(B) for x~ KG(A) and y~ KG(B). q r Proof. The following diagrams commute up to conjugation, where d = dimBA:
GL(m,A) × GL(n,A)
1 x f#
GL(m,A) × GL(n,B)
f# × i
GL(md,B) × GL(n,B)
®
f#
GL (mn, A)
GL(mnd,B)
1°
Therefore, by Lemma 1.4 and Proposition 2.2, the corresponding diagram with general linear groups replaced by classifying spaces B ~ ( A , G ) to Ghomotopy. and B ~ ( B , G ) commutes up
Since both composites in the latter diagram are Ghomotopy bilinear,
the uniqueness claim in Proposition 4.3 gives the Ghomotopy commutativity of the diagram f,A i K(A,G) A K(A,G) 1 A f K(A,G)AK(B,G ~)
K(B,G) ^ K(B,G)
®
f#
K(A,G) The conclusion follows on passage to homotopy groups
G . K ( B , G )
52
Let A(G) denote the Burnside ring of G, namely the Grothendieck
ring associated
to the semiring of isomorphism classes of finite Gsets under disjoint union and Cartesian product. n:A(G) ÷ consequence Via permutation representations, there is a ring homomorphism f:B + A. We have the following
(G), and f ~ = ~
for a ring homomorphism 4.7.
of the last statement of Proposition
Corollary 4.9.
For commutative
rings A and compact based Gspaces X,
[X,K(A,G)]G is
naturally a module over A(G). Proof. x:X ÷ K(A,G), For aX aE A(G), n(~) may be viewed as a based Gmap SO ÷ K(A,G). For
is defined to be the composite
X = S0^ X
~(~)AX~
K(A,G) ^ K(A,G)
®
~ K(A,G).
The commutativity
and compactness
hypotheses
are actually unnecessary,
and we
shall see in [12] that this is only a small part of the full algebraic our functors ticular, that is implied by equivariant infinite loop space theory.
structure on In par
that theory will imply that K(A,G)
is a ring Gspace up to all higher G
homotopies
rather than merely up to weak Ghomotopy.
§5.
Equivariant
Ktheory and representation
rings
We first prove that K(G) and KO(G) represent
topological
equivariant
Ktheory of
Gbundles over compact Gspaces and then construct natural ring homomorphisms a:R(~) ÷ KGB(G,~ ) and a:RO(~) ÷ KOGB(G,~) , rings of H. Throughout
where R(N) and RO(H) are the complex and real representation this section, H and G are to be compact Lie groups.
We shall work in the complex
case, but all results and proofs apply equally well in the real case. t Consider ~(G). Write U(C,G) = I V~ and let W t = I V~ and i t i>l i=l _t+l Z t = ( ~ Vi) ~ v t + I . Then {W t I t ~ O} is a eofinal sequence in B ~ ( G ) with i=l Z t ~ W t = Wt+ 1. Let ~(G) be t h e t e l e s c o p e o f t h e s e q u e n c e of t r a n s l a t i o n s Z t : B ~ ( G ) t * B ~ ( G ) t + I of copies of B~(G) = ~ B~(n,G) n~0 and let ~ : g ~ ( G ) + K(G)
53
be the resulting
factorization
of the group completion bundles.
~ :B~(G) ÷ K(G).
By Remarks
2.8, B ~ (G) classifies
(complex) Gvector
Proposition
5.1.
The map
~.'B~(G) + K(G)
is a Ghomotopy
equivalence,
and these hold in
spaces represent the real case. Proof. Gvector
the functor K G on compact Gspaces X.
The same conclusions
KG(X )
is the Grothendieck group associated
to equivalence sum.
classes of
bundles over X under the addition given by Whitney :[X+, B ~ ( G ) ] G ÷ KG(X)
Define a function
as follows. say via ft"
By compactness, Let ft classify
a Gmap
f:X ÷ ~ ( G )
factors through some B ~ ( G ) t , ~[f] = ~t  ~t" X x V ÷ X. Here, for a
the bundle ~t and define
unitary representation welldefined
V, V denotes the trivial Gbundle
Clearly ~ is a theorem V such trivial
injective function.
For a Gbundle ~ over X, the PeterWeyl Gbundle n i and a representation
implies the existence that ~ On ±
of a complementary
is equivalent
to V; see Segal
[30, 2.4].
Adding on a further $  ~
bundle, we may take V = W t for some t. to ~ + nl  ~t"
Then a difference
in KG(X) is equal space for an
Therefore ~ is a surjection.
As the representing ~ ~(G)
Abelian group valued functor on compact Gspaces, Gspace.
is a grouplike weak Hepf
Therefore its fixed point subspaces are grouplike weak Hopf spaces and Since each ~ is a homology isomorphism, each ~ is an
thus simple spaces. equivalence and ~
is a Gequivalence.
It is now clear from the discussion at the start of the previous is a weak Hopf Gmap and thus from K(G). Note that ~ ~(G)
section that
inherits an actual Hopf Gspace structure represents the natural map from Gbundles compact Gto
~ :B~(G) ÷ K(G)
virtual Gbundles. spaces X.
We define KG(X) = [X+, K(G)] G for not necessarily
From our present bundle theoretical complementary bundles that distinguishes
point of view, it is the existence of topological from algebraic Ktheory. It is
54
the absence of complements
in the relevant bundle theories with discrete fibres that
causes the need for the plus construction and group completion. By use of Lemma 1.4 and Remarks 2.8, we see that the tensor products U(m) × U(n) ÷ U(mn) give rise to a map K(G) A K(G) ÷ K(G) which represents the tensor product operation on Gvector bundles over compact Gspaces and which gives K(G) a structure of weak Hopf ring Gspace. space, with no lim I ambiguities, In fact, K(G) is an actual Hopf ring G
and thus KG(X) is a commutative ring for any G
space X by virtue of Proposition 5.1 and the following result.
Proposition 5.2.
KGB(G,H ) contains no lim I term.
That is, if B(G,H) is the union
of an expanding sequence of compact Gspaces Bn, then KGB(G,N) = lim KGB n.
This is not hard to prove directly when G and ~ are finite.
When G and ~ are
compact Lie groups, Haeberle and Hauschild have proven the result as a byproduct of a suitable generalization of the AtiyahSegal completion theorem zation gives that KGB(G,~) [4]. The generali
is naturally isomorphic to the completion of R(G x ~)
with respect to the topology generated by the kernels of the restriction homomorphisms R(G x H) ÷ R(H) for H C G.
We shall construct Adams operations ~r on K(G) and thus on KG(X) for any Gspace X in the course of the following proof.
Proposition 5.3.
