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W e a k equivalenqe.s a n d ..quasifibrations * J. P.

M a y D e p a r t m e n t of M a t h e m a t i c s U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Chicago, It 6 0 6 5 7

O u a s i f i b r a t i o n s a r e e s s e n t i a l i y f i b r a t i o n s up to w e a k h o m o t o p y . T h e y p l a y a f u n d a m e n t a l role in h o m o t o p y t h e o r y since a v a r i e t y of i m p o r t a n t c o n s t r u c t i o n s give rise to q u a s i f i b r a t i o n s w h i c h fail to be f i b r a t i o n s . Q u a s i f i b r a t i o n s w e r e i n t r o d u c e d in a basic 1958 p a p e r b y Dold a n d Thorn [2], a n d s o m e r e f i n e m e n t s of t h e i r w o r k w e r e a d d e d b y Hardie in 1970 [4]. The i m p o r t a n c e of q u a s i f i b r a t i o n s to t h e s t u d y of c l a s s i f y i n g s p a c e s a n d f i b r a t i o n s w a s first e s t a b l i s h e d in a 1959 p a p e r of Dold a n d Lashof [l], a n d a s y s t e m a t i c a c c o u n t w a s g i v e n in [5]. O u a s i f i b r a t i o n s p l a y e d a n essential role in Ouillen's 1973 p a p e r [6] in w h i c h he i n t r o d u c e d t h e h i g h e r a l g e b r a i c K - g r o u p s of rings. T h e y h a v e been applied in q u i t e a
large n u m b e r of m o r e r e c e n t papers.

Despite t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e , q u a s i f i b r a t i o n s h a v e not been t r e a t e d in a n y t e x t b o o k , a n d I k n o w of no b e t t e r p u b l i s h e d r e f e r e n c e t h a n t h e original p a p e r (in G e r m a n ) of Do}d a n d Thorn. A r o u n d 1972, I p r o v e d a n e w t h e o r e m a b o u t w e a k h o m o t o p y e q u i v a l e n c e s of p a i r s of s p a c e s a n d o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e basic f a c t s a b o u t q u a s i f i b r a t i o n s a r e v e r y e a s y c o n s e q u e n c e s of t h a t result. I ' v e n e v e r p u b l i s h e d this m a t e r i a l , w h i c h w a s i n t e n d e d as p a r t of a stiI! p r o j e c t e d v o l u m e on t h e h o m o t o p i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s of a l g e b r a i c topology. In v i e w of its close c o n n e c t i o n to t h e t h e m e of t h e M o n t r e a l c o n f e r e n c e , I t h o u g h t t h a t I w o u l d seize t h e o c c a s i o n to give a n exposition. We give s o m e p r e l i m i n a r i e s a n d s t a t e o u r t h e o r e m a b o u t w e a k e q u i v a l e n c e s in section 1. We explain t h e a p p l i c a t i o n to t h e t h e o r y of q u a s i f i b r a t i o n s in s e c t i o n 2. e q u i v a l e n c e s in s e c t i o n 5. We p r o v e t h e t h e o r e m a b o u t w e a k

This paper is in final form and no version of it will be submitted for publication elsewhere.

92

§1.

Weak

equivalences f: X --~ Y

of p a i r s of s p a c e s is s a i d t o b e a n n-equivalence if, f o r all

A map

x ~ X, f~: ~ q ( X , x ) -~ ~ q ( Y , f ( x ) ) is a b i j e c t i o n f o r 0 _< q < n a n d a s u r j e c t i o n f o r q -- n. A m a p f: (X,A) -~ (Y,B) of p a i r s of s p a c e s is s a i d t o be an n-equivalence if (f~)-llm(~oB --~ t o Y ) = I m ( ~ o A ~ =oX) and, for all a ~ A, f~: ~ q ( X , A , a ) ~ ~ q ( Y , B , f ( a ) ) is a b i j e c t i o n f o r 1 _< q < n a n d a s u r j e c t i o n f o r q = n. T h e c o n d i t i o n o n c o m p o n e n t s m e a n s t h a t if f(x) can be connected A; both the absolute equivalence t o a p o i n t of B, then X x f can be connected Y n. the five lemma, plus some the following constituent are path to'a p o i n t of In it is a u t o m a t i c a l l y if it is a n satisfied when n-equivalence long exact weak and connected.

