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Acta Científica Venezolana, 51: 143–149, 2000

Luis Arturo Bello-Pérez ½ ¾ , Silvia Maribel Contreras-Ramos ½ , Antonio Jìmenez-Aparicio ¾ and Octavio Paredes-López ¿ 1.- Instituto Tecnológico de Acapulco. Av. Instituto Tecnológico s/n crucero Cayaco-Puerto Marques, 39905 Acapulco, Guerrero, México. 2.- Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos del IPN, Apartado postal 585 45000 Yautepec, Morelos, México. 3.- Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apartado postal 623 45000 Irapuato Guanajuato, México.

Recibido: 3/5/00; Revisado: 1/8/00; Aceptado: 17/10/00
ABSTRACT: Banana native starch was acetylated and some of its functional properties were evaluated and compared to corn starch. In general, acetylated banana starch presented higher values in ash, protein and fat than corn acetylated starch. The modified starches had minor tendency to retrogradation assesed as % transmittance of starch pastes. At high temperature acetylated starches presented a water retention capacity similar to their native counterpart. The acetylation considerably increased the solubility of starches, and a similar behavior was found for swelling power. When freeze-thaw stability was studied, acetyl banana starch drained approximately 60 % of water in the first and second cycles, but in the third and fourth cycles the percentage of separated water was low. However, acetyl corn starch showed lower freeze-thaw stability than the untreated sample. The modification increased the viscosity of banana starch pastes. Key Words: Chemical modification, functional properties, chemical composition, degree of substitution, banana, plantain, starch

RESUMEN: Se llevo a cabo la acetilación del almidón de plátano nativo y se evaluaron algunas de sus propiedades fisicoquímicas y funcionales, las cuales se compararon con el almidón de maíz, también acetilado con el mismo procedimiento. En general, el almidón de plátano acetilado presentó mayor contenido de cenizas, proteínas y lípidos que el de maíz. Los almidones modificados mostraron menor tendencia a la retrogradación, la cual se midió como el % de transmitancia de pastas de almidón. A altas temperaturas, los almidones modificados presentaron similar capacidad de retención de agua que su contraparte nativa. La acetilación incremento notablemente la solubilidad y el hinchamiento de los almidones. En el experimento de congelamiento-deshielo, el almidón de plátano acetilado eliminó aproximadamente el 60 % de agua en el primero y segundo ciclo, pero en el tercer y cuarto ciclo el agua separada fue muy poca. Sin embargo, el almidón de maíz acetilado mostró una baja estabilidad a los ciclos de congelamiento-deshielo comparada con la muestra nativa. La modificación incrementó la viscosidad de las pastas de los almidones de plátano. Palabras clave: Modificación química, propiedades funcionales, composición química, grado de sustitución, plátano, almidón

INTRODUCTION Starch is the major dietary component in all human populations. The consensus of recent opinion on healthy eating habits favors an increase in the proportion of polymeric plant carbohydrates (including starch) in the daily diet. However, in our culture, the main purpose of starch utilization in foods remains aesthetic rather than nutritional. This biopolymer constitutes an excellent raw material to modify food texture and consistency . Bananas are grown extensively in tropical and subtropical regions and are an important food crop. Although the composition of banana fruit has been defined, comparatively little work has been carried out on the starch½ ½ . Starch is the principal component of green bananas, which undergoes important changes during ripening. Lii et al. investigated changes in physical and chemical properties of banana starch, as well as banana components, during ripening. Recently Bello-Pérez et al.¾ reported banana starch isolation from two varieties and studied the chemical composition and some physicochemical and functional properties; it was demonstrated that banana could be an alternative source for new applications of this polysaccharide. Native starches have been used since ancient times as

