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# COMS4104/7104 Microwave Subsystems and Antennas

Tutorial 7
By: Wee Chang Khor

School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering The University of Queensland St Lucia, Qld, Australia 4072
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Question 1 – Slide 1

Q1. A linear dipole antenna with a non-uniform distribution of current over its length l can be considered as having a shorter effective length Le over which the current is assumed uniform and equal to its peak value.

The radiation resistance of a straight wire antenna can be approximately determined using an expression for the radiation resistance of the Hertzian dipole by replacing dl by the effective length Le Determine the radiation resistance of the following antennas: (a) Having the triangular distribution of current.

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Question 1 – Slide 2 2 Assume Peak of Triangle is equal to 1 Antenna Radiation Resistance 2 Effective Length ⎛ dl ⎞ Ra = 80π ⎜ ⎟ ⎝λ⎠ L *1 Le = area = 2 Since dl = Le = L/2 2 Antenna Radiation Resistance ⎛ L ⎞ Ra = 80π ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2λ ⎠ 2 3 .

Question 1 – Slide 3 L b) A half-wave dipole having the sinusoidal distribution of current Effective Length ⎛ 2π ⎞ Le = ∫ sin ⎜ Z ⎟dz ⎝ λ ⎠ 0 λ ⎛ 2π ⎞ 2 cos⎜ z⎟ =− 2π ⎝ λ ⎠0 λ = π Since dl = Le 2 2 λ Antenna Radiation Resistance ⎛ λ ⎞ Ra = 80π ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ πλ ⎠ ≅ 80 Ω 4 .

5 × 10 2 ⎛ dl ⎞ Ra = 80π 2 ⎜ ⎟ = 80π 2 ⎜ ⎜ 0.5 × 10 4 m λ= = 1 f 6 × 10 4 s 2 2 Radiation Resistance ⎛ 2. A radiator approximates to an electric dipole of length 250m at a frequency of 60kHz. Assuming the current is maintained constant over the length. Electric Dipole Length Range dl = 250 m f = 60 kHz R = 105 m (100km) Radiated Power PT = 103 W 3 × 10 8 Wavelength m c s = 0. determine the radiation resistance.5 × 10 4 ⎝λ⎠ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ≅2 Ω ⎟ ⎠ 5 .Question 2 – Slide 1 Q2. Find the maximum electric field strength at a distance of 100km when the radiated power is 1kW.

5 or 3/2 6 .Question 2 – Slide 2 Gain = Directivity x Efficiency Directivity of Dipole = 1.5 Ideal Case. Efficiency = 1 Gain = 1.

Question 2 – Slide 3 2 W Emax = 2 m Ω Power Density 2 Emax PT G= 2 4πR 2η Emax Emax = Emax Emax WΩ = m2 IVΩ 2 m E 10 ⎛3⎞ = 5 2 ⎜ ⎟ 4π (10 ) ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2(120Ω ) η = 120π Ω 3 2 max Electric Field Strength E max ≅ 3 mV m VV = m2 V = m 7 .

8 . The magnitude of the electric field strength (E) at a distance (R) metres from a radiating current element (Idl) (Am) in the plane perpendicular to and bisecting the length of the element is given by: 60π Idl V E= ( ) m λR Use this relationship in conjunction with the effective length to calculate the gain in dB of the dipole antenna.m. compared with that of an isotropic antenna.s).Question 3 – Slide 1 Draw a figure showing the approximate current distribution along a half-wave dipole which is centre-fed with a current 2A (r.

Question 3 – Slide 2 60πI λ 60 I ⋅ = E= λR π R 120 Erms = mV / m R 2 I rms Ra 2 2 × 74 296 PT = = = Pd = 2 2 2 4πR 4πR 4πR 4πR 2 Power Density Isotopic Antenna Power Density at the same point due to dipole radiating total power PT 2 Erms Pd′ = 120π 120 2 R2 = 120π = 120 πr 2 mV / m Gain Pd′ 120 4πR 2 G= = 2× = 1.1 dB Pd πR 296 9 .62 or 2.

Question 4 – Slide 1 2 1 ⎡ Voc ⎤ PL = ⎢ Rr ⎥ 2 ⎣ 2 Rr ⎦ 2 Pavail 1 Vo = 2 4 Ra 10 .

Question 5 – Slide 1 Q5. as shown in Fig. element #1 CIo element #2 Io The current at the centre of element #1 is I0 11 and at the centre of element #2 it is CI0. . d apart. Q5. An array is constructed from two λ/2 dipole antennas placed a distance. where C is a complex number.

Question 5 – Slide 2 The electric field far from a λ/2 dipole situated at the origin and carrying the same current as antenna #1 is: cos( cos θ ) − jkR r r e 2 Eθ = aθ Const sin θ R Array Factor π Element Factor + Constant 12 .

Question 5 – Slide 3 π ⎡ e − jkr1 e − jkr2 ⎤ +C Io ⎢ ⎥ r2 ⎦ r1 ⎣ e − jkr2 e − jkr1 + I oC Io r2 r1 cos( cos θ ) − jkR r r e 2 Eθ = aθ Const sin θ R v Etotal ⎛π ⎞ cos⎜ cos θ ⎟ ⎡ e − jkr1 e − jkr2 ⎤ v 2 ⎝ ⎠I = aθ Const +C o⎢ ⎥ sin θ r1 r2 ⎦ ⎣ e − jkr1 e − jkr2 = +C r1 r2 e − jkr1 ≅ 1 + Ce − jk (r2 − r1 ) r [ ] Far Field Approximation 13 .

Question 5(a) – Slide 1 e − jkr1 1 + Ce − jk (r2 − r1 ) r = 1 + Ce − jk (r2 − r1 ) [ ] [ + jkd cos χ ] Path difference: r1 – r2 = d cos χ Array Factor A(χ ) = 1 + Ce λ d= 2 Since k= 2π λ C=1 Solve for χ = 0° to 180° 14 .

Question 5(b) – Single Dipole .1 Single dipole z x XY plane XZ plane x y Top View Side View 15 .

Question 5(b1) – Array Factor – (C=1) Array Factor Broadside pattern Point radiators x y 16 .

Y plane x X = y Array Factor X Single dipole = Total Pattern 17 .Question 5(b1) – Slide 1 X .

Z plane x X = y Array Factor X Single dipole = Total Pattern 18 .Question 5(b1) – Slide 2 X .

Question 5(b2) – Array Factor – (C=-1) Array Factor End-fire pattern x y 19 .

Y plane End-fire pattern x X =x y Array Factor X Single dipole = Total Pattern 20 .Question 5(b2) – Slide 1 X .

Z plane End-fire pattern x X = y Array Factor X Single dipole = Total Pattern 21 .Question 5(b2) – Slide 2 X .

Question 5(c) – Slide 1 Describe. how the obtained radiation patterns could be used to draw the radiation pattern of a half-wave dipole located at the height H=0.5 λ – d = 0. + – 2H = 0.25λ above a conducting ground plane.5λ and C = -1 + X = Total Pattern 22 Single Array X dipole = Factor .

Next Week’s Tutorial • Tutorial 8 • Super Final Examination Tips 23 .