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MALIMATH COMMITEE



PROJECT
SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF REQUIREMENTS
OF INTERNAL EVALUATION OF AMITY LAW SCHOOL, AUUP.
IBA.LLB (H)
SUBMITTED BY: SHIVAM MAHAJAN
5
th
SEMESTER
A3208308217


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AMITY LAW SCHOOL,
AMITY UNIVERSITY,
NOIDA.


FORWARDING CERTIFACTE

Miss SHIVAM MAHAJAN has been permitted to write a
project on 'CONVICT`S RIGHT TO VOTE¨ Ior
IBA.LLB(H),internal evaluation oI Amity Law School,Amity
University,Noida.



Dated- 10 sept`10 ProI:-. Ramesh Kumar
Lecturer
Amity Law School,
Amity University,

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ABBREVIATIONS

Sc supreme court
Air all india reporter












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INDEX

Forwarding certificate 2

Abbreviations 3

Chapterisation
Need for reforms 6
Adversial system 6
Right to silence 7
Right of the accused 9
Presumption of the accused 10
1ustice to the victims of the crime 11
Police investigation 13
Courts and judges 20
Trial procedures 23
Witnesses and perjury 24
Vacations for the courts 26
Arrears eradication scheme 26
Offences sentence, sentencing and compounding 28
Reclassification of offences 29
Offences against women 30
Organized crime/federal/terrorism 32
Economics crimes 35
Vision for the future 37
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1.NEED FOR REFORMS

It is the duty oI the State to protect Iundamental rights oI the citizens as well as the right to
property. The State has constituted the criminal justice system to protect the rights oI the
innocent and punish the guilty. The system, devised more than a century back, has become
ineIIective; a large number oI guilty go unpunished in a large number oI cases; the system takes
years to bring the guilty to justice; and has ceased to deter criminals. Crime is increasing rapidly
everyday and types oI crimes are proliIerating.
The citizens live in constant Iear. It is thereIore that the Govt oI India, Ministry oI Home AIIairs
constituted the Committee on reIorms oI Criminal Justice System to make a comprehensive
examination oI all the Iunctionaries oI the Criminal Justice System, the Iundamental principles
and the relevant laws. The Committee, having given its utmost consideration to the grave
problems Iacing the country, has made its recommendations in its Iinal report, the salient Ieatures
oI which are given below:-
2. Adversarial System

The Committee has given its anxious consideration to the question as to whether this system is
satisIactory or whether we should consider recommending any other system. The Committee
examined in particular the inquisitorial system Iollowed in France, Germany and other
Continental countries. The inquisitorial system is certainly eIIicient in the sense that the
investigation is supervised by the judicial magistrate which results in a high rate oI conviction.
The Committee on balance Ielt that, a Iair trial and in particular, Iairness to the accused, are
better protected in the adversarial system. However, the Committee Ielt that some oI the good
Ieatures oI the Inquisitorial System can be adopted to strengthen the Adversarial System and to
make it more eIIective. This includes the duty oI the Court to search Ior truth, to assign a
proactive role to the judges, to give directions to the investigating oIIicers and prosecution
agencies in the matter oI investigation and leading evidence with the object oI seeking the truth
and Iocusing on justice to victims.
Accordingly the Committee has made the Iollowing recommendations:-

(1) A preamble shall be added to the Code ¡of Criminal Procedure] on the following lines:
"Whereas it is expedient to constitute a criminal justice system Ior punishing the guilty and
protecting the innocent.
"Whereas it is expedient to prescribe the procedure to be Iollowed by it,
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"Whereas quest Ior truth shall be the Ioundation oI the criminal justice system,
"Whereas it shall be the duty oI every Iunctionary oI the criminal justice system and everyone
associated with it in the administration oI justice, to actively pursue the quest Ior truth.
It is enacted as Iollows:"
(2) A provision on the following lines be made and placed immediately above section 311 of
the Code: "Quest Ior truth shall be the Iundamental duty oI every court."
(3) Section 311 of the Code be substituted on the following lines: "Any Court shall at any
stage oI any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under the Code, summon any person as a witness
or examine any person in attendance though not summoned as a witness or recall and re-examine
any person already examined as it appears necessary Ior discovering truth in the case."
(4) Provision similar to Section 255 of the Code relating to summons trial procedure be
made in respect of trial by warrant and sessions procedures, empowering such court to
take into consideration, the evidence received under Section 311 (new) of the Code in
addition to the evidence produced by the prosecution.
(5) Section 482 of the Code be substituted by a provision on the following lines:"Every Court
shall have inherent powers to make such orders as may be necessary to discover truth or to give
eIIect to any order under this Code or to prevent abuse oI the process oI court or otherwise to
secure the ends oI justice."
(6) A provision on the following lines be added immediately below Section 311 of the
Code: Power to issue directions regarding investigation
"Any court shall, at any stage oI inquiry or trial under this Code, have such power to issue
directions to the investigating oIIicer to make Iurther investigation or to direct the Supervisory
OIIicer to take appropriate action Ior proper or adequate investigation so as to assist the Court in
search Ior truth."
(7) Section 54 of the Evidence Act be substituted by a provision on the following lines: "In
criminal proceeding the Iact that the accused has a bad character is relevant."
Explanation: A previous conviction is relevant as evidence oI bad character.
3. Right to Silence - Article 20(3)

The right to silence is a Iundamental right guaranteed to the citizen under Article 20 (3) oI the
Constitution which says that no person accused oI any oIIence shall be compelled to be a witness
against himselI. As the accused is in most cases the best source oI inIormation, the Committee
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Ielt that while respecting the right oI the accused a way must be Iound to tap this critical source
oI inIormation. The Committee Ieels that without subjecting the accused to any duress, the court
should have the Ireedom to question the accused to elicit the relevant inIormation and iI he
reIuses to answer, to draw adverse inIerence against the accused.
At present the participation oI the accuse din the trial is minimal. He is not even required to
disclose his stand and the beneIit oI special exception to any which he claims. This results in
great prejudice to the prosecution and impedes the search Ior truth. The Committee has thereIore
Ielt that the accused should be required to Iile a statement to the prosecution disclosing his stand.
For achieving this, the Iollowing recommendations are made:-
(8) Section 313 of the Code may be substituted by Sections 313-A, 313-B and 313-C on the
following lines:

a) 313-A: In every trial, the Court shall, immediately aIter the witnesses Ior the prosecution have
been examined, question the accused generally, to explain personally any circumstances
appearing in the evidence against him.

b) 313-B(1): Without previously warning the accused, the Court may at any stage oI trial and
shall aIter the examination under Section 313-A and beIore he is called on his deIence put such
questions to him as the court considers necessary with the object oI discovering the truth in the
case.
II the accused remains silent or reIuses to answer any question put to him by the court which he
is not compelled by law to answer, the court may draw such appropriate inIerence including
adverse inIerence as it considers proper in the circumstances.

c) 313-C(1): No oath shall be administered when the accused is examined under Section 313-A
or Section 313-B and the accused shall not be liable to punishment Ior reIusing to answer any
question or by giving Ialse answer to them.
The answers given by the accused may be taken into consideration in such inquiry or trial, and
put in evidence Ior or against him in any other inquiry into, or trial Ior, or any other oIIence
which such answers may tend to show he has committed.
(9) Suitable provisions shall be incorporated in the Code on the following lines:
a) Requiring the prosecution to prepare a 'Statement oI Prosecution' containing all relevant
particulars including, date, time, place oI the oIIence, the nature oI evidence oral and
documentary, names oI witnesses, names and similar particulars oI others involved in the
commission oI the crime, the oIIence alleged to have been committed and such other particulars
as are necessary to Iully disclose the prosecution case.
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b) 'Prosecution statement' shall be served on the accused.

c) On charge being Iramed the accused shall submit the 'DeIence Statement' within two weeks.
The Court may on suIIicient cause being shown extend the time not beyond 4 weeks.

d) In the deIence statement the accused shall give speciIic reply to every material allegation
made in the prosecution statement.

e) II the accused pleads guilty he need not Iile the deIence statement.

