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and tube heat exchanger at various operating conditions To determine the heat load, log mean temperature difference (LMTD), overall heat transfer coefficient, U.

SUMMARY This experiment is about the heat exchanger (HE). There are two types of heat exchanger; double pipe and the shell and tube. Double pipe heat exchanger is the simplest one meanwhile the shell and tube heat exchanger s the most commonly used. This experiment is held in Lab 6A. The objectives of this experiment is to evaluate and study the performance of the shell and tube heat exchanger at various operating system and to determine the heat load, log mean temperature difference (LMTD), overall heat transfer coefficient U. In this experiment, the pressure, the flowrate of water should be taken care of because the pressure drop and water’s flowrate contributes to the final result of this experiment. The type of the fluid in the shell and tube heat exchanger is

NOTATION INTRODUCTION & THEORY To design a shell and tube heat exchanger, it is necessary to relate the total heat transfer rate to fluid temperature (inlet and outlet), overall heat transfer coefficient (U) and the total surface area for the heat transfer. Two such relations may be obtained by applying energy balance (sensible heat relationship)to the hot and cold fluid. Sensible heat expression might be obtained by relating total heat transfer rate to the temperature difference between the hot and cold fluids and constant specific heats are assumed. These equations are independent of flow arrangement and heat exchanger type. Therefore, these equations are, Q hot = m (hot) × Cp (hot) × ∆T (hot) [1] [2]

Q cold = m (cold) × Cp (cold) × ∆T (cold)

An expression may be obtained by relating the total heat transfer rate to the temperature difference between hot and cold fluid, where ∆T = Tn-Tc. This expression would be an extension of Newton’s law of cooling, with the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) used in placed of the singe convection (h) as Q = U A (∆T)m. The varies with position in the heat exchanger. It is necessaries to work with a rate equation of the following form, Q = U A (∆T)m Where, (∆T)m = Log mean temperature difference Q = Total heat load A = Total heat transfer area This equation 3 with equations q and 2 would be performed a heat exchanger analysis. Before this can be done, however the specific form of (∆T)m must be established for the parallel flow and current-flow heat exchanger. Parallel – Flow and Counter Flow Heat Exchanger According to Figure 1, the hot and cold fluid temperature distribution associated with a parallel – flow heat exchanger would be summarized to determine expression for (∆T)m as, 1 = T hi – T ci Therefore, and 2 = T ho – T co [3]

would be summarized to determine the expression for (∆T)m as. Equation 4 and equation 3 would be able to determine the rate of heat transfer for parallel flow. (∆T)m = 1–2 ln( 1 / 2) Tho Tci .(∆T)m = θ1 – θ2 ln( 1 / 2) Equation 4 would give the log mean temperature difference (∆T)m. Thi Tci Heat Exchanger Tho Tco Figure 1: Parallel Flow The hot and cold fluid temperature distribution associated with the counter current – flow heat exchanger in Figure 2 in contrast to the parallel – flow exchanger. therefore. Thi Tci Heat Exchanger Figure 2: Counter-current Flow Therefore.

0 C / 0 F Q.493.5 ºC 2 QH : 120. psig. Inlet Pressure Drop.Equation 5 would give the log mean temperature difference (∆T)m. 0 C / 0 F . 0 C / 0 F Average Temp. BTU / HR Computer ratio Q H Q C T2-T1 : 23. mm H2O CALCULATE FOLLOWING : Temp Change.4 ºC T2 + T1 : 53.9 ºC PG-C : 7 DP (Shell): 318 HW FH : 2. 0 C / 0 F . Inlet Temp.0 DP(Tube): 922 Temp. Outlet Pressure.032 Results Table Run 1 . 395.4 m3/ hr : 6 USGPM T13 : T1 : 25.6 ºC PG-H : 2.8 ºC T14 : T2 : 48.6 Q C Q H T2-T1 : 13.1 ºC T2 + T1 : 37.35 ºC 2 QC : 124. Set 1 Actual Flow : m / hr : USGPM 3 CW FC : 1.0 ºC T12 : T2 : 46.06 BTU / HR 1.3 m3/ hr : 10USGPM T11 : T1 : 60. Also this equation and equation 3 would be able to determine the rate of heat transfer for counter flow. Head Load.

Table Run 2 .