and the relative cases,

is s a i d t o b e a w e a k

f o r all and

By the evident tedious extra relationship spaces. Lemma 1.1. Let between

sequences fundamental

details to handle

groups, we have

equivalences

of p a i r s a n d of t h e i r

f: (X,A) --~ (Y,B)

be a map

of p a i r s s u c h t h a t

both

f~: ~ o A - - ~ o B a n d f~: ~oX - ~ o Y maps f: A ~ B, f: X -~ Y, a n d then so is t h e t h i r d . Our new in t h e c o n t e x t b e e x c i s i v e if Theorem such that and i=2. i = 2. 1.2. theorem X Let on w e a k

are bijections. f: (X,A) ~ (Y,B)

If a n y t w o of t h e t h r e e are weak equivalences,

equivalences Recall that

of p a i r s is a k i n d of a n a l o g a triad A (X; A, B) and B. of e x c i s i v e t r i a d s for i = 1 and for i = 1 is s a i d to

of e x c i s i v e t r i a d s .

is t h e u n i o n of t h e i n t e r i o r s of f: (X; X I , X2) ~ f: (X, X i ) ~ (Y; Y I , Y2) is a n is a n

be a map

f: (Xi, X I M X 2 ) ~ Then

(Yi, Y I N Y 2 ) (Y, Yi)

n-equivalence

n-equivalence

No u s e f u l c o n c l u s i o n

could be derived

with

an assumption

on only

o n e of t h e p a i r s (Xi, X I N X 2 ) . new, the following immediate folklore; a proof appears Corollary 1.3. Let

While this result really does seem to be c o n s e q u e n c e of t h e l e m m a a n d t h e o r e m is

in G r a y [3, 16.24]. (Y; Y1, Y2) be a m a p of e x c i s i v e are

f: (X; X1, X2) ~

t r i a d s s u c h t h a t f: X I F I X 2 --~ Y 1 A Y 2 , f: X I ---~Y1, a n d f: X2 --~ Y2 weak equivalences. T h e n f: X ~ Y is a w e a k e q u i v a l e n c e .

93 In turn, equivalence. Corollary 1.4. Let f:X -* Y be a m a p and let equivalence for all U e ~, then 0 be an open cover of Y this implies a local criterion for a map to be a weak

which is closed u n d e r finite intersections. If f: f - I u -* U is a weak f: X --* Y is a weak equivalence. V is C by has a

Proof. Let C be the collection of subspaces V of Y such t h a t a union of spaces in (~, f: f - l v --*V is a weak equivalence, and f: f-I(UNV) --* U,~V inclusion. a r g u m e n t , and maximal element C V. is a weak equivalence for all C is in C is n o n e m p t y since it c o n t a i n s Suppose U ~ O. by an el. The union of a chain in

Order C

obvious colimit Thus U ~ ~ UUV which is is in C,

V # Y. Then t h e r e is a

not contained in V. The previous c o r o l l a r y implies t h a t contradicting the maximality of V.

§2.

Quasifibrations If p: E -~ B - , (B,b) is a f i b r a t i o n , t h e n subspaces equivalence turns is a w e a k p: ( E , p - I A ) --~ (B,A) A of B; f o r all b ¢ B is a w e a k

equivalence p: ( E , p - l b )

f o r all n o n e m p t y

in p a r t i c u l a r , (e.g. [9, p.187]). into a property

T h e n o t i o n of a q u a s i f i b r a t i o n definition. D e f i n i t i o n 2.1. p: ( E , p - l b ) A surjective

this desirable

map

p: E --* B

is a q u a s i f i b r a t i o n b ¢ B.

if

-~ (B,b)

is a w e a k

equivalence

f o r all

It is t o b e e m p h a s i z e d fibration theory quasifibration. Assume various

that

this notion does not properly

b e l o n g to

s i n c e t h e p u l l b a c k of a q u a s i f i b r a t i o n

need not be a

given a fixed surjective for p

map

p: E -~ B.