a raw material to prepare different products. They are employed in foods because of their good thickening and gelling properties. They are also good texture stabilizers and regulators in food systems . Also, as ingredient gives desirable functional properties like adhesive, stabilization and clarity. Its native structure could be less efficient because the process conditions (e.g., temperature, pH, pressure). However, starch has limitations that reduce its use in industrial applications; it has low shear stress resistance, thermal decomposition, high retrogradation, and syneresis. These shortcomings can be overcome by starch modification½¾ . Chemical, physical, and enzymatic method can modify starches. A chemical modified starch results by application of a treatment and reactive specific to change some of its properties. This definition includes hydroxypropilated, cross-linked, and acetylated starches¾ . The acetylated starch is obtained by the esterification of native starch with acetic anhydride½ . As in a chemical reaction, acetylation depends upon factors such as reactant concentration, reaction time, pH, and the presence of catalyst, which finally determine the number of acetyl groups incorporated to the molecule . The properties of starch acetates are function of the acetyl content, the type of starch, the size and shape or its molecular components, and the

The excess alkali was back titrated with standard 0. Rochester. 4 filter paper. Some functional properties. Blue value (BV) The blue value (absorbance at 680 nm) was obtained using Gilbert & Spragg’s method½ . The objectives of this investigation were to acetylate banana starch in low degree. and the resulting filter cake was air-dried to equilibrium moisture content¾ . and cooled. sieve and stored at room temperature in a sealed container. Also. Inc. In total 50 kg of banana fruit was used¾ . held at that temperature for 0. then any additional alkali which may leach from the sample was titrated. MATERIALS AND METHODS Starch isolation Unripened bananas (Musa paradisiaca) from a variety named "macho" were purchased from the local market in Acapulco. The slurry was then placed under moderate mechanical agitation using a magnetic stirrer. de C. Inc. Ash. the % T at 650 nm was determined against a water blank in a Genesys 5 Spectrophotometer (control sample) (Spectronic Instruments. The mixture was stirred until a uniform slurry of starch in water results.0 g) was placed in a 250-ml flask. The flask was stoppered.A. then allowed to stand 72 h. The fruits were peeled and cut into 5-6 cm cubes (500 g total weight) and immediately rinsed in sodium sulfite solution (1.5 h.. The white-starch sediment was dried in a convection oven at 40Æ C for 48 h.0 by adding 3 % sodium hydroxide solution dropwise to the suspension while keeping it under agitation.5 with hydrochloric acid. Rochester. with occasional swirling. and 220 ml of distilled water to 25 Æ C were added. 0. The pH was adjusted to 8. Calculations: % Acetyl [ml (Blank) . dry basis) in the native form was weighed in a Griffin beaker of 400 ml of capacity. The tubes were thoroughly shaken every 5 min. México. The slurring and filtration were repeated once more. Three samples were stored at both room temperature and 4 Æ C and the % T was determined at 24.5 N potassium hydroxide were added while swirling.22 g/l) and then macerated at low speed in a Waring blender (500 g of fruit: 500 g of solution) for 2 min.0-8. Jìmenez-Aparicio and Paredes-López method of pretreatment. (dry basis) Degree of Substitution (DS) ¢ % acetyl   ´ ¾ ¢ % acetylµ Chemical analysis Moisture content (44-15A) was taken as weight loss after heating at 130 ¦ 2Æ C for 2h½ . . and 30-25½ . Starch acetylation Starch (162 g. in food applications the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allows only low degree of substitution (0. then the slurry was filtered on a Büchner funnel containing Whatman No.) between 750 and 400 nm of starch-iodine complex was determined using a Genesis 5 spectrophotometer (Spectronic Instruments. Corn starch was obtained from Industrializadora de Maíz S. Measurement of the acetyl content is a prime method for characterizing starch acetates. g. The desired amount of acetic anhydride was slowly added dropwise to the agitating starch suspension while simultaneously adding 3 % sodium hydroxide sufficient to maintain the pH of the suspension at 8.4. When a starch is acetylated it can be obtained a variable degree of substitution. microstructure and the hydrolysis with «-amylase were modified. The loosely stoppered flask was agitated. The filter cake was resuspended in 150 ml of water and refiltered.S.144 Bello-Pérez. to determine its modification degree.01-0. protein and fat were obtained according to AACC method 08-01. until the washing water was clean.2).2 g of starch sample were suspended in 5 ml of water in screwcap tubes and placed in a boiling water bath for 30 min. The maximum absorbance wavelenght ( Ñ Ü . the pH was adjusted to 4. Contreras-Ramos.V. physical and functional properties of the modified starch.. the water retention capacity decreased.5 N hydrochloric acid using phenolphthalein as indicator. warmed to 50 Æ C. and to assess some chemical. 46-13. mesh. The solution was allowed to stand 2 h. ground with a mortar and pestle to pass a 100 U. NY).S. Moreno¾½ found interesting changes in banana starch caused by (Sample)] ¢ normality of acid ¢ ¼ ¼ ¿ ¢ ½¼¼ ½ ¾ ¿¼¼ Sample wt. Degree of substitution (DS) Pulverized starch acetate sample (1. 48 and 72 h. substituting the original starch for the sample¾ .. then it was centrifuged at 10 800 x g for 30 min. The homogenate was consecutively sieved through screens number 50 and 100 U.. Stability and clarity of starch pastes Stability and clarity of starch pastes were determined both at room temperature and at 4 Æ C. When all the acetic anhydride was added. The starch was isolated using a modification of the procedure of Kim et al½ . Guadalajara. A blank was titrated at the same time. NY). After cooling to room temperature (14 min). it was reported¾ that when some acetate groups were incorporated in the structure of wheat starch. and 50 ml of a 75 % ethanol solution in distilled water were added. then 40 ml of 0.

