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OF TEXTILE ENGINEERING Promotion Examination for B.Tech. Year 1 (2006) 24-10-2006 (Tuesday) 8:30 a.m. – 11:30 a.m. TE 03038 Bleaching and Dyeing of Textile Materials (Sample Answer) 1. Mention the method of removing the size from cotton fabrics and discuss the enzyme desizing. (20 marks ) The three chief methods of removing the size from cotton fabrics are: (1) Rot-steeping, (2) Acid-steeping, (3) Steeping in enzyme preparations, Enzyme Desizing The most popular and effective method of removing size is by the use of enzymes. This gives a much gentle desizing action with no danger of injury to the cotton. Enzymes are complex, nitrogen – containing, organic substances that are secreted by the cells of living organisms and have the power to accelerate specific chemical changes to a pronounced degree. There are a number of sources for enzymes. Malt diastase, or amylase, which is prepared by extracting malt obtained from barley grain, has been used for cloth desizing for over one hundred years. Useful bacterial enzymes are derived from several types of microorganisms, and extracts from the pancxatic grands of slaughtered livestock provide a useful animal amylase. Steeping in enzyme agent may be a very rapid and thorough method of desizing under the most favorable conditions provided that correct condition of pH and temperature are maintained. Efficient washing after desizing is essential. The activity of all the enzymes is affected by concentration, time, temperature and hydrogen- iron concentration or pH. There are very few enzymes which are not inactivated or destroyed by temperatures over 75° C. Under the proper conditions, the removal of starch from sized cotton grads by the


absorbency. weight loss on scouring is normally 6 to 9%. These must be a balance between stability and activity so that all of the starch present is solubilized in the time allowed under the existing conditions. If a steamer is utilized. Either tape or brattice scouring machine are used for hanks. it is necessary that the pH of the bath. the electrolyte present. or the enzyme activity. is approximately doubled with every 10° C size in temperature. and the temperature employed all the selected carefully with respect to the activity and stability properties of Two methods are used in continuous desizing. (15 marks) Yarn may be scoured in hank form or in package such as comes or cheeses. The severity of the treatment depends upon the quality of the cotton being processed. ash and wax in the fibre is reduced to an amount which will not seriously interfere with subsequent dyers. pectins. (b). and weight loss. In order to achieve to any degree of efficiency of operation. the goods are saturated with enzyme and then run into the J box. The dwell time in the J box is approximately 30 minutes. the welting agent used. If a J box is employed. 2.(a). In the scouring process the natural impurities are either soluble in the hot alkaline or rendered removable by decomposition. Stability is ordinarily impaired by a rise in temperature. Mention and discuss the machine in which the yarn can be scoured in hank form. which is followed by washing in a range. Scouring is accomplished primarily by means of hot alkaline solution. The effectiveness of the scour may be assessed by determination of residual wax content. then the goods are washed. the enzyme-padded goods are run through it so that an exposure time of 30 to 60 seconds is obtained. What is scouring? How can the effectiveness of the scour be assessed? (5 marks) Scouring is an operation in which the quality of protein.appropriate enzyme is much more efficient and economic than the use of inorganic acids and alkali. where a temperature of about 180°F is maintained. whereas the rate at which starch is degraded. 2. and the nature of the product. A number of factors influence enzyme activity and stability. or emulsification. The tape scourer is simpler in 2 . saponification. the processing equipment.

It makes a second passage in the reverse direction and then finally makes a third return passage. made of stainless steel slats spaced about one inch apart. Diagram of Tape Scouring Machine (OR) Brattice Scouring Machines Brattice scouring machines is very commonly used for scouring wool yarn and is designed for hardly greater quantities than the tape scourer. In the first bowl a pump continuously removes one of the liquor and delivers it into a tray with a perforated bottom which is situated over the top brattice. after which it emerges and passes through squeeze rollers before entering the next bowl. The removal of the oil and dirt is promoted by a series of rip rollers situated below the surface. The yarn is laid on a brattice or conveyer belt.the smaller immersed squeezed rollers H – the hanks of yarn T – the endless tapes Figure. are carried through two or three bowls which contain detergent solution and rising water. In this way the scouring liquor is sprinkled on to the hanks of yarn which have been laid on the brattice at the feeding and less expensive is suitable when the output is not great. The duration of the immersion in this machine is comparatively short and it is necessary. The hanks are trapped between the tape upper and lower members of two and less tape belts and. Between each compartment and at the point where the yarn finally emerges there are heavy squeeze rollers to take out the excess of liquor. Tape Scouring Machine A – the heavy squeeze rollers B . There are after three bowls but there may be as many as five. During the submerged passages the hanks are held firmly in position between two adjacent brattice 3 . The yarn makes one passage under the sprinkler in the first and just below surface of the liquor in the second and third bowls. both in the liquor. in this position.

