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Feminist movement


Feminist movement
The feminist movement (also known as the Women's Movement, Women's Liberation, or Women's Lib) refers to a series of campaigns for reforms on issues such as reproductive rights, domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, women's suffrage, sexual harassment and sexual violence. The movement's priorities vary among nations and communities and range from opposition to female genital mutilation in one country or to the glass ceiling in another. The movement began in the western world Feminist suffrage parade in New York City, May 6, 1912. in the late 18th century and has gone through three waves: the first wave was oriented around the station of middle or upper-class white women, and involved suffrage and political equality. Second-wave feminism attempted to further combat social and cultural inequalities. Third-wave feminism (c.1980-c.1990)[Doubtful. See talk topic: third wave started later and not ended.] (cited from Open Boundaries University text book), includes renewed campaigning for women’s greater influence in politics.

The history of feminist movements has been divided into three "waves" by feminist scholars.[1] different aspects of the same feminist issues.

Each deals with

The history, events, and structure of the feminist movement is closely related to the individuals at the time, specific protests that took place, and the broader transformations taking place in American culture. The feminist movement worked and continues to work against the status quo in American society. According to bell hooks, "Feminism is a struggle against sexist oppression. Therefore, it is necessarily a struggle to eradicate the ideology of domination that permeates Western culture on various levels, as well as a commitment to reorganizing society so that the self-development of people can take precedence over imperialism, economic expansion and material desires."[3]

First wave
The first wave refers to the feminist movement of the 18th through early 20th centuries, which dealt mainly with the women's suffrage. Writers such as Virginia Woolf are associated with the ideas of the first wave of feminism. In her book A Room of One's Own, Woolf "describes how men socially and psychically dominate women". The argument of the book is that "women are simultaneously victims of themselves as well as victims of men and are upholders of society by acting as mirrors to men".[4] She recognizes the social constructs that restrict women in society and uses literature to contextualize it for other women. The term "first-wave" was coined retrospectively after the term second-wave feminism began to be used to describe a newer feminist movement that focused as much on fighting social and cultural inequalities as further political inequalities.[5] Feminism is a collection of movements aimed at defining, establishing, and defending equal rights [1][2][3]. Feminism is mainly focused on women's issues, but because feminism seeks gender equality, some feminists argue

property. Feminist activists have campaigned for women's rights—such as in contract. second-wave feminism was largely concerned with other issues of equality. of which Stanton was president). Mary Beth. This idea was touched on in the writing of Woolf. "The key event that marked the reemergence of this movement in the postwar era was the surprise popularity of Betty Friedan's 1963 book The Feminine Mystique. others resembling the diversity and radicalism of much of second-wave feminism (such as Stanton. and Helen Pitts. middle-class.[6] The second wave of feminist activity began in the early 1960s and lasted through the late 1980s. sexual harassment. If first-wave feminism focused upon absolute rights such as suffrage. It built on what had been achieved in the first wave. Some of the earlier forms of feminism have been criticized for being geared towards white.) During this time feminists campaigned against cultural and political inequalities. as of the efforts of the Suffragists. Anthony. The movement encouraged women to understand aspects of their own personal lives as deeply politicized. 2 Second wave The second wave (1960s-1980s) was concerned with gender inequality in laws and culture. which they saw as inextricably linked. and was adapted to apply not only to the gender roles of women in the household or at work. middle class wives and mothers like herself who. Writing as a housewife and mother (though she had had a long story of political activism. What helped trigger this second wave was the book written by Betty Friedan. and the National Woman Suffrage Association. This led to the creation of ethnically-specific or multiculturalist forms of feminism. they have advocated for workplace rights. and voting—while also promoting women's rights to bodily integrity and autonomy and reproductive rights. such as the end to discrimination. and reflective of a sexist structure of power. Simone de Beauvoir is associated with this wave because of her idea of women as "the other". A people A Nation pg 865. Feminists—that is. 2005 Houghton Mifflin Company New York. including equal pay and opportunities for careers and to start businesses.[7] [8] . in a variety of disciplines. blamed the role itself and the society that created it" (Norton. some belonging to conservative Christian groups (such as Frances Willard and the Woman's Christian Temperance Union). Anthony. In the United States leaders of this movement included Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. who each campaigned for the abolition of slavery prior to championing women's right to vote. as well). the vague sense of dissatifaction plaguing housewives was a staple topic for women's magazines in the 1950s. and. Other important leaders include Lucy Stone. Matilda Joslyn Gage. and sexual assault. and that men are also harmed by sexism and gender roles. educated perspectives. Olympia Brown. In Britain. first-wave feminism is considered to have ended with the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (1919) granting women the right to vote. looking at their nice homes and families. They have opposed domestic violence. instead of blaming individual women for failing to adapt to women's proper role. and began adapting the ideas to America. persons practicing feminism—may be persons of either sex. the Suffragettes campaigned for the women's vote. Feminist theory emerged from these feminist movements[4][5] and includes general theories and theories about the origins of inequality. In economics. American first-wave feminism involved a wide range of women. Friedan described the problem with no name the dissatisfaction of educated. In the United States. Beauvoir set the tone for later feminist theory.Feminist movement that men's liberation is therefore a necessary part of feminism. about the social construction of sex and gender. wondered guiltily if that was all there was to life was not new. in some cases. which was eventually granted − to some women in 1918 and to all in 1928 − as much because of the part played by British women during the First World War. but also their sexuality. But Friedan.[5] The feminist activist and author Carol Hanisch coined the slogan "The Personal is Political" which became synonymous with the second wave.

