A GENERALIZATION OF SMITH THEORY
J. P . MAY
(Communicated by Haynes R. Miller)
ABSTRACT. Using Bredon cohomology, new relations are obtained between the mod p Betti numbers of a finite GCW complex and its singular subspace, where G is a finite pgroup.
Let G be a pgroup of finite order pe and let X be a finite dimensional GCW complex such that H * ( X ) is finite dimensional, where cohomology is understood with mod p coefficients. Let S X denote the subcomplex of singular points of X , that is, of points fixed by some g # e. Finally, let F X = X / S X ; F X is a based GCW complex such that the action off the basepoint is free. We seek relations among the mod p Betti numbers a, = dim HQ(FX/G), b, = dim Hq( X ) , and c, = dim Hq( S X ) . If G is cyclic of order p, so that S X = xG, loyd's formulation [2, 4.41 of Smith F theory gives the following inequality for q 0 and r 0, where r is odd if p is odd:
>
>
(*I
a,
f
cq
+ cq+l + . . . + cq+r < bq + bq+l
+ . . . + bq+r + ~ , + ~ + 1 .
Floyd [2, p. 1461 also gives the Euler characteristic relation x ( X ) = x(xG) P?(FX/G), where the reduced Euler characteristic of a based space is one less than the actual Euler characteristic. With q = 0 and r large, (*) gives x c q 5 bq. When X is a mod p cohomology sphere, the last inequality and the relation x ( X ) = X ( ~ G ) is mod p immediately imply Smith's conclusion that xG also a mod p cohomology sphere. In the general case, classical Smith theory and induction on e imply dimensional restrictions on the cohomology of all fixed point spaces X H and therefore, by inductive use of MayerVietoris sequences, on the cohomology of S X . Our new observation is that much sharper dimensional restrictions can be derived directly.
+
T H E O R E M .h e following inequality holds for a n y q 2 0 a n d r 2 0 : T
I
7
I n particular, with r large,
Received by the editors August 15, 1986.
1980 Mathematzcs Subject Classzfication (1985 Revision). Primary 57817; Secondary 55N25.
Key words and phrases. Smith theory, GCW complexes, finite pgroups, Bredon cohomology.
0 1 9 8 7 A m e r i c a n M a t h e m a t i c a l Society 00029939187 $ 1 0 0 8 25 per page
+
J . P. MAY
729
Moreover, x(X) = x(SX) +pei(FXIG). Since a, = 0 for q large by the finite dimensionality of X , the inequalities and the finiteness of the b, imply the finiteness of the a, and c,. Of course, the Euler characteristic formula is trivial when X is a finite GCW complex. If p = 2, the inequalities in the classical case e = 1 are those given by Floyd. If p > 2, the inequalities in the case e = 1 differ from those of Floyd due to the coefficients (p  1)'. We shall explain after the proof why the cyclic groups of odd prime order behave exceptionally. When G is cyclic, our inequalities do not appear to give new information; in the noncyclic case, they do. For example, our inequalities obviously imply that if c, = b, for all q > n , then cn I b,. Even this simple fact does not seem to follow from any previous version of Smith theory. To prove the theorem, observe first that the inequalities for r > 0 will follow inductively from those for r = 0, which read
to To obtain the inequalities for r = 1, we add (pe  I ) C , + ~ both sides, and so on. The proof of the theorem is an application of Bredon cohomology [I]. Let GO denote the category of orbits G / H and Gmaps between them. A coefficient system is a contravariant functor from GO to the category of Abelian groups. For each coefficient system M , there is a cohomology theory HE(?; M ) on GCW complexes. It is characterized by a dimension axiom: when restricted to the category GO, H z ( ? : M ) is the coefficient system M if q = 0 and is identically zero if q # 0. An L M N + 0 gives rise to a natural exact sequence of coefficient systems 0 long exact sequence
..
+
H :
(x; ) L
+
Hz ( X ; M )


+

H&(X: N )
+
H' : +
(x; ) L

..
There are coefficient systems L, M , and N such that H:(X; L) Z
H~(Fx/G), Hz (X: M ) g H q ( X ) ,
M ( ? ) = H'(?),
and
H i ( X ;N )
E Hq( S X ) .
In fact, to specify L, M , and N , we can and must set L(?) = HO(F?/G], and N(?) = H'(s?)
on orbits and on Gmaps between orbits. Thus L(G) = 2 and L(G/H) = 0 if , H # e; M ( G / H ) = Z,[G/H] for all H; and N ( G ) = 0 and N ( G / H ) = Z,[G/H] if H # e. In particular, M ( G ) is the group ring Z,[G] regarded as a Gmodule. Let I be the augmentation ideal in Z,[G], let s be maximal such that IS# 0, for and let d, be the dimension of the 2,vector space In/ln+' 1 5 n 5 s. The values of the d, are given by Jennings' formula [3, 2.101, but we only need the relations d, = 1 and E d , = pe  1. Write In ambiguously for both the ideal and the coefficient system with I n ( G ) = In and I n ( G / H ) = 0 for H # e. Then I is a subcoefficient system of M , and M / I = L @ N since Z,[G]/I % 2, and since the map Z,[G/H] = H'(G/H) + H'(G) = Z,[G]
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J . P. MAY
induced by a Gmap G + G / H with H # G takes values in I . The long exact cohomology sequence associated to the short exact sequence
gives the inequality
a,
+ cq 5 b, + dim H&+' (x:) I
and the Euler characteristic formula
x ( X ) = x ( S X ) + x ( F X / G ) + x ( H ; : ( X ;I ) ) .
For 1 5 n
< s , we have an evident short exact sequence
where dL denotes the direct sum of d copies of L. The resulting long exact sequence in cohomology gives
' dim H&( X ;I n ) 5 dnaq + dim H: ( X :I ~ + 1
and
x ( H ; ( X : I n ) )= d n X ( F X / G ) x ( H ; ( X ; I ~ + ' ) ) .
Since d, = 1, I S = L and H:(X; I " ) = H Q ( F X / G ) O ur theorem follows. . If G is cyclic of odd prime order p, then s = p  1 and Ip' = L . Here Zp[G]/Ip' 2 I as Zp[G]modules. If t generates G , then the norm CtZ generates Ip', and it follows that M/Ip' 2 I @ N as coefficient systems. We thus have short exact sequences
+
O+I+M+L@N+O
and O  + L + M + I @ N + O .
With Zi, = dim H:(X; I ) , these imply the two inequalities
a,
+ c, 5 b, + a,+'
and Zi,
+ c, 5 b, + a,+'.
Floyd's inequalities (*) follow inductively. It is a pleasure to thank Jim McClure for teaching me the Bredon cohomology approach to classical Smith theory.
1. G. E. Bredon, Equivariant cohomology theories, Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 34, SpringerVerlag, Berlin and New York, 1967. 2. E. E. Floyd, O n periodic maps and the Euler characteristics of associated spaces, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 72 (1952), 138147. 3. B. Huppert and N. Blackburn, Finite groups. 11, SpringerVerlag, Berlin and New York, 1982.