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Chapter Overview Why Study Children?

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Child development research can help teachers understand how children change over time and what explains the observed changes. Instructional decisions are influenced by teachers' beliefs about children's development. Teachers have varying points of view about development, but a large number believe that development is primarily a maturational process. Several recent studies have raised questions about teachers' understanding of child and adolescent development. Many teachers appear to have a limited understanding of the age group they teach. Schools play an important role in children's intellectual, social, and emotional development. Schooling not only affects children's level of intellectual development, but also influences their ways of thinking, problem solving, and reasoning. Schooling experiences shape children's feelings of competency, sense of self, peer relations, and social attitudes as well as many other aspects of social development.

Perspectives on Children's Development

Cultural beliefs about the nature of children and how they should be treated have changed dramatically over the last 100 years. Before the industrial revolution, children were considered miniature adults. The idea of childhood occurred as a result of social and economic changes during the early decades of the twentieth century. Children's lives continue to be conditioned by social, economic, and historical circumstances. Most theorists believe that development involves systematic and orderly changes that enhance a child's overall adaptation to their environment. Theories of development provide a coherent framework for interpreting, explaining, and understanding those changes. Developmental theories make different assumptions concerning the nature of the child, the nature of development, and the sources of development. Biological theories assume that human characteristics unfold according to a biological timetable. The environment plays little role in shaping the course of development. Development is viewed as either continuous or discontinuous, depending on the theorist. Two early maturational theorists were Hall and Gesell. Psychoanalytic theories focus on changes in the self and personality. At different stages of physical development, new drives, needs, and conflicts emerge that influence the way children relate to the environment. The way in which children satisfy their needs at different ages can set the pattern for personality development. Key psychoanalytic theorists are Freud and Erikson. Behavioral theories emphasize the role of the environment in determining the course of development. Development is gradual and continuous, as a child acquires new skills and behavior through various principles of learning (conditioning, reinforcement, imitation). There are no universal patterns of development because inputs are provided by the environment, which can vary from child to child. Some well-known behavioral theorists who have studied children's development are Watson and Skinner. In Piagetian, information processing, and social cognitive theories, development results from an interplay between a child's developing mental abilities and environmental experiences. Children actively seek out information about their environment and attempt to make sense of it using existing knowledge and cognitive processes. Piaget's theory emphasizes qualitative changes in how children organize information, whereas information processing and social cognitive approaches emphasize developmental changes in the efficiency of children's cognitive processes. Contextual theories emphasize relations between a developing child and a changing environment. Development cannot be separated from the context of culture in which it takes place. In Vygotsky's theory, people structure the environment in ways that facilitate children's cognitive development. Qualitative shifts in children's thinking occur as children transform innate abilities into higher mental functions through interactions with others. Bronfenbrenner proposed that children's development is embedded in a multiplexed environment. Changes in one system (parents' divorce) can influence changes that occur in other systems (child loses interest in schoolwork). For contextualists, development does not follow a universal sequence because the child and environment are constantly changing. There are multiple perspectives on children's development. Because no single theory alone can explain all that we know and observe about children, it is important to have a repertoire of child development theories. A familiarity with several theories provides various ways of thinking and talking about children's development.

Studying Children's Development

Studies of children can take several different forms. The most commonly used research designs in child development are case studies, correlational studies, longitudinal and cross-sectional studies, and experimental intervention. Correlational studies examine associations between two events or variables, whereas longitudinal and cross-sectional studies are used to study development over time. Correlational and crosssectional studies can be conducted with large samples. Longitudinal studies are the most useful for identifying antecedents of developmental changes and for establishing the stability of individual behavior. Experiments are used to test cause-and-effect relations, but their findings may not generalize to other settings. There are numerous methods for collecting data on children's development. Children can be observed in a structured or unstructured environment, and various behaviors can be recorded and analyzed for frequency of occurrence. The advantage of this method is that it provides detailed information on actual behavior, but the observer may influence the person's behavior. Information on children can also be collected through rating scales, questionnaires, and interviews. These methods are efficient, but subjects may not be accurate or truthful in their reporting. Like observations, performance assessments provide behavioral data. These assessments are more accurate than self-reports but do not provide information on the processes involved in performing specific tasks. There are several criteria for judging the quality of a study. Characteristics of the study's sample or setting can influence how well the results generalize to other samples and situations. The reliability (precision) and validity (accuracy) of a measure or instrument are also important for judging the quality of a study. Studies should provide a reliable and valid estimate of the phenomenon being studied. Most theorists, however, judge a study in terms of its ability to be replicated. Research findings are more trustworthy when they are found across studies that use different

.samples and methods. Informed consent must be obtained before the study is conducted.  Research studies involving children and adults must follow a set of ethical guidelines. and each participant has the right to the benefits of a treatment provided to other research participants. Research participants should be provided with a summary of the research findings when a study is completed. and the identities of all participants must remain confidential. The perceived benefits of a study must outweigh is potential risks and cost in terms of time and effort.

By age 5 or 6. The infant brain quickly develops the perceptual abilities it needs to process and interpret information from the five senses. drugs. radiation. The expression of these traits is called a phenotype. button their shirts. catch a ball with two hands. the fetus increases in size and weight. or Hispanic decent. Common genetic disorders include hemophilia. tie their shoes. Neurons that receive this stimulation form connections. As motor skills are developing. and deposits of a fatty substance (myelin) on neural fibers. Many human characteristics are polygenetic. In elementary school. This specialization is known as lateralization. Manipulative skills are not fully developed until around the age of 10 or 12. exposure to dangerous environmental agents or conditions can disrupt this process. Babies also show preferences for certain smells and tastes. Males have a higher likelihood of baldness. congenital diabetes.. During the fetal period (8 weeks to birth). There are few gender differences in physical size until adolescence. sickle-cell anemia. Accidents are the number one cause of childhood deaths. poor prenatal care. Both conditions affect the mental and physical development of the child. Most human traits are caused by dominant genes. children can copy simple geometric shapes. . The twenty-third chromosome determines the sex of the child. alcohol. A newborn's movements are mainly due to innate reflexes. It loses some of its plasticity once the two hemispheres of the brain begin to specialize. but they also need frequent periods of activity.g. and play kickball. Gross motor skills that involve the movement of head. Although prenatal development is mainly guided by genetic influences. which are composed of DNA structures containing thousands of genes. which stimulates their cognitive development. Alcohol. and hemophilia. and drugs. poor concentration. muscular dystrophy. and print numbers and letters. the fertilized egg travels down the fallopian tube and attaches itself to the uterine wall. In the embryonic period (weeks 2 to 8). The left hemisphere of the brain controls language processes. Brain development after birth involves increases in the number and length of neural fibers that connect nerve cells. Every person is a carrier of at least 20 genes that can produce genetic disorders and diseases. children can ride bikes. and cystic fibrosis. This prenatal stage is particularly vulnerable to environmental agents because of the rapid development of new organs and systems. Down syndrome and fragile-X syndrome are two conditions caused by an extra or a damaged chromosome. Asian. African-American children tend to be taller than children of European. which enable impulses to travel faster through the brain. The person's genotype and phenotype can differ when the genotype includes a dominant and recessive gene. high intelligence) then the genotype and phenotype will differ. Areas of the brain are programmed to receive certain environmental stimulation. whereas the right hemisphere processes visual and spatial information.  Physical Growth  Infancy is characterized by a rapid period of growth. blindness. language delays. Play is the medium by which children develop their motor skills. In the elementary school years. The period from conception to birth is called prenatal development. The genes a person inherits from both parents determine the person's genotype from a particular trait. The fetus is most vulnerable to environmental influences in the early stages of pregnancy when body structures and major organs are developing. and arms develop first. Gender differences in gross and fine motor skills are evident in childhood due to differences in socialization experiences. and newborns are quite adept at discriminating different human sounds. choking. By the time they enter school. A premature birth or low birth weight are risk factors in a child's development. because these traits are carried on the female X chromosome. Older elementary children are able to sit for longer periods of time. children with a low birth weight are more likely than children of normal birth weight to have mild learning disabilities. and there is no corresponding dominant gene on the Y chromosome. attention problems. legs. skip. The human brain is most open to change in early development. Fine motor skills develop in the preschool years. but some characteristics are also caused by recessive genes. The environment can also affect the expression of a particular genotype. all the basic structures of the child-to-be are formed. Auditory perception is quite developed at birth. PKU. and asthma. Most babies are born between 38 and 42 weeks. and environmental agents such as nicotine. whereas males have one X and one Y chromosome. Traits carried on the sex chromosome are called sex-linked characteristics. children's play activities need careful supervision. Each cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes. Most infants begin to walk between 8 and 10 months. and grasping. although children continue to gradually add weight and height to their bodies. Babies achieve adult levels of vision by 12 months and prefer visual stimulation that is complex and novel. Researchers have not found a link between hemispheric specialization and learning disabilities or cognitive styles. During the germinal period (first two weeks after conception). Preschool and young elementary schoolchildren need daily activities that exercise their large muscles and help develop their fine motor skills. physical growth slows down. and they respond to touch and pain. If the environment does not facilitate the expression of a particular trait (e.   Motor Development  Motor development involves children's increasing ability to move and to control their body movements.       Brain Development  The human brain is not fully mature until early adulthood. The concept of reaction range defines the degree to which the environment can affect the expression of genes. This period of development is mainly directed by genetic influences and follows a universal pattern. meaning they result from the combination of more than one gene. such as sucking. body. Some genetic disorders are caused by abnormal chromosomes. Prenatal development is divided into three major stages. In general.Prenatal Development   Developmental processes begin at the moment of human conception. Genes and chromosomes are the basic building blocks of human life. Premature births and low birth weights are caused by poor nutrition. whereas those that do not receive the appropriate stimulation fade and die off. and environmental pollutants can have a negative effect on prenatal development and must be avoided during pregnancy. Most genetic disorders are caused by recessive genes. Females have two X chromosomes. nicotine.