There is a ring homomorphism ~:R(~) + KGB(G,N) which is natural in The same conclusions hold in the real
and commutes with the Adams operations ~r. case. Proof. For a representation
T:~ ÷ U(n), define ~(T)
to be the Ghomotopy
class of the composite BT. B(G,N) ~ B(G,U(n)) = B ~ ( n , G ) C B~(G) ~ ~K(G)
obtained by use of Lemma 2.4 and Remarks 2.8. ~(o + T) = ~(o) + ~(T),
Trivial diagram chases show that Naturality is clear. By the very Consider
hence ~ extends over R(G).
the identity homomorphism of U(n) as an element construction of O :K(G) A K(G) ÷ K(G),
i n c R(U(n)).
we certainly have
55
~(i m @ in) = =(im) ® ~(in). representations Adams [i,§4], o and T.
It follows formally that
=(o @ T) = ~(o) ® ~(T)
for By
Therefore by bilinearity,
~ is a ring homomorphism. The maps ÷ K(G)
~r:R(~) + R(~) ÷ K(G)
is a natural ring homomorphism. determine a map ~r ~r:B~(G)
~r(in):B(G,U(n)) Gspaces.
therefore
of Hopf ring
By Propositions
4.2 and 4.3,
extends to a map of Hopf ring Gspaces Therefore r = ~r on
~r:K(G) + K(G), and ~r~(i n) = a~r(in) representations and thus, by linearity,
by construction. on R(~).
We need to understand H C G and a Gspace X, let
the behavior
of ~ on passage to fixed points.
Thus, for
~H:KG(X) = [X+,K(G)]G ÷ [X~,K(G)H]
denote the restriction homomorphism. By Propositions 3.5 and 3.6 and Remarks 2.8,
K(G) H = x K and i are the weak products
KO(G) H = ( x K0) x ( x K) x ( x KSp) i j k irreducible of grouplike representations Hopf spaces, of H.
indexed on the appropriate × Y. i i
Note that, for a space X and weak product an inclusion [X,Y i] C i which is an isomorphism 0. I, we have
there is
[X, x Yi] i is finite. By Proposition
if X is compact or the product
p ~ R (H,K) and of course [V ~ , Y ] k = x [Xk,Y ] k for any spaces X k and Y.
Definition (i)
5.4.
Let p:H ÷ K be a morphism of compact Lie groups.
Define a homomorphism
uP:R(~)
as follows, where {V i}
÷
R(H) ® R(n p) : X R(~p)
i unitary representations of H.
is the set of irreducible
Regarding a representation T:E + U(n) as a C[H]module V by pullback along p, we may n. write V : ~ C z ® C Vi and define Ti:~P + U(n i ) by c o m m u t a t i v i t y of t h e f o l l o w i n g
i d i a g r a m s f o r x E ~0:
56
cni @ C Vi i
Ti(x) @ 1
i
n.
x(x)
[ c ~®c vi
i
That is, x i is the composite of T:~ p + U(n) Tp and the projection
U(n) Tp ÷ U(ni)
Define vP(T) = ~ T i . Additivity is easily checked, hence v 0 extends over R(R). i Visibly, if dimcV i = di, we have the character formula XT(x) = ~ diXx.(X) i x (ii) Define a homomorphism for x EH p
vP:R0(~) + [R(H;R) @ Ro(RP)] ~ [R(H;C) @ R(RP)] @ [R(H;H) @ RSp(RP)I
similarly, where R(H;F) is the free Abelian group generated by those irreducible real representations Proposition 3.6.) of H with associated division ring F. (Compare the proof of
Proposition 5.5. with I [B~,K] i
The following diagram commutes, where R(H) ~ K(BH p) is identified and the products run over p c R+(H,H):
R(K)
(vP)
~
x
R(H)
@
R(~ p)
0
H
KGB(G,E) '
v
• x [BH~, x K] 0 i
~
x R(H) @ K(B~ p) p
With the evident modifications,
the analogous diagram commutes in the real case.
57
Proof. definitions•
On representations,
this is immediate by inspection of the Of course, the real analog
The conclusion follows by additivity.
requires use of the evident homomorphism :RSp(E p) ÷ KSp(ED).
We also need the following commutation relation between Adams operations and the
V0 .
Propositon 5.6.
Let H be finite and let r be prime to the order of H.
Then the
following diagram commutes for each homomorphism p :H + K :
R(n)
v0
, R(H) ~ R(n ~)
R(II)
v0
, R(H) @ R(II O)
The same conclusion holds in the real case except that, on the complex part R(H;C) ~ R(~ p) of the target of v p , @r ~ ~r ,,~r ~ ~=r,, which sends the jth summand @r if ~r(vj) c S O Proof. and via must be replaced by the homomorphism to the @r(j)th summand via
R(~ p)
~r if ~2r(vj) c S O . X r T (x) = XT(xr) ~r and the standard
By the character formula
irreducibility criterion [31,p.29], irreducible representations of H.
acts as a permutation on the set of
Choosing a representative V in each orbit and ~r, we can arrange that ~r acts as a with
taking iterated translates of these V under permutation on {Vi} , say ~r(v i) = V . ~r(i) n TO = ~ vii, we have
For a homomorphism
T :~ ÷ U(n)
n.
~r(T) o p = ~r(Tp) = [ V i i ~r(i) We also have the character formula
~. d i X r (x) = ~ dixTi(x r) = XT(x r) = X (x) = [ diX@r(T)i(x) i ~ (T i) " *r(T)
58
~r(i ) 1 argument in the r e a l case is s i m i l a r , except that the isomorphism
*
for x¢ ~P , and of course
d
= d..
It follows that
~r(T) r(i ) = ~r(ri).
The
r t ~ r intervenes
with a linear {Vj,tVj};
when
V
~r(j)
~ SO.
The point is that the identification
of
tO = V
combination assigns a privileged role to one Vj in each of the pairs changing t, and the choice changes the corresponding ~r = ~rt. component of ~P
by composition with
Corollary 5.7. following
Let G be finite and let r be prime to the order of G. for any subgroup H of G:
Then the
diagram commutes
K(G) H
=
x
i
K
(~r)H !
K( )H =
I (X ~r)m i ×
i K
where
m
permutes
factors as
~r
permutes
the indexing representations
of H.
The
same conclusion x K, (x ~r)m j the ~ ( j ) t h Proof. that, for in
holds in the real case except that, on the complex part "(x ~ir) . which sends the jth factor to J , ~r if ~r(vj) c S O and via ~r if ~r(vj) c S O . 5.3, 5.5, and 5.6 with ~ = U(n), we conclude by the map
must be replaced factor via
Applying Propositions
R(U(n)),
[~r~(in)]H = [e~r(in)]H = × (i ~ a)~P~r(in) O
= x (~r ~ ~r )vP(in) " P
If p ~ R+(H,U(n)) U(n) p ÷ U(ni). for ~r :B~(G)
is
n. [ V i 1 , then the it h component of p as a sequence
of vP(in) is the projection terms, we see that,
Thinking
{n i} and collecting
+ K(G) as specified
in the proof of Propositon
5.3,
The conclusion
(~r)H = (x ~r)~: x B ~ + x KU. i i i follows on passage to group completions,
the proof in the real case
being identical.