I) II any reply is general, vague or devoid oI material particulars, the Court may call upon the
accused to rectiIy the same within 2 weeks, Iailing which it shall be deemed that the allegation is
not denied.

g) II the accused is claiming the beneIit oI any general or special exceptions or the beneIit oI any
exception or proviso, or claims alibi, he shall speciIically plead the same, Iailing which he shall
be precluded Irom claiming beneIit oI the same.

h) Forms and particulars to be Iurnished in the prosecution statement and deIence statement shall
be prescribed.

i) II in the light oI the plea taken by the accused, it becomes necessary Ior the prosecution to
investigate the case Iurther, such investigation may be made with the leave oI the court.
(10)
a) On considering the prosecution statement and the deIence statement the court shall Iormulate
the points oI determination that arise Ior consideration.

b) The points oI determination shall indicate on whom the burden oI prooI lies.

c) Allegations which are admitted or are not denied need not be proved and the court shall make
a record oI the same.
4. Rights of the Accused

The accused has several rights guaranteed to him under the Constitution and relevant laws. They
have been liberally extended by the decisions oI the Supreme Court. The Accused has the right
to know about all the rights he has, how to enIorce them and whom to approach when there is a
denial oI those rights. The Committee thereIore Ielt that all the rights oI the accused Ilowing
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Irom the laws and judicial decisions should be collected and put in a Schedule to the Code. The
Committee also Ielt that they should be translated by each State in the respective regional
language and published in a Iorm oI a pamphlet Ior Iree distribution to the accused and the
general public.
The Iollowing recommendations are made in regard to the rights oI the accused:-
(11) The rights oI the accused recognized by the Supreme Court may subject to the clariIication
in Chapter 4 and the manner oI their protection be made statutory, incorporating the same in a
schedule to the Criminal Procedure Code.

(12) SpeciIic provision in the Code be made prescribing reasonable conditions to regulate
handcuIIing, including provision Ior taking action Ior misuse oI the power by the Police OIIicers.
5. Presumption of Innocence and Burden of Proof

There is no provision in the Indian Evidence Act prescribing a particular or a diIIerent standard
oI prooI Ior criminal cases. However, the standard oI prooI laid down by our courts Iollowing the
English precedents is prooI beyond reasonable doubt in criminal cases. In several countries in the
world including the countries Iollowing the inquisitorial system, the standard is prooI on
'preponderance oI probabilities.'
There is a third standard oI prooI which is higher than 'prooI on preponderance oI probabilities'
and lower than 'prooI beyond reasonable doubt' described in diIIerent ways, one oI the being
'clear and convincing' standard. The Committee aIter careIul assessment oI the standards oI prooI
came the conclusion that the standard oI prooI beyond reasonable doubt presently Iollowed in
criminal cases should be done away with and recommended in its place a standard oI prooI lower
than 'prooI beyond reasonable doubt' and higher than the standard oI 'prooI on preponderance oI
probabilities.' The Committee is thereIore Iavours a mid level standard oI prooI oI 'courts
conviction that it is true.' Accordingly, the Committee has made the Iollowing
recommendations:-
(13)
a. The Committee recommends that the standard oI 'prooI beyond reasonable doubt' present
Iollowed in criminal cases shall be done away with.

b. The Committee recommends that the standard oI prooI in criminal cases should be higher than
the 'preponderance oI probabilities' and lower than 'prooI beyond reasonable doubt.'

c. Accordingly, the Committee recommends that a clause be added in Section 3 on the Iollowing
lines:-
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"In criminal cases, unless otherwise provided, a Iact is said to be proved when, aIter considering
the matters beIore it, the court is convinced that it is true."
(The clause may be worded in any other way to incorporate the concept in para 2 above)
d. The amendments shall have eIIect notwithstanding anything contained in the contrary in any
judgment, order or decision oI any court.
6. 1ustice to Victims of Crime

An important object oI the criminal justice system is to ensure justice to the victims, yet he has
not been given any substantial right, not event o participate in the criminal proceedings.
ThereIore the Committee Ieels that the system must Iocus on justice to victims. ThereIore the
Committee has made several recommendations which include the right oI the victim to
participate in cases involving serious crimes and to adequate compensation. Hence, the
Committee has made the Iollowing recommendations:-
(14)
a) The victim, and iI he is dead, his legal representative shall have the right to be impleaded as a
party in every criminal proceeding where the oIIence is punishable with 7 years imprisonment or
more.

b) In select cases notiIied by the appropriate government, with the permisssion oI the court an
approved voluntary organization shall also have the right to implead in court proceedings.

c) The victim has a right to be represented by an advocate oI his choice; provided that an
advocate shall be provided at the cost oI the State iI the victim is not in a position to aIIord a
lawyer.

d) The victim's right to participate in criminal trials shall, inter alia, include:

a) to produce evidence, oral or documentary, with leave oI the Court and/or to seek directions Ior
production oI such evidence

b) to ask questions to the witnesses or to suggest to th court questions which may be put to
witnesses

c) to know the status oI investigation and to move the court to issue directions Ior Iurther to the
investigation on certain matters or to a supervisory oIIicer to ensure eIIective and proper
investigation to assist in the search Ior truth.
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d) to be heard in respect oI the grant or cancellation oI bail

e) to be heard whenever prosecution seeks to withdrawand to oIIer to continue the prosecution

I) to advance arguments aIter the prosecutor has submitted arguments

g) to participate in negotiations leading to settlement oI compoundable oIIences.

e) The victim shall have a right to preIer an appeal against any adverse order passed by the court
acquitting the accused, convicting Ior a lesser oIIence, imposing inadequate sentence, or granting
inadequate compensation. Such appeal shall lie to the court to which an appeal ordinarily lies
against the order oI conviction oI such a court.

I) Legal services to victims in select crimes may be extended to include psychiatric and medical
help, interim compensation and protection against secondary victimization.

g) Victim compensation is a State obligation in all serious crimes, whether the oIIender is
apprehended or not, convicted or acquitted. This is to be organized in a separate legislation by
Parliamanet. The draIt bill on the subject submitted to Government in 1995 by the Indian Society
oI Victimology provides a tentative Iramework Ior consideration.

h) The Victim Compensation law will provide Ior the creation oI a Victim Compensation Fund
to be administered possibility by the Legal Services Authority. The law should provide Ior the
scale oI compensation in diIIerent oIIences Ior the guidance oI the Court. It may speciIy oIIences
in which compensation may not be granted and conditions under which it may be awarded or
withdrawn.
It is the considered view oI the Committee that criminal justice administration will assume a new
direction towards better and quicker justice once the rights oI victims are recognized by law and
restitution Ior loss oI liIe, limb and property are provided Ior in the system. The cost Ior
providing it is not exorbitant as sometimes made out to be. With increase in quantum oI Iine
recovered, diversion oI Iunds generated by the justice system and soliciting public contribution,
the proposed victim compensation Iund can be mobilized at least to meet the cost oI
compensating victims oI violent crimes.
Even iI part oI the assets conIiscated and IorIeited in organized crime and Iinancial Irauds is also
made part oI the Iund and iI it is managed eIIiciently, there will be no paucity oI resources Ior
this well conceived reIorm. In any case, dispensing justice to victims oI crime cannot any longer
be ignored on grounds oI scarcity oI resources.
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7. Police Investigation

The machinery oI Criminal Justice System is put into gear when an oIIence is registered and then
investigated. A prompt and quality investigation is thereIore the Ioundation oI the eIIective
Criminal Justice System. Police are employed to perIorm multiIarious duties and quite oIten the
important work oI expeditious investigations gets relegated in priority. A separate wing oI
investigation with clear mandate that it is accountable only to Rule oI Law is the need oI the day.
Most oI the Laws, both substantive as well as procedural were enacted more than 100 years back.
Criminality has undergone a tremendous change qualitatively as well as quantitatively. ThereIore
the apparatus designed Ior investigation has to be equipped with laws and procedures to make it
Iunctional in the present context. II the existing challenges oI crime are to be met eIIectively, not
on the mindset oI investigators needs a change but they have to be trained in advanced
technology, knowledge oI changing economy, new dynamics oI social engineering, eIIicacy and
use oI modern Iorensics etc. Investigation Agency is understaIIed, ill equipped and thereIore the
gross inadequacies in basic Iacilities and inIrastructure also need attention on priority.
There is need Ior the Law and the society to trust the police and the police leadership to ensure
improvement in their credibility.
In the above backdrop the following recommendations are made:
(15) The Investigation Wing should be separated Irom the Law and Order Wing.