0 C / 0 F Average Temp. mm H2O CALCULATE FOLLOWING : Temp Change.7 ºC T2 + T1 : 37. Inlet Temp. Head Load. Outlet Pressure. 0 C / 0 F Q.1 ºC T14 : T2 : 45.Set 2 Actual Flow : m3/ hr : USGPM CW FC : m3/ hr : 10 USGPM T13 : T1 : 29.25 BTU / HR 0.5 Q C Q H T2-T1 : 24.5 ºC 2 QH : 220.0 DP (Shell): 926 HW FH : m3/ hr : 10USGPM T11 : T1 : 69.8 ºC PG-C : 7.45 ºC 2 QC : 150. Inlet Pressure Drop. BTU / HR Computer ratio Q H Q C T2-T1 : 16.6 ºC T2 + T1 : 57.697.0 DP(Tube): 913 Temp. 0 C / 0 F . 0 C / 0 F .681098 .316.2 ºC PG-H : 2.8 ºC T12 : T2 : 45. psig.

2 ºC T14 : T2 : 50. Head Load.5 ºC 2 QH : 283.0 ºC PG-H : 6.0 ºC T12 : T2 : 49.227. 0 C / 0 F . 0 C / 0 F Average Temp.154 Q C Q H T2-T1 : 21. 0 C / 0 F .0 ºC T2 + T1 : 59. psig. 0 C / 0 F Q.0 DP(Tube): 2022 Temp. BTU / HR Computer ratio Q H Q C T2-T1 : 18. Inlet Temp.3 ºC T2 + T1 : 41.84 BTU / HR 0. Inlet Pressure Drop. Outlet Pressure.6467 Table Run 3 . mm H2O CALCULATE FOLLOWING : Temp Change.0 DP (Shell): 891 HW FH : m3/ hr : 15USGPM T11 : T1 : 70.6 ºC PG-C : 9.Set 3 Actual Flow : m3/ hr : USGPM CW FC : m3/ hr : 10 USGPM T13 : T1 : 32.4 ºC 2 QC : 183.

Table Run 4 .

psig.7 ºC PG-C : 9 DP (Shell): 900 HW FH : m3/ hr : 20USGPM T11 : T1 : 61.030 BTU / HR 0.2 ºC T12 : T2 : 51.018 Q C Q H T2-T1 : 9.8 ºC T14 : T2 : 53. BTU / HR Computer ratio Q H Q C T2-T1 : 17.9 ºC T2 + T1 : 44.8 ºC T2 + T1 : 56. 0 C / 0 F .4 ºC PG-H : 15 DP(Tube): 3519 Temp. Inlet Temp. Inlet Pressure Drop. 0 C / 0 F Average Temp. 0 C / 0 F Q. Head Load. 0 C / 0 F .90955 . mm H2O CALCULATE FOLLOWING : Temp Change.75 ºC 2 QC : 161.Set 4 Actual Flow : m3/ hr : USGPM CW FC : m3/ hr : 10 USGPM T13 : T1 : 35. Outlet Pressure.3 ºC 2 QH : 177.

1-994) (26.1 ° C = y1 + ( x − x1 ) ( y −y) ( x 2 − x1 ) 2 1 = y1 + ( x − x1 ) ( y −y) ( x 2 − x1 ) 2 1 = 997.179 ∆T = T2 – T1 = 23.1 ° C Refer to the table of H2O Interpolation to find ρ at 23.67-21.179 + (23.11 – 21.1 ° C Interpolation to find Cp at 23.56 = 4179 kJ/kg.11) = 4.8 Cp 4.67 ρ 997.11 26.67–21.1-21.° C .99 (-1.179 – 4.11) (4.4 + 1.SAMPLE CALCULATION FROM DATA RUN 1.179) (26.56 = 996.6) 5.4 995.17 gal x 60min/1 Hr =1.11) (992.178 + 1.36276 m³ / Hr T° C 21.4 + ( 23.179 4.11) = 997.827 kg m3 = 4.99 (0) 5. COLD WATER (QC) Convert 6 gal USGPM to m³ / Hr 6 gal / min x 1m³ / 264.