59
§6.
Brauer lifting and the proof of Theorem 0.3
We revert to our standing assumption does not divide the order of G, let let k = ~ construct q denote the algebraic Gmaps 8:K(k,G) ÷ K(G) and
that G is finite.
Fix a prime q which and
k r denote the field with r = qa elements, To prove Theorem 0.3, we must
closure of k . q
8:KO(k,G) ÷ KO(G)
whose fixed point maps 8H are products of the Brauer lift maps introduced Quillen. The construction with Proposition 5.3. of 8 is based on use of the following Note that the Frobenius automorphisms
by
result in composition ~r:GL(n,k) ÷ GL(n,k) ~r
obtained by raising matrix entries to the r th power induce ring automorphisms of the representation rings Rk(K ) and ROk(R) for any finite group ~.
Proposition fies
6.1.
There is a natural ring homomorphism for r = qa. The same conclusions
X:Rk(~) ÷ R(~)
which satiscase.
X~ r = ~rx Proof.
hold in the orthogonal
We sketch the argument.
One first fixes an embedding ~:k* ÷ C* T:H ÷ GL(n,k), one then defines
of the roots of unity.
For a representation
×~(~)(x) = ~ ~(~i ),
where {el,...,~ n} XX(T ) i are the eigenvalues of r(x).
xc~,
The Brauer induction theorem
implies that Additivity,
is the character of a complex representation and the compatibility The orthogonal between
X(T). are checked
multiplicativity,
~r and ~r
by trivial character computations. For q # 2, Quillen homomorphism erroneously
case is obtained by restriction. to a
[28, App] gave details, Consider
and he also showed that X restricts Here [ii, p.174]
RSPk(K) + RSp(N). asserted
the case q = 2.
that X fails to carry orthogonal
representations
to orthogonal
representations.
To see that it does, let the exponent
of H be 2ah, where h is odd, By Quillen [22, on
choose b ~ a such that 2b  1 is divisible by h, and let r = 2b. 5.4.2] and the explicit R(~) such that ~rx = X. choice for ~ given below, By Adams
~r is an idempotent
operator and
[3, 3.6.4], ~r carries both orthogonal
60
symplectic
representations
to orthogonal
representations.
In view of Lemma 3.3, it
suffices to show that if V is a k[G]module selfdual [3,3.32],
with a symmetric Gform b, then X(V) is representations). By Adams
(and thus a sum of orthogonal and symplectic this will hold if p:H ÷ GL(n,k), XX(v)(X) = XX(v)(X I)
for all x ¢ H.
Regarding V as a of the matrices to p(x)
homomorphism
we need only show that the eigenvalues
p(x) and p(x I) are the same.
But this is clear since p(x I) is adjoint
with respect to the given form b.
When q does not divide the order of H, k is an isomorphism. our work case. that k takes honest representations to choose
It is crucial to in this
to honest representations ~
To see this, it is convenient
so as to arrange precise comhomomorphism. The same
patibility
between Brauer lifting and the decomposition
point arose in work of May and Tornehave Let P0 be the ideal given
[23, p.222]; and we recall their solution. Inductively,
(q) in the ring R 0 = Z and let A 0 = Z(q).
PjI'
R j  I ' and Aj_I, l e t Aj be the l o c a l i z a t i o n of the ring of cyclotomic
integers R. z Z[exp(2~i/(qJl)(q jI  l)...(ql))] 3 at a chosen prime ideal Pj which contains fractions maximal of Aj and let I:A. ÷ G 3 PjI C Rj_ 1. Let Kj C C be the field of
be the inclusion.
The quotient of Aj by its k = lim kr(j) . Let
ideal is a field kr(j) of characteristic
q and
~:Aj + k r ( j )
be the quotient map.
Clearly Aj contains a group
~j
of
(qJl)...(ql) th subgroup ~j of ~:k
*
roots of unity which ~ maps isomorphically kr(j) ,_
_
onto the corresponding as j varies. We specify
these isomorphisms
being compatible i o
i
÷ C
*
by letting its restriction
to uj be
For j sufficiently
large that Kj contains
the m(H) th roots of unity, where m(~) of H, it is now obvious
is the least common multiple from Serre [31, 18.4] that
of the orders of the elements
%:Rkr(j)(II)~ Rk(II) + R(]I)
coincides with
o:~ k r(j)
(n) + mK.(n) "R(n), 3
61
where o is the canonical section of the decomposition homomorphism and the isomorphisms are given by extension of scalars.
Proposition 6.2.
If q does not divide the order of 9, then ~ ÷ R+(~)
X:Rk(~) + R(H)
is an
isomorphism and restricts to an isomorphism representations.
of semirings of honest
The same conclusions hold in the orthogonal case, where the three
types of irreducible representations (or two types if q = 2) are each mapped bijectively onto the corresponding type. Proof. The first statement follows from [31, 15.5]. For the last statement,
we agree to choose the respective sets SO C
S O jj S O so that XS 0 = S O and we note
that there are no irreducible representations of type S± over an algebraically closed field. For the case q = 2, we note that all selfdual complex represen
tations of an odd order group are orthogonal since, with r as in the previous proof, ~rx = X for all complex characters X because all X are in the image of X.
We also need the following analog of Definition 5.4.
Definition 6.3. (i)
Let
o:H ÷ ~
be a homomorphism of finite groups.
Define a homomorphism v P : ~ ( H ) + ' ~ ( H ) ® Rk(~P) = ~ Rk(~P) i
as follows, where representation
{V i}
is the set of irreducible krepresentations of H.
set vP(t)
For a
= ~ Ti, w h e r e Ti i s the composite of i T:~ p ÷ GL(n,k) ~p and the projection GL(n,k) Tp ÷ GL(ni,k). As in Definition 5.4, we n. regard Tp a s ~ k 1 ~ k Vi to specify the projec tions , and we h a v e t h e f o l l o w i n g i trace formula, where d i = dim k Vi:
T:H ÷ G L ( n , k ) ,
trr(x) = ~i d i trTi(x) (ii) Define a homomorphism
for
xc HP.
vP:ROk(~) + [R(H;S+) ~ ROk(~P) ] O [R(H;S 0) ~ Rk(HP)] O
[R(H;S ) ® RSPk(HP)]
similarly, where R(H;T) denotes the free Abelian group generated by those
62
irreducible orthogonal krepresentations of H indexed on the set T. proof of Proposition 3.4.) We have the following analog of Proposition 5.5.
(Compare the
Proposition 6.4.
If q does not divide the order of H, then the following diagram p c R+(H,E):
commutes, where the products run over
Re(q)
(~P)
• x Rk(H ) O
P
(v ° )
~ X
Rk(IIP)
R(K)
R(H) ~ R(H P)
P
With the evident modifications, the analogous diagram commutes in the orthogonal case. Proof. We have that I:Rk(H ) + R(H) is the isomorphism induced by a bijection By Definitions 5.4 and 6.3,
of irreducibles, and of course I preserves dimension.
we thus have character formulas of the following form for each p:H + ~ :
i
dixl(Ti)(x) = Xl(~)(x ) = ~ d i XI(Ti)(x ) i
for x E N 0.