(16) National Security Commission and the State Security Commission at the State level should
be constituted, as recommended by the National Police Commission.

(17) To improve quality oI investigation the Iollowing measures shall be taken:
a) The post oI an Addl SP may be created exclusively Ior supervision oI a crime.

b) Another Addl. SP in each District should be made responsible Ior collection, collation and
dissemination oI criminal intelligence; maintenance and analysis oI crime data and investigation
oI important cases.

c) Each State should have an oIIicer oI the IGP rank in the State Crime Branch exclusively to
supervise the Iunctioning oI the Crime Police. The Crime Branch should have specialized squads
Ior organized crime and other major crimes.

d) Grave and sensational crimes having inter-State and transnational ramiIications should be
investigated by a team oI oIIicers and not by a single IO.
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e) Sessions cases must be investigated by the senior-most police oIIicer posted at the police
station.

I) Fair and transparent mechanisms shall be set up in places where they do not exist and
strengthened where they exist, at the District Police Range and State level Ior redressal oI public
grievances.

g) Police Establishment Boards should be set up at the police headquarters Ior posting, transIer
and promotion etc. oI the District Level oIIicers.

h) The existing system oI Police Commissioner's oIIice which is Iound to be more eIIicient in the
matter oI crime control and management shall be introduced in the urban cities and towns.

i) Dy. SP level oIIicers to investigate crimes need to be reviewed Ior reducing the burden oI the
circle OIIicers so as to enable them to devote more time to supervisory work

j) Criminal cases should be registered promptly with utmost promptitude by the SHO's

k) Stringent punishment should be provided Ior Ialse registration oI cases and Ialse complaints.
Section 182/211 oI IPC be suitably amended.

l) Specialised Units/Squads should be set up at the State and District level Ior investigating
speciIied category crimes.

m) A panel oI experts be drawn Irom various disciplines such as auditing, computer science,
banking, engineering and revenue matters etc. at the State level Irom whom assistance can be
sought by the investigating oIIicers.

n) With emphasis on compulsory registration oI crime and removal oI diIIerence between non-
cognizable and cognizable oIIences, the workload oI investigation agencies would increase
considerably. Additionally, some investigations would be required to be done by a team oI
investigators. For liquidating the existing pendency, and, Ior prompt and quality investigation
including increase in the number oI Investigating OIIicers is oI utmost importance. It is
recommended that such number be increased at least two-Iold during the next three years.

o) Similarly Ior ensuring eIIective and better quality oI supervision oI investigation, the number
oI supervisory oIIicers (additional SPs/Dy.SPs) should be doubled in next three years.

p) InIrastructural Iacilities available to the Investigating OIIicers specially in regard to
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accommodation, mobility, connectivity, use oI technology, training Iacilities etc. are grossly
inadequate and they need to be improved on top priority. It is recommended that a Iive year
rolling plan be prepared and adequate Iunds are made available to meet the basic requirements oI
personnel and inIrastructure oI the police.

(18) The training inIrastructure, both at the level oI Central Government and State Governments,
should be strengthened Ior imparting state oI the art training to the Iresh recruits as also to the in-
service personnel. Hand-picked oIIicers must be posted in the training institutions and they
should be given adequate monetary incentive.

(19) Law should be amended to the eIIect that the literate witness signs the statement and
illiteterate one puts his thumb impression thereon. A copy oI the statement should be
mandatorily given to the witness.

(20) Audio/video recording oI statements oI witnesses, dying declarations and conIessions
should be authorized by law.

(21) Interrogation Centres should be set up at the District Hqrs. in each District, where they do
not exist, and strengthened where they exist, with Iacilities like tape recording and or
videography and photography etc.

(22)
a) Forensic Science and modern technology must be used in investigations right Irom the
commencement oI investigation. A cadre oI Scene oI Crime oIIicers should be created Ior
preservation oI scene oI crime and collection oI physical evidence there-Irom.

b) The network oI CFSL's and FSL's in the country needs to be strengthened Ior providing
optimal Iorensic cover to the investigating oIIicers. Mini FSL's and Mobile Forensic Units
should be set up at the District/Range level. The Finger Print Bureaux and the FSL's should be
equipped with well-trained manpower in adequate numbers and adequate Iinancial resources.

(23) Forensic Medico Legal Services should be strengthened at the District and the State/Central
level, with adequate training Iacilities at the State/Central level Ior the experts doing medico
legal work. The State Governments must prescribe time Irame Ior submission oI medico legal
reports.

(24) A mechanism Ior coordination among investigators, Iorensic experts and prosecutors at the
State and District level Ior eIIective investigations and prosecutions should be devised.

(25) Preparation oI Police BrieIs in all grave crimes must be made mandatory. A certain number
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oI experienced public prosecutors must be set apart in each District, to act as Legal Advisors to
the District police Ior this purpose.

(26) An apex Criminal intelligence bureau should be set up at the national level Ior collection,
collation and dissemination oI criminal intelligence. A similar mechanism may be devised at the
State, District, and Police Station level.

(27) As the Indian Police Act, 1861, has become outdated, a new Police Act must be enacted on
the pattern oI the draIt prepared by the National Police Commission.

(28) Section 167 (2) oI the Code be amended to increase the maximum period oI Police custody
to 30 days in respect oI oIIences punishable with sentence more than seven years.

(29) Section 167 oI the Code which Iixes 90 days Ior Iiling charge sheet Iailing which the
accused is entitled to be released on bail be amended empowering the Court to extend the same
by a Iurther period up to 90 days iI the Court is satisIied that there was suIIicient cause, in cases
where the oIIence is punishable with imprisonment above seven years.

(30) A suitable provision be made to enable the police take the accused in police custody remand
even aIter the expiry oI the Iirst 15 days Irom the date oI arrest subject to the condition that the
total period oI police custody oI the accused does not exceed 15 days.

(31) A suitable provision be made to exclude the period during which the accused is not
available Ior investigation on grounds oI health, etc. , Ior computing the permissible period oI
police custody.

(32) S. 438 oI the Code regarding anticipatory bail be amended to the eIIect that such power
should be exercised by the Court oI competent jurisdiction only aIter giving the public
prosecutor an opportunity oI being heard.

(33) Section 161 oI the Code be amended to provide that the statements by any person to a police
oIIicer should be recorded in the narrative or question and answer Iorm.

(34) In cases oI oIIences where sentence is more than 7 years it may also be tape / video
recorded.

(35) Section 162 be amended to require that it should then be read over and signed by the maker
oI the statement and a copy Iurnished to him.
(36) Section 162 oI the Code should also be amended to provide that such statements can be used
Ior contradicting and corroborating the maker oI the statement.
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(37) Section 25 oI the Evidence Act may be suitably amended on the lines oI Section 32 oI
POTA 2002 that a conIession recorded by the Supdt. oI Police or OIIicer above him and
simultaneously audio/video recorded is admissible in evidence subject to the condition that the
accused was inIormed oI his right to consult a lawyer.

(38) IdentiIication oI Prisoners Act 1920 be suitably amended to empower the Magistrate to
authorize taking Irom the accused Iingerprints, Iootprints, photographs, blood sample Ior DNA,
Iingerprinting, hair, saliva or semen etc., on the lines oI Section 27 oI POTA 2002.

(39) A suitable provision be made on the lines oI section 36 to 48 oI POTA 2002 Ior interception
oI wire, electric or oral communication Ior prevention or detection oI crime.

(40) Suitable amendments be made to remove the distinction between cognizable and non-
cognizable oIIences in relation to the power oI the police to investigate oIIences and to make it
obligatory on the police oIIicer to entertain complaints regarding commission oI all oIIences and
to investigate them.

(41) ReIusal to entertain complaints regarding commission oI any oIIence shall be made
punishable.

(42) Similar amendments shall be made in respect oI oIIences under special laws.

(43) A provision in the Code be made to provide that no arrest shall be made in respect oI
oIIences punishable only with Iine, oIIences punishable with Iine as an alternative to a sentence
oI imprisonment.

(44) In the schedule to the Code Ior the expression "cognizable", the expression "arrestable
without warrant" and Ior the expression "non-cognizable" the expression "arrestable with warrant
or order" shall be substituted.

(45) The Committee recommended Ior the review and reenactment oI the IPC, CrPC and
Evidence Act may take a holistic view in respect to punishment, arrestability and bailability.