due to poverty. and unhealthy diet. Furthermore. and inhalants. feelings of hopelessness. Obese children experience peer rejection. Medical treatment is generally accompanied by family therapy focused on changing parent-child interactions and expectations.  Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development  Piaget proposed that two basic principles guide children's intellectual development: organization and adaptation. Piaget argued that cognitive development involved major transformations in the way knowledge is organized. There is more conflict between children and adults at puberty. marijuana. and other behavioral problems. The most successful prevention programs educate young people about the risk of drug use but also promote interpersonal skills and self-esteem. and eating disorders. The four most frequently abused substances among young people are tobacco. there is considerable individual variability in the timing of puberty. Within each sex. early sexual activity. rules. Early maturity in girls can lead to low self-esteem. recent studies suggest that late-maturing boys and girls experience fewer adjustment problems in the long run than do early maturers. However. sleep problems. numbers. and delinquency. Children also begin to form intuitive theories to explain events in their environment that can have a lasting influence on learning. but the conflict dissipates as the different parties renegotiate roles. Constructivists believe that children must form their own understanding of the world in which they live. changes in weight. Depression is more prevalent in adolescents than in children. the health of young people has declined by 50 percent. Obesity is the most common eating disorder. A small number of children and adolescents suffer from chronic depression.      Constructive Approaches to Education  Piaget's and Vygotsky's theories of cognitive development provide the psychological foundations for constructivist approaches to teaching and learning. popularity. The leading causes of these problems are lack of sex education and lack of access to contraceptives. It is estimated that 11 percent of youths are overweight. Young people who abuse alcohol and drugs experience problems in school as well as psychological and health problems. Children who are small for their age tend to be judged as less mature and competent than children of average height. children begin to use words. due to the adolescent's ability to be self-reflective and self-critical. depression. Schools can help obese children by encouraging healthy eating habits. children change their schemes to restore a state of equilibrium. In extreme cases. The major limitations of preoperational  . their knowledge schemes are integrated and reorganized into more complex systems that are better adapted to their environment. By age 16. but there is little evidence to suggest that their mood swings are caused by "raging hormones. By age 20. and promoting basic mental health. few programs teach young people the decisionmaking or interpersonal skills they need to assert themselves in sexual matters. including heredity. Children and adults attribute more positive attributes and characteristics to physically attractive than unattractive children. Prevention efforts should focus on improving social skills. and leadership skills. Piaget proposed that development follows an invariant sequence. and television viewing. alcohol. Both anorexia and bulimia are associated with low self-esteem and depression and can be life-threatening if left untreated. children mold information to fit existing knowledge structures. gestures. Parts of the body mature at different rates. Puberty begins between the ages of 10 and 12 for girls and 12 and 14 years for boys. During the sensorimotor period (birth to 2 years). A number of factors contribute to childhood obesity. Children who are physically attractive also have more positive peer relations. but the development of secondary characteristics is only one of the many changes that are taking place. 1 out of 4 young people will have contracted a sexually transmitted disease. it can also lead to risk behaviors such as drinking. Through the process of assimilation. Sex education through the schools has had little effect. As children mature. moods. They also have a high likelihood of becoming obese adolescents and adults. Both Piaget's and Vygotsky's theories of cognitive development are concerned with qualitative changes in children's thinking. Puberty can pose adjustment problems for adolescents. The symptoms are inability to concentrate. depression can increase a young person's risk of suicide. Adaptation of knowledge schemes occurs through the process of assimilation and accommodation. Childhood and adolescence is an important time for the prevention of substance abuse. Adolescents are more likely to rebel when parents are too controlling and unable to adjust their expectations. which can make adolescents feel clumsy and awkward. one-third or more of young people have already had sexual intercourse. Anorexia and bulimia nervosa affects 3 percent of adolescents and young women. Through the process of accommodation. they may also be at risk for engaging in deviant or antisocial behavior. especially adolescents. Most young people are able to make a healthy transition to adulthood. The girls who are most at risk for these eating disorders are those who have accepted society's definition of feminine attractiveness. which is now the second leading cause of death among young people. and so on. There are changes in the skeleton. Early-maturing boys seem to have the advantage in terms of their self-esteem. teaching stress management strategies. and images to represent objects in their environment. Most schools do not teach sex education until it is too late. Adolescents begin to experiment with their sexuality earlier than ever before. It often leads to changes in the adolescent's self-image. if they associate with older peers. anxiety. and 1 out of 3 teenage girls will have become pregnant. Researchers believe that schools must play a larger role in preventing these problems. Adolescents are moody. The changes that occur in puberty primarily prepare the body for sexual reproduction. If early-maturing girls seek out the company of older peers. Early and late maturity have different effects for girls than for boys. lack of motivation and energy. The process of assimilation and accommodation explains changes in cognition at all ages. lack of physical activity. In the preoperational stage (2 to 7 years). The early childhood years are characterized by two stages. Children's physical size and attractiveness can influence how they are perceived by others.    Special Health Concerns  Young people. Depression is also more common in girls than in boys during adolescence. In the last 20 years. low selfesteem. and vital organs." The moods of adolescents fluctuate as they change social settings. social relations. Sex is very much a part of the adolescent experience. face more health risks than ever before. but the sequence of change is universal. Vygotsky believed that cognitive development represented changes in the cultural tools children use to make sense of their world. Adults help guide this knowledge construction process by providing structure and support. and expectations. In general. eliminating junk food. increasing physical activity. and reducing stereotypes of overweight people. and thoughts of death. self-confidence. children acquire schemes for goal-directed behavior and object permanence. muscles. and most programs do not provide information or access to contraceptives. but the numbers of young people who are at risk for serious health problems are increasing.