The conclusion follows.
With these preliminaries, it is now an easy matter to construct the Gmaps B and prove Theorem 0.3. Let
a
ln,r:GL(n,kr) + GL(n,k) , be the natural inclusion. an element Regarding ln,r
r = q ,
as an element of Rk(GL(n,kr)), we obtain
~n,r = ~l(In,r) EKGB(G,GL(n,kr)), that is, a Gmap Bn,r:B(G,GL(n,kr)) ÷ K(G). and I, these maps for fixed r specify a map ~r:BJ~(G,kr) of Hopf ring Gspaces. + K(G) By the additivity and multiplicity of
Moreover, up to Ghomotopy, Br is the restriction of Br+ I.
63
By Propositions 4.2, 4.3, and 5.2, there result compatible maps 8r:K(G,k r) + K(G) of Hopf ring Gspaces. Since K(G,k) is clearly Gequivalent to the telescope of the Further, 8~ r is G
K(G,kr) , there results a Hopf ring Gmap p:K(G,k) + K(G). homotopic to l~r~.
The same assertions hold in the orthogonal case. ~n,r = ~ ( I n , r ) E KBGL(n'kr) and thus 8 r : B ~ f ( k r) + K
Taking G = e, we have and 8:K(k) + K.
By Quillen [28], this map and, when q ~ 2, its orthogonal By [ii, III §7], the symplectic
analog are homology isomorphisms away from q. analog and the orthogonal analog
with q = 2 are also homology isomorphisms away
from q (Proposition 6.1 leading to a cleaner construction but no substantive change of argument in the latter case). K(G,k) H = x K(k) and K(G) H ~ × K, where the i i products are indexed on the irreducible krepresentations {V.} of H and their l images under %. ~H = × B, and similarly in the orthogonal case. i Clearly the claim will complete the proof of Theorem 0.3. By Propositions 5.5 and 6.4, we have Bn,rH = vH(Bn'r) = ix (~ ~ ~x)vP(in,r) , We claim that Consider H C G. We have
where p runs through R+(H,GL(n,kr)).
When k r contains the m(H) th roots of unity,
Rkr(H) E Rk(H) and V i ~ k xk W i for irreducible krrepresentations W i of H. If r n. n° i p = ~ W i , then In,rP = ~ V i i and thus the ith component of vp (in,r) is just the composite of sequence {n i} lni,r and the projection GL(n,kr)P + GL(ni,kr). Thinking of p as a
and collecting terms, we see that this implies
B H = x Br: x B ~ ( k r ) r i
÷ x K, i
and our claim follows from the uniqueness clause of the nonequivariant version of Proposition 4.2.
§7.
The equivariant
Adams conjecture
A Gmap
E:E ÷ X
is a Gfibration if each fibre
if it satisfies
the GCHP.
It is a (linear)
spherical Gfibration compaetification of x.
El(x)
has the Gxhomotopy
type of the lpoint
of a real representation
of Gx, where G x is the isotropy subgroup
(We require the basepoints There is a fibrewise In particular,
of fibres to specify a fibrewise cofibration X ÷ E smash product between spherical Gfibrations = EVE is the fibrewise (as
[22, 5.2]).
in [22, 5.6]).
~^~
suspension of E by V, X x Sv ÷ X. are
where V is a real representation Two spherical Gfibrations fibre Ghomotopy equivalent
of G and V is the trivial Gfibration are stably equivalent if
E and E'
zV E and EVE ,
for some V. group of fibre
For a compact Gspace X, define SphG(X) to be the Grothendieck Ghomotopy equivalence classes of spherical Gfibrations of stable equivalence over X.
The elements of
SphG(X) are formal differences fibrations. Via fibrewise
classes of spherical Greal Gvector bundles over X
lpoint compactification,
give rise to spherical Gfibrations, fibrewise smash products.
and this procedure converts Whitney sums to
The resulting natural homomorphism JG:KOG(X) ÷ SphG(X)
is the real equivariant
Jhomomorphism.
SphG(X) is represented
by a Hopf Gspace [34] and also
Sph(G) and JG is induced by a Hopf Gmap j:K(G) + Sph(G);
see Waner
[12], where it will be shown that j is actually an infinite loop Gmap. Theorem 0.4 asserts keSJG(~kE that, for any E E KOG(X), there exists e > 0 such that
 E) = 0, where k is prime to the order of G and s is minimal such that
k s E ±i modulo the order of G. A necessary representations multiplying condition for of the fibres of JG(~  E) = 0 ~ and E is that the isotropy group The point of compare
be stably equivalent.
by s is that this suffices
to arrange this necessary condition;
[I0, 9.7] and [13, §2]. inequivalent canonical for all e.
It is easy to see that ke~kv and keV can he stably For example, representation. this happens when G = Z5, k = 3, and V is the Here there is a degree k Gmap V + ~3V, so
2dimenslonal
65
this example also shows that one obvious generalization fails. However,
of Adams'
because there can be other linear combinations fibre representations,
Dold theorem mod k ki ~ si(~ ~i  ~i ) Adams
with stably equivalent conjecture discussion.
our version of the equivariant See McClure
fails to detect all of the kernel of JG"
[25] for further
Theorem 0.4 was proven for one and two dimensional Hauschild and Waner appropriate [13], their procedure
Gvector bundles by
being to formulate and prove the of Adams [2]. It
equivariant
Dold theorem mod k and apply the arguments
follows that if f:Y + X is a finite Gcover and T:KOG(Y) ÷ KOG(X) is the associated transfer, then Theorem 0.4 holds for T(~) when ~ is one or two dimensional. the relation ~kT(~) = T~k(~) in KOG(X)[I/k], The
implication requires
which is proven
in [13, §5] and amounts loop Gmap.
to the verification
that, away from k, ~k is an infinite [28, 2.3] to deduce
For the rest, one can either use Quillen's argument
the implication JG T = TJG'
from the explicit proofs in [13] or one can use the general relation [25] or deduced from the fact that
which can either be verified directly
j is an infinite loop Gmap. Next, consider a finite group ~ and a principal a real representation construction elements V of n, E x V ÷ X (G,H)bundle E ÷ X = E/H. This The For
is a Gvector bundle over X. RO(E) ÷ KO~(X).
is additive
in V and induces a homomorphism
in the image of any such homomorphism group to E.
are the elements of KOG(X) with a [28,§2], Theorem 0.4 holds
reduction of their structural for all such elements.