per hour. A prolonged preliminary alkaline boil is not necessary. The principle underlying the way in which the machine function is illustrated diagrammatically in Figure. The dwell-period of 90 minutes and the J box is constructed so that it always contains of the order of 2000 lb of fabric. The cloth is first scoured in a caustic J box. order conditions.5 to 4. After emerging from the J box fabric is passed through a continuous rope washing machine. Sodium chlorite is eminently suitable for continuous bleaching in J boxes on other units of the some nature. saturated with acid chlorite plus sodium nitrate. the fabric passes into a chlorite saturator and then into a J box where it is stored at a temperature of 95° C (203°F). Thus a more uniform whiteness is obtained with sodium chlorite than with other exidizing bleaching agents. The bleaching can also be taken to the limit without any risk of degradation of the cellulose and. a cold water trap is maintained in the heel of the J box to dissolve any Clo2 retained in the cloth and a wet plug of cloth is used to prevent escape of Clo2 from the top of the box. the corrosion and fame problem becomes more difficult. variations in color become so small that they are not perceived by the eye. For further control. washed. discuss fully the continuous bleaching with sodium chlorite. Figure. run into a J box where it is held for 30 to 60 minutes at 200° to 212°F. acid soured.conveyors. A typical Degrssa ceramic J box train is capable of processing knitted fabric at the rate of 1000 lb. then finally washed. For continuous work a pH of 3.0 is required. Although the time for bleaching drops rapidly with lowering of pH. Diagram of Brattice Scouring Machine 3. After scouring. The use of type 3/6 stainless steel for equipment is necessary and the addition of sodium nitrate is needed for corrosion inhibition. then washed. With necessary illustration. (20 marks) Sodium chlorite (NaClo2) offers certain advantage in bleaching cotton. 4 .

wrung out. (b) With alum and soda ash in a single bath. (d) On a Katanol O. the steam shut off and the cotton worked to shade and dried without rinsing. Resistone OP. Very few whites are now acceptable without the application of an optical brightening agent. Method (a) The cotton is treated in a cold liquor containing 1 part Turkey Red Oil to 10 parts of water. These operations are repeated once or twice. wrung out. or 5 .This may be a cold water rinse or a hot sodium carbonate scour to remove the partially degraded waxes. 3. and (e) On a predyeing of other classes of dyes which serve as mordnts.5% solution of soda ash. Mentions the mordant dyeing methods and explain each of them. (20 marks) The basic dyes may be applied to cotton by several methods (a) On a Turkey Red Oil mordant. dried. an optical brightening agent with a good affinity for cellulose is necessary. sumach. (c) On a tannin mordant. Carefully selection of the product to be used is necessary for the best result. It consists of mordanting the cotton with tannin and fixing the latter with a suitable metallic salt. the cotton may be treated for 20 minutes at 40°C in the Turkey Red Oil liquor. when only half the quantity of dyes and assistants will be require. The liquor is not exhausted. 10 lb of alum. dried and then treated for 30 minutes at 50°C in a bath containing 1 lb. or Taninol BM mordant. Method (c) The method of dying on a tannin mordant is not proper with dyes as it is slow and entails much labour. and 1 ½ lb soda ash. and than treated in a 0. Method (b) The cotton is entered into a liquor at 90°C containing the requisite amount of dyes. and should be kept for subsequence lots. Since the period of immersion in the liquor is comparatively short. These must be applied after bleaching in a continuous rope scouring machine. Mordant process is needed to improve affinity for dyeing cotton goods with basic dyes. The tannins which may be used are tannic acid. of aluminum acetate (77 Tw) to every 4 gallons of water and finally well washed. Alternatively.