Internalization refers to the process of constructing an internal (cognitive) representation of physical actions or mental operations that first occur in social interactions. collaborators. With regard to learning. and the universality of Piaget's stages. Technical tools are generally used to change objects or gain mastery over the environment. These mental operations can only be applied to concrete stimuli that are present in the child's environment. and the role of peer interactions in cognitive development. seriation. According to information processing theorists. Concerns have been raised about Piaget's research methods. At first. Information processing theories focus on developmental changes in children's abilities to encode. As a result. and events. store. As children develop. Vygotsky assumed that interactions with adults and peers in the zone of proximal development help children move to higher levels of mental functioning. children begin to use egocentric or private speech to regulate their own thinking. Formal operational thinkers are also able to reflect on their own thinking processes. He identified three different stages in children's use of language. Vygotsky's writings are beginning to have a major impact on education in the United States. and guides. Through internalizing elements of social interactions. centration. They develop the ability to use propositional logic. Palincsar and Brown developed the reciprocal teaching procedure that incorporates several features of Vygotsky's theory. and metacognitive knowledge. they can remember larger amounts of information for longer periods of time. the importance of guided participation and scaffolding. and abstract thinking have a social origin.  Information Processing Theories  Information processing and intelligence theories help specify the cognitive processes and mental abilities that change with development. Next. (c) learning activities should be matched to the child's level of conceptual development. children use inner speech (verbal thoughts) to guide their thinking and actions. This procedure has been used successfully with elementary and secondary students. and concepts. Knowledge is not individually constructed. During the concrete operational stage (7 to 11 years). events. As children mature. they acquire the ability to make fine discriminations between stimulus objects. problem solving. Among Piaget's major contributions to education are the ideas that (a) knowledge must be actively constructed by the child. memory strategies.thinking are egocentrism. Neo-Piagetian theories have attempted to add greater specificity to Piaget's theory. planning. but coconstructed between two people. If an adult or peer carefully provides an appropriate level of support and guidance.  The elementary and secondary school years are characterized by two additional stages. while maintaining its basic assumptions that cognitive development is qualitative and stagelike. By the preschool years. Piaget claimed that development limits what children are capable of learning from social experiences. and conservation. Piaget's research provides a rich description of children's thinking at different ages. to deploy their attention selectively and strategically. Attention is a process of perceiving or extracting what is relevant for the task at home. routines. and (d) peer interactions play an important role in the child's cognitive development. and learning strategies. and to exert control over their attentional processes. The most important ones for educators concern the role of language and learning in development. Whereas Piaget believed that egocentric speech plays no useful function in young children's development. Neo-Piagetian theorists examine the role of children's information processing capabilities in explaining developmental changes.    Putting Piaget's and Vygotsky's Theories Together  There are several important distinctions between Piaget's and Vygotsky's theories. Remembering. society shapes the child's mind through the transmission of tools that are appropriate for functioning in that culture. Nevertheless. and retrieve information.    . formal operations (11 years to adult). the adequacy of the equilibration model for explaining developmental changes. In Vygotsky's view. In the last stage of cognitive development. they become more selective and efficient in their use of attentional. children can recall familiar stories. In Vygotsky's theory. Piaget's theory has generated a lot of controversy and criticism. children develop ways of regulating their own behavior and thinking. Memory processes are evident early in development. inductive and deductive logic. whereas psychological tools are used to organize behavior or thought. (b) educators should help children learn how to learn. adolescents and adults can think about abstract objects.    Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development   When compared with Piaget. and it continues to have an important influence on education practice today. Vygotsky described developmental changes in children's thinking in terms of the cultural tools they use to make sense of their world. children begin to use mental operations to think about events and objects in their environment. children are generally able to perform at a higher level than they can perform on their own. The mental operations that appear in this stage are classification. The history of both the culture and the child's experiences are important for understanding cognitive development. Vygotsky used the term zone of proximal development to refer to the difference between what children can do on their own and with the assistance of others. For Vygotsky. Vygotsky places a stronger emphasis on social interactions. Among the major educational contributions of Vygotsky's theory are the role of private speech in cognitive development. important developmental changes occur in children's attentional processes. and rigidity of thinking. Vygotsky argued that egocentric speech is the means by which children organize and regulate their thoughts and actions. Piaget's theory also emphasizes the role of teachers in the learning process as organizers. experiences. Piaget's theory has inspired major curriculum reforms. Vygotsky believed that language was the most important psychological tool that influences children's cognitive development. language is primarily used for communication (social speech). In the last stage of language development. content knowledge. elementary cognitive functions are transformed into higher mental functions through interactions with more knowledgeable adults and peers. instruction by more knowledgeable peers or adults is at the heart of cognitive development. whereas intelligence theories focus on individual differences in children's cognitive abilities within age groups. Talking aloud or whispering while performing a task are forms of private speech. memory. stimulators. and combinatorial reasoning.

Most researchers believe that ethnic differences in students' IQ and achievement test scores are due to social and economic factors. Several aspects of the home environment can influence early intellectual development. Caution should be used when these tests are employed to assess children from different ethnic. Some theorists have argued that intelligence represents a general or global intellectual capacity. the IQ scores of some children can fluctuate as much as 20 to 30 points between the ages of 2 and 17. and create a warm. and language backgrounds. some learning tasks require more cognitive effort than others. and more efficient use of cognitive resources. When differences in socioeconomic background are controlled. these studies reveal that approximately 50 percent of the variation in intelligence within a population can be attributed to genetic influences. selective. to remain on grade level. Studies of biological twins are an important source of information concerning the influence of genetic and environmental factors on intelligence. organize. encourage exploration and stimulate curiosity. Metacognition refers to children's knowledge and understanding of their own thinking processes. However. Age-related changes in metacognitive knowledge also facilitate the development of self-regulated learning. whereas achievement tests are measure what children have gained from instruction at home or school. Most researchers focus on how genetic and environmental factors interact to influence intellectual development. Evidence suggests that earlier and longer interventions may have a stronger impact on children's intellectual functioning. and certain strategies can aid the recall of information. Later in children's development. they acquire a greater understanding that there are limits to what can be remembered. socioeconomic. Some evidence suggests that ethnic differences in achievement are narrowing. and to attend college than comparable groups of children who did not attend Head Start programs. supportive. and strategic manner. However. Standardized tests of intelligence or achievement are used to assess individual differences in cognitive development. Evidence indicates that children show a significant increase in their use of selfregulated learning strategies between the fifth and eighth grades. Most IQ tests have a mean of 100 points. most children's scores fall within one standard deviation above or below the mean. or cues to aid its recall. some researchers question the use of IQ tests as a measure of innate intellectual functioning. Formal schooling is another important aspect of the environment that influences children's intellectual development. but the environment may explain variations in development within that range. The validity of this research for different ethnic and socioeconomic groups is currently being examined. Although there are many ways teachers can facilitate the development of information processing skills in the classroom. They can also search their memory in a more systematic. with the exception of Asian-Americans. children must have a good deal of familiarity with middle-class culture and good verbal skills. and to suggest when strategies may be useful for other learning situations. a school culture that favors white. An IQ score represents an estimate of a child's cognitive abilities relative to children of the same age. Intelligence tests are thought to measure a child's ability to use information in new ways or potential to learn. whereas recall memory involves remembering that stimulus without information. score significantly lower than AngloAmerican children on virtually every measure of cognitive ability. remain in school longer. In a normal distribution. To perform well on traditional measures of intelligence. prompts. However. it is very difficult to separate genetic and environmental influences. followed by organization and elaboration strategies.     Intelligence Theories and Cognitive Development  There is considerable variability in children's cognitive abilities within any age group. and responsive environment. Some factors that contribute to the lower performance of ethnic minorities on mental tests include language or dialect differences. Expert versus novice studies indicate that a highly integrated knowledge base results in faster processing of information. Children's existing knowledge can influence attentional and memory processes. Research indicates that parents can have a positive influence on their children's cognitive development when they provide appropriate stimulation and play materials. continue to develop well into adolescence. middle-  . children begin to use memory strategies to encode information that is unfamiliar. performance gaps narrow but do not completely disappear. to graduate from high school. study strategies. Most intelligence tests used today yield a profile of a child's intellectual abilities. more effective use of encoding strategies. By middle childhood. monitor. such as comprehension and monitoring. Head Start children are more likely to make significant gains in IQ. parents not only must provide a stimulating and encouraging home environment but also must take an active role in the child's schooling. Children who start school earlier.         Group Differences and Cognitive Abilities  Research shows that children from different ethnic and racial groups. Early intervention can help offset the negative effects of a poor home environment.During the early and late elementary years. Rehearsal strategies appear first. and evaluate their own learning activities. but they remain large. whereas others have argued that intelligence represents several independent skills or abilities. Genes may set the upper and lower limits for intellectual development. IQ scores are reasonably good predictors of adult IQ. Teachers need to make a greater effort to teach specific cognitive strategies. the stability of their IQ scores increases.  Researchers distinguish between recognition and recall memory. and attend higher-quality schools have higher IQ scores. With development. but these programs are costly and not widely available. research suggests that strategy instruction is very infrequent. For the most part. IQ tests are not equally valid for all children. As children develop. to score high on academic achievement tests. As children develop. Because IQ tests are strongly influenced by schooling experiences. Self-regulated learners can plan. There is no agreed-on definition of intelligence. Children use this knowledge to choose more effective memory and learning strategies. Theorists argue that schooling influences IQ scores because schools teach the type of information and skills children need to perform well on intelligence tests. A standard deviation is a measure of the average amount scores vary from the mean. to provide information concerning their usefulness in learning. children can recall information with fewer prompts or cues. Recognition memory involves recognizing a stimulus.