56–13.(m)cold = ρ x flowrate = 996.486 x 10-4 Btu / J .179 KJ / Kg.4) =998.195 + (13.186 ∆T = T2 – T1 = 60.2713m³/Hr =2267.43 Kg / Hr Q C = (m)cold x Cp x ∆T = 1358.827 Kg / m³ x 1.56 ρ 999.022 KJ/Hr x 1000 J / KJ x 9.3 kg/hr Q H = 4.2) (15.4 .6 = 13.4 ° C Interpolation to find Cp at 13.43 Kg / Hr x 4.4 ° C = y1 + ( x − x1 ) ( y −y) ( x 2 − x1 ) 2 1 = y1 + ( x − x1 ) ( y −y) ( x 2 − x1 ) 2 1 =999.° C x 13.4 ° C Interpolation to find ρ at 13.46 – 46.1808 KJ/kg.396 Btu/hr HOT WATER (QH) T° C 10 15.4) = 4.3 Kg/Hr x 4.4 ° C = 127.4-10.0) (998.2 983.136 KJ /Hr x 1000 J / KJ x 9.0) (4.195 4.° C x 23.1808 KJ/Kg.2 + (13.195) (15.1 ° C = 131.256 kg/m3 (m)hot = ρ x flowrate =998.56-13.10.486x10-4 Btu / J = 124.6 Cp 4.36276 m³ / Hr = 1358.256 Kg/m³ x 2.186-4.6-999.° C = (m)hot x Cp x ∆T = 22367.

9 °C – 46. ΔLMTD for parallel: θ1 = Th in − Tc in =60.8°C =34.96 K Then.395.06 Btu/hr • THEN FIND Q AVERAGE = [(124.6 + 120.395.3 °C)/ln (34.6 °C = 2.6 Btu/hr 120. .2 °C θ2 = Tc out − Th out = 48.493.0 °C – 25.493.9 °C / 2.2 / 2.03 = 124.= 120.06 Btu/hr Q C • THEN FIND RATIO OF Q H = 1.493.8178 + 273.2 °C – 2. find U.15K = 284.3 °C ΔT=(34.3) =31.444 CALCULATION PARALLEL FROM DATA RUN 1.699 = 11.06)] / 2 = 122.

1 / 20.1°C θ2 = Th out − Tc in =46.Q ≡ UA ( ∆T ) m U ≡ Q A( ∆T ) m =(122.2808 ft²) x 284.0 °C.67 ft² x 1m² / (3.K-1 CALCULATION COUNTER CURRENT FLOW FROM DATA RUN I ΔLMTD for counter flow: θ1 = Th in − Tc out =60.8 °C =20.48.1 – 20.8 °C ( ∆T ) m = θ 1 − θ 2 θ ln 1 θ 2 = (11.8) / ln (11.8) =15.9 °C =11.15K .6 °C – 25.44 +273.444) / [31.037 m-2.96 K] = 146.

67 ft² x 1m² / (3.96 K] =144. The values of U in parallel flow is 146.2 m-2K-1 DISCUSSION A heat exchanger is a device designed to efficiently transfer heat from one fluid to another.K-! and the values of U in counter current flow is 144.037 m-2.2808 ft²) x 284. The values of U in parallel flow are higher than counter current flow because it exchange of heat transfer in shell and tube heat exchanger. The hot and cold fluids are never combined According to Newton's Law of Cooling heat transfer rate is related to the instantaneous temperature difference between hot and cold media • in a heat transfer process the temperature difference vary with position and time From our result. Q ≡ UA ( ∆T ) m U ≡ Q A( ∆T ) m = (122. The factors that influence the result to get nearest to one because of the flow rate. subsequently the partition transfers the heat to the cold fluid.59 K Then.= 288. In a heat exchanger hot and cold fluids enter separate chambers or tubes of the heat exchanger unit. the ratio get nearest to one is RUN I. find U. Differential pressure in shell more lower than differential pressure in tube because cold water are came into shell and the hot water are come into the tube. In our calculation. the value U of parallel flow and counter current flow are differences.2 m-2K-1 The equation to find heat hot and cold is: . The hot fluid transfers its heat to a conductive surface (solid partition) between it and the cold chamber.444) / [31.