(46) Consequential amendments shall be made to the Iirst schedule in the column relating to
bailability in respect oI oIIences Ior which the Committee has recommended that no arrest shall
be made.

(47) Even in respect oI oIIences which are not arrestable, the police should have power to arrest
the person when he Iails to give his name and address and other particulars to enable the police
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to ascertain the same. Section 42 oI the Code be amended by substituting the word "any" Ior the
words "oI non-cognizable."

(48) As the Committee has recommended removal oI distinction between cognizable and non-
cognizable oIIences, consequential amendments shall be made.

(49) The Iirst schedule to the Code be amended to provide only the Iollowing particulars.
a) Section
b) OIIence
c) Punishment
d) No arrest / arrestable with warrant or order / arrestable without warrant or order.
e) Bailable or non-bailable
I) Compoundable or non-compoundable
g) By what court triable.
Consequential amendments shall be made to part II oI the First Schedule in respect oI oIIences
against other laws.
(50) Rights and duties oI the complainant/inIormant, the victim, the accused, the witnesses and
the authorities to whom they can approach with their grievances should be incorporated in
separate Schedules to the Code. The should be translated in the respective regional languages
and made available Iree oI cost to the citizens in the Iorm oI easily understandable pamphlets.

(51) Presence oI witnesses oI the locality or other locality or neighborhood is required under
diIIerent provisions oI the existing laws. The committee recommends that such provisions be
deleted and substituted by the words "the police should secure the presence oI two independent
witnesses."
8. Public Prosecution
Prosecutors are the OIIicers oI the Court whose duty is to assist the court in the search oI truth
which is the objective oI the Criminal Justice System. Any amount oI good investigation would
not result in success unless the institution oI prosecution has persons who are oI merit and who
are committed with Ioundation oI a well structure proIessional training.
This important institution oI the Criminal Justice System has been weak and somewhat
neglected. Its recruitment, training and proIessionalism need special attention so as to make it
synergetic with other institutions and eIIective in delivering good results.
The following recommendations are made in this regard.
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(52)
a) In every State, the post oI Director oI Prosecution should be created, iI not already created,
and should be Iilled up Irom among suitable police oIIicers oI the rank oI DGP in consultation
with the Advocate General oI the State.

b) In States where the term oI the existing incumbents comes to an end, such appointments shall
be made, aIter the expiry oI the term.
(53) The Assistant Public Prosecutors and Prosecutors (other than the State Public Prosecutor in
the High Court) shall be subject to the administrative and disciplinary control oI the Director oI
Prosecutions.

(54) The duties oI the Director, inter alia, are to Iacilitate eIIective coordination between the
investigating and prosecuting oIIicers and to review their work and meeting with the Public
Prosecutors, Additional Public Prosecutors and Assistant Public Prosecutors Irom time to time
Ior that purpose.

(55) The Director must Iunction under the guidance oI the Advocate General.

(56)
a) All appointments to APP's shall be through competitive examination held by the Public
Service Commission having jurisdiction.

b) 50° oI the vacancies in the posts oI Public Prosecutors or Additional Public Prosecutors at
District level in each state shall be Iilled up by selection and promotion oI seniority-cum-merit
Irom the APP's.

c) Remaining 50° oI the posts oI Public Prosecutors or Additional Public Prosecutor shall be
Iilled by selection Irom a panel prepared in consultation with District Magistrates and District
Judges.

d) No person appointed as APP or promoted as Public Prosecutor shall be posted in the Home
district to which he belongs or where he was practicing.

e) Public Prosecutors appointed directly Irom the Bar shall hold oIIice Ior a period oI three years.
However, the State may appoint as Special Public Prosecutor any member oI the Bar Ior any
class oI cases Ior a speciIied period.

I) In appointing to various oIIices oI Public Prosecutors and Assistant Public Prosecutors
suIIicient representation shall be given to women.

19 | Þ a g e

(57) Assistant Public Prosecutors should be given intensive training, both theoretical and
practical. Persons in service should be given periodical in-service training.

(58) To provide promotional avenues and to use their expertise. Posts be created in institutions
Ior Training Ior Prosecutors and Police OIIicers.

(59) To ensure accountability, the Director must call Ior reports in all cases that end in acquittal,
Irom the Prosecutor who conducted the case and the Superintendent oI Police oI the District.

(60) All prosecutors should work in close cooperation with the police department, and assist in
speedy and eIIicient prosecution oI criminal cases and render advice and assistance Irom time to
time Ior eIIicient perIormance oI their duties.

(61) The Commissioner oI Police / Dist. Supdt oI Police may be empowered to hold monthly
review meetings oI P.P.'s / Addl. P.P.'s and APP's Ior ensuring proper coordination and
satisIactory Iunctioning.

(62) Provision may be made Ior posting Public Prosecutor / Senior Asst. Public Prosecutors at
the Commissionerate / Dist. Supdt. oIIices Ior rendering legal advice.
9. Courts and 1udges

There is gross inadequacy oI judges to cope up the enormous pendency and new inIlow oI cases.
The existing judge population ratio in India is 10.5:13 per million population as against 50
judges per million population in many parts oI the world. The Supreme Court has given
directions to all the States to increase the judge strength by Iive times in a phased manner within
the next Iive years. The vacancies in the High Courts have remained unIilled Ior years. This must
be remedied quickly.
The Commission is deeply concerned about the deterioration in the quality oI judges appointed
to the courts at all levels. The Constitution oI a National Judicial Commission is being
considered at the national level to deal with the appointment oI judges to the High Courts and the
Supreme Court and to deal with the complaints oI misconduct against them. The mere
entrustment oI the power oI appointment to the National Judicial Commission will not ensure the
appointment oI competent and upright judges. We need a process to ensure objectivity and
transparency in this behalI.
This requires laying down the precise qualiIications, experience, qualities and attributes that are
needed in a good judge and also the prescription oI objective criteria to apply to the overall
background oI the candidate. The analysis and discussions preceding their recommendations
20 | Þ a g e

should be recorded so as to ensure objectivity and transparency in the matter oI selecting the
candidates.
There are also complaints oI serious aberrations in the conduct oI the judges. Under Article 235
oI the Constitution, the High Court can exercise supervision and control over the subordinate
courts. There is no such power conIerred either on the ChieI Justice oI the High Court or the
ChieI Justice oI India, or the Supreme Court oI India. The provisions Ior impeachment are quite
diIIicult to implement. It is Ielt that the ChieI Justice should be conIerred certain powers to
enIorce discipline and to take some corrective or advisory measures against his colleagues
whenever aberrations in their conduct come to notice.
The Committee also Ieels that criminal work is highly specialize and to improve the quality oI
justice only those who have expertise in criminal work should be appointed and posted to
benches to deal exclusively with criminal work. As the expertise al all levels is Iound to
be woeIully inadequate the Committee Ieels that suitably tailored intensive training including
practical programme should be devised and all the judges given training not only at the induction
time but also in service at Irequent intervals. To achieve these objectives, the Iollowing
recommendations are made:-
(63)
a) QualiIications prescribed Ior appointment oI judges at diIIerent levels should be reviewed to
ensure that highly competent judges are inducted at diIIerent levels.

b) Special attention should be paid to enquire into the background and antecedents oI the persons
appointed to the Judicial OIIices to ensure that persons oI proven integrity and character are
appointed.

(64) Intensive training should be imparted in theoretical, practical and in court management to all
the Judges.

(65)
a) In the Supreme Court and High Courts, the respective ChieI Justices should constitute a
separate criminal division consisting oI such number oI criminal benches as may be required
consisting oI judges who have specialized in criminal law.

b) Such judges should normally be continued to deal with criminal cases until they demit oIIice.

c) Vacancies in the criminal divisions should be Iilled up by appointing those who have
specialized knowledge in criminal law.

(66) In the subordinate courts where there are more judges oI the same cadre at the same place,
21 | Þ a g e

as Iar as possible assigning oI civil and criminal cases to the same judge every day should be
avoided.

(67) In urban areas where there are several trail courts some corust should have lady judges who
should be assigned as Iar as possible criminal cases relating to women.

(68) A High Power Committee should be constituted to lay down the qualiIications, qualities and
attributes regarding character and integrity that the candidate Ior the High Court judgeship
should possess and speciIy the evidence or material necessary to satisIy these requirements.
Reasons should be recorded with reIerence to these criteria by the selecting authority.