children learn about the characteristics and processes of reading and writing from birth. then they will likely grow up bilingual. By the age of 7. they experiment with more complicated elements of the language. Language Development and Teaching  In everyday terms. The influence of hormones and brain organization on cognitive functioning is not well understood. When children watch more than 30 hours of television per week. In our complex culture. Interactional theory proposes that language structures evolve as a result of the interplay between a child’s internal mental structures and the external social world. literacy is the ability to read and write. There are similar patterns of computer use for girls and boys today. but access to high-quality computers and software is tied to family income.      What Is Emergent Literacy?  Most children learn to read and write in school. encouragement. Multicultural education programs are designed to promote equal educational opportunities and to increase positive intergroup attitudes and values. The effects of television viewing depend on the amount of viewing time and content. literacy means being able to communicate clearly and to think analytically when speaking. and writing. as well as school readiness and adjustment. More broadly considered.  Gender differences in students' cognitive abilities are less evident today than 20 years ago. Schools need to make a better effort to create learning environments that provide equal resources. a native speaker will know about 90 percent of the grammatical structures of English. There is considerable evidence that boys and girls are treated differently and encouraged to pursue different activities at home. Older children and adults learning second languages experience different patterns of acquisition. then combining two words. and tracking systems that limit minority children's learning and achievement opportunities in school. Children acquire spoken language without direct instruction and within a relatively short time.   Television. it is true that depriving children of human interaction and language at an early age will impair their language development. questions. Being social creatures. children watch 3 to 4 hours of television per day. usually through intentional teaching in a print-rich environment. such as word order. which combines elements of the other two. Research on the effects of computers on students' learning is fairly limited. not because there are comprehension questions to be answered at the end. it can have a negative impact on school achievement. listening. and Children's Learning        On average. children have a natural urge to learn language in order to communicate their thoughts and desires to others. visual-spatial. and moving on to multiple word phrases and sentences. Computer programs tend to have the greatest impact when they use a constructivist approach and emphasize high-order thinking skills. Research has also documented the numerous ways boys and girls are treated differently at school. and opportunities for boys and girls of all backgrounds. It may take longer for a child to construct grammars for several languages at once. such as tense forms. Therefore. the attitudes and beliefs of school staff. and the ways students are currently taught and assessed. Later. and mathematical abilities. Literate thinking may occur after viewing a film as well as after reading a book. reading. provides the most comprehensive and flexible account of how children acquire language. such as computer and video literacy. individuals will develop a variety of technological literacies. Students' use of computers for school-related purposes increases with age. but the method of acquisition and pattern of development are exactly the same for a child learning only one language.class students. Children are motivated to develop print literacy when they are given many opportunities to engage purposefully with texts in authentic situations. Young children are capable of learning several languages simultaneously without confusion. Computers are becoming a routine part of children's lives. A child picks up a story to read in order to discover what happens. In short. Differences are small for tests of verbal. The extent of the damage varies depending on the length of time and the child’s age at the time of deprivation. Most researchers view girls and boys as more similar than different in their cognitive abilities. Although each theory has limitations. Around the age of 2. and boys watch more television than girls do. literacy includes communicative competence with print as well as nonprint sources. In a literate culture. and negatives. Only weak versions of this hypothesis are supported by research. are the ones children generate first. If children grow up in a family or community in which two languages are spoken. Children intuitively construct the rules and patterns of their language by actively testing hypothesis about the language system. The critical period hypothesis suggests that if certain internal or external conditions related to language development are missing then a child will never learn language. Several theories have been proposed. Computers. a developmental process called  . Creating a positive learning environment for all students will involve radical changes in curriculum materials. the organization and culture of schools. The most general rules. most researchers focus on differences in children's socialization experiences. where interaction with others is primary. Younger children watch more television than adolescents do. However. Language acquisition is a process that researchers cannot completely explain. High-quality television programs for children can have positive effects on early math and reading skills. Efforts to explain gender differences in cognitive abilities focus on biological and environmental influences. the maturationist. the interactionist. children begin saying individual words. Schools tend to reproduce gender inequities in society. and the interactionist. but remain large for tests of scientific skills. including the behaviorist. There is no strong evidence that television displaces reading or homework time.