Chela Sandoval. Freeman. the rallying of the young is the emphasis that has stuck within third wave feminism. All women . American feminist and writer.Native American women. sex workers. and many other feminists of color.[11] Part of what made feminism so successful was the way women in different situations developed their own variants and organized for the goals most important to them.[11] The work of these women also changed the popular understanding of marriage and the very meaning of life. life expectancy increased. Jewish women.Feminist movement 3 Third wave In the early 1990s. to incorporate a greater number of women who may not have previously identified with the dynamics and goals that were established at the start of the movement. Though criticized as merely a continuation of the second wave. The efforts and accomplishments of these women and organizations throughout the women's movement inspired many authors of that time to write about their personal experiences with feminism. This drive to register voters in poor minority communities was surrounded with rhetoric that focused on rallying young feminists. called for a new subjectivity in feminist voice. What made a change in gender order feel necessary to so much of society was the fate of the family wage system: the male breadwinner/female homemaker idea that shaped government policies and employment in businesses. Catholic women. birth rates declined. equal access to school athletics. Evans wrote her experiences in books such as "The Roots of Women's Liberation in the Civil Right Movement and the New Left" and "Born for Liberty". Demographic changes started sweeping industrial society. working class women. inclusion in affirmative action.[5] [10] Scope As a movement. They sought to negotiate prominent space within feminist thought for consideration of race related subjectivities. The feminist movement as such grew during the third wave. bell hooks. In the years of the movement women accomplished many of the goals they set out to do. and had a greater focus on developing the different achievements of women in America. wrote several feminist articles on issues such as social movements.[9] In addition to being a response to the backlash against initiatives and movements created by second-wave feminism. They won protection from employment discrimination. Both women participated in the movement and wrote about their firsthand knowledge of feminism. education. these women produced the deepest transformation in American society and enlisted the largest number of participants. abortion law reform. but began to shift with the Freedom Ride 1992. Cherríe Moraga. now termed the third wave of feminism. New public policies emerged fitted to changing family forms and individual life cycles. a movement. Maxine Hong Kingston. . greater representation in media.described what gender equality would mean for them and worked together to achieve it. Feminist leaders rooted in the second wave like Gloria Anzaldúa. and more. and women with disabilities . the third wave made its own unique contributions. Underlying the specific conflicts in political economy and culture made gender issues matter like never before to activists on all sides of the issue and to millions of other ordinary citizens. women came to want more out of their marriages and from men. This focus on the intersection between race and gender remained prominent through the Hill-Thomas hearings. For many. and women were entering the paid labor force in large numbers. and themselves. arose in response to the perceived failures of the second wave feminism.[11] Historian Nancy Cott wrote "feminism was an impulse that was impossible to translate into a program without centrifugal results"[11] about the first wave of the movement. Jo Freeman and Sara Evans were two such authors. congressional passage of an equal rights movement. public policy toward women and many other important pieces about women. political parties. Audre Lorde. Her works focused more on young women activists recognizing that the "personal is political" as well as showing how these women used discussion sessions to expand understanding of the social roots of personal problems and worked towards developing different practices to address those issues. the third wave was less reactive.