(69) The ChieI Justice oI the High Court may be empowered on the lines oI the US Judicial
Councils ReIorm and Judicial Conduct and Disabilities Act 1980 to do the Iollowing:-
a) Advise the judge suitably
b) Disable the judge Irom hearing a particular class oI cases
c) Withdrawing judicial work Ior a speciIied period
d) Censure the judge
e) Advise the judge to seek voluntary retirement
I) Move the ChieI Justice oI India to advise the Judge or initiate action Ior impeachment.

(70) The ChieI Justice oI the High Court may issue circulars:-
a) That immediately below the cause title oI the judgment order the Iollowing particulars shall be
entered:-
a) Date oI conclusion oI arguments
b) Date oI reserving the judgmen
c) Date oI pronouncement oI judgment
d) At the bottom oI the judgment the Iollowing particulars shall be entered:-

1. Date when the dictation was completed
2. Date when typing was completed and placed beIore the judge
3. The date when the judge signed

b) The Court OIIicer shall enter in a separate register:-
a) The time when the judge assembled.
b) The time when the judge rose
c) Copy oI this record shall be sent to the ChieI Justice on the same day and put up on the notice
board.

(71) The Committee recommends that the Law Commission's consultation paper on case
management be accepted and the proposals carried out without any delay.
22 | Þ a g e

10. Trial Procedures

The Committee is concerned with enormous delay in decision making, particularly in trial courts.
At present, a large number oI cases in which punishment is two years and less are tried as
summons cases. The summary procedure prescribed by Section 262 to 264 oI the Code, iI
exercised properly, would quicken the pace oI justice considerably.
However, the number oI cases which are presently tried summarily is quite small and maximum
punishment that can be given aIter a summary trial is three months. In order to speed up the
process, the Committee Ieels that all cases in which punishment is three years and below should
be tried summarily and punishment that can be awarded in summary trials should be increased to
three years. At present only specially empowered magistrate can exercise summary powers
which the Committee Ieels should be given to all Judicial Magistrates First Class.
Section 206 oI the Code prescribes the procedure Ior dealing with 'petty oIIences.' This provision
empowers the Magistrates to speciIy in the summons the Iine which the accused should pay iI he
pleads guilty and to send the Iine amount along with his reply to the court. This procedure is
simple and convenient to the accused, as he need not engage a lawyer nor appear beIore the court
iI he is not interested in contesting the case. However, the deIinition oI the expression 'petty
oIIences' restricts it to those oIIences punishable only with Iine not exceeding Rs. 1000/-. In
order to give beneIit oI this provision to large number oI accused, the Committee has Iavoured
suitable modiIication oI the expression 'petty oIIences.' Hence the Iollowing recommendations
are made:-
(72)
a) Section 260 oI the Code may be amended by substituting the word "shall" Ior the words "may
iI he think Iit."

b) Section 260 (1) (c) oI the Code be amended empowering any Magistrate oI First Class to
exercise the power to try the cases summarily without any special empowerment in this behalI by
the High Court.

c) The limit oI Rs. 200/- Iixed Ior the value oI property under Section 260 (1) (c) (ii, iii, iv) be
enhanced to Rs. 5000/-

(73)
a) Section 262(2) be amended to enhance the power oI sentence oI imprisonment Irom three
months to three years.

b) Section 2(x) be amended by substituting the word "three" Ior the word "two."
23 | Þ a g e


(74) That all Magistrates shall be given intensive practical training to try cases Iollowing the
summary procedure.

(75) Section 206 be amended to make it mandatory to deal with all petty cases in the manner
prescribed in sub-section (1).

(76)
a) In the proviso to sub-section (1) the Iine amount to be speciIied in the summons shall be raised
to Rs. 2000/-.

b) Notice to the accused under Section 206 shall be in Iorm No. 30-A and the reply oI the
accused shall be in Iorm No. 30-B as per annexures.

(77) In sub-section (2) oI Section 206 the limit relating to Iine be raised to Rs. 5000/-.

(78)
a) Sub-section (3) shall be suitably amended to empower every Magistrate to deal with cases
under sub-section (1). OIIences which are compoundable under Section 320 or any oIIence
punishable with imprisonment Ior a term not exceeding one year or with Iine or with both.
b)
a) Section 62 oI the code be amended by deleting reIerence to the need Ior rules by State
Government Ior alternate modes oI service.
b) In Section 69 beIore the word "witness" the words "accused or" be added wherever the word
"witness" occurs.
11. Witnesses and Perjury

The prosecution mainly relies on the oral evidence oI witnesses Ior proving the case against the
accused. UnIortunately there is no dearth oI witnesses who come to the courts and give Ialse
evidence with impunity. This is a major cause oI Iailure oI the system. The procedure prescribed
Ior taking action against perjury is as cumbersome as it is unsatisIactory.
Many witnesses give Ialse evidence either because oI inducement or because oI the threats to
him or his Iamily members. There is no law to give protection to the witnesses subject to such
threats, similar to witness protection laws available in other countries.
UnIortunately the witnesses are treated very shabbily by the system. There are no Iacilities Ior
the witnesses when they come to the court and have to wait Ior long periods, oIten their cross-
examination is unreasonable and occasionally rude. They are not given their TA / DA promptly.
24 | Þ a g e

The witnesses are not treated with due courtesy and consideration; nor are they protected.
Witnesses are required to come to the court unnecessarily and repeatedly as a large number oI
cases are posted and adjourned on Irivolous grounds. To overcome these problems, the
Committee has made the Iollowing recommendations:-
(79)
a) Witness who comes to assist the court should be treated with dignity and shown due courtesy.
An oIIicial should be assigned to provide assistance to him.

b) Separate place should be provided with proper Iacilities such as seating, resting, toilet,
drinking water etc. Ior the convenience oI the witnesses in the court premises.

(80) Rates oI traveling and other allowance to the witness should be reviewed so as to
compensate him Ior the expenses that he incurs. Proper arrangements should be made Ior
payment oI the allowances due to the witness on the same day when the case is adjourned
without examining the witness he should be paid T.A. and D. A. the same day.

(81) A law should be enacted Ior giving protection to the witnesses and their Iamily members on
the lines oI the laws in USA and other countries.

(82) Courts should list the cases in such a manner as to avoid the witnesses being required to
come again and again Ior giving evidence. The trial should proceed on day to day basis and
granting oI adjournments should be avoided. The judge should be held accountable Ior any lapse
in this behalI. The High Court should ensure due compliance through training and supervision.

(83) Evidence oI experts Ialling under Sections 291, 292 and 293 oI the Court may as Iar as
possible received under AIIidavit.

(84) DNA experts should be included in subsection 4 oI Section 293 oI the Code.

(85) The witness should be provided a seat Ior him to sit down and give evidence in the court.

(86) The judge should be vigilant and regulate cross-examination to prevent the witness being
subjected to harassment, annoyance or indignity. This should be ensured through training and
proper supervision by the High Courts.

(87)
a) Section 344 oI the Code may be suitably amended to require the court to try the case
summarily once it Iorms the opinion that the witness has knowingly or willIully given Ialse
evidence or Iabricated Ialse evidence with the intention that such evidence should be used in
such proceeding. The expression occurring in Section 344(1) to the eIIect "iI satisIied that it is
2S | Þ a g e

necessary and expedient in the interest oI justice that the witness should be tried summarily Ior
giving or Iabricating as the case may be, Ialse evidence" shall be deleted.

b) The Committee recommends that the punishment oI three months or Iine up to Rs. 500/- or
both should be enhanced to imprisonment Ior two years or Iine up to Rs. 10000 /- or both.

c) Sub-section 3 may be suitably amended to the eIIect that iI the Court oI Session or Magistrate
oI Iirst class disposing the judicial proceeding is however satisIied that it is necessary and
expedient in the interest oI justice that the witness should be tried and punished Iollowing the
procedure prescribed under Section 340 oI the Code, it shall record a Iinding that eIIect and
proceed to take Iurther action under the said provision. Section 341 providing Ior appeal is
unnecessary and shall be deleted.