whether it is in a child care facility. Special educators and classroom teachers work collaboratively. A dialect is a variation of a single language spoken by members of a speech community.emergent literacy. Approximately 10 percent of this nation’s school-age children have one of the following federally designated disabilities: specific learning disabilities. children become proficient with expository writing and use writing as a way of learning in the academic disciplines. drafting. but direct instruction in reading skills is provided when necessary. Their unconventional patterns are called invented spelling and should not be regarded as errors. deafness and hearing impairment. low vision or blindness.    Characteristics of Children with Exceptional Needs . is one in which children’s experiences with print are for authentic purposes and in which adults value and participate in reading and writing themselves. traditions. dialect. then eligible to receive special education services.  Learning to Write  When learning to spell. comprehends and predicts meaning. and school curriculums that reflect the beliefs. and produce the letters of the alphabet. Although the writing process can be described as having discrete parts. These skills are often taught in isolation. Currently. or write some English in addition to their native language are considered bilingual learners. revising. or the home. Some bilingual programs are designed to move children into English-dominant classrooms. Children normally work on the mechanical aspects of writing before focusing on perfecting the writing process. Social context has the greatest effect on whether a person becomes a proficient reader and writer. Two additional categories of exceptionality are served in the schools: attention deficit disorders and gifted. a teacher teaches directly various decoding and comprehension skills using an explicit. Bilingual education programs reflect multicultural awareness. In the specific-skills approach. In other words. Decoding is the process of determining equivalence with written words. Besides matching sounds to letters. economic. traumatic brain injury. Labeling children is a controversial practice that tends to influence the disability. recognize letters and words. Comprehension is the active process of ascribing meaning to a message. In the upper grades and high school. mental retardation. or manner of speaking reflects the features of their social. more children with exceptional needs are being integrated into general classrooms. Composing is a complex process that includes planning. and interacts emotionally with the characters or events of the story. distinguish. makes it easier for them to compose and does not interfere with reading or conventional spelling development. The Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act (IDEA) guarantees the rights of children with disabilities. Through experience with books. a teacher can help children acquire a new dialect. the disability is merely one aspect of a child’s total personality. Since revision entails considering the needs of the audience as being distanced from the text. physical disabilities.  Children make progress with writing and reading when they develop phonemic awareness. This reminds us that the person is much more than his or her disability. Instead of rejecting a child’s home dialect. The language of instruction in schools. and publishing. When interindividual differences are significant. Children who are able to speak.  Learning to Read  Reading is a complex process during which the reader translates print into words. One way to minimize negative labeling effects is to use people-first terminology. communication disorders. is often not the dialect of English spoken in children’s speech communities. Being bidialectal helps individuals to function effectively in different social settings. children must recognize. They develop self-conscious knowledge about how the print represents spoken language. with special educators entering the classroom to provide services. Three theories of reading instruction are current. it is the most difficult part of the process to learn.   Integrating Children with Exceptional Needs   The typical classroom contains much interindividual and intraindividual variation among children. editing. Comprehension depends on the reader’s ability to use syntactic. a child is usually classified and labeled. A literate environment.  Culture and Literacy  A person’s language. Invented spelling increases children’s fluency. a nursery school. or deaf-blindness. rather than the individual’s abilities. the integrated approach assumes that children must be engaged in authentic (meaningful) literacy activities but also must learn specific skills. emotional or behavioral disorders. children experiment with sounds and letters. The essence of becoming a writer is learning to compose. whereas other programs attempt to teach English and to maintain a home language such as Spanish. Using an integrated approach. Focusing on distinctive features and spatial orientation are two strategies that help children accomplish this task. method of instruction. sometimes called standard American English (SAE). severe and multiple disabilities. autism. One of the most salient rights is that they receive education in the least restrictive environment. Children read complete texts or stories for authentic purposes. and cultural background. read. Third. and understanding that words contain distinctive phonemes (sounds) represented by letters. The holistic language approach purports that children inductively learn and develop specific reading abilities based on extensive and varied experiences with print. Multicultural education refers to teaching that relies on culturally relevant materials. preschoolers learn that print carries meaning. teachers give children many authentic experiences with reading and writing. other health impairments. often deductive. and pragmatic information in order to make sense of what is written on the page. and can mimic true reading by reciting memorized stories. sharing responsibility for meeting student needs. semantic. and contributions of all people in an ethnically diverse society. separated from the actual reading of stories or articles. many writers do not experience them separately or in any set order. Many bilingual children have limited English proficiency (LEP).

Children with emotional or behavioral disorders have various difficulties in psychosocial development. for adjusting to school. can affect many behaviors important for school success. external locus of control. low vision or blindness. His theory helps us understand the emergence of the self in early development. tolerating frustration. social interaction. School can play an important role in the development of emotional competence in the classroom. responsive. (2) model how to exhibit and express emotions. and academics. As a member of a multidisciplinary team. children show an increased ability to use cognitive and behavioral strategies for controlling impulses. Self-control involves the deliberate use of cognitive or behavioral strategies to achieve a desired goal. metacognition. (3) discuss emotions with students. including curiosity. In order to teach a diverse group of learners. and knowledge that people have about themselves. Many have difficulties with attention. Most also experience significant language delays as well as inattention. teachers must have a repertoire of teaching strategies including learning centers. Children with mental retardation are low in intelligence and adaptive behavior. children become better interpreters of people’s emotions and better able to use this information in regulating their behavior. the need for self-sufficiency in the school years. computer-assisted instruction. ideas. low self-esteem. Classroom teachers have access to a variety of resources and support. and generalization. adaptive devices. buddy systems. and motivation. Young children describe themselves in . and jealousy. and vision aides. despite a range of inter.       Identifying and Teaching Students with Exceptional Needs  The process of identifying and serving children with exceptional needs occurs in stages. namely. attention. attitudes. cooperative learning. and self-management instruction. Children with attention deficit disorders have difficulties with attention. arithmetic. Many experience problems in memory. and low self-esteem. Many state and national professional and parent organizations offer assistance as well as clearinghouses and information centers. because it is based on children’s abilities and strengths rather than on their weaknesses. Most have deficits in language and social-cognitive skills. Children with severe and multiple disabilities.g. and the search for identity in adolescence. and for lowering the risk of adolescent health and safety problems. for learning. Gender and cultural expectations can influence what emotions are expressed and how they are expressed. either externalizing (e. and deaf-blindness have a range of needs scattered across the developmental domains. With development.g. memory problems.. Their delays in cognition. placement. peer tutoring. and generalization difficulties. evaluation. Attachments with caregivers. Teachers need to (1) create a positive affective environment for students. antisocial. Some experience peer interaction difficulties. Children who are gifted and talented are either advanced in cognition and academic achievement or extremely talented or creative. and persistence. particularly in reading. classroom accommodations. or both. children need a safe and secure environment in order to develop a sense of trust. other health impairments. guilt.    Development of Self-Conceptions  Self-concept refers to a set of beliefs. According to Erikson. low frustration threshold. deafness and hearing impairment. depression) problems. referral. oppositional. They also need opportunities to initiate activities and to learn about their different strengths and options for the future. and caring.  Some common group characteristics exist for each of the disability categories. Many excel in language and show some mature affective characteristics. They also become better able to express and understand complex emotions such as embarrassment. prereferral. they can problem solve with colleagues in general and in special education.and intraindividual differences. such as leadership skills and goal-directed behavior. traumatic brain injury. Many children in these categories can learn in the general classroom with the use of specialized equipment. It is important for establishing positive social relations. including augmentative communication devices. Children with specific learning disabilities experience a discrepancy between intelligence and achievement. including teachers. motor development. Some children’s inability to understand and use language also interferes with their social development. a classroom teacher plays an active role throughout the decision-making process. medical technology.. learning strategies training. written language. aggressive) or internalizing (e. impulse control. Within their school. individualized education plan (IEP). Children with communication disorders are delayed in either speech or language. and review. Children need secure attachments with parents who are warm. problem solving. Most encounter academic problems. or reasoning. Foundations of Social and Emotional Development    Children’s social and emotional development begins with early attachment relations. autism. physical disabilities. and language may range from mild to severe or profound. Some also have problems in perception. Between the ages of 5 and 12. This category differs from the others. problemsolving behavior. and delaying gratification. memory. and activity level.   Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development  Erikson provided a framework for understanding children’s personal development. withdrawal. skills that enable a person to live independently. anxiety. and (4) provide explicit instruction regarding how to handle emotions and stress. This discrepancy may occur in one or more areas: spoken language. adaptive behavior.