We shall derive

criteria

to be a quasifibration. is a q u a s i f i b r a t i o n for each path to path then, for if a n d o n l y if i t s r e s t r i c t i o n component b ~ B and C of B. B. the Thus we base spaces (E,p-lb)

Clearly p-IC may exact ~

p: E --~ B

C is a q u a s i f i b r a t i o n attention p

as well restrict sequence

connected

Of c o u r s e , if sequence "'" ~

is a q u a s i f i b r a t i o n , of h o m o t o p y ~

x £ p-lb,

g r o u p s of t h e p a i r ~ ~n(E,x) ~

yields an exact ~ ~o(B,b),

~n+l(B,b)

~n(p-lb,x)

~ n ( B , b ) -~ ' ' '

94

Let Np = {(x,co) I c o : l ~ B, co(1) = p(x)} c E x B I a n d let q: Np ~ B be t h e f i b r a t i o n specified b y q(x,co) = co(0); t h u s q - l b is t h e u s u a l h o m o t o p y t h e o r e t i c f i b e r of p o v e r b. If ;~: E ~ N p is t h e n a t u r a l equivalence, ;~(x) = (X,Cp(x)), t h e n qo;~ = p a n d ;~ r e s t r i c t s to a m a p p-lb ~q-lb f o r e a c h b ~ B. C l e a r l y p is a q u a s i f i b r a t i o n if a n d o n l y if ;~: ( E , p - l b ) ~ ( N p , q - l b ) is a w e a k e q u i v a l e n c e for all b ~ B. B y L e m m a i . i , t h i s h o l d s if a n d o n l y ;~: p - l b -~ q - l b is a w e a k e q u i v a l e n c e for all b ~ B. W i t h B c o n n e c t e d , t h e f i b e r s q - l b all h a v e t h e s a m e h o m o t o p y type, hence the fibers p-lb all h a v e t h e s a m e w e a k h o m o t o p y t y p e if p is a q u a s i f i b r a t i o n . S a y t h a t a s u b s p a c e A of B is d i s t i n g u i s h e d if t h e r e s t r i c t i o n p: p - l A --, A is a q u a s i f i b r a t i o n . S i n c e p: (E, p - i A , p - l a ) ~ (B, A, a) i n d u c e s a m a p of l o n g e x a c t s e q u e n c e s of h o m o t o p y g r o u p s of t r i p l e s , t h e f i v e l e m m a a n d s o m e t e d i o u s v e r i f i c a t i o n s on t h e ~ i level g i v e t h e following observation. L e m m a 2.2. Let A be a d i s t i n g u i s h e d s u b s p a c e of B. T h e n t h e m a p s p: (E, p - l a ) ~ (B, a) a r e w e a k e q u i v a l e n c e s f o r all a e A if a n d o n l y if t h e m a p p: (E, p - i A ) --, (B, A) is a w e a k e q u i v a l e n c e . T h e f o l l o w i n g a n a l o g of C o r o l l a r y 1.3, w h i c h is t h e h e a r t of t h e DoldT h o r n t h e o r y of q u a s i f i b r a t i o n s , is n o w a d i r e c t c o n s e q u e n c e of T h e o r e m 1.2. This o b s e r v a t i o n is p e r h a p s t h e m a i n p o i n t of o u r w o r k . C o r o l l a r y 2.3. Let (B; B1, B2) be a n e x c i s i v e t r i a d . If B I A B 2 , B2 a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d , t h e n p: E ~ B is a q u a s i f i b r a t i o n . Proof. With (B, A) replaced by (Bi, B I N B 2 ) , Lemma BI, and

2.2 g i v e s t h a t

p: ( p - l B i , p - 1 B I N p - I B 2 ) is a w e a k e q u i v a l e n c e for i = i and

--+ (Bi, B I N B 2 ) By Theorem 1.2,

i = 2.

p: (E, p - l B i ) ~

(B, Bi)

is a w e a k e q u i v a l e n c e for i = 1 a n d i = 2. B y L e m m a 2.2 a p p l i e d w i t h A = Bi, p: (E, p - i b ) -+ (B, b) is a w e a k e q u i v a l e n c e f o r all b E Bi, i = 1 a n d i = 2, a n d t h u s for all b E B. T h e p r o o f of C o r o l l a r y 1.4 a p p l i e s to g i v e t h e q u a s i f i b r a t i o n result. a n a l o g of