(88) As the oath oI aIIirmation administration to the witnesses has become an empty Iormality
and does not act as a deterrent against making Ialse statements by witnesses, it is recommended
that a provision should be incorporated requiring the judge administering the oath or aIIirmation
to caution the witness that he is in duty bound under Section 8 oI the Oaths Act to speak the truth
and that iI he makes a Ialse statement in violation oI the oath or aIIirmation that has been
administered to him, the court has the power to punish him Ior the oIIence oI perjury and also to
inIorm him oI the punishment prescribed Ior the said oIIence.

(89) It is Iurther recommended that the High Court may impress upon the subordinate courts oI
their duty to resort to these provisions to curb the menace oI perjury, through training and calling
Ior periodic reports.
12. Vacations for the Courts
In view oI the large pendency and mounting arrears oI criminal cases, the long vacations Ior the
High Courts and Supreme Courts in the larger public interest, the Committee Ieels that there
should be a reduction oI the vacations.
Hence, the Iollowing recommendations are made:-
(90)
a) The working days oI the Supreme Court be raised to 206 days.

b) The working days oI the High Courts be raised to 231 days.

c) Consequently, the Supreme Court and the High Courts shall reduce their vacations by 21 days
on the increase in their working days.
13. Arrears Eradication Scheme
The recommendations made by the Committee in this report would help in reducing the arrears
26 | Þ a g e

and speeding up the trials, but to tackle the huge arrears a complementary strategy is
recommended. Government oI India, Ministry oI Law and Justice has created a 'Iast track courts'
scheme Ior dealing with sessions cases. Though the scheme is good it is beset with many
practical problems besides being limited to dealing with sessions cases.
The Committee is in Iavour oI working out an 'Arrears Eradication Scheme' Ior the purpose oI
tackling all the cases that are pending Ior more than 2 years on the appointed day.

To carry out the scheme, the Committee Ieels that a retired judge oI a High Court who is known
Ior eIIective and expeditious disposal oI criminal cases should be put in charge oI the Arrears
Eradication Scheme as the sitting judges may not Iind the time Ior it. Hence the Iollowing
recommendations.
(91) Arrears Eradication Scheme should be Iramed on lines suggested in the Section "Arrears
Eradication Scheme."

(92) There should be a cell in the High Court whose duty shall be to collect and collate
inIormation and particulars Irom all the Subordinate courts in regard to cases pending in the
respective courts Ior more than two years, to identiIy the cases among them which can be
disposed oI summarily under Section 262 oI the Code or as petty cases under Section 206 oI the
Code and cases which can be compounded with or without the leave oI the court.

(93) On the coming into Iorce oI the scheme, arrangements shall be made Ior sending all the
compoundable cases to the Legal Service Authority Ior settling those cases through Lok Adalats
on priority basis.

(94) The courts constituted under the Arrears Eradication Scheme shall dispose oI cases on
priority basis. The arrears oI cases triable under Section 262 and under Section 206 shall be
disposed oI expeditiously.

(95) The Courts constituted under the Arrears Eradication Scheme shall dispose oI the cases
expeditiously.

(96) A case taken up Ior hearing should be heard on a day to day basis until conclusion. Only
such number oI cases as can be conveniently disposed oI shall be posted Ior hearing every day as
Iar as possible in consultation with the concerned lawyers.

(97) Once the case is posted Ior hearing it shall not be adjourned. II under special circumstances
a case is required to be adjourned, it should be done Ior reasons to be recorded in writing subject
to payment oI costs and also the amount oI expenses oI the witnesses. The Court in its discretion
shall award costs to the other party or direct that the same shall be credited to the victim
27 | Þ a g e

compensation Iund iI one is constituted.

(98) The (retired) Judge incharge oI the Arrears Eradication Scheme shall make an estimate oI
the number oI additional courts required to be constituted Ior eradication oI the arrears at each
place including the requirement oI staII, number oI Public Prosecutors and other inIrastructure
required and move the concerned authorities to appoint them.

(99) The High Court shall take eIIective measures to ensure that the current cases are disposed oI
expeditiously and that no current cases would be pending Ior more than two years. Additional
Courts iI need Ior this purpose should be sanctioned expeditiously.
14. Offences, Sentence, Sentencing and Compounding
Since the IPC was enacted in the year 1860, may developments have taken place, new Iorms oI
crimes have come into existence, punishment Ior some crimes are proving grossly inadequate
and the need Ior imposing only Iine as a sentence Ior smaller oIIences is Ielt. Variety oI the
punishments prescribed is limited. There is thus a need to have new Iorms oI punishments such
as community service, disqualiIication Irom holding public oIIices, conIiscation orders,
imprisonment Ior liIe without commutation or remission etc. Hence the Committee is in Iavour
to review the IPC.
The IPC prescribes only the maximum punishments Ior the oIIences and in some cases minimum
punishment is also prescribed. The judge exercises wide discretion within the statutory limits.
There are no statutory guidelines to regulate his discretion. ThereIore in practice there is much
variance in the matter oI sentencing. There is no clear indication as to what are all the Iactors that
should be taken into account in the matter oI assessing the sentences to be imposed. In many
countries there are laws prescribing sentencing guidelines. The Committee is thereIore in Iavour
oI a permanent Statutory Committee being constituted Ior the purpose oI prescribing sentencing
guidelines.
As the Iines were prescribed more than a century ago and the value oI the rupee has since gone
down considerably, the Committee Ieels that it should be suitably enhanced.
The practice oI jailing women who are pregnant or having young child: the Committee Ieels that
this is cruel and most unreasonable to virtually put the innocent child in prison Ior no Iault oI the
child which will also aIIect his Iuture liIe. ThereIore pregnant women or women with child
(below 7 years) should, instead oI being sent to prison, be ordered to be under house arrest. This
the Committee Ieels is not a charity but the legitimate right oI the unborn and young children.
The Committee Ieels that the law should lean in Iavour oI settlement oI cases without trial,
where the interest oI society is not involved. The Law Commission has already made its
28 | Þ a g e

recommendations on this. The implementation oI the Law Commission recommendations with
the inclusion oI more oIIences in the category oI cases that can be compounded is recommended.
(100) The Committee recommends that wherever Iine is prescribed as one oI the punishments,
suitable amendments shall be made to increase the Iine amount by IiIty times.

(101) In respect oI oIIences Ior which death is a punishment, the sentence oI "imprisonment Ior
liIe without commutation or remission" be prescribed as an alternative sentence. Suitable
amendments shall be made to make it clear that when such punishment is imposed, the
government is precluded Irom commuting or remitting the sentence.

(102) When a woman who is pregnant or has a child below 7 years is sentenced to any term oI
imprisonment, a provision shall be made to give eIIect to that sentence by directing that she shall
remain under house arrest during that period. Similar provisions shall be made in respect oI such
women who are remanded to judicial custody.

(103) IPC empowers the court to prescribe the sentence oI imprisonment when the accused
commits deIault in payment oI Iine. The Committee recommends that a suitable provision should
be made empowering the court to prescribe an alternative to deIault sentence, community service
Ior a speciIied time.

(104) The Committee recommends that a statutory Committee be constituted to lay down
sentencing guidelines to regulate the discretion oI the court in imposing sentences Ior various
oIIences under the IPC and Special Local Laws under the Chairmanship oI a Iormer Judge oI the
Supreme Court or a retired ChieI Justice oI a High Court who has experience in the Criminal
Law, and with members representing the Police department, the legal proIession, the
Prosecution, women and a social activist.

(105) The Committee recommends review oI the Indian Penal Code to consider enhancement,
reduction or prescribing alternative modes oI punishments, creating new oIIences in respect oI
new and emerging crimes and prescribing new Iorms oI punishments wherever appropriate and
including more oIIences in the category oI compoundable oIIences and without leave oI the
court.

(106) The Committee recommends implementation oI 142nd and 154th reports oI the Law
Commission oI India in regard to settlement oI cases without trial.
15. Reclassification of Offences
It is recommended that non-cognizable oIIences should be registered and investigated and
arrestability shall not depend on cognizability, the present classiIication has Iurther lost its
relevance.
29 | Þ a g e

However, the Committee Ieels that when reviewing the Indian Penal Code it may be examined
whether it would be helpIul to make a new classiIication into i) The Social WelIare Code, ii) The
Correctional code, iii) the Criminal Code and iv) Economic and other OIIences Code. Hence the
Iollowing recommendations:-
(107) To remove the distinction between cognizable and non-cognizable oIIences and making it
obligatory on the Police OIIicer to investigate all oIIences in respect oI which a complaint is
made. This is discussed in the chapter on 'Police Investigations.'