The counter current flow always give highest reading than the parallel flow. Hence if the temperature cold and hot water increase.Tci.Tco and θ2 = Tho – Tci . U. A = Total heat transfer area. To determine which flow is better we have to calculate log mean temperature. In this experiment also we have to determine if the heat exchanger is a parallel or counter current flow. The Factor that might be influence this result is the flow rate of cold and hot water. And θ2 = Tho – Tco . Base on the calculation. So we can see that if the flow rate increase the temperature also will increase. we can see that (ΔT) m C. For counter current flow we use (ΔT)m = ln 1 ϑ 2 same above but θ1 = Thi . This is because the heat exchange in the same time so the temperature will increase. the Run that get nearest ratio to 1 is Run I. we use this formula to find overall heat transfer coefficient. (ΔT)m overall heat transfer coefficient. Then we compare the log mean temperature.. From the result we can show that the cold water and hot water is increase from run I to run IV. From the result. For parallel flow we use ϑ −ϑ2 1 ϑ where θ1 = Thi . (ΔT)m = log mean temperature differrence . (ΔT)m to determine which flow rate is better. Different flow with different formula we use. TUTORIAL . U for parallel and counter current flow. to find density and Cp we have to used interpolation.C.QH = (m)hot (Cp)hot (ΔT)hot and Qc = (m)cold (Cp)cold (ΔT)cold The value for flow rate has to convert in m 3/hr. the average temperature also will increase CONCLUSION From this experiment. This is because counter current flow is a efficient circulating in heat exchanger. Other we use formula Q ≡ UA ( ∆T ) m which Q = total heat load.P (counter current flow) always give higher value than parallel.

136 KJ /Hr x 1000 J / KJ x 9.43 Kg / Hr x 4.° C x 23. ∆T = 23.179 KJ/kg.1.1 ° C = 131.396 Btu/hr Run IV.43 kg/hr Temperature Change.1 ˚C (see Result) Q cold = m (cold) × Cp (cold) × ∆T (cold) =1358.827 kg/m3 Cp (specific heat) = 4.179 KJ / Kg.827 kg/m3 × 1.3627 m3/hr = 1358.3627 m3/hr (see Result) m (mass flowrate) = ρ (density) × FR (flowrate) = 996. Compare and calculate the valves of Q ÷ Q hot ≈ 1).(1) To find ρ (density) and Cp (specific heat): Interpolation: (from Table A-9 Properties of saturated water) ρ (density) = 996.486x10-4 Btu / J = 124. Run I-Cold water hot and Q cold and select the set of temperature and flow rates data where calculated values of Q hot and Q cold are close to each other (ratio Q cold Q cold = m (cold) × Cp (cold) × ∆T (cold) m (mass flowrate) = ρ (density) × FR (flowrate)---------. ˚C FR (flowrate) = 1.Hot Water Q hot = m (hot) × Cp (hot) × ∆T (hot) .

032 Compare value Q hot = 120.4 ° C = 127.1808 KJ/Kg. ∆T = 49.395. .75 ˚C (see Result) Q hot = m (hot) × Cp (hot) × ∆T (hot) = 22367. Determine the type of fluid flow in this heat exchanger (Parallel/Counter Flow).m (mass flowrate) = ρ (density) × FR (flowrate)---------.06 Btu/hr Ratio Q = 124.8 = 1. 2.486 x 10-4 Btu / J = 120.6 / 120493.06 Btu/hr and Q cold = 124.2713 m3/hr (see Result) m (mass flowrate) = ρ (density) × FR (flowrate) = 988.6 Btu/hr.256 kg/m3 Cp (specific heat) = 4.493. We can see that cold water in the tube transferred more heat than water in the shell and this have make the heat transfer between hot and hot water in run 2 are most efficient than others.(1) To find ρ (density) and Cp (specific heat) Interpolation: (from Table A-9 Properties of saturated water) ρ (density) = 988.3 Kg/Hr x 4.256 kg/m3 × 2. Calculate the log mean temperature difference (LMTD) for this shell and tube heat exchanger. ˚C FR (flowrate) = 2.022 KJ/Hr x 1000 J / KJ x 9.493.6 Btu/hr. the differential of heat transfer between Q hot and Q cold is 3902.3 kg/hr Temperature Change.1808 KJ/kg.2713 m3/hr = 2267.395.° C x 13.

∆ Tm C.8 ˚C – 45.9 ˚C = 11.C.0 ˚C – 48.1 ˚C ∆ Tm C.F = (θ1.C.8˚C) = 15.C.F = (11.1 ˚C) ÷ ln (24.F = (θ1.8˚C ∆ Tm C.θ2) ÷ ln (θ1 / θ2) Counter Flow: θ1 = T hi –T co θ2 = T ho – T ci Calculations of the log mean temperature difference (LMTD) for this shell and tube heat exchanger: RUN 1 ∆ Tm C.1˚C θ2 = 46.1 ˚C) = 19.6 ˚C – 25.8˚C) ÷ ln (11.1˚C / 20.θ2) ÷ ln (θ1 / θ2) Counter Flow: θ1 = T hi –T co θ2 = T ho – T ci θ1 = 69.0 ˚C / 16.F = (θ1.C.θ2) ÷ ln (θ1 / θ2) Counter Flow: θ1 = T hi –T co θ2 = T ho – T ci .1˚C – 20.F = (θ1.C.44 RUN 2 ∆ Tm C.θ2) ÷ ln (θ1 / θ2) Counter Flow: θ1 = T hi –T ci θ2 = T ho – T co θ1 = 60.2 ˚C – 29.1 ˚C = 16.C.F = (24.78 RUN 3 ∆ Tm C.0 ˚C θ2 = 45.0˚C – 16.8 ˚C = 20.8 ˚C = 24.This experiment we using Counter Current flow.