that

95 C o r o l l a r y 2.4. Let O be a n o p e n c o v e r of B w h i c h is closed u n d e r finite i n t e r s e c t i o n s . If e a c h U ~ O is d i s t i n g u i s h e d , t h e n p: E ~ B is a quasifibration. These r e s u l t s a r e u s u a l l y used in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e following o b s e r v a t i o n . Recall t h a t a h o m o t o p y ht: B --~ B is a d e f o r m a t i o n of o n t o A if ho = Id, h t ( a ) = a for a e A, a n d h i ( B ) c A. L e m m a 2.5. Let A be a d i s t i n g u i s h e d s u b s p a c e of B. S u p p o s e t h e r e exist d e f o r m a t i o n s h of B o n t o A a n d H of E o n t o p - l A s u c h t h a t poll1 = h l ° p a n d HI: p - l b ~ p - l h l ( b ) is a w e a k e q u i v a l e n c e for all b ¢ B. T h e n p: E --~ B is a q u a s i f i b r a t i o n . Proof. By L e m m a 1.1, HI: (E, p - l b ) -~ ( p - l A , p - l h l ( b ) ) is a w e a k e q u i v a l e n c e for all b ¢ B. P a s s a g e to h o m o t o p y g r o u p s f r o m t h e commutative diagram Hi

(E, p - l b ) -:, (p-IA, p - l h l ( b ) )

pi
(B, b)
gives t h e c o n c l u s i o n .

lp
-~ hl
(A, hl(b))

S a y t h a t B is filtered if it is g i v e n as t h e u n i o n of a n i n c r e a s i n g s e q u e n c e of s u b s p a c e s FnB s u c h t h a t e a c h inclusion FnB ~ F n + I B is a c o f i b r a t i o n . B y a n e v i d e n t c o l i m i t a r g u m e n t , a m a p p: E ~ B is a q u a s i f i b r a t i o n if e a c h FnB is d i s t i n g u i s h e d . The following i m m e d i a t e i n d u c t i v e c o n s e q u e n c e of C o r o l l a r y 2.3 a n d L e m m a 2.5 is p r o b a b l y t h e m o s t g e n e r a l l y useful c r i t e r i o n for T h e o r e m 2.6. Let p to be a q u a s i f i b r a t i o n .

p: E -~ B be a m a p o n t o a filtered s p a c e

B and

s u p p o s e t h a t t h e following c o n d i t i o n s hold. (i) FoB a n d e a c h open s u b s e t of e a c h FnB - F n - I B a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d . (ii) For e a c h n _> 1, t h e r e is a n open n e i g h b o r h o o d Un of F n - I B in FnB a n d t h e r e a r e d e f o r m a t i o n s h of Un o n t o F n - I B a n d H of p - i U n o n t o p - I F n - I B s u c h t h a t poll1 = h l o p a n d HI: p - l b - - ~ p - l h l ( b ) is a w e a k e q u i v a l e n c e for e a c h b ¢ Un. T h e n e a c h FnB is d i s t i n g u i s h e d a n d p: E ~ B is a q u a s i f i b r a t i o n . T h e r e is a n a l t e r n a t i v e c r i t e r i o n t h a t o f t e n applies w h e n a r e built u p f r o m s u c c e s s i v e c o m p a t i b l e p u s h o u t d i a g r a m s . E and ]3

96

Theorem passage

2.7.

Let for

p: E ~ n _> 0

B be a map and, for

of f i l t e r e d s p a c e s s u c h t h a t p: F n E ~ diagram FnB is o b t a i n e d by of t h e f o r m

FnE = p-IFnB

n >_ i ,

to p u s h o u t s

from a commutative

gn
Fn-IE P~ Fn-IB Suppose (i) (ii) FoB that ~ Dn

jn
--~ En

lqn lPn +-- A n --+ Bn. fn in hold.

the following conditions Pn: En -+ B n

is d i s t i n g u i s h e d . is a f i b r a t i o n .

Each map

(iii) E a c h m a p in: A n ~ B n is a c o f i b r a t i o n . (iv) E a c h r i g h t s q u a r e is a p u l l b a c k . (v) gn: ( q n ) - l ( a ) Then each FnB --+ P - l f n ( a ) is a w e a k e q u i v a l e n c e f o r all a ~ An. is d i s t i n g u i s h e d a n d p: E --+ B is a q u a s i f i b r a t i o n . s t e p h e r e is a c o n s e q u e n c e which of t h e s e c o n d of t h e Both refer to a

The inductive commutative

following two lemmas, diagram

a r e d u e to H a r d i e [4].