(108) Increasing the number oI cases Ialling within the category oI cases triable by Iollowing the
summary procedure presented by Sections 262 to 264 oI the code in respect oI which
recommendations have been made in the Section dealing with "Trial Procedures."

(109) Increasing the number oI oIIences Ialling in the category oI "Petty OIIences" which can be
dealt with by Iollowing the procedure prescribed by Section 206 oI the Code which has been
discussed in the Section dealing with "Trial Procedure".

(110) Increasing the number oI oIIences Ior which no arrest shall be made, which ahs been
discussed in the section dealing with "Police Investigation."

(111) Increasing the number oI oIIences where arrest can be made only with the order oI the
court and reducing the number oI cases where arrest can be made without an order or warrant
Iorm the Magistrate, which has been discussed in the section dealing with "Police Investigation."

(112) Increasing the number oI oIIences which are bailable and reducing the number oI oIIences
which are not bailable discussed in the Section dealing "Police Investigation."

(113) Increasing the number oI oIIences that can be brought within the category oI
compoundable / settlement category discussed in the Section dealing with "Sentences and
Sentencing."

(114) The Committee recommends a comprehensive review oI the Indian Penal Code, the
Evidence Act and the Criminal Procedure Code by a broad based Committee representing the
Iunctionaries oI the Criminal Justice System, eminent men and women representing diIIerent
schools oI thoughts, social scientists and vulnerable sections oI the society and make
recommendations to the Parliament Ior stronger and progressive laws Ior the country.

16. Offences Against Women
There are several shortcomings or aberrations in dealing with the oIIences against women which
need to be addressed. The Committee Ieels that a man who marries a second wiIe during the
30 | Þ a g e

subsistence oI the Iirst wiIe should not escape his liability to maintain his second wiIe under
Section 125 oI the Code on the grounds that the second marriage is neither lawIul or valid.
The Supreme Court has held that, Ior proving bigamy, it is to be established that the second
marriage was perIormed in accordance with the customary rites oI either parties under the
personal laws which is not easy to prove. ThereIore the Committee Ieels that evidence regarding
a man and woman living together Ior a reasonably long period should be suIIicient to draw the
presumption that marriage was perIormed according to the customary rites oI the parties.
As a man can be punished under Section 497 oI the IPC Ior adultery, Ior having sexual
intercourse with a wiIe oI another man, it stands to reason that wiIe should likewise be punished
iI she has intercourse with another married man.
There is a general complain that Section 498A oI the IPC regarding cruelty by the husband or his
relatives is subjected to gross misuse and many times operates against the interest oI the wiIe
herselI. This oIIence is non-bailable and non-compoundable. Hence husband and other members
oI the Iamily are arrested and can be behind the bars which may result in husband losing his job.
Even iI the wiIe is willing to condone and Iorgive the lapse oI the husband and live in
matrimony, this provision comes in the way oI spouses returning to the matrimonial home. This
hardship can be avoided by making the oIIence bailable and compoundable.
As instances oI non-penal penetration are on the increase and they do not Iall in the deIinition
under the oIIence oI rape under Section 375 oI the IPC, the Committee Ieels that such non-penal
penetration should be made an oIIence prescribing a heavier punishment.
The Committee is not in Iavour oI imposing death penalty Ior the oIIence oI rape Ior in its
opinion the rapists may kill the victim. Instead, the Committee recommends sentence oI
imprisonment Ior liIe without commutation or remission.
The Committee however Ieels that investigation and trial oI rape cases should be done with most
expedition and with a high degree oI sensitivity. The Committee thereIore, makes the Iollowing
recommendations:-
(115) DeIinition oI the word "wiIe" in section 125 oI the Code be amended to include a woman
who was living with the man like his wiIe Ior a reasonably long period.

(116) Section 494 oI the IPC be suitably amended to the eIIect that iI the man and woman were
living together as husband and wiIe Ior a reasonably long period the man shall be deemed to
have married the woman according to the customary rites oI either party.

(117) Section 497 oI the Indian Penal Code regarding oIIence oI adultery be amended to include
31 | Þ a g e

wiIe who has sexual intercourse with a married man, by substituting the words "whosoever has
sexual intercourse with the spouse oI any other person is guilty oI adultery."

(118) The Code may be suitably amended to make the oIIence under Section 498A oI the IPC,
bailable and compoundable.

(119) Forcible penetration, penile/oral, penile/anal, object or Iinger/vaginal and object or
Iinger/anal should be made a separate oIIence under the IPC prescribing appropriate punishment
on the lines oI Section 376 oI the IP Code.

(120) The Committee is not in Iavour oI prescribing death penalty Ior the oIIence oI rape.
Instead the Committee recommends sentence oI imprisonment Ior liIe without commutation or
remission.

(121) A suitable provision should be made requiring the oIIicer investigation to complete
investigation oI cases oI rape and other sexual oIIences on priority basis and requiring the court
to dispose oI such cases expeditious within a period oI Iour months.

(122) Specialized training should be imparted to the Magistrates in regard to trial oI cases oI rape
and other sexual oIIences to instill in them sensitivity to the Ieelings, image, dignity and
reputation etc. oI the victim.

(123) Provision should be made in the Code permitting Iiling oI FIRs in respect oI oIIences
under Section 376, 376A, 376B, 376C, 376D and 377 oI IP Code within a reasonable time.
17. Organised Crime, 18. Federal Crime and 19. Terrorism
Organised Crime and Terrorism have been growing globally and India has not escaped their
pernicious eIIect. The nexus between organized crime and terrorism has also been a cause oI
serious concern to the Country. The Committee has given deep consideration to intertwined and
inter-dependent proIessional crimes in Indian as well as international background. The task oI
dealing with the organized crime and the terrorism becomes more complicated as structured
group in organized crime is enmeshed with its counterpart (oI structured group) in terrorism.
The Iormer is actuated by Iinancial/commercial propositions whereas the latter is prompted by a
wide range oI motives and depending on the point in time and the prevailing political ideology.
The Committee has given deep consideration to the growth oI organized crime, terrorism and
their invisible co-relationship with the avowed objective to destroy secular and democratic Iabric
oI the country. The Committee Ieels that the time has come to sink political diIIerences Ior better
governance oI the country and address the task oI dealing with these menaces. In the backdrop oI
the States' reluctance to share political power, through legislatures, Ior enactment oI Iederal law
32 | Þ a g e

to deal with certain crimes, the Committee has made recommendations to deal with (a) organized
crime (b) terrorism and (c) enactment oI central law to tackle Iederal crimes.
The Committee recommends that:
Organized Crime:
(124) The Government release a paper delineating the genesis oI organized crime in India, its
international ramiIications and its hold over the society, politics and the economy oI the country.

(125) Enabling legislative proposals be undertaken speedily to amend domestic laws to conIorm
to the provisions oI the UN Convention on Transnational Organised Crime.

(126) An inter-Ministerial Standing Committee be constituted to oversee the implementation oI
the Convention.

(127) The Nodal Group recommended by the Vohra Committee be given the status oI a National
Authority with a legal Iramework with appropriate composition.
(i) This Authority may be mandated to change the orientation and prescription oI law
enIorcement agencies, sensitise the country to the dimensions oI the problem and ensure that
investigations oI cases Ialling within the ambit oI the Authority are completed within a speciIied
time-Irame;

(ii) the Authority should be empowered to obtain Iull inIormation on any case Irom any agency
oI the Central or the State Governments; (iii) it should also have the power to Ireeze bank
accounts and any other Iinancial accounts oI the suspects/accused involved in cases under its
scrutiny (iv) and the power to attach the property oI any accused.

(128) Suitable amendments to provisions oI the Code oI Criminal Procedure, the Indian Penal
Code, the Indian Evidence Act and such other relevant laws as required may be made to deal
with the dangerous nexus between politicians, bureaucrats and criminals.

(129) A special mechanism be put in place to deal with the cases involving a Central Minister or
a State Minister, Members oI Parliament and State Assemblies to proceed against them Ior their
involvement.

(130) That the Code oI Criminal Procedure provide Ior attachment, seizure and conIiscation oI
immovable properties on the same lines as available in special laws.