By age 3. they are androgynous) tend to have high-esteem. the gender-role behaviors and attitudes of young children tend to be very sexist. suggests that this early work may have been based on faulty assumptions. less control over learning. The home environment is a source of individual differences in motivation. perceive errors as a part of the learning process. Children are not able to view situations or themselves from another’s perspective until the late or middle childhood years. During early development. These conditions make it difficult for students to maintain positive perceptions of their abilities and to sustain an intrinsic interest in learning.g. The school setting is an important place for confirming and consolidating gender-role conceptions. During the early school years. values. they define their competence in terms of improvement. present. devout Catholic). Parenting styles that support children’s independence are positively associated with higher levels of perceived competence and intrinsic motivation. They see themselves as having multiple abilities. and persist at finding the correct solution. the images of masculinity and femininity children are exposed to at school continue to be sex-stereotypic. As children mature cognitively. and evaluative. This misidentification was presumed to indicate low self-esteem and self-hatred. sustain. and domestic activities. a situational state. they can become more self-conscious and self-critical. in turn. if they are succeeding in school and are held in high regard by parents and peers. Motivation has been defined as an enduring trait. feelings. With development. and other measures of ability. Perspective taking involves the ability to take another person’s point of view. focus on their efforts. children can correctly identify skin color and their own ethnic group. and achievement goals. Perspective-taking abilities are important for social relations and moral development.   Understanding Others   Researchers use the terms social cognition to describe children’s understanding of other people’s thoughts. As children progress in school. Of these cognitive theories. they encourage boys and girls to engage in sextyped activities. trustworthy. When children perceive their abilities as fixed and unchangeable. and beliefs. however. controlling. and competitive can have a negative influence on self-esteem. These theories emphasize the importance of efficacy beliefs. Students’ self-concepts of abilities reflect traditional sex stereotypes: Boys are better at physical. some youths resolve their identity crisis by forming a negative identity. which. can affect how well students do in school later on. The work of forming an ethnic identity generally takes place in adolescence. intelligent. Unfortunately. and girls are better at verbal. mathematical.. Parents are extremely influential socializers of gender norms. In books and television programs. it can have a stronger influence on academic performance than grades. children acquire an understanding of what it means to be a male and female in our society. the school environment plays a very important role in helping children and adolescents maintain positive self-esteem. In addition. caring. impersonal. their self-concepts become more differentiated and integrated. whereas older children and adolescents use psychological traits (i. mismatches between the home and school environment. Due to society’s racial biases. Children can categorize people into racial and ethnic categories at a young age. Once a child’s sense of ability is firmly established. The racial composition of the school can also have an important influence on the self-concepts and self-esteem of ethnic minority youths. in which other points of view must be considered. it may be difficult for ethnic minority children to develop positive feelings of competency and worth. less intrinsic motivation to learn.. students use cognitive strategies that can enhance conceptual understanding and the long-term retention of information. Unfortunately. In contrast. male and female characters continue to perform in sex-stereotypic occupations and domestic roles. Adolescents can think about ethnicity   .  Students’ perceptions and evaluations of their abilities influence their performance in school. and good coping skills. attribute difficulties to lack of effort. standardized test scores. they can choose to associate only with their own ethnic group. During the school years. Adolescents who have a blend of masculine and feminine traits (i. children who view their abilities as something that can be enhanced through effort and practice have higher levels of perceived competence and intrinsic motivation. They are also better able to compare their abilities with those of others.e. and the lack of educational and employment opportunities. It is believed that these changes result from both individual and environmental changes. Early research suggested that a larger percentage of African-American and Native American children than white children misidentify with their ethnic group. With a learning focus. Gender role identity is a key component of the self. When children are focused on learning goals. Most studies today report little difference in white and African-American children’s selfperceptions. The gender-role concepts of young children tend to be very rigid and exaggerated. Doing well in school can bolster self-esteem. Current research. Also.terms of physical traits. it can have a negative effect on motivation.. With cognitive maturity. a performance orientation tends to be associated with lower levels of cognitive engagement in learning activities and with negative affect and task avoidance when learning tasks are difficult. and more anxiety about grades and evaluation. They can assimilate to the dominant culture or become a marginal member of the dominant culture. But most theorists believe that declines in motivation result from changes in the school environment. social. goal theory may provide the most useful framework for teachers. schools have an important role in gender-role socialization. Although there is considerable stability in children’s self-esteem by the late elementary years. Gender-role behaviors and attitudes are learned from the environment through the process of socialization. involve students in decision making. Because of racial prejudices and stereotypes. Perspective-taking abilities develop gradually during the elementary school years. and technical activities. Most contemporary theories of motivation fall within the cognitive model. and they treat boys and girls differently. They totally reject the values of the dominant culture as well as their own. Motivation problems are prevalent among low-income children due to lack of resources at home to support learning. causal attributions. Alternately. the learning environment becomes more structured. and terminate behavior. As children become more introspective with age. children’s perceptions of other people become more differentiated and focused on psychological traits that can be observed in many different situations. There are parallels between children’s self-conceptions and person perceptions. positive self-concepts. motivation refers to forces that initiate. young children develop a pro-white orientation that decreases in elementary school when children develop a more balanced view of ethnicity. Fourth. etc. they are better able to evaluate and integrate different sources of information about their abilities. As students progress in school.     Development of Achievement Motivation  In achievement situations. achievement values. Schools and classrooms that are highly structured. Considerable research suggests that they model sex-typed behaviors. and future selves. children’s self-esteem increases as they achieve success in peer relations. Children begin to develop an awareness of ethnic differences early. children’s gender-role concepts become more flexible and less absolute. children need an opportunity to explore and to have an effect on their environment. and they begin to see links between their past. Therefore. Teachers who show concern about students. as children mature. Along with the family and the mass media. they report lower self-perceptions of ability. controlling. adolescents can become bicultural by maintaining ties to both cultures through a process of code switching. and a set of cognitions. and behaviors.) and abstract concepts (e.e. Ethnic minority youths have four possible ways to resolve identity issues. and encourage self-sufficiency can have a positive influence on self-esteem.

and self-worth. When deprived of positive peer relations. Small selective peer groups of the same sex develop in elementary school. Noddings argues that schools are an important place for the development of caring and compassion. Peers can also influence students’ school achievement. Parents were viewed as "all powerful" because they created and shaped the child’s environment. aggressive acts in adolescence are committed by young people with a long history of aggression. to cooperate. differences in housing. and to negotiate problems. Women are socialized to care for others. as well as an ethic of justice. income. respected. fairness. cooperative.g. as well as long-term negative consequences for both the victim and bully. and recognized. Early theories (psychoanalytic and learning theories) of family socialization focused on the effects of parents on children’s development. or bisexual. because it becomes self-reinforcing. Children need opportunities to play.from a social perspective and consider it social implications (e.        Developmental Changes in Peer Relations   Development of children’s peer relations follows a predictable pattern. sharing.  Moral Development  Kohlberg’s theory of moral development focuses on children’s conceptions of rules. Crowds dissolve when interest in dating begins. By late adolescence and adulthood. competence. and disruptive. opportunities). to share. Crowds are larger groups of peers. it is often difficult to change. children may experience low self-esteem. Most. This view of the family is limited. others. Bullying behavior is one of the most common forms of aggression in school settings. Conflict resolution and peer mediation programs. Teachers can enhance children’s peer relations in a number of ways. helping. Schools must be caring communities in which children feel understood. Parents and teachers can foster the development of prosocial behavior in children by modeling such behavior and by helping children reflect on how their behavior affects others. Schools are becoming more and more involved in efforts to reduce aggression and violence among youths. if the activities are carefully structured and monitored. and shouting as children grow older. Some children may need special training in how to interact positively with others and to resolve conflict. whereas elementary children view rules as important for maintaining social order. and justice.   onceptions of the Family    Families are the social unit with the primary responsibility for preparing (or socializing) the child to be a productive and competent member of society. Young children show preferences for playmates. These behaviors develop early but continue to increase in frequency as children mature cognitively and learn how their actions affect others. hostile. Some children are neither popular nor rejected by their peers. The peer group structure changes in adolescence when cliques and crowds emerge. Aggression is defined as behavior that is intentionally aimed at harming or injuring another person. but not all. These programs are most successful when combined with interventions to improve academic skills and to enhance parent-child relations. The ability to initiate and maintain positive interactions with others is the main predictor of peer popularity. This form of aggression has a negative impact on the school environment. and the world of ideas. Rejected children tend to be aggressive. Gilligan argued that women are likely to make moral decisions based on an ethic of care.. whereas peers play a more important role in its late onset. Cliques of peers who share similar interests and activities provide a more intimate setting for developing enduring and intimate friendships. which help children acquire the skills they need to resolve conflict. Preschool children believe rules should be obeyed because they lead to rewards or punishment. Approximately 1 in 20 adolescents in the United State are gay. the environment. sensitive. Schools must also help children learn how to care for themselves. immature children to develop missing social skills. are becoming more widespread. which emphasizes connections among people. Neglected peers tend to be shy and withdrawn. The causes of aggression depend on its age of onset. this type of instrumental aggression is not intended to harm another person. and good-natured. Young children use physical force to obtain an object or to get their way because they have limited social and verbal skills. ridiculing. Many schools are also implementing programs to help aggressive. Hostile aggression is more frequent among elementary and school-age children. Cooperative learning activities are particularly effective in promoting positive peer relations. Homophobia is pervasive in American high schools. lesbian. Elementary-age children want to please others and obtain social approval. The capacity to know and feel another person’s emotional state is an important determinant of prosocial behavior that is shaped by early childhood experiences. and cooperating with others. and it generally takes the form of teasing. and they tend to resolve moral conflicts in ways that preserve social relations and connections. Once aggression emerges as a way to control people’s behavior. and it places gay and lesbian youth at considerable risk for physical and verbal abuse from peers. Popular children tend to be friendly. Friendships are mutual and reciprocal. justice. Schools have a legal responsibility to provide a safe and supportive atmosphere for all youth. Prosocial behaviors involve acts of caring. poor school achievement and depression. Parents influence children as much as children . However. and freedom. A family is a highly complex system of interactions and processes operating at multiple levels. and interactions are based on shared activities. people begin to understand that rules are intended to help protect basic human rights such as equality. Positive peer relations can influence children’s feelings of efficacy. The early onset of aggression evolve from a complex interplay of the child’s temperament and family environment. Peer Relations  Peer relations are necessary for normal psychological development. who share a certain social reputation.