g
E ~--- D (~) Pi ].q B ~--- A
f

J
~ E' lP' --+ B'.
i

L e m m a 2.8. If, in (~), p, maps g: q - l ( a ) -+ p - l f ( a ) equivalences for all double mapping Proof. from cyclinders

q, a n d p' a r e q u a s i f i b r a t i o n s a n d t h e a n d j: q - l ( a ) ~ ( p ' ) - l i ( a ) are weak the induced map s" M ( j , g ) -~ M(i,f) of is a q u a s i f i b r a t i o n . is t h e u n i o n of for M(j,g). B Uf ( A × [ 0 , 2 / 3 ] ) and

a ~ A, t h e n

M(i,f) = B Uf ( A × I ) Ui B' Ui B', and similarly Lemma 2.5 a n d

(Ax[i/3,1])

The conclusion

follows easily

C o r o l l a r y 2.3. (,~) s a t i s f i e s t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s .

L e m m a 2.9. S u p p o s e t h a t (i) p is a q u a s i f i b r a t i o n . (ii) p' is a f i b r a t i o n . (iii) i (v) is a c o f i b r a t i o n . (iv) T h e r i g h t s q u a r e g: q - l ( a )

is a p u l l b a c k . is a w e a k equivalence induced by f o r all p a ~ A. p' is a

--+ p - l f ( a )

Then the map quasifibration.

r: E Ug E' -~ B Uf B'

and

97 Proof. We have the commutative diagram

IS M ( j , g ) --+ E Ug E'

sl
Since maps lemma. that and x s B or i cx and and j

lr

M(i,f) --+ B Uf B'. ~x a r e c o f i b r a t i o n s ( t h e l a t t e r b y [9, 1.7.14]), t h e q u o t i e n t IS a r e h o m o t o p y equivalences by a standard s is a q u a s i f i b r a t i o n result on The map by the previous x g M(i,f). where If a s A

pushouts

of e q u i v a l e n c e s . By L e m m a --+ r - l ( x )

1.1 a n d a c h a s e of t h e d i a g r a m , IS is a h o m e o m o r p h i s m . ~ p-lf(a).

it s u f f i c e s to s h o w

t3: s - l ( x ) 0 < s _< I ,

is a w e a k e q u i v a l e n c e for e a c h

x s B' - i(A),

If x = (a,s),

t h e n it is e a s y to see t h a t g: q - l ( a )

IS c a n b e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e

weak equivalence

§3.

T h e p r o o f of T h e o r e m

1.2 n-equivalence. In the

W e b e g i n w i t h a n a n a l y s i s of t h e n o t i o n of a n absolute case, we have the following result.

We o m i t t h e proof s i n c e a 1] a n d w e

g e n e r a l i z e d v e r s i o n of t h e b a s e d a n a l o g is g i v e n i n [6, L e m m a s h a l l s h o r t l y be p r o v i n g t h e m o r e d i f f i c u l t r e l a t i v e a n a l o g , Lemma (i) (ii)

3.1.

For e a c h
x c X, on

n _>'1, t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s

about a map q = n-1

f: X -~ Y

are equivalent. f.: ~q(X,x) -~q(Y,fx) q = n. in the following diagram, commute. ii ) bIn×I ~ DI n then there exist c31n is a n i n j e c t i o n for

For e a c h If

a n d a s u r j e c t i o n for h: e = fg and

ffa w h i c h m a k e t h e d i a g r a m io DIn

In

........ io

~

InxI

c il

In

(iii) T h e c o n c l u s i o n of constant

(ii)

holds when

e = fg

on

c3In

and

h

is t h e

homotopy.

98

I n o r d e r to p r o v e t h e r e l a t i v e a n a l o g , w e w i l l need t h e f o l l o w i n g relative Limma homotopy extension property. Let (L; J, K) be a t r i a d s u c h t h a t t h e Then any of f.

3.2 ( r e l a t i v e HEP). J N K -~ K and

inclusions homotopy

J U K --+ L

are cofibrations. H: (L,K) x I

h: ( J , J A K ) x I --~ ( X , A )

of t h e r e s t r i c t i o n of a m a p --+ ( X , A )

f: (L,K) - ~ ( X , A ) Proof.

e x t e n d s to a h o m o t o p y

T h i s h o l d s b y t w o a p p l i c a t i o n s of t h e u s u a l HEP: i0 io
> (JNK) × I

JNK

JUK

(JUK)

x I

$ f/
K io
)

l !

hJ
A and

$
KxI

i

I I
L

f/
io

×
...... ~ L×I

I

Before proceeding, we must dO = (0} For a p a i r (X,A) and jn

f i x some n o t a t i o n s .