As in Quillen
To see this, let A be a subgroup of E, let Y = E/A, and let If V is induced from a representation W of V,
f:Y ÷ X be the associated Gcover. then
T(E ×A W) = E ×~V,
as is easily verified from the usual fibrewise description
~(E XAW) x = f(y)® = x (E x A W)y
86
Since every element of RO(~) is an integral linear combination induced from one and two dimensional implies the assertion. representations
of representations [28, 2.4], this
of subgroups
Thus it remains to reduce the general case of Theorem 0.4 to the finite structural equivariant say k = q. group case. setting. Again, Since Quillen's arguments = ~jk, in [28, §i] generalize to the
~j~k
we may as well assume that k is a prime, of the orthogonal case of Theorem 0.3 for
(Since we are in possession
q = 2 as well as for q > 2, we need not follow Quillen in handling the real case for q = 2 by reducing it to the complex case.)
The Brauer lift map B of Theorem 0.3 clearly factors through a Gmap B:~O(k,G) such that each BH is a mod n homology elementary + BO(G) = KO(G) for n prime to q. This more
isomorphism
version of Theorem 0.3 is appropriate here since passage to group to bundle theory. Since ~ O(k,G) is the to
completion would obscure the relationship
telescope of copies of B O(k,G) under translations the telescope of the B ~ ( k r , G ) , structural ~O(k,G). We need some general facts about "Gconnected Y be a based Gspace. such that Then there is a Gconnected is an isomorphism component of yH.
and B O(k,G)
is Gequlvalent
an element of KOG(X) admits a reduction of its Gmap X + KO(G) lifts to
group to a finite group if its classifying
covers";
see [8] for proofs.
Let
Gspace Y0 and a Gmap Y:Y0 ÷ Y and q > 0. Thus, up
y,:~q(y~) ÷ ~q(yH)
for all H C G
to homotopy, natural.
Y~ is the basepoint
Y0 is a functor of Y and ¥ is
If Y is a Hopf Gspace, Gspace X,
then Y0 is a Hopf Gspace and y is a Hopf Gmap.
For a Gconnected
y,:[X,Y0] G + [X,Y] G is a bijection. For a Gconnected Hopf Gspace Z, let Z[i/q] be the telescope of a sequence of be the inclusion of
copies of Z under the qth power map Z ÷ Z and let i:Z ÷ Z[I/q] the first copy of Z. Clearly Z[i/q] H is a localization
of Z H away from q.
67
Now consider O(k,G) 0 where s is minimal ~ull Ghomotopic
the sequence of maps of Gconnected
Gspaces i ~ Sph(G)0[i/q] ,
B0 s(~ql)0 J0 ~KO(G) 0 • KO(G) 0 ~ Sph(G) 0 such that qS E ± 1
modulo the order of G.
The composite is for any G
since it is so when precomposed with
f:X ÷ ~ ~<k,G) 0
map f defined on a compact Gconnected here.
Gspace X and since there are no lim I terms (see
The homotopy groups of the fixed point spaces Sph(G)~ are all finite obstruction theory
[12]), and it follows from Bredon's equivariant absence of lim I terms that
[6] and the
~0:[KO(G), is a bijection. follows. Therefore
Sph(G)0[I/q]] G ÷ [ ~ ( k , G )
0 Sph(G)0[I/q]] G and Theorem 0.4
iJ0s(~q  i) 0 is also null Ghomotopic
§8.
The equivariant
algebraic Ktheory of finite fields
We revert to the notation of section 6; k r denotes elements, where q is a prime not dividing algebraic closure of k r.
the field with r = qa
the order of G, and k denotes the
Let I denote both the extension of scalars functors spaces induced by these functors spaces.
induced by the inclusion of k r in k and the maps of Ktheory functors (as in section 4). Similarly,
let ~r denote both the permutative
induced by the Frobenius automorphism
and the maps they induce on Ktheory
We are heading towards the proof of Theorem 0.5, but we shall first prove the following analog.
Theorem 8.1.
The following are Gfibration
sequences:
K(kr,G ) and KO(k ,G)
I
~ K(k,G)
~r1~ K(k,G)
l ~KO(k,G)
~rl~Ko(k,G).
68
That is, K(kr,G)
is Gequivalent where
to the homotopy
theoretical
fibre FCr(G) of
the Gmap Cr_ I = ~(¢r,x)A,
~ and X and A
are the standard loop product and is the diagonal map. Since Crl = I on
inverse map on K(k,G) = ~BB J ~ ( k , G ) the category level, the maps K(kr,G) + K(k,G). natural map struction~ equivalence Therefore ~r I
and i restrict to precisely
the same map of the
factors canonically as the composite y:K(kr,G ) + F~r(G).
F~r(G) + K(k,G)
and a lifting
With this con
y is a Hopf Gmap since ~r and I are. by verifying that yH is an equivalence of homotopy
We shall prove that y is a Gfor each subgroup H of G. Note
for this purpose that the construction
fibres (as the fibre over the commutes with passage to fixed
basepoint of the associated mapping path fibration) points and with products. component Of course, homotopy
fibres depend only on the basepoint
of the base space. Since J ~ ( F , G ) H = ~.~(F,H) H if char F is prime to the order of G, We shall
Thus fix H.
by Remark 2.7, we may quote the results of section 3 with G replaced by H. first analyze (~r)H and I H on the level of permutative categories. Let
s = SoU s0 II s+ii s
and
s r ° s0r r
be sets of representatives S_ and Sr
for the irreducible Propositions
representations
of H over k and kr~
being empty if q = 2. of permutative
3. I and 3.4 give the following
equivalences
categories.
(1)
~(k,G)
H
~ V~
x S
~,,~(k)
(2) O ( k , G ) H = [ x ~.~(k)] V ~S 0 (3) ~ (kr,G)H = × sr ~ ( k U E
x [ x O (k)] x [ x V ~S+ V E S_ u)
r
U E S0
r
U
S
U E Sr _
U ~ S±
r
69
Here, in (3) and (4), we have used the fact that any finite division ring is a field to write Hom k [G](U,U) = k u r r ~r for some u depending on U.
Clearly
acts as a permutation ~r
on the set of irreducible acts as a permutation
representations
of
H over k, hence we can arrange that representatives. invariant
on the set S of r_
We let [V] denote the orbit of V and let ~ denote the ~ W. E[v] TI~ r = For a ~rinvariant
representation
subset T of S, we let
w
{Vl[vl
c T}.
~r, and the
The duality operator on representations subsets
commutes with the action of r
S+, S_, and SOIl S ~ of S a r e
~ invariant.
M o r e o v e r , we can w r i t e
soll so
as a ~rset, where

oll 0 lis
T 0 = {vivc S O
and V* / [V]}
SO = { V * I v ~ and
0} = {VIV ES 0
and
V f [VI}
S± ={viv c S O
or V ¢S 0
and
V ~ [V]}.
Let
t: ~ ( k )
÷ ~(k)
be the functor which is the identity on objects and inverse. In analogy with topological K( r)H is
sends a nonsingular
matrix to its transpose ~r = r t = t r.
theory, we agree to let precisely analogous
The following analysis of in Corollary 5.7.
to the analysis of
(~r)H
Proposition
8.2.