‘the oppression of lesbians as a legitimate concern of feminism’"[13] The feminist movement continues to support and encourage women to pursue their goals as individuals who deserve equal opportunity. "[oppressed] women. felt that our only response to white."[3] The three waves of Feminism are examples of how values have been identified. pessimism will diminish it"[12] allowed women who therefore achieved some sense of . While differing during the progression of waves. and were able to dedicate time and energy into making change.[12] The feminist movement has been an ongoing presence in American culture.[17] The term "liberation" is one that needs to be contextualized within American society. Keeping in mind that the "Optimism about the outcome of a collective challenge will thus enhance the probability of participation.Feminist movement 4 Cultural dynamics The feminist movement's agenda includes acting as a counter to the putatively patriarchal strands in the dominant culture. Feminist thought began to take a more substantial shape during the Enlightenment with such thinkers as Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and the Marquis de Condorcet championing women's education. it is a movement that has sought to challenge the political structure. Although antecedents to feminism may be found far back before the 18th century. The beginning of the feminist movement was seen as exclusive in that. therefore."[3] according to bell hooks. Liberation in the U.[15] By 1968. and transformed. the beginning of the feminist movement in America was a specific agenda for a certain group of women.S. It was only in the fall of 1971 that NOW (National Organization of Women) "acknowledged. the seeds of the modern feminist movement were planted during the late part of that century. "The Foundation of future feminist struggle must be solidly based on a recognition of the need to eradicate the underlying cultural basis and causes of sexism and other forms of group oppression. hegemonic dominance of feminist movement is to trash. a late medieval writer. although the term Women's Liberation Front appeared in the magazine Ramparts. power holders. For example. it was starting to refer to the whole women's movement. frames function to organize experience and guide action. was possibly the earliest feminist in the western tradition. there are ways in which to break down the timeline and recognize how women have framed the ways they have achieved different goals throughout history.[16] Bra-burning also became associated with the movement. It is assuming that the oppressed are all women in America. The phrase "Women's Liberation" was first used in the United States in 1964. and the feminist movement as a whole has worked to redefine certain standards of its agenda in order to include a broader spectrum of people. She is believed to be the first woman to make a living out of writing. The different waves of feminism are not only reflective of the cultural evolution in America since the 1920s. It is also the way in which the feminist movement used different social movement tactics to encourage women in America to become active and motivate individuals to make change for all women in America. according to bell hooks. whether individual or collective".. shared. The women who made the first efforts towards women's suffrage came from more stable and privileged backgrounds. Journals for women which focused on issues like science became popular during this period as well. "By rendering events or occurrences meaningful.. and the group of women targeted at the beginning has since changed.[14] and first appeared in print in 1966. in 1785. reject. or dismiss feminism. Initial developments for women. mainly benefited white women in the middle and upper classes. Although the feminist movement has spanned almost a century. bourgeois. and cultural beliefs or practices. Thus. The work of the feminist movement has had liberation as a specific goal for women but the agenda has evolved as culture has transformed and the issues being addressed by the feminist movement have increased. the movement later included women of different races and sexual orientations. a city in the south of the Dutch republic. Christine de Pizan. The first scientific society for women was founded in Middelburg.