Banana starch showed lower % T values than corn starch. 10 and 20 rpm. Based on this. The supernatant was decanted. aliquots were used to estimate total carbohydrates½½ . 10. Freeze-thaw stability The stability of starch paste to freezing and thawing cycles was tested according to the method of Schoch¾¿ . and the gain in weight was used to calculate the water retention capacity.6 %. this indicates higher values of apparent amylose content in the modified starches. reflected in the amylose content determined.48 % for acetylated starches of Canavalia ensiformis using different treatments.1 ¦ 0. followed by helix-helix aggregation of the B-type structure.2 ¦ 0. The samples were placed in a freezer at -20 Æ C for 22 h and placed in a 30 Æ C water bath for 1. the range of the highest amount of acetyl groups allowed by the FDA in foods. Water retention capacity (WRC) The WRC was determined according to the method reported by Bryant & Hamaker . The slurry was centrifuged for 10 min at 5000 x g. 70. which represents the solubility.04 ¦ 0. with shaking at 5 and 10 min. Betancur-Ancona et al reported acetyl groups content values between 0. and the yield of acetylated banana starch from native banana starch was 87. Gidley½¿ postulated that amylose gelation proceeds via formation of left-handed double helical chain segments.94 and 2. 3 at 25Æ C. 80 and 90Æ C for 15 min. The swelling was determined in the precipitate by assessing the moisture content (2 h to 130 Æ C)¾¾ . 20 and 30 min¾ . storage time is responsible of these low % T values. 60. Cold paste viscosity was determined using spindle No. The supernatant was decanted. Also. Only the samples used to measure the separated water in that cycle were centrifuged at 3000 x g for 15 min. and recrystallization of amylopectin. protein and fat. and the tubes were allowed to drain for 10 min at 45Æ angle. The stability of the paste viscosity at 20 rpm was observed at 1. 3.2 0. Stoughton. except for acetyl corn starch. 15. Percentage of acetyl and degree of substitution (DS) of acetylated starches .5 h to thaw and equilibrate. and the volume was measured. In general. db) in distilled water was cooked 30 min in a boiling water bath with moderate mechanical agitation and cooled. and due to the amylose content of the starches analyzed aggregation of amylose chains might be carried out at a high rate. banana starch had higher values than corn starch with regard to ash. The % of acetyl groups determined for banana and corn acetylated starches were in Sample Acetyl (%) DS Banana starch 1. The acetyl groups content values (%) and degree of substitution are shown in Table 1. 4. In most cases the % T values were minor at 4 Æ C.02 µ Means of three replicates ¦ standard error. Water was added to starch in preweighed centrifuge tubes at room temperature and then heated at 70. The tubes were then centrifuged for 15 min at 1000 g. MA). 80 and 90Æ C for 30 min. Apparent viscosity Apparent viscosity of starches was determined using a Brookfield viscometer (model RVF.8 % (db). The acetylation reaction induces some changes in the derivatives. Miles et al½ ¾¼ indicated that retrogradation consists of two separable processes: gelation of amylose molecules exuded from the granules during gelatinization. most likely due to the retrogradation of the sample. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Degree of substitution The yield of starch from banana was 43. 4. the others were stored again at -20 Æ C.04 ¦ 0. at four shear rate speeds: 2. Swelling and solubility A starch solution (1% w/w) was prepared in a flask and then heated at 50. the generation of more linear segments eases the absorption of a higher amount of iodine. with shaking each 5 min.03 Corn starch 1. the acetyl starches presented higher values than its native counterpart (except for banana). In this study.Modified banana starch 145 Table 1. thus decreasing the % T significantly. independently of the . In the case of BV and Ñ Ü . 2. Whistler & Daniel¾ reported that the presence of some acetyl groups interferes with the regrouping of amylose and amylopectin during the cooling of the starch molecules that have been subjected to gelatinization. Chemical composition The chemical composition of starches is given in Table 2. which depends on the number of acetyl groups incorporated. The percentage of water separated after the freeze-thaw cycle was measured. Stability and clarity of starch pastes Differences in % Transmittance (% T) were observed among native samples stored at room temperature and at 4 Æ C (Figure 1). Low temperatures increases starch retrogradation phenomenon. storage at refrigeration temperature might have resulted in the formation of lessperfect crystallites than those at room temperature. Starch (5 %. The starch slurry (5 % db) was cooked in a boiling bath for 15 min and then cooled to 25Æ C. 5. The tubes were then weighed.4 0.