Let for n > 1.

= (c)InxI) U (Inx(O}) c In + l a ~ A, we take (X, A, a)] for

with basepoint

~ n ( X , A, a) = [(I n , c3In , j n - t ) , Let i-n = Inx{1} h hi + hj and to b e c3I-n = c~In ×{i} = j n h traversed from hi: f i - 1 = fi

n > 1.

N i n . D e f i n e t h e n e g a t i v e of 1 to 0 and define the sum o b t a i n e d b~ to be t h e h o m o t o p y

a homotopy hi + --traversing

of h o m o t o p i e s

on the interval

[ ( i - l ) / j , i/j]. [8].

The following lemma Lemma (i) 3.3. For each a g A,

a n d its p r o o f a r e d u e to S u g a w a r a the following statements

n > 0,

about a map

f: ( X , A ) -~ (Y,B) For e a c h q = n (ii) injectivity

are equivalent. f~: l r q ( X , A, a) -~ Trq(Y, B, fa) for q = n+l. (When by is a n i n j e c t i o n for r~oX).) n = 0, r e p l a c e t h e then there exist

and a surjection statement

( f ~ ) - l l m ( r ~ o B --+ r~oY) = Im(r~oA ~

If h: e = fg o n d n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g d i a g r a m , and h which make the diagram commute.

8g io il

(Jn,ai-n)

)

(Jn,c7i-n) I ×

~

(Jn c3i-n)

(In+ 1,i-n) io (iii)

-

( I n + 1,i'n ) xt

( il

( I n + l I-n)

T h e c o n c l u s i o n of ( i i ) h o l d s w h e n constant homotopy.

e = fg

on

jn

and

h

is t h e

P r o o f . W e s h a l l l e a v e to t h e r e a d e r t h e m i n o r m o d i f i c a t i o n s of p r o o f s needed when n -- 0. Of c o u r s e , (it) i m p l i e s (iii) t r i v i a l l y , a n d (iii) i m p l i e s (i) b y a p p r o p r i a t e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s . A d i r e c t p r o o f t h a t (i) i m p l i e s (it) is possible, b u t it is s i m p l e r to p r o v e t h a t (iii) i m p l i e s (it) a n d (i) i m p l i e s (iii). (iii) i m p l i e s (it). A s s u m e g i v e n h: e --- fg on d n in of (it). B y a p p l i c a t i o n of r e l a t i v e HEP to t h e t r i a d ( i n + l ; a homotopy j: ( I n + 1 , 1 - n ) x l - ~ (Y,B) of e w h i c h e x t e n d s on j n , (iii) g i v e s a m a p [ : ( I n + l , l -n) ~ (X,A) s u c h t h a t the diagram j n ~-n), t h e r e is h. S i n c e J1 = fg [ = g on j n

and a homotopy k: J1 - fg s u c h t h a t k e x t e n d s t h e c o n s t a n t h o m o t o p y h' a t fg on dn. Choose a h o m o t o p y L:(Jn×l,a]-nxl)xl--+ (Y,B) f r o m h + h ' to h w h i c h is c o n s t a n t at fg on b o t h J n x [ 0 ] a n d J n × { 1 } . By a p p l i c a t i o n of r e l a t i v e HEP to t h e t r i a d ( I n + 2 ; J n x l U I n + I x c ] l , I n ×I), t h e r e is a h o m o t o p y F.: ( I n + 2 ~-n x l ) × l -~ (Y,B) of j + k w h i c h e x t e n d s t h e u n i o n of L a n d t h e c o n s t a n t h o m o t o p i e s a t e a n d f on I n × { 0 ) a n d Inx{1}. Let h = [ l : e : f[. T h e n h e x t e n d s h, as r e q u i r e d . (i) constant a n d let (In, r31 n, i m p l i e s (iii). A s s u m e t h a t e = fg on j n a n d t h a t h is t h e h o m o t o p y in t h e d i a g r a m of (it). Let * = ( 0 , - - - , 0, 1) s I n + l a = g(~) a n d b = f(a). S i n c e ( d n c)l-n ~) is e q u i v a l e n t to dn-l), g: ( j n c3~n, .) --~ (X, A, a) m a y be regarded as