and the right to own property. These organizations were primarily concerned with the legal and economic obstacles facing women.[20] [21] It has also led to broad employment for women at more equitable wages. In the OECD countries surveyed. men did up to 19 minutes more work per day than women in five out of the eighteen OECD countries surveyed: Canada. The second branch identified as the younger branch included a larger number of smaller groups that focused specifically on different activities. salary. The United Nations Human Development Report 2004 estimated that when both paid employment and unpaid household tasks are accounted for. on average women work more than men. In rural areas of selected developing countries women performed an average of 20% more work than men.[19] By increasing awareness about women's issues individuals were motivated to educate themselves. college campus. the right to initiate divorce proceedings and "no fault" divorce. class. who argues that this movement glossed over race and class and thus failed to address "the issues that divided women". and the motivation to create change came from groups like Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) who targeted college campus communities to get involved. and sexual orientation. feminist. She highlighted the lack of minority voices in the women's movement in her book Feminist theory from margin to center (1984). There are multiple dimensions to the movement that encompass all different aspects of American culture. class. Human Rights of Women. and cities all over the country. Hungary. specifically women who were not white and part of the middle to upper class. and access to university education. The transitions made throughout history.Feminist movement liberation to feel accomplished with the time and energy they were dedicating to the movement. The efforts of the younger branch was influenced by the events and actions of the Civil Rights Movement. The origins of women's liberation in America can be identified as being part of two branches that essentially started the feminist movement and more specifically the actions towards women's additional 102 minutes per day. "Women perform 66 percent of the world’s work. however. However.[18] The division between women in America has been the result of differences of race. or 105% of men's total work-an additional 20 minutes per day. whether it was through experience or academics."[23] The social climate in America has definitely evolved throughout history. Denmark. In America "most people are socialized to think in terms of opposition rather . but earn 10 percent of the income and own 1 percent of the property. 5 Social changes The feminist movement effected change in Western society. The branches help to identify the efforts that have gone on in social circles. The older of the two branches included the formation of organizations such as Women's Equity Action League. helped to expand the efforts of the feminist movement to include women of different race. gender roles. One of the most vocal critics of the women's liberation movement has been the African-American feminist and intellectual Gloria Jean Watkins (who uses the pseudonym "bell hooks"). including women's suffrage. Participation lacked in respect to the broader spectrum of women in America. These two branches are important to recognize because they allow the history of the feminist movement to be contextualized within American culture." It is important not to view race or gender with an eye of oppression (Bhavnani 80). or 120% of men's total work. and opportunities of women in the workforce.[19] The younger branch makes up many different groups which tended to form among friend circles creating challenges like diversifying the groups. the right of women to make individual decisions regarding pregnancy (including access to contraceptives and abortion). on average women performed 5% more work than men. It has been "Racism [that] keeps women from uniting against sexism. and the National Organization of Women (NOW). Different actions have been seen to be highlights of women's liberation. and sexual orientation. and feminist theory are no longer a monolithic term. and The Netherlands. The definitions of feminism. but it was a goal of the greater movement rather than one specific moment in history. produce 50 percent of the food. The difference between the older and younger branches is their organization and structure. Israel. The older branch is more likely to work with the structure of society whereas the younger group tend to defy the institutionalized aspect of working with the system.[22] According to UN Women. Men and women worked to address issues of working women.