06 ¦ 0. native banana.0 594 ¦ 2.050 0.10 44. Corn starches showed higher WRC values than banana starches at all temperatures studied.23 ¦ 0. This behavior may be due to different chain length distribution in these starches.04 0. Transmittance (%) at 650 nm for starches at room temperature (empty symbols) and 4 Æ C (solid symbols): . extruded and starch pastes samples½ .2 0.05 ¦ 4.32 ¦ 0. but not for banana starch.04 0.02 47. The presence of some acetyl groups could produce a network of chains exudate from the starch granule to high temperature.12 0.03 Means of three replicates ¦ standard error.1 ¦ 0. acetyl banana.3 ¦ 0.006 0. Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of native and acetylated starches . Content Moisture Ash Protein (N x 5. Jìmenez-Aparicio and Paredes-López Table 2.85) Fat Blue value Ñ Ü Banana acetylated 1.6 ¦ 0.48 0.25 ¦ 0. increasing the WRC values.20 87. Figure 1. Means of three replicates Table 3. For acetyl corn starch the % transmittance values did not increase with time.02 90 44.35 680 0.05 ¦ 0.06 0.13 µ Corn acetylated Banana native Corn native ¦ 0. In order to get insight on this aspect.03 ¦ 0.04 34. Swelling and solubility Solubility profiles of acetylated starches at different temperatures are presented in Figure 2.4 ¦ 0.4 ¦ 0. showing higher stability to retrogradation. However.30 9.04 5.03 24. native corn. However.0 583 ¦ 2. .0 ¦ 0.1 ¦ 0. These increases in solubility show better dispersion of starch in aqueous systems because acetyl groups obstruct chain association.22 0. acetyl corn.42 ¦ 0. .2 ¦ 0. .10 34. Water retention capacity The WRC values of acetylated starches are presented in Table 3.03 10.10 20.27 1.14 0. Water retention capacity of native and acetylated starches Sample 70 Banana acetylated Corn acetylated Banana native Corn native µ Temperature (Æ C) 80 38. This different behavior may be attributed to the difference in amylose/amylopectin ratio as well as to the difference in chain length distribution as it was reported in other starches¿ .11 0.2 ¦ 0. allowing the retention of water molecules because of their ability to form hydrogen chemical modification. Acetylation considerably increased solubility. . there were no differences between the modified starch and its native counterpart.15 ¦ 0.18 ¦ 0.8 ¦ 0.150 ¦ standard error.57 ¦ 0. Acetylated banana starch presented higher solubility values than the equivalent corn sample.9 ¦ 0. The WRC values increased when temperature increased.7 ¦ 0.09 73.05 0. structural and structure-function relationship studies of starches are required. in the beginning of the experiment native starch did not show retrogradation but after storage this phenomenon increased (lower % transmittance values).19 ¦ 0. The difference found between the two native starches may be due to structural differences in starch components as demonstrated previously in gels .05 44.146 Bello-Pérez.28 ¦ 0.61 ¦ 0.12 ¦ 0.35 ¦ 0.0 607 ¦ 4. Higher solubility values were found for both modified starches when temperature increased.07 37.1 ¦ 0. Contreras-Ramos.12 1.20 ¦ 0. This increase in swelling values (Figure 2) of the acetylated samples may be explained by the introduction of hydrophilic substituting groups.100 0. £ Æ ¦ When starches were tested at 70 and 80 Æ C.5 ¦ 0. at 90 Æ C the difference were noticeable for corn. at high temperature both modified starches showed a decrease in solubility values.4 ¦ 0. It is important to mention that acetyl corn starch presented lower % transmittance value at time zero that its native counterpart.