representing an element of Tin(X, A, a). Since e is defined on In + l w i t h e(l -n) c B, fg r e p r e s e n t s t h e t r i v i a l e l e m e n t of = n ( Y , B, b). S i n c e f is i n j e c t i v e on = n , t h e r e is a h o m o t o p y j: ( j n , 8j-n, . ) x I --~ (X, A, a) f r o m g to t h e t r i v i a l m a p ~ a t a. R e l a t i v e HEP g i v e s a h o m o t o p y K:(In+l,l-n)xl-~ (Y,B) of e w h i c h e x t e n d s fj. S i n c e fJ1 = B, K I : (I n + l , c)l n + l , j n ) -~ (y, B, b) r e p r e s e n t s a n e l e m e n t of = n + 1 ( Y , B, b).
S i n c e f is s u r j e c t i v e on = n + l , t h e r e is a m a p J l : (I n + l , c31n+1, j n ) -~ (X, A, a) a n d a h o m o t o p y L: KI = fJ1 of m a p s of t r i p l e s . A n o t h e r a p p l i c a t i o n of r e l a t i v e HEP ( w i t h u n i t i n t e r v a l r e v e r s e d ) g i v e s a h o m o t o p y J: ( I n + l , ) - n ) x l --* (X,A) w h i c h e n d s at J1 a n d e x t e n d s j. Let g = J0.

100

Certainly on j n xI.

~ e x t e n d s j0 = g, a n d w e h a v e t h e h o m o t o p y K + L - f J : fg Choose a n y h o m o t o p y M: ( d n x I , c)Fn x I ) x I -~ (Y,B) f r o m

fg

fj+lS-fj t o t h e c o n s t a n t h o m o t o p y a t fg s u c h t h a t M is c o n s t a n t a t fg on both jnx{0} a n d j n x{1}. R e l a t i v e HEP g i v e s a h o m o t o p y ~I: (I n + 2 , r n x I ) x I ~ ( Y , B ) of K + L - f J w h i c h e x t e n d s t h e u n i o n of M a n d t h e c o n s t a n t h o m o t o p i e s a t e a n d f~ on I n + i x { 0 } a n d I n + i x { i } . Let = ~,/I1: e f~; h is c o n s t a n t at fg on jn, as required.

P r o o f of T h e o r e m 1.2. R e p l a c i n g X b y t h e m a p p i n g c y l i n d e r of f w i t h its evident induced decomposition as an excisive triad, we may assume w i t h o u t loss of g e n e r a l i t y t h a t f is a n i n c l u s i o n . S u p p o s e g i v e n m a p s g : ( J q , 0 I - q ) ~ (X,Xi) a n d e : ( I q + l , I - q ) ~ (Y,Yi) s u c h t h a t fg : e on J q , w h e r e 0 <_ q _< n a n d i = 1 o r i = 2. B y t h e p r e v i o u s l e m m a , it s u f f i c e s to c o n s t r u c t a n e x t e n s i o n g: ( I q + l , I q ) ~ (X,Xi) of g a n d a h o m o t o p y Fa:e= fg of m a p s ( I q + l , I q ) ~ (Y,Yi) s u c h t h a t ~n r e s t r i c t s on J q to the constant homotopy h a t fg. C u b i c a l l y s u b d i v i d e Iq + i so f i n e l y t h a t t h e i m a g e u n d e r e of e a c h closed s u b c u b e lies e n t i r e l y in t h e i n t e r i o r of Y j, j = 1 o r j = 2. S i n c e f is a n i n c l u s i o n , t h e i m a g e u n d e r g of t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n of e a c h s u b c u b e w i t h J q lies e n t i r e l y in t h e i n t e r i o r of Xj for t h e s a m e j. R e g a r d Iq +1 as I q x I . T h e s u b d i v i s i o n of Iq + t g i v e s a c u b i c a l s u b d i v i s i o n of ICl a n d a p a r t i t i o n of I i n t o s u b i n t e r v a l s Ir = [Vr-l,Vr], where 0=v0<vl< - . . <Vs = i . W e s h a l l c o n s t r u c t g h t o n t h e s p a c e s K × I t , w h e r e K r u n s t h r o u g h t h e c u b i c a l cells of a n d 1 -< r _< s, p r o c e e d i n g b y i n d u c t i o n on r a n d , for fixed r, b y i n d u c t i o n on t h e d i m e n s i o n of K. W e shall so a r r a n g e t h i n g s t h a t (a) (b) g ( K × I r ) c Xj a n d ~nt(Kxlr) c Yj if e ( K x I r ) c I n t ( Y j ) ; { ( K × { v r ] ) C X1 Cl X2 a n d [~nt(K×{vr}) c Y I Cl Y2 if e ( K × { v r } ) c Y1 Cl Y2. and Iq