using "Ms. Several studies provide statistical evidence that the financial income of married men does not affect their rate of attending to household duties. to an extent. but also the recognition of injustices and the ways in which both men and women can work to change them. while not bearing children at a higher rate than in the 1950s. women may prevent the equal participation of men in housework and parenting. Kristin Luker discusses the effect of feminism on teenage women's choices to bear children. young women. for example. but women still spend more time on housework. hence poor women have a low chance of finding a husband who will be able to provide reliable financial support due to the rise of unemployment from more workers on the market. as well as reproductive rights.[25] [26] Feminist writer Cathy Young responds to Hochschild's assertions by arguing that in some cases. or the ironic use of the term "herstory" instead of "history".[30] Although research suggests that. She says that as childbearing out of wedlock has become more socially acceptable. that they can do nothing to break the pattern of domination"[3] 6 Language Feminists are often proponents of using non-sexist language. such as "humanity" instead of "mankind". as a category. two different agendas: one aims to clarify the inclusion of both sexes or genders (gender-inclusive language). both in and out of wedlock.[31] .[3] Social changes have not only included the right to vote.[27] Feminist criticisms of men's contributions to child care and domestic labor in the Western middle class are typically centered around the idea that it is unfair for women to be expected to perform more than half of a household's domestic work and child care when both members of the relationship perform an equal share of work outside the home. is rarely worth marking in language (gender-neutral language).[24] Heterosexual relationships The increased entry of women into the workplace beginning in the 20th century has affected gender roles and the division of labor within households.Feminist movement than compatibility". on average. Her explanation for this is that the economic prospects for poor men are slim. at least. Feminists are also often proponents of using gender-inclusive language. in order to create change it is essential to recognize that "exploited and oppressed groups of women are usually encouraged by those in power to feel that their situation is hopeless. According to bell hooks. Gender-neutral language is sometimes described as non-sexist language by advocates and politically-correct language by opponents. and found no support for negative stereotypes of feminists." to refer to both married and unmarried women. especially poor young women. The advocacy of gender-neutral language reflects. men and women. spend about equal amounts of time working. studies of undergraduates and older adults have shown that feminism has positive impacts on relationship health for women and sexual satisfaction for men. greater equality in the workforce.[28] [29] In Dubious Conceptions. Gender-neutral language is a description of language usages which are aimed at minimizing assumptions regarding the biological sex of human referents. now see less of a reason to get married before having a child. both women and men perceive feminism to be in conflict with romance. or "he or she" in place of "he" where the gender is unknown. from just men to women and men. the other proposes that gender. Sociologist Arlie Russell Hochschild in The Second Shift and The Time Bind presents evidence that in two-career couples.

[35] Islamic feminism is concerned with the role of women in Islam and aims for the full equality of all Muslims. and the overall treatment of women in the church. However. Roman Catholicism.[32] The feminist movement has affected religion and theology in profound ways. Conservative and Reconstructionist Judaism. most agree that God does not discriminate on the basis of biologically determined characteristics such as sex. and claims of moral deficiency and inferiority of abilities compared to men. and sharia (law) towards the creation of a more equal and just society. in public and private life. According to Judith Plaskow. In its modern form. the exemption from positive time-bound mitzvot. Rosemary Radford Ruether provided a systematic critique of Christian theology from a feminist and theist point of view.[37] Jewish feminism seeks to improve the religious. regardless of gender. and women's inability to function as witnesses and to initiate divorce. In some of these groups. Some of the goals of feminist theology include increasing the role of women among the clergy and religious authorities. women are now allowed to be ordained as clergy. These trends. scriptures. and Orthodox Christianity. While there is no standard set of beliefs among Christian feminists. and in Reform.[36] Advocates of the movement seek to highlight the deeply rooted teachings of equality in the Quran and encourage a questioning of the patriarchal interpretation of Islamic teaching through the Quran. Although rooted in Islam. male dominance in Christian marriage. reinterpreting male-dominated imagery and language about God. In liberal branches of Protestant Christianity. the Christian feminist movement chose to concentrate on the language of religion because they viewed the historic gendering of God as male as a result of the pervasive influence of patriarchy. have been resisted within most sects of Islam. Feminist theology is a movement that reconsiders the traditions. They also are concerned with the balance of parenting between mothers and fathers.[33] [34] Early feminists such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton concentrated almost solely on "making women equal to men". Their major issues are the ordination of women. Christian feminism is a branch of feminist theology which seeks to reinterpret and understand Christianity in light of the equality of women and men. and studying images of women in the religion's sacred texts. and their perspectives are now sought out in developing new statements of belief. women are now allowed to be ordained as rabbis and cantors.Feminist movement 7 Religion See also: Christian feminism Dianic Wicca Islamic feminism Jewish feminism New feminism. some women are gradually obtaining positions of power that were formerly only held by men. legal. practices.[38] . and social status of women within Judaism and to open up new opportunities for religious experience and leadership for Jewish women. who has focused on feminism in Reform Judaism. the movement can be traced to the early 1970s in the United States. the movement's pioneers have also utilized secular and Western feminist discourses. hadith (sayings of Muhammad). and theologies of religions from a feminist perspective. the main issues for early Jewish feminists in these movements were the exclusion from the all-male prayer group or minyan. however. determining the place of women in relation to career and motherhood.

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