(131) A Central, special legislation be enacted to Iight Organised Crime Ior a uniIorm and
uniIied legal statute Ior the entire country.
33 | Þ a g e

Federal Law:
(132) that in view oI the legal complexity oI such cases, underworld criminals/ crimes should be
tried by Iederal courts (to be established), as distinguished Irom the courts set up by the State
Governments.

(133) that Government must ensure that End User CertiIicate Ior international sale oI arms is not
misused |as happened in the Purulia Arms Drop|.

(134) The banking laws should be so liberalized as to make transparency the cornerstone oI
transactions which would help in preventing money laundering since India has become a
signatory to the UN Convention against Transnational Organised Crime.

(135) That a Federal Law to deal with crimes oI inter-state and /or international / trans-national
ramiIiciations be included in List I (Union List) oI the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution oI
India.
Terrorism:
(136) A Department oI Criminal Justice be established to not only carry out the
recommendations oI the Committee but also set up a Committee, preIerably under an Act oI
Parliament, to appraise procedural and criminal laws with a view to amend them as and when
necessary.

(137) Crime Units comprising dedicated investigators and prosecutors and Special Courts by
way oI Federal Courts be set up to expeditiously deal with the challenges oI 'terrorist and
organized' crimes.

(138) A comprehensive and inclusive deIinition oI terrorists' acts, disruptive activities and
organised crimes be provided in the Indian Penal Code 1860 so that thereis no legal vacuum in
dealing with terrorists, underworld crimnal sand their activities aIter special laws are permitted to
lapse as in the case oI TADA 1987.

(139) The sunset provision oI POTA 2002 must be examined in the light oI experiences gained
since its enactment and necessary amendments carriedo ut to maintain human rights and civil
liberties;

(140) Possession oI prohibited automatic or semi-automatic weapons like AK-47, AK-56 RiIles,
Machien Guns, etc., and lethal explosives and devices such as RDX, Landmines detonators, time
devices and such other components should be made punishable with a punishment oI upto 10
years.

34 | Þ a g e

(141) Power oI search and seizure be vested in the intelligence agencies in the areas declared as
Disturbed Areas under the relevant laws.
20. Economic Crimes
In spite oI well over 70 laws, apart Irom earlier laws in the Penal Code, the magnitude and
variety oI economic crimes is going at a Iast rate. The number oI agencies Ior regulation and
investigation have also increased. Yet the need Ior rigorous laws and strong regulatory
enIorcement and investigation agencies cannot be more obvious. The attempts made in the last
Iew decades to legislate in the matter have not been quite successIul. Our judicial processes have
not been helpIul either. It is essential that these crimes are tackled urgently through legislative
and other measures and it is Ior this purpose that the Iollowing recommendations are made:-
(142) Sunset provisions should be continued in statutes and these provisions be examined
keeping in view the continuing changes in economy and technology. Such statutes should not be
allowed to become out-oI-date which can be ensured by comprehensive draIting oI those statutes
to cover Iuture crimes.

(143)
a) The procedural laws regarding presumption oI burden oI prooI in the case oI economic crimes
should not be limited to explanation oI an accused who must rebut charges conclusively.

b) Adverse inIerence should be drawn iI violation oI accounting procedures are prima Iacie
estabilshed and public documents, including bank documents, should be deemed to be correct
(AIR 1957 SC 211: 1957 Cr.LJ 328)
(144) Sentences in economic oIIences should not run concurrently, but consecutively. Fines in
these cases should be partly based on seriousness oI oIIence, partly on the ability oI the
individual/corporation to pay, but ensuring that its deterrence is not lost.

(145) Legislatoin on proceeds oI crime be enacted on the lines oI simliar legislation in the UK
and Ireland. An Asset Recovery Agency at the Federal level and similar agency at the State
Levels may be created.

(146) In the past, non-compliance with procedures, healthy norms, institutional rules has led to
Iinancial Irauds oI enormous proportion. The abdication oI responsibility by Regulatory Bodies
has also contributed to the perpetuity oI Irauds. Keeping thi sin view, it is recommended that the
Regulatory Agnecies should at all times be vigilant and launch timely investigation and punish
oIIenders expeditiously.

(147) While bona Iide or inadvertent irregularities should normally be ignored with appropriate
advice Ior remedial action, the Iailure oI the Regulatory bodies in serious lapse should be viewed
3S | Þ a g e

adversely by the Central Government.

(148) Most economic crimes are amenable to investigation and prosecution by the existing law
and institutions, there are still some economic oIIenders oI such magnitude and complxity that
could call Ior investigation by a group oI a diIIerent kind oI specialists. ThereIore, it is
recommended that a mechanism by name 'Serious Fraud OIIice' be established by an act oI
Parliament with strong provisions to enable them to investigate and launch prosecution promptly.

a) To inspire the conIidence oI the people and to ensure autonomy, the Chairman and Members
oI the Serious Fraud OIIice be appoinetd Ior a term oI not more than Iive years Iollowing a
procedure that itselI should inspire conIidence, integrity, objectivity and independence.

b) In a similar manner, State Government must set up Serious Fraud OIIice, but appointment be
made in consultation with the Chairman oI the Central Fraud OIIice to eliminate political
inIluence.

(149) The Committee recommends that the existing Economic Intelligence Units under Ministry
oI Finance be not only strengthened suitably by induction oI specialists, state oI the art
technology and specialised training. To achieve a common preventive strategy Ior tackling
serious economic crimes, it is necessary that a closer coordination be maintained between the
National Authority, the SFO, the Intelligence Units and the regulatory authorities as also private
agencies. They should develop and share intelligence tools and databases, which would help
investigation and prosecution oI cases.

(150) For tackling serious economic oIIences, it is necessary that our domestic laws are made
compatible with laws oI other Countries. Mutual legal assistance, udner appropriate
Conventions/Treaties/Protocols oI the United Nations should be developed Ior exchange oI
iInormation oI a continuous basis.

(151) It is recommended that to reduce the work oI judges, the responsibility oI recovery oI
assets be given to a newly created Assets Recovery Agency which will deal with not only
IorIeiture oI conIiscation on behalI oI courts and government departments but also support in
certain other types oI work.

(152) The practice oI appointing serving representatives oI regulators on the Board oI Directors
oI Iinancial institutions be discontinued immediately to avoid conIlict oI interests. To ensure
compliance with guidelines oI Regulators, the Government may consider appointing independent
proIessionals to represent Regulators.

(153) An eIIective coordination mechanism must be introduced between the Government and
36 | Þ a g e

Regulators to detect suspicious activities in time and take prompt action.

(154) Violations oI environmental laws having serious economic and pubilc health cosnequences
must be dealt with eIIectively and expeditiously.

(155) The Committee recommends the enactment oI a alw to protect inIormers, covering major
crimes.
22. Training - A Strategy for Reform
(156) "Government and judiciary will be well advised to invest in training according to the eight
point agenda (set out in the section on 'Training Strategy Ior ReIorm') Ior reaping the beneIits oI
criminal justice reIorms in reasonable time."
23. Vision for the future
Society changes, so do its values. Crimes are increasing especially with changes in technology.
Ad hoc policy making and piecemeal legislation is not the answer. The Committee thereIore
recomends the Iollowing:-
(157) That the Government may come out with a policy statement on criminal justice and

(158) That a provision be incorporated in the Constitution to provide Ior a Presidential
Commission Ior a perodical review oI the Iunctioning oI the Criminal Justice System.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Þr|mary sources
Cr|m|na| procedure code Ŵke|kar




37 | Þ a g e


Secondary sources
1Ŧ wwwŦlawsLudenLŦln
2Ŧ arLlclesŴbaseŦcom
3Ŧ wwwŦbuslness sLandardŦcom
4 wwwŦLhe hlnduŦcom
3ŦhLLpsť//wwwŦamazlnesŦcom/CovernmenL/arLlcle_deLallŦcfm/104627?arLlcleldƹ104627
Ŷproff
6Ŧ wwwŦlawsLudenLŦln
7Ŧ wwwŦparllamenLoflndlaŦnlcŦln
8Ŧ wwwŦpmlndlaŦnlcŦln
9ŦwwwŦsupremecourLoflndlaŦnlcŦln
10Ŧ hLLpť//wwwŦarLlclesbaseŦcom/pollLlcsŴarLlcles/offlceŴofŴproflLŴaŴpollLlcalŴ
conLroversyŴlnŴ lndlaŴ292234ŦhLml



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