S i n c e e ( I q ) c Xi, (a) a n d t h e c a s e r = s of (b) e n s u r e t h a t g ( I q ) c Xi a n d h t ( [ q ) c Yi. At e a c h s t a g e , t h e g i v e n m a p s g a n d h t = fg on oq and the induction hypothesis specify maps { and ht on c ? K x I r U K x { v r - 1 } , w h e r e OK is e m p t y i f K is a v e r t e x . If e i t h e r e ( K × { v r } ) is n o t c o n t a i n e d in Y1 A Y2 o r e ( K x I r ) is c o n t a i n e d in t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e i n t e r i o r s of Y1 a n d Y 2 , w e s i m p l y c h o o s e a representation (d,u) of ( K x l r , c ~ K × I r U K × { v r - 1 } ) a s a D R - p a i r a n d s p e c i f y { a n d ~at on K x I t b y [ ed2t(x) if 0 _< t -< 1 / 2

~(x)

~dl(x)

and

~tCx)

J

{ h2t-ldl(x)

if I/2 _< t _< i.

101

If e ( K x { v r } ) is c o n t a i n e d in Y1 A Y2 a n d e ( K x l r ) is c o n t a i n e d in t h e i n t e r i o r of j u s t one of t h e Y j, t h e i n d u c t i o n h y p o t h e s i s g i v e s

~: (SKxlr U Ir X{Vr-l}, c3Kx{vr}) and a homotopy h: e = f~ of maps

--~ (Xj, Xl Fl X2)

(c3Kxlr U I r x { v r - 1 } , 8K×{vr})
A p p l i c a t i o n of (ii) of L e m m a 3.3 to t h e

-*

(Yj, YI N Y2)-

n-equivalence

f: (X j , XI N X2) --~ (Y j , Y1 n Y2) gives t h e r e q u i r e d e x t e n s i o n s of ~ a n d ~qt to K x l r .

Bibliography 1. 2. 5. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. A. Dold a n d R. K. Lashof. P r i n c i p a l q u a s i f i b r a t i o n s a n d f i b r e h o m o t o p y e q u i v a l e n c e of bundles. III. J. M a t h . 3(1959), 2 8 5 - 3 0 5 . A. Dold a n d R. Thorn. O u a s i f a s e r u n g e n u n d u n e n d l i c h e s y m m e t r i s c h e P r o d u k t e . A n n a l s of M a t h . 67(1958), 2 3 9 - 2 8 1 . B r a y t o n G r a y . H o m o t o p y T h e o r y . A c a d e m i c Press. 1975. K. A. Hardie. O u a s i f i b r a t i o n s a n d a d j u n c t i o n . Pacific d. M a t h . 35(1970), 3 8 9 - 3 9 7 . d. P. M a y . Classifying S p a c e s a n d F i b r a t i o n s . M e m o i r s A m e r . M a t h . Soc. 155. 1975. J. P. M a y . The d u a l W h i t e h e a d t h e o r e m s . L o n d o n M a t h . Soc. L e c t u r e Note Series Vol 86, 1983, 4 6 - 5 4 . D. Ouillen. H i g h e r a l g e b r a i c K - t h e o r y I. S p r i n g e r L e c t u r e N o t e s in M a t h e m a t i c s Vol 541, 1973, 8 5 - 1 4 7 . M. S u g a w a r a . On a c o n d i t i o n t h a t a s p a c e is a n H - s p a c e . M a t h . J. O k a y a m a Univ. 6(1957), 1 0 9 - 1 2 9 . G. W. W h i t e h e a d . E l e m e n t s of H o m o t o p y T h e o r y . S p r i n g e r . 1978.