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Stage 5 - Construction

Printable version of Stage 5

5.01 Overview
OBJECTIVE RATIONALE Functional facility delivered within cost, time and quality parameters. Successfully discharge building contract

KEY OUTPUT - Completed building

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5.02 Timescales
The construction timescales will vary according to the size, complexity and location of the project. The following table indicates approximate construction periods for a range of costs, based on a traditionally procured project. Contract Value (000’s) £150 £200 £250 £300 £400 £500 £750 Construction Period (months) 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7 7.5 9

The Project Manager/Lead Consultant. ^ Back to top 5.2.03 Sure Start client and design guides This Stage should be read in conjunction with “Building for Sure Start: a client guide”. 6.3. ^ Back to top 5. Agrément Board criteria and other appropriate standards. The achievement of these standards rests with the appointed Contractor. 6.04 Quality The Design Team will specify goods.05 Contractor's programmme .£1000 £1250 £1500 £2000 ^ Back to top 11 12. Sections 6. through the design team will monitor quality of output on site to ensure compliance with design details and specifications. materials and standards of construction to be incorporated into the project using relevant British Standards.5 15 20 5. Codes of Practice.6.

In defining the construction period within the master programme.A master programme will have been established during brief development at Stage 1 (1. setting out the sequence and duration of all the different construction activities. to achieve completion within this period. working back from the projected contract completion date. including the time that the design team assesses as reasonable for the construction process. the client may also have identified whether there are any circumstances (relating say to financial or operational issues) whereby access to certain parts of the project will be necessary prior to formal completion and handover of the project as a whole. This time period will be stated within the Construction Contract documentation.08). Additionally. as they may impact on intended progress and sequence of working. It is a normal contractual requirement for the contractor to develop a detailed construction programme.09 below). A typical construction programme may look like: . ordering and payment for services can be pre-planned. and it is the contractor’s responsibility to arrange the progress and sequence of works. Any such requirements will need to be discussed and agreed with the appointed contractor (if not identified within the tender documents). if the client has elected to organise provision of IT and telecoms systems. and highlighting critical path elements associated with the construction process to ensure and demonstrate that expected delivery timescales are met (see also 5.

• Prompt evaluation of design variations in conjunction with a strict regime for Client authorisation (see 5. taking into account any changes in construction progress from that originally planned to that achieved. surveys.07 Cost reporting It is clearly important to keep the Client advised on a regular basis of the anticipated final out-turn cost of the project. or c) as the result of the value engineering process. • Preparing detailed valuations (usually monthly) of work satisfactorily completed.08 Change control Sometimes variations to the scope.g. The Project Manager/Contract Administrator should constantly review the operation and effectiveness of the change monitoring and authorisation system in relation to cost control. b) changes or variations initiated by the client (for whatever reason). Cost reports will reconcile the latest forecast for the anticipated final account for each element within the agreed budget. • Adopting a continuous attitude of value engineering to the scope and the cost of the works. usually by way of a specific Cost Report prepared by the Quantity Surveyor. ^ Back to top 5. and will be due to either: a) circumstances on site dictating change of design e. ^ Back to top 5. modifications to the design or specification) to be considered. Construction cost reports will also incorporate costed schedules of Client and Design Team variations and instructions. A cashflow forecast (month by month prediction of future construction spend) would also normally be provided. • Continuous review of risk assessment on the project.06 Cost management On a day-to-day basis. furniture and loose fittings. Client direct orders and VAT.e. to enable any corrective action (i.08 below). • Continuous proactive liaison between all members of the Project Team. statutory charges. but may also include professional fees. cost management during the construction stage will be undertaken by the Quantity Surveyor/cost consultant by: • Highlighting changes in the anticipated costs as early as possible. This would primarily address Construction costs. content or specification of the construction works are unavoidable.5. necessitating stronger foundations. The deliberate introduction of late changes to incorporate new ideas or demands . soft spots in the ground.

^ Back to top 5. ensuring timely availability and delivery of main construction elements such as steelwork. bricks. when any available options have been evaluated. and availability of sub-contract labour at the appropriate stage in the contract. identifying goods and materials that require long lead times.10 CDM(Construction Design and Management ) activity . windows and doors. All changes (or Variations) are required to be formally notified to the contractor by the Contract Administrator ONLY (only the Contract Administrator has the contractual authority to instruct the contractor to vary the contract works). ^ Back to top 5. suppliers and specialists. Introduction of even small changes at this stage risk delaying the project and increasing costs by a disproportionate amount. changes should only be instigated when absolutely necessary. Design choices should have been thoroughly worked through during the outline and detail design stages.09 Supply chain In order to construct any facility. Establishment of this chain will closely relate to the critical path element in the contractor’s programme.for the building should be avoided during the construction phase. and when impacts on cost and programme are fully understood and accepted by all concerned. the main contractor will have to establish and co-ordinate a supply chain of sub-contractors. In this respect.

