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Computer Networking

Chapter 1 Computer Networks and the Internet
The internet is a computer network that interconnects computing devices. End systems/Hosts are connected with communication links and packet switches. Communication links are different types of physical media. Packets are blocks of information. Other description of the internet: An infrastructure that provides services to applications.

Protocol: A protocol defines the format and the order of messages exchanged between two or more communicating entities, as well as the actions taken on the transmission and/or receipt of a message or other event. Host = end system A host exists out of a client and a server, internet applications are distributed applications. (they run on 2 computers)

Access networks: Dial up: Very slow, via phone line. DSL: Normal speed, same line as the phone but on a different frequentation. Streams are asymmetric, download speed is faster as upload speed.

Cable: Via television cable. Fiber to the home (FTTH): Fibre cable, works with optic signals, is very fast. Ethernet: Access via LAN. WiFi: Access via Wireless LAN, devices connect with an access point, which connects with a base station. Works for 10s of meters Wide Area Wireless Access: Third generation wireless (3G), works over 10s of km’s. WiMAX: Wide Area Wireless Access but then faster. Physical media: Guided media: Waves in a solid medium. Unguided media: Waves in the atmosphere.

Propagation delay: The time it takes to propagate trough the link. Transmission delay: The time it takes to push the packet onto the link. Simpler. The layer n protocol is distributed among the various places in the network. Types of delay: Processing delay: The time to read the header and to determine the direction. Packet loss: when a queue is full the packet is dropped. (Distance/speed) d nodal = d proc + d queue + d trans + d prop Traffic intensity: La/R (Bits/Sec / transmission rate) Arrival is random. Forwarding table: a table in a router that maps destination addresses. and do not follow any pattern. Protocols are organized in layers.- Twisted pair copper wire Coaxial cable Fiber optics Terrestrial Radio Channels Satellite radio channels Circuit Switching Reserved Line is reserved for a period of time. Throughput: The transmission rate of the bottleneck link (the slowest) Layers: provide service by performing certain actions within the layer and provide service by using the services of the layer directly below it. (distribution) . A tier 2 ISP is the customer of the tier 1 ISP. The internet is a network of networks. Queuing delay: The time the packet has to wait to be transmitted onto the link. Points of presence (POPs): Points where the ISP connects with other ISP’s. Better sharing of bandwidth. they peer with each other. Packet Switching Not reserved. more efficient and less costly. no other package can use it. Store-forward delay and queue delay. the provider. When 2 ISP directly connect with each other. La/R is not sufficient.

Bandwidth flooding: Sends deluge of packets to target host. UDP protocols. Physical layer Moves the individual bits over the transmission medium. Transports application layer messages between application endpoints.Protocols of the various layers: protocol stack. protocol depends on the medium. (Cause damage to a computer) Denial of service (DoS) attacks: renders a unusable infrastructure. Distributed DoS attack (DDos): Attack from multiple sources (harder to block). Packets are referred to as frames. Man in the middle attacks: Bad router in the link. Vulnerability attack: sequence of packets send to a vulnerable application. (“IP is the glue of the internet”) Link layer Moves the packet from one node to the next. Packet sniffer: keeps copy of every packet that passes. Layers: Application layer Application layer protocol. Network layer Passes datagrams from host to host. - - - OSI model: adds 2 more layers. stops accepting legitimate connections. . (in a LAN) IP spoofing: Sending packets into the internet using a false IP address. in the normal layer model these layers are in the application if they are needed. IP protocol. Connection flooding: Opens a lot of half open or open TCP connections. prevents legitimate packets from arriving. Transport layer TCP. Encapsulation: Every layer ads its own Header to the payload field. Uses different protocols for different links. A packet of information in the application layer is called a message. using the protocol to exchange packets of information. Malware: Viruses. worms and Trojan horses. Contains routing protocols that define the route of the datagrams.

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