owing to its greater affinity as compared with ordinary cotton. so that it is customary to make addition of acetic aced or alum.The goods are entered at 90° C to ensure thorough penetration and worked in the cooling liquor until the temperature has fallen to 60°C at which temperature of the mordant has maximum affinity.myrabolans. despite its marked fugitiveness to light. yarns. when brighter shades will be obtained. to facilitate the production of level and well penetrated shades. Method (d) Katanol O mordant is a Sulphur containing body obtained from a chlorophenol. An excess of tannin causes the resulting shade to be to be dull and lifeless. 5. and so produce dye stovins on the material which are practically impossible to remove.Resistance O and Taninol BM mordant process an affinity for vegetable fibers so that the treated material may be washed off instead of being wrong out and fixed as in tannin mordanting. washing and staring.(a). which cannot be equally in brilliancy by any other dye. still continues to be on loose wool and knitting. The Victoria Blue. since a yields sky to royal blue shades of good fastness to milling. but if soft water is available soap may be used. Mercerized cotton. Describe about the application of basic dyes on wool. Basic dyes may be applied to wool from a neutral of dye liquor without any addition. The rate of dyeing of the basic dyes is retered by an addition of acid or and acid-reacting salt to the dyebath. Method (e) The basic dyes have an affinity for both the direct cotton and sulphur dyes which results in co-precipitation when their solutions are mixed so that they most never be used together in the same dyebath. All basic dyes cannot be substituted by members of other classes of dyes.These mordants are applied in the same manner as the direct cotton dyes with the addition of common salt or Glauber’s salt in as short a liquor ratio as possible.From 2 – 6% of mordant is required depending on the depth of shade being dyed. (10 marks) The basic dyes are mainly applied to wool yarns. A small 6 . sulphur and caustic soda. may be mordanted with less amounts. Hand water should be corrected before use with acetic acid or Calgon otherwise the dye is liable to be precipitated as a tarry mass.

worked cold for 15-20 minutes. and the temperature of the dye liquor gradually raised to 90°C when the dyebath will be found to be practically exhausted. the temperature raised to the boil in ¾ hour and dyeing continued at a gentle boil for 1 hour. In all cases the silk is well rinsed after mordanting and dyed in a soap or boiled. Handle and luster are improved by an after treatment with boiling soap. sodium silicate. Dyeing id carried out in a soup or boiled. These dyes give good shade of excellent fastness to light and washing. How do you apply mordant dyes on silk? (10 marks) The true aligwin dyes on chrome and alum mordants were formally used extensivelyon silk. and dyed without drying. chrome alum and fixing with ¾ Tw.excess of acetic acid facilitates level dyeing. By this means basic chromium salts are precipitated in the fibre. 6.(b) . but also because silk has no affinity for chromic acid and has a much lower capacity for dissociating metallic salts in boiling dilute solutions than has wool. can be used to dye nylon loose fibre. How do you apply reactive dyes on nylon? (20 marks ) The Procinyl dyes. Mordanting with chrome is carried out using 32° Tw. Their use has declined considerably as their fastness properties are inferior to those of the vat dyes and the best azoic dyes. and fixing with cold 1° Tw. but too large an excess retands exhaustion of the dyebath. whilst the dyeing process is long and tedious. not only on account of the necessity for presenting the luster. The wool is entered cold. wringing. The mordanting methods for silk differ from those used for wool. which constitute a new class of reactive disperse liquor broken with acetic liquor broken with acetic acid. Mordanting with alum is carried out by soaking the silk for about 12 hours in cold basic aluminum sulphate. yarn and piece goods to bright shades having high wet 7 . 5. The silk is boiled with 20-40% chrome alum for 30 minutes. The silk is entered into the cold liquor. sodium silicate for ½ hour. chrominum chloride or 9° Tw. Concentrated solution of basic salts are employed and precipitation of the basic salt or metallic hydroxide is completed on the fibre by treatment with sodium silicate.

Dyeing is continued for 30-60 minutes. under neutral or alkaline conditions. 8 . The Procinyl dyes at this stage have the desirable properties of the disperse dyes on nylon and show good in admixture.Finally. and soaped for 10 minutes at 85° C in 2 gm/l . In the case of the Procinyl dyes. the goods are rinsed in cold water. soda ash previously dissolved in water. and dyeing is continued for a further 60 minutes.fastness.reaction with water in the presence of alkali resulting in a deactivated dye.Reactive dyes of the Procium type can be applied to nylon in a similar manner to the application of acid dyes. and than the dyeliquor is made alkaline to pH 10 by addition of 2-3 gm/l. The dyebath should be set with 4% formic acid (85%) and dyeing begun at 40°C.The temperature is then raised gradually to 95 ° C and maintained at this temperature for at least 1 hour. acetic acid (30%). Like the reactive dyes for cellulose. The dye molecule contains a reactive grouping which. so that it is not easily removed from the fibre by rinsing after dyeing. Lissapol NC and 2 gm/L soda ash. Dyeing is normally carried out at 85 – 100 ° C exactly as for the disperse dyes except that the dyeliquor should be made slightly acid with 2 g/l. there is a side. In a similar maner to the reaction between the reactive dyes and the hydroxyl groups in cellulose. the deactivated dye is disperse dye and has normal disperse dye fastness. is able to react with the amire and amide groups in the fibr.