safety. It also marks the commencement of the Defects Liability Period (DLP normally 12 months). This will include full response to designer’s risk assessments as appropriate. In some cases a partial handover may be carried out. the Contract Administrator will issue a Certificate of Practical Completion. and will also co-ordinate with any client procedures or requirements that remain in force during the construction period.In compliance with CDM legislation. part of the building may be declared fit for occupation and thus handed to the client. ^ Back to top 5. Health and Safety should be an agenda item at all progress meetings throughout the lifetime of the project. and identification and mitigation of construction risks. Mobilisation (4. during which the Contractor remains responsible for remedying defects that occur within the building and its systems. catering. . the handover date will be either at or before the Date for Completion stated in the contract documents (if there have been legitimate delays. although certain specific items may be addressed later. energy costs. insurance. the contractor will have developed the Health & Safety plan before commencing work on site. If the construction works run to programme. and should cover such issues as: • • • • Continued risk identification/mitigation Site facilities – WC’s. The ownership and responsibility for the building (in terms of security. Such works should be completed prior to the formal handover. accompanied by the Contractor. will compile a list of outstanding or unsatisfactory works (‘snagging list’).11 Handover procedures When building works are complete to the satisfaction of the Contract Administrator. whilst other areas remain in the contractor’s possession as building work continues. On larger projects with phased completion. this date will of course be later) and in anticipation of this the Contract Administrator. This formally signifies that the construction activity associated with the site as complete and the building fit and safe to occupy and use. etc First Aid procedures Working at heights • Manual Handling • COSHH(Control Of Substances Hazardous to Health) – Hazardous substances • Electrical safety • Confined spaces During the construction period the contractor will be assembling information for inclusion in the building’s Health and Safety file to be submitted to the client/building user at Handover. etc) then passes to the client. during Stage 4.05).

time. . • Date. This is normally undertaken by the relevant specialist subcontractors. duration of test (and weather conditions if appropriate). gas and water installations and specialist items such as fire alarms. Switches etc. Commissioning is particularly important in modern heating systems where sophisticated controls are likely to exist to “manage” the operation of heating plant to meet not only room temperature and comfort requirements. section and installation under test. Commissioning Follow satisfactory completion of testing. • Manufacturer’s reference number where applicable. In addition to dealing with any outstanding or unsatisfactory works. emergency lighting and security systems). fire and security alarms and cameras are other systems that will need proper commissioning. accurately recording: • Plant. There may also be requirements to train the client or building user in the operation of the building’s systems. the Contractor will also be required to demonstrate that all the buildings’ mechanical and electrical installations are safe and functioning as required (these include heating/ventilation systems.by agreement. together with the appropriate services engineers. This would include: Operating and Maintenance manuals Operating and maintenance (O&M) manuals should be produced for the building and all equipment within it. the Contractor would normally be required to provide specific building-related documentation at handover. Lifts. but also environmental criteria associated with energy consumption. A typical O&M manual should include: • Description of Design Intent & Operational Policy • Commissioning Documents and Reports • Manufacturers Operation/Service & Maintenance Manuals • Manufacturers Spares List & Ordering Procedure • Operational & Maintenance Routines • Line Diagrams of Plant Control Systems • Schematic Layouts locating Valves. Testing should thus be undertaken as a formal exercise. and is dealt with in two phases: Testing Testing is important. As well as satisfactorily dealing with the building and its systems. • Test results with itemised readings including records of all other checks and tests. systems should be run so that they can be regulating and adjusting to meet the design requirements. electrical (power and lighting) installations. to ensure the newly installed equipment is in a safe condition and functioning correctly.

this should trigger client arrangements in respect of future building operation and service delivery. Safety File The operating and maintenance (O&M) manual will also form the basis of the building’s Safety File. • Emergency call-out service . ^ Back to top 5. Planning for this should have been incorporated in the early stages of development. In this respect the file will represent a works history for the building and allow hazardous situations to be identified immediately at the start of future work programmes. the design team should produce sets of record drawings showing the building and its installations as actually built. Test Certificates & Reports • Insurance & Inspecting Authority Certificates & Reports • List of Record Drawings (drawings separately available) Record drawings Upon completion. showing safety features etc.12 Trouble shooting WHAT CAN GO WRONG Slippage to Contractors Programme RISKS Delay to project completion WHAT CAN BE DONE ABOUT IT Contractors “best endeavours” Reconsider master programme Quality/value for money risks Revisit/Re-engineer designs/specifications Potential for costs . Provision of a Safety File is a requirement under the CDM Regulations. staff appointments and training.8 ‘Programme’ above). It will also include details of special measures needed to manage risk in the operation. The file will be assembled taking relevant parts of the O&M manual. incorporating all design/construction changes that have occurred during the project’s lifetime. As the completion and handover date approaches. maintenance and occupancy of the building. working arrangements with other stakeholders/service providers. together with details of risk assessments carried out over the lifetime of the project and mitigating actions taken. at Brief Development stage (see Section1.personnel & telephone contacts • Copies of all charts posted elsewhere in building • List of tools. keys and any special requirements • Guarantees.• Schedule of Installed Equipment • Description Working Drawings for each main item of plant/equipment. This file will subsequently evolve as future alteration/refurbishment work takes place.

Requirements should be co-ordinated well in advance with all documentation – certificates. O&M manuals etc available. Required quality Early establishment of required not achieved standards Appropriate checking during construction Critical path element to handover. Costs or quality compromised Ensure contractor has robust supply chains in place for material/labour taking account of programme critical path issues. Health & Safety Health and Safety Ensure Health and Safety plan compromised related incidents-major is in place. Liaison with services providers Testing and commissioning failed/ incomplete Nonavailability of statutory services . Early placement of orders. implemented and incidents may suspend regularly reviewed works Ensure Health and Safety HSE involvement aspects of pre-start procedures are fully considered.Issue of major/ untimely/ numerous variations/ changes arising from extension of time Potential for costs arising from extension of time Minimise changes at this stage Implement rigid change control policy Delays to project completion Failure in Supply Delays to project Chain operation completion.