. In general. Acetyl corn presented lower freeze-thaw stability than its native counterpart in the all cycles. where acetylated corn starch presented the highest swelling values. 3: ( ) acetyl banana. Viscosity values of acetylated banana starch were different of its native counterpart at the diverse shear rates. This typical decrease in viscosity with an increase in rotational speed indicates shear-thinning behavior. However. Freeze-thaw stability Acetyl banana starch (Figure 3) in the first and second freeze-thaw cycles drained approximately 60 % of water. ( ) native corn. On the other hand. Solubility (A) and swelling (B) profiles of starches: ( ) acetyl banana. ( ) acetyl corn. the modification increased its viscosity. bonds. ( ) native banana. corn starches showed higher freeze- Figure 4. ( ) native banana. ( ) native corn. thaw stability than banana starches. The granule size and supramolecular organization of starch components may play an important role in this pattern. but different behavior was found in acetylated and native corn starches. ( ) acetyl corn. because the water separated after the freeze-thaw cycles was lower in the former samples. Apparent viscosity Apparent viscosity of all starches decreased when shear rate increased (Figure 4). but in the third and fourth cycle the percentage of separated water was very low. indicating high stability at this last cycle. but the treated starches did not improve as expected. Figure 2. the corn starch acetylated presented lower viscosity values than the un- . ( ) acetyl corn. These results suggest that banana starch is less adequate for freeze products. ( ) native corn. Freeze-thaw stability of starches: ( ) acetyl banana. Effect of mechanical shear on paste viscosity of 5% (db) for modified starches determined using a Brookfield viscometer at 30 min heating with the spindle No. ( ) native banana.Modified banana starch 147 Figure 3. Native banana starch did not show remarkable changes in the fourth cycles. at high temperatures (80 and 90 Æ C) acetyl and native banana starches showed similar values.