The following diagram of functors commutes:
~ (k,G) H (~r)H
x
,1~" ( k )
VES
~.~(k,G) H
=
×
@~:(k)
I
(
×
,r)~
v
VES
where m permutes
factors as ~r permutes
the indexing representations.
The same
conclusion holds in the orthogonal
case except that, on the general linear part
70
x ~(k), V c SO
(x ~r)m V
must be replaced by the functor
"(x }* r) ,, which sends the V and via ~r if ~r(v) ¢S~. to k n O ~r(v) V
V th factor to the Proof.
~r(v)thfactor via ~r if ~r(v) c S O
The equivalence carries a kspace k n in the V th factor ~ ' ( k ) kn®
and carries a nonsingular matrix f to f O 1, while ~r carries and f ~ 1 to ~r(f) ~ i.
V to k n ~
This is the same as first shifting to the ~r(v)th factor, The argument in the orthogonal
next applying ~r, and then applying the equivalence.
case is the same except that, when V ~ SO, the equivalence carries k n to (kn ~ V) (kn O V*) with the hyperbolic Gform and carries f to (f ~ i) G) ((fl)t ~ if ~r(v) i). Here
~ SO, then ~r(v*) = cr(v)* c S O and, after application of ~r, the two
summands appear in reverse order in the factor of ~.~(k) indexed on ~r(v*).
Clearly the product restrictions ( x
(x ~r)m breaks up into the product over V ~r)m, and similarly in the orthogonal case.
E S/~ r
of its
w c Iv]
To compute lH, we need the following general observation.
Lemma 8.3.
Let L be a Galois extension of a field K with Galois group ff and let M {ml,...,mn}. For o oH, define a Kmap o:M ÷ M by
be an Lspace with basis 0[~ yjmj) = ~ o(yj)mj L 0
K
for yj E L. Z (i 0 o)m
Then the composite L 0
K
(*)
M
~
o c H
M
Z ~ >
o
~
c ~
M
is an isomorphism of Lspaces, where ~ is the action map. regarded as an Lmap M ÷ M via {m.} J and
If f c GL(n,L) is is the automorphism
o:GL(n,L) + GL(n,L)
induced entrywise by a, then the following diagram commutes.
L~ (l~f) IK
M
1 ~ °~L~I M
~
~ M [ of
L O K
M
IO°mL~ K
M
~
M
In particular, if a finite group H acts on M via
p:H ÷ GL(n,L) and oM
denotes M
71
with action o0, then (*) is an isomorphism L × K Proof. Clearly M m ~ o ~
of L[H]modules oM . in general if it is so when M = L
(*) will be an isomorphism of dimensions, the trace
and here, by comparison monomorphism. b(y,y') form. Consider
it suffices
to show that (*) is a Give L the trace form [ L the sum
tr:L + K,
tr(y) = ~ oy.
= tr(yy'),
give L ~ k L the tensor product
form, and give
A simple calculation
shows that (*) is an isometry and thus a monomorphism.
Now consider 14.6],
the extension of scalars homomorphism Moreover,
I is a split monomorphism. ~ ( H ) ~r
I:R k (H) ÷ Rk(H). r its image is clearly contained
By [31, in the
subgroup
of representations
invariant
under #r, and S/~ r is a basis for V over k is a summand of t(U) for again,
the latter.
Since any irreducible representation
representation
some irreducible
U over kr, by [31,14.6] r
I:R k (H) + Rk(H)~ r is an isomorphism. In view of the natural isomorphisms
k~ r
Hom k (U,kr) ~ Hom k (U,k) ~ HOmk(k ~ U,k), r r r The following result analyzes the indexing
i commutes with the duality operators. sets and the fields k ru sets in (i) and (2). In particular,
in (3) and (4) in terms of the action of ~r on the indexing it shows that i restricts to an isomorphism
1:ROkr(H) ÷ ROk(H)~ r.
Lemma 8.4. bijection
S r and S can be so chosen that extension of scalars S r ÷ S/~ r which restricts to bijections
specifies
a
Sr+ ÷ S+/~ r
,
S r ÷ S_/ r
r S 0 ÷ S0/~r
,
r * * r (S O ) ÷ S0/~
72
and r S± + s e / r .
Moreover,
if U~ Sr with
1(U) = V
and if HOmkr[H](U,U)
= kru , then u is minimal
such that #rU(v) = V and is thus the number of elements in the orbit [V]. Further, t * = r if U ~ S~ and t is minimal such that V r (V), then u = 2t and we may therefore i choose [V] ~3 S 0 to be { r (V) I 0 ( i < t}. Proof. Fix U E S r. To simplify notation, over L. write K = k r and L = kru. We may since
regard U as a representation HomL[H](U,U ) ~ L.
As such, it is absolutely is irreducible over k.
irreducible
Therefore V = k ~ L U
Applying the functor
k ~ L (?) to the isomorphism uI i
L~KU
.
i
i =0
+r U
of Lemma 8.3, we obtain an isomorphism of k[H]modules uI i ~ ~r (V) = m~, i =0 i of V in {$r (V) I 0 ~ i < u}. ~ Regard U as L ~ L U C
k ~U
where m is the multiplicity
By our observations V. If V admits a G
about I above, m = 1 and u is as stated. form b0' then nondegeneracy
implies the existence
of elements Uo,U ~ ~ U such that fb0(u0,u~) ~ 0 and It
b0(uO,u ~) ¢ 0. define b0(u,u')
Choose a Klinear functional = fb0(u,u') for u,u' ~U.
f:k + K such that
Then b 0 is a Kbilinear
Gform on U.
is nondegenerate
since it is not identically
zero and U is irreducible.
Any other G
form on U is specified by bo(du,u' ) = fbo(du,u') for some d ~ L. Visibly, if b0 = f(dbo(u,u')) then all Gforms on Let t be
V, u
is symmetric or skew symmetric,
U are symmetric or skew symmetric. minimal such that V*
=
Now suppose that V c S O and V* ~ IV].
Certainly 0 < t < u. Since ~ r2t (V) = V ** = ti i divides 2t. This implies u = 2t. Let W = [ sr (V). Then ~ = W ~ W i = 0 admits both the symmetric hyperbolic Gform and the nonsymmetric Gform
~rt(v).
bx((W,~), (w',~')) =~(w') + x ~'(w)
for any x~ k, x # 0 and x # 1. Regard U as K~K U ~V (and observe that these
73
forms are not Lbilinear on U).
Choosing appropriate Klinear functionals k ÷ K, we V to Gforms on U with the
can compress the restrictions to U of these Gforms on same symmetry properties. Thus r U c Se.
The rest should be clear.