including poor parental education. and sources of emotional support. Federal and state laws require all professional who work with children to report suspected cases of child abuse. perseverance. on the other hand. restraint. Asian-American children are expected to do well in school to bring honor to the family. The traditions of Native American families differ by tribal identity. Child abuse has serious cognitive. children are mainly controlled and regulated by parents. whereby control is shared by parents and children. The family is also embedded in larger social systems — neighborhoods. a stepparent. It is important for educators to learn about reporting procedures. These dimensions form constellations of parenting behaviors. and cooperation. The majority of these families are headed by single mothers who face a number of challenges and difficulties. and the quality of the parenting provided. sibling relationships change with development. During a family transition. and sexual abuse. family poverty and conflict. neglect. Girls from single-parent families may show an early onset of sexual activity. teachers. conformity. Children are expected to show great respect for the past and for their elders. Authoritative parenting is associated with the most positive outcomes for children. Chidlren of gay and lesbian parents exhibit relations with peers and adults. There is a gradual shift toward coregulation during middle childhood. but divorce rates are low. and African American derive support and resources from the extended family. There are few differences between homosexual and heterosexual parents. playmates.   Maternal Employment and Child Care  More mothers with children under the age of 18 are working outside the home than ever before. it can lead to death. Like parent-child relations. including physical abuse. attention. This period is generally characterized by conflict until parent and child roles are renegotiated. socially responsible. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory of children’s development is an example of a systems approach. Children of authoritative parents are self-reliant. Variations in Family Structures  The structure of families is changing. in some cases. and. The presence of economic resources and other adults in the household can offset the negative consequences of a single-parent family. the effects of remarriage are shaped by the child’s characteristics and the quality of parenting provided. The number of Hispanic-American families is steadily growing. young people will need extra support. family obligation. Child-rearing practices in Hispanic-American families emphasize interdependence. As with divorce. Whereas most children grow up in two-parent families. The effects of divorce on a child are not straightforward and are related to the child’s age and sex. high warmth/responsiveness). independence. locus of control. and to provide opportunities for children to discuss their feelings. These families tend to be larger.     Family Transitions: Divorce and Remarriage  Approximately half of first marriages end in divorce. The school can provide continuity of care and stability for children experiencing a change in the family. there is an increasing number of children being raised in single-parent families. communities. and moral judgment. Single fathers tend to face fewer economic hardships. and social consequences for the child. and children. Siblings serve as role models. and control. despite the significant problems they face during the transition. and they resemble children of heterosexual parents on measure of social competence. Child-rearing practices in African-American families tend to emphasize assertiveness. The remarriage of a parent has both positive and negative consequences for the child. Asian-American families also emphasize the importance of social harmony and interdependence. Sibling relationships play a unique and important role in children’s development.   Ethnic Diversity of Families  African Americans currently represent the largest minority group in the United States. high warmth/responsiveness). called parenting styles. Change in any member of the family system can influence other members of the system. In general.influence them. Children with authoritarian parents have lower self-esteem and lower achievement than children with authoritative parents. On the one hand. and self-confidence. responsiveness. self-concept. and perform well in school. low warmth/responsiveness). In early development. Children with permissive-indifferent parents have the most negative profile of all. Children from single-parent families tend to be less successful in school than children from two-parent families. the level of conflict between parents. Many children live in a blended family consisting of a biological parent. and culture — that can affect interactions within family. young people strive for independence. emotional maltreatment. It is important to maintain consistent rules and routines. In adolescence. the income level of the custodial parent. and care at school. low warmth/responsiveness). most children are not adversely affected by divorce. it brings added resources and support to the family. Yet most families value harmony and connectedness. There are four types of parenting styles: authoritarian (high control. Relationships between children and parents change over the course of development. but. A number of social and economic factors contribute to child abuse. emotional. Child maltreatment can take many different forms. and social isolation. permissive-indulgent (low control. authoritative (high control. Most studies show no effects related to . it requires further adjustment for children who may still be reconciling issues raised by their parents’ divorce. Younger children are at greater risk for maltreatment than are older children. The entire Native American community plays a role in raising children. and permissive-indifferent (low control. There are more egalitarian gender roles.    Family Influence on Development  The family environment can be characterized in terms of differences in warmth. The child is taught patience. Children whose parents are warm and responsive tend to develop positive sibling relationships. and humility.

Recently. A number of effective parent involvement strategies have been identified. Quality is defined in terms of a low ratio of children to caregivers. and high school teachers are less likely to perceive the value of parental involvement in their students. and selfesteem is resiliency building. they devise ways of supporting their children’s learning at home. rates of parent involvement are higher for younger than for older students. Many school-age children today also attend some form of after-school program. particularly for low-income children. community organizations. Parent involvement varies by family structure and grade level. These include enhancing parenting skills. with approximately one-third attending a day care center. The organization of schools and teacher attitudes can discourage parental involvement. A limited body of research suggests that school-based programs can result in improved school attendance and achievement. needs. a well-trained staff. Also. language. social competence. These programs are offered by churches. communicating regularly and effectively with parents. Any effort that enhances children’s cognitive abilities. communicating high expectations. and low staff turnover. Two-parent families are more involved in their children’s schooling than single parents. and public facilities. encouraging parents to help their children with learning at home. Negative effects are likely to occur when maternal employment is associated with decreased monitoring of children’s activities. Schools play an important role in fostering resiliency in youth.maternal employment on children’s development. teachers can increase their understanding of their students’ cultural backgrounds. Many teachers report they have insufficient time to implements effective practices for working wit parents. but some experts are concerned that school care is neglecting important areas of youth development. Parental beliefs and attitudes play an important role in determining whether or not parents will become involved in their child’s schooling. and encouraging participation. and including parents in school governance. opportunities for educational. Family Involvement in Children’s Education   There is general agreement that active parental involvement in education is important for children’s school success. Early findings on the effects of day care were equivocal.     . providing meaningful learning opportunities. When parents become involved in school activities. and strengths. Many programs are also offered by school. and social stimulation. Through increased contact with parents. recruiting classroom volunteers.  A large number of children under the age of 6 receive some form of early child care. new evidence shows few negative effects of day care on children’s development when children attend high-quality day care programs. Schools can foster resiliency by encouraging a strong connection to school.