8 ˚C) ÷ ln (19.F = (θ1.0 ˚C – 50.C.8 ˚C ∆ Tm C.C.F × Area RUN 1 U C.4 ˚C θ2 = 49. Q average = U C.2 ˚C – 53.F = (7.44˚C = 15. A = 31.15 K = 288. U for this heat exchanger if given A= 31.F × ∆ Tm C.8 ˚C) = 18.15.8 ˚C = 15.444 Btu/hr Given area.F = (19.06 RUN 4 ∆ Tm C.4 ˚C – 35.F = Q average ÷ Area × ∆ Tm C.5 ˚C .6 ˚C) = 11.4 ˚C – 16. Compute the overall heat exchanger coefficient.942 m2 ∆ Tm C.θ1 = 70.67 ft2 (Total heat transfer area for heat exchanger).C.6 ˚C = 19.2 ˚C = 16.C.493 Btu / hr) ÷2 = 122.7 ˚C = 7.5 ˚C / 15.44 ˚C + 273.06 3.59 K .67 ft2 converts to m2 31.C.C.6 ˚C) ÷ ln (7.F = 15.0 ˚C – 32.764 ft2 = 2.F Q average = (124.4 ˚C / 16.C.67 ft2 × 1 m2/ 10.6 ˚C ∆ Tm C.5 ˚C θ2 = 51.θ2) ÷ ln (θ1 / θ2) Counter Flow: θ1 = T hi –T co θ2 = T ho – T ci θ1 = 61.C.395 Btu/hr + 120.

190.18 Btu/m2.5 Btu/hr ÷(2.942 m2 ∆ Tm C.F = 122.hr.U C.764 ft2 = 2.F = 233.C.K RUN 2 U C.C.93K U C.K RUN 3 U C.942 m2 ∆ Tm C.942 m2 × 292.5 Btu/hr Given area.hr.444 Btu/hr ÷(2. A = 31.C.67 ft2 × 1 m2/ 10.F = 18.hr.506 Btu/hr Given area.67 ft2 converts to m2 31.942 m2 × 291.506 Btu/hr ÷(2.190.C.C.F = Q average ÷ (Area × ∆ Tm C.316 Btu/hr + 220.2 Btu/m2.06˚C + 291.67 ft2 converts to m2 31.942 m2 × 288.21 K U C.C.764 ft2 = 2.F = 19.15 K = 292.78 ˚C + 273.21K) = 272.K .F = Q average ÷ (Area × ∆ Tm C.697 Btu/hr ) ÷2 = 185.C.C.59 K) = 144.154 Btu/hr + 283227 Btu/hr ) ÷2 = 233.C.F ) Q average = (150.67 ft2 × 1 m2/ 10.F = 185.25 Btu/m2.F ) Q average = (183.93 K) = 215. A = 31.

023.21 K U C.764 ft2 = 2. How overall heat transfer coefficient.C. U .15 = 284.F Q average = (161. U varies with the flow rate of the water? Note: The Q (total heat load) is approximately equal to the average value between calculated value of Qc and Qh.C.F = 169.F = 11.21 K) = 202. the heat transfer for hot and cold water will be different from before changes take place. A = 31.C.67 ft2 converts to m2 31.C.RUN 4 U C.146 Btu/m2.9 Btu/hr ) ÷2 = 169.942 m2 ∆ Tm C.06˚C +273. So.029. When there are changes in flow rate of water.018 Btu/hr + 177.K 4.95 Btu/hr Given area. with the heat transfer of both hot and cold water will change.942 m2 × 284. heat transfer will affect the value of overall heat transfer coefficient.67 ft2 × 1 m2/ 10.95 Btu/hr ÷(2.F = Q average ÷ Area × ∆ Tm C.hr.023.

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