Proposition 8.5. morphism:
The following diagram of functors commutes up to natural iso
~ Z ( k r ,G) H U ~S r ~(kru)
I
×(×,r
U i ui × x .~(k) U ¢ S r i=0
I)
.~(k,G) H
~
The same conclusion holds in the orthogonal case except that, on the unitary factor ~ (k u ) indexed on U E S~, the right arrow must be replaced by r tI i ti x r I: ~ ( k u) + x Jk~(k), i=O r i=O where i is interpreted as neglect of form followed by extension of scalars. Proof. 0 ~ i < u, We regard S as the union of its orbits [V] and so index it on U ¢ Sr and i (U,i) corresponding to r (V) if I(U) = V . Fix U and again write The top equivalence carries the Lspace Ln in the U th and carries f ~GL(n,L) to f ~ i. The functor iH carries
K = k r and L = kru. factor,~(L)
L n ( ~L U t o
to L n ~ L U
ui k ~ K (Ln ~ L U)   (k ~ L Ln) ~ k (k ~ K U)   I (k ~ i=0 Here the first isomorphism is specified by x® (ej ~ u) ÷ ~ (x ~ ej) ~ (i ~ u)
i Ln) ~ r (V).
J
in terms of the canonical basis
J
{el,...,e n} of L n. Note that this is highly non
invariant: we are using this basis to identify both sides with the sum of n copies of k ~ K U, and scalars from L in L n ~ L the isomorphism. previous proof. U must be pushed over to U before evaluating
The second isomorphism is derived from that displayed in the Writing f(ej) = ~ fjkek , f j k E L, and calculating, we see that
74
i O (f ~ I) corresponds under the composite isomorphism above to i (I ~ ~r f) ~ i. This implies the first statement. On the general linear, i orthogonal, and symplectic factors of O(kr,G)H , the orthogonal case is an obvious elaboration. Consider r U ~ Se with u = 2t. Then $ rt specifies the involution on L the only Hermitian form
determined by a symmetric Gform on U.
Up to isomorphism,
on L n is the standard one [14, Thm 2.8], namely t ~ yj~r (y~).
b(~ yjej, ~ y ~ e j ) = J t Thus if f cU(n,L),
then
f  I = ~r ( f t ) ,
where f t i s the t r a n s p o s e of f .
Now
i
[vl ~ SO = {~r (V) I 0 ~ i < t}, copies of ~ ( k ) in O(k,G) H. and these are the elements of [V] which index i+t i We have ~r (V) = ~r (V)* and
~r
i+t
f = (~r
if_l)t.
W r i t i n g the r i g h t s i d e of the isomorphism above as
~r i L n) ~ (V)] ~) [(k ~ e n) ~ ~ri(v)*], i ~r (v)th
ti
I [(k ~ i=O
we see that the last assertion follows from the specification of the funetor ~ ( k ) + O(k,G) H in the proof of Proposition 3.4.
Propositions
8.2 and 8.5 imply that the sequence
H
K(kr,G)H
I ~K(k,G)H
(~r)Hl_ K(k,G)H
breaks up into the product of sequences, i cr I K(k u ) r ui × i=O
one for each U ¢ S r, [(~ cr)~]i ui × K(k) , i=O
K(k)
•
where m is the cyclic permutation of factors. orthogonal case except that, for i ,r I KU(k r) ~ ti × i=O K(k) r U c S~,
A similar conclusion holds in the
the resulting sequence is of the form ti × ,r)m]i i=O r
[(,r x
ti x K(k) . i=O Using the
For Uc S r, let F~r(u) denote the homotopy fibre of the righthand map.
commutation of homotopy fibres with passage to fixed point sets and with products,
75
we see that our original lifting 7:K(kr,G) ÷ F~r(G) of i restricts to a lift i y:K(k u ) + F#r(u) of x ~r I for each U. We thus have the following commutative r i diagrams, where i 0 is the inclusion of the 0 th factor and the commutativity of the righthand square is a trivial computation:
u
~r K(k u) r I • K(k)  1 ~ K(k)
F~r(u) r r For U ~ SO, S+, or Sr,_ K,KO, o r KSp t h r o u g h o u t .
uI x i=O
K(k)
1'
x ~r i r ~
[(~ ~r)m]i ,
ui x i=O
K(k)
1
i0
we have a precisely analogous diagram with K replaced by For U ~ s,,r the analogous diagram has the bottom right
map displayed above and the top row t  I K(k) .
KU(k u ) r
I
~ K(k)
By Quillen [29] in the general linear case and Fiedorowicz and Priddy [ii] in the orthogonal, symplectic, and unitary cases, the top rows are all fibration sequences. To prove Theorem 8.1, it suffices to show that the Hopf maps ~0' which is clear, and on it suffices ~ n of the basepolnt components the righthand squares
induce isomorphisms on f o r n > O.
To show t h e l a t t e r ,
to check that
induce isomorphisms on kernels and cokernels of the maps of higher homotopy groups induced by the horizontal arrows. The required calculations are immediate from the The
following result, which determines the relevant maps of homotopy groups.
homotopy groups of K(k), KO(k), and KSp(k) are tabulated in [ii, p.246], the nontrivial groups being ~2n_iK(k) ~ ~4n_lKO(k) ~ ~4n_lKSp(k) ~ P # ~ q and, if q # 2, ~Sn+iKO(k) ~ ~Sn+2KO(k) ~ ~8n+5KSp(k) ~ ~8n+6KSp(k) ~ Z 2. (Note that, when q = 2, our space KO(k) has basepoint component equivalent to the space Zp=
rob ~ ( k )
of [ii]; see [11,11.7.6].)
Recall that
Zp~ ~ Z[I/q]/Z ~ Q/Z(q) . p ¢ q
76
Lemma 8.6. ~2n_iK(k).
The maps ~r and ~r on K(k) induce multiplication
by rn and (r) n on by r 2n on
The maps ~r on KO(k) and KSp(k) induce multiplication
~4n_iKO(k) and ~4n_iKSp(k) Z2• Proof.
and induce the identity on the homotopy groups equal to
By [23, VIII, 2.9] and [II, p.170175],
Brauer lift gives rise to the
following commutative diagram of completions of basepoint components away from q, the map 8 being an equivalence:
~(k)0[i/q] S [ =
~r
; ~(k)0[i/q] = [ B
Ko[1/q]
The behavior of [23, V.2.9]). ~r
^
~r
~
Ko[1/q]
The same assertion holds with r replaced by r and with K replaced by KO or KSp. on homotopy groups was computed by Adams [i, 5.2] (see also
By Bousfield and Kan [6, p.153], we have a natural exact sequence
0 + Ext I I Z .,~n X) + ~nX[I/q] + Hom I I Z ~,~n_l X) + 0 P#q P P#q P for simple spaces X. give Ext groups For X = KO(k) 0 amd X = KSp(k) 0, the homotopy groups
^
~n X = Z 2 since
Z 2 = WnX[I/q],
and these groups are mapped isomorphically ~r.
their images under 8 are mapped isomorphically by homotopy groups W2n_l X = [ Z ~
In the remaining cases, the
(n even for KO(k) or KSp(k)) give Hom groups ~r and ~r
Z[I/q] = W2nX[I/q],
and +~#~ndP~ r map these groups by rn or r n since The conclusions follow.
so map their images under B.