Roger. 1986. 1997. pp. The viscosity profiles of acetylated starch pastes at a constant rate (20 rpm) and temperature (25 Æ C) are presented in Figure 5. the acetylated banana starch could be used in salad dressings. Paste viscosity of 5% (db) for starches determined using a Brookfield viscometer at 30 min heating with the spindle No.. 55-77. Doublier. 1981. L. and HernándezCañizarez E. J. Iodimetric determination of amylose. Colonna. Bryant. Bello-Pérez. but this treatment did not improve the freeze-thaw stability as expected. 1986. K. 1985. 46: 18851890.. 1982. 1996. Agric. 63: 240246. W. Clark... Cereal Sci. The Structure and interactions of Starch with Food constituents. REFERENCES 1. Cereal Chem. Betancur-Ancona. 1964. Orlando FL. 14.. A. John Wiley Inc. Foods and Food Production Encyclopedia. 73-99. P. C. and Colonna. 16. Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. 74: 171175. Rheological characterization of starch pastes. M. 1998. L. pp. 6.. Kayisu. Factors affecting the crystalline type (A-C) of native starches and model compounds: A rationalisation of observed effects in terms of polymorphic structures. Macromolecular features of starches determined by aqueous high-performance size exclusion chromatography. P. 11. 69: 60-78.-L.. Food Sci.148 Bello-Pérez. Richardson. and Smith F. frozen desserts and puddings. 47 : 854-857. J. M. Chemical Modification and Degradation of Starch Conversion. P. R. 1997. Characterization of starch and fiber of banana fruit. K. except Financial support from the Consejo Nacional de Educación Tecnológica-México and Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología-México is gratefully acknowledged. 1987. Dubois.. New York. Academic Press. Functional properties. Hood. Influence of amylose content on the viscous behavior of low hydrated molten starches. and Vergnes B. K. A. Chel-Guerrero.. . Gidley. G. Inc. 1956. were increased with the acetylation. J. P. the apparent viscosity of all starches. Boca Ratón FL. A. E.. Cereal Chem. Isolation and Partial Characterization of Banana Starches. M. J. Can. Res. J. 8. Contreras-Ramos. Rheol. Approved Methods of Analysis. L. Della Valle. Paul. ( ) acetyl corn. ( ) native corn. 1999. Acetylated Starch and Miscellaneous Organic Esters. Physiol. Cousidine. B. M.. 3: ( ) acetyl banana. and Vansoest P. D..J.. Gilbert. Biliaderis. Rheological studies of aqueous amylose gels: the effect of chain length and concentration on gel modules. Fleche. pp. Figure 5. 5. Rebers. G. MN. SánchezHernández. 7. Jarowenko. 10. B. Colonna. G. AACC. 45: 378-382. Agama-Acevedo. Agric. Anal. Jìmenez-Aparicio and Paredes-López native corn.. Considering its properties. Acetylation and characterization of Canavalia ensiformis starch. Gidley. (1983). A. 13. D. CRC Press. 1989. J. Food Chem. did not show great changes during the 30-min test. L. and Mercier C. L. J. and Spragg. ( ) native banana. G. P.. K. J.. Chem. P. In general. Bello-Pérez. Marcel Dekker Inc. Water retention capacity was not different between acetylated starches and their native counterparts evaluated at 70 and 80 Æ C. Patria. St. and Hamaker B. and RossMurphy S. 40: 347-362. being this capacity higher for corn than for banana samples. Macromolecules 22: 346-351. Extrusion cooking and drum drying of wheat starch. New York. 9. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS treated sample. Carbohydr. H. Baud. A. A. Food Chem. 15. Gilles. S. 28: 350-356.. CONCLUSIONS Incorporation of acetyl groups to banana native starch appears to decrease its tendency to retrogradation. Pharmacol. 16: 301-304. and Paredes-López O. M. Effect of lime on gelatinization of corn flour and starch. J. C. such as solubility and swelling. 27: 267-278. 3. pp 168-169. 4. 12. R.. J. The acetylation increased the viscosity of banana starch pastes.F. Hamilton. 1991. American Association of Cereal Chemist. this indicates stability of starch pastes under these conditions. A. 142. II. 2.

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