We have now proven Theorem 8.1, and we turn to the proof of Theorem 0.5. Consider the following diagram:
F~r(c)
: K(G, k)
~rl~ K(G,k)
1
F*r (G) ~
1
K(G) ~rl>
B
K(G)
77
As noted in section 6, the right square is Ghomotopy commutative. exists a lift equivalence 6.
Thus there ~ is a G
In view of Theorem 8.1, it suffices to prove that
to conclude the complex case of Theorem 0.5. 6H is an equivalence.
For this, it suffices to 5.7 and Proposition for each
show that each 6.2, U E sr: 6H
In view of Corollary
restricts
to a llft ~ in the following diagram of fibrations
u1
F~r(u) ~ x K(k)
[(~ +r)~]1 u1
~ x K(k)
I
F~r(u) diagram to one of the form u F~ r
u1
°I
i
[(~ ,r)~]1 u1
• x i=0
°L
K However, com
I x K i=0
Because of the odd and even degrees in which the nontrivial homotopy groups occur on the right, we cannot conclude directly that ~ is an equivalence.
paring top rows to top rows and bottom rows to bottom rows, we can convert the
~r = K(k u)
u  1 K(k)
~
Ir i
8
u
 K(k)
[
8
~. if
F~ r
~ K
~r u _
I
1
~
K
Here
6
is an equivalence
by Quillen's
results
[29].
The proof of the orthogonal highly nontrlvlal point.
case of Theorem 0.5 is exactly the same, modulo one there is a unique lift this is not true with K
In the diagram just given, by r u. However, ~
This remains true with r u replaced
replaced by KSp or KO and, in the latter case, it is wrongly chosen. if it is a Hopf map. proving the existence Fiedorowlcz and Priddy
will fail to be an equivalence ~
[ii] proved that
is an equivalence
May [23] proved that there is a lift which is a Hopf map by of a lift which is an infinite loop map (by an argument
involving pulling back Bott perlodicty along the equivalence B:KO(k)o[I/q] ÷ KO0[I/q] and analyzing the relationship between space and spectrum In our situation,
level periodicity).
Presumably a more direct proof is possible.
78
we must prove that the original
lift ~H
~:FO~r(G)
÷ Four(G)
can be chosen as a Hopf
Gmap in order to ensure that each
and thus each
r ~:FO~r(u) ÷ Four(u), U E S+,
is a Hopf map (passage to the last diagram above with K replaced by KO presenting no difficulty). Again, while a more direct proof should be possible, the only argument just cited;
we know is the equivariant see [12].
infinite loop space version of May's argument
79
Bibliography
I. 2. 3. 4.
J.F. Adams. J.F. Adams. J.F. Adams.
Vector fields on spheres. On the groups J(X)  I. Lectures on Lie groups.
Annals of Math. Topology 2(1963), 1969.
75(1962), 181195.
603632.
Benjamin.
M.F. Atiyah and G.B. Segal. Geom. 3(1969), 118.
Equivariant
Ktheory and completion.
J. Diff.
5. 6.
M. Benioff.
PhD Thesis.
Chicago,
In preparation. completions, and localiza1972.
A.K. Bousfield and D.M. Fan. tions.
Homotopy limits,
Lecture Notes in Mathematics Equivariant 1967. cohomology
Vol. 304. Springer.
7.
G. Bredon.
theories.
Lecture Notes in Mathematics
Vol 34. Springer. 8. J. Caruso,
F.R. Cohen, J.P. May, and L.R. Taylor. theorem. To appear. The equivariant
James maps,
Segal maps, and
the KahnPriddy 9.
J. Caruso and J.P. May. To appear.
splitting and KahnPriddy
theorems.
i0.
T. tom Dieck. in Mathematics
Transformation Vol. 766.
groups and representation 1979.
theory.
Lecture Notes
Springer.
11.
Z. Fiedorowicz
and S. Priddy.
Homology of classical groups over finite fields Lecture Notes in Mathematics
and their associated Vol 658. Springer. 12. H. Hauschild, To appear. 13.
infinite loop spaces.
1978. Equivariant infinite loop space theory.
J.P. May, and S. Waner.
H. Hauschild and S. Waner. jecture. Preprint.
Equivariant
Dold theorem mod k and the Adams con
14. 15.
I. Kaplansky. M. Karoubi, Mathematics
Linear algebra and geometry. Periodicite
Allyn and Bacon.
1969.
de la Ktheorie hermitienne. 1973, 301411.
Lecture Notes in
Vol 343. Springer. AGstructure
16.
K. Kawakubo. JG(X).
of Gvector bundles and groups KOG(X), KSPG(X) , and
Preprint. Equivariant bundles. Preprint.
17.
R.K. Lashof.
80
18.
R.K. Lashof and M. Rothenberg. 32(1978), 211265.
Gsmoothing theory.
Proc. Symp. Pure Math.
Amer. Math. Soc. Ann. Sc.
19.
J.L. Loday.
Ktheorie algebriques et representations des groupes.
Ec. Norm. Sup. Fasc. 3, t.9. 1976. 20. J.L. Loday. Higher Witt groups: a survey. Lecture Notes in Mathematics
Vol. 551. Springer. 1976, 311335. 21. J.P. May. E spaces, group completions, and permutative categories.
London Math. Soc. Lecture Note Series II, 1974, 6194. 22. J.P. May. Classifying spaces and fibrations. Memoirs Amer. Math. Soc.
No. 155. 1975. 23. J.P. May (with contributions by F. Quinn, N. Ray, and J. Tornehave). ring spaces and E Springer. 1977. 24. J.P. May. Pairings of categories and spectra. J. Pure and Applied Algebra. ring spectra. E
Lecture Notes in Mathematics Vol. 577.
19 (1980), 299346. 25. 26. J. McClure. The groups JOG(X). To appear.
D. McDuff and G. Segal. theorem.
Homology fibrations and the "group completion"
Invent. Math. 31 (1976), 279284. On the group completion of a simplicial monoid. The Adams conjecture. Topology 10(1970), 6780. Preprint.
27. 28. 29.
D.G. Quillen. D.G. Quillen. D.G.Quillen.
On the cohomology and Ktheory of the general linear groups Annals of Math 96(1972), 552586. Publ. Math. IHES, 34(1968), 129151. Deuxieme
over a finite field. 30. 31. G.B. Segal. J.P. Serre. edition. 32.
Equivariant Ktheory.
Representations lineaires des groupes finis. 1967.
Hermann.
C.T.C. Wall. Vol. 343.
Foundations of algebraic Ltheory.
Lecture Notes in Mathematics
Springer 1973, 166200. Equivariant homotopy theory and Milnor's theorem. Trans. Amer.Math.
33.
S. Waner.
Soc. 258(1980), 351368. 34. S. Waner. Equivariant classifying spaces fibrations. Trans. Amer. Math. Soc.
258(1980), 385405.