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°–  ff° f   ¯ °f f¾ n  ° –°¾ ¯ ¯¾f – ¾ °n °€¯f°f¾°€f¯f   f¾f¾f – ¾ f½½ f€¾ €  –f°f°f°  f f°¾f – ¾   ¾ fn ¾ ¾°–¾  ° n–°°f°  nf¯ ¯  n–°°¯ ¯° ¾ n–°°–f¾¯¾   f¾ nf¯ ¯ ° ¾ ¯ ¯ °–f¾¯¾°€¯f° ½¯½¾ n ¾f ¾ nf J  ½¯ ° n  °nf° nf°€¯f° €  ½¯½¾n ¾ @ nf°f¾¾ fn ¯ ¯°f¯ ¾¾ ¯fn ¾  n f° ¾f –n¯f°°   .

  ° ¾ ¾°–° – nf°°€ °n f °°ff° ¯ ¯½n ¾¾ ¾ ½  ¾¾°n ¾  ¾° nf ff–° –f  ° –  f¾  ¾¾°€f¾ ½n ¾¾°–€°€¯f° ¯  €€ n ¾ € °n °–¾f – ¾ f° ¯  €€n °¾ €n–°   ¾n ¾  . fn–°° € ¾n  ° ¾° – f° ° ¾f° °–€ °°°–½n ¾¾ ¾ ¾n  °  ½  fn f– f  ° ¾f° °–f  f ¯¾fnf°  ¯ ¯  ¾¯  f°°–f¾¾  ¯ n–°  €€f° ¾ f° n f° ¾f – ¾nf°f   nf€°€¯f° .

  °¾ ¾° – n¾ ¯  €€ n ¯ ¯f°  f°°–¾f – ¾  –  f nf°– ¾°¯ fn–° ° – f¾€fnf    ½¯ °€¾ €  –f  f°°–  €  –f  f° ¾nf°½f°  –f° ¯° f°  ff  ° f°°–fn ¾  °n ° nf ¾fn  °¾f¾–°€nf°°n f¾ ° ¾ €¾ €  –f  f°°–¾f – ¾  ° €€f°  ––f ¾    ¾ ¾f – ¾ ¾nf¾n¯½  °¾°f° ¯°°– n°°   ½ °f  ¾n °n  –  f ¯f°f¾ fn ¾nf°€fnf    ½¯ °€°€¯f°½n ¾¾°–¾¾° nf¾¾¯  ¾ fn¾–– ¾¾f ¾f –°¾n°¾ °€  ° @ fn ¾° ¯f f– f  €€ fn¾½ n€nn–° ¾f – ¾ ½ °€¯f° n°n °°– ¾ €° ¾¾° f°°– f° ¾–– ¾ °¾f – ¾¯f ¾ €€  f°°–¾f°¾  O O O O O ° – °n @  ¾f° .

 ¾¾f ° ff €fn  ° @½ €¯ °f °f¯ f¾ ¾€° – °n n  °¯¾f f–  f€€f¯f ¯  nf¾¾n f° –   f¾¾ .¾.–°   ½¯ ° O @  ¾n°¾ f  ff °n  ° ¾n–° f  ¾°f°f– –½ f° f   ¾¾€° – °n fn  ¯ °f ¾  f¾¾ ¾¾°  f €€  °n ¾°n–°   ½¯ ° ° – °n  ¾¾f –¯ f¾ fn ¾f ¾ °€¯f°°° f¾ ½ °f f°   f¾fn  ¯ ° ¾¾f ¯ f¾ fn  °f –f° €¯°¾n°f¯ ¾n  @  ¾°f– ° €°°€° – °n ¯  ¾¾f f– f° – °n  ½ ¾ °¾f– ° f– f°  nfnf½fn    f¾ ¾f f– f° – °n  ½ ¾ °¾¾  f° ½ ° °¾¾f  ¾ . ¾¾f f¯ f°€½°¾  ¾f° f  f°¾f¯ f¾ € f f– f¯°¾n ¾f€¯ ¯ f° °f°¯f ¾ ° ¯¾n  ° ¾¾n ¾€f°°  ¾f° f  f°f    ¯ f°  .¾n  ½ ¾ °¾f° ¾¯f €fn ¾n–° f  ¾ f n  °€ ¾f¯ f– .¾° – °n  ¾¾¾  f  f½€ € fn ¾°  nff  ¾  °.

¾n ¾°n f¾ ¾  ¯  n  .f°¾  ¾  ° ¾  ¾¾f  ¯½ f¾¾ ¾¾n  °€¯ €€  ° °n  ¾n n°¯n f° f°–f–  fn–° ¾  ¾n  °  ½  ¾f € .¾n ¾€¾¯ n  °nf°€nf f¾¯nf¾½°¾  ° f– ¾€f°     ¾€ –nf°¾f f°¯½f°¾n €°€¯f°n°n °°– °€ °n €– ° nf°  °°¯ °f€fn¾°° – °n   ¯¾½f  ¾ ¾  ¾  fff½½¯f ½ n °€ ff°°° – °n °f½½f°nf° f   – ° n°€ °n ¾    ¾  €€n¾ ½ff – ° nf°  °°¯ °f°€ °n ¾ .      . ¾n –°fnf ¯nfn  ¯ ° ¾¾  ¯f°°–f    –f f €¯–¾n f° f ° n – f°n¯½ff   –½¾€n  °  °f °  f f½–f¯¾  °n ¾–– ¾¾f f f° °– °  °°¾¯ff f¾°– ¯½fn °n  ° ¾°  nf€°n°°–   ¾ ½–f¯¾f n¾f° ° fff   ¯f¾n°–¾f° ¯½f°f¾½ n€  °°¯ °f°€ °n ¾n  ° ¾°  nf  ½¯ ° .¾n ¾f  f¾°f – ½ n¾€f .¾ ¾ fn ¾€n¾°– ° nf°  °°¯ °f€fn¾° fn°€ °n °  nf  ½¯ °  ° ¾¯f¾  ½½ f°  ¯¾€°  nf  ½¯ °     °°¯ °¯f ½f°ff°¾°  ½¯ °°ff°–    ff¾½ n¾€ ¯  °°¯ °nf°°€ °n  f°  nf  ½¯ °  ¾ fn° nf ¾f½f °¾nf°f f½¾  °€ °n ° n  ° ¾n–°   ½¯ ° ° ½ f½½½f ¾¯f°f° ½f¯f f¾  °nf–  ½f°f°  ¾¯f n¾ f° n f ff¯ ¾½½ f°  ¾½°¾  °°¯ ° f °n  ° ¾  ½¯ ° ½f °¾°°¯¾½ f ¾¯f°–f°  °nf–°–¯  °°¯ ° f¾¯¾f f°fn  ° n ¾¾n°– @ f €¾ ¾ fn€ €€  ° °nf° ¾n n°¯n–½¾¾n ° °– f¯°  f°  °°nf° ½€€¾  ° –f  €€ n¾€f½¯  °°¯ °  f fn  °f ¯  ¯f ¾–°€nf°–f°¾° .

 ¾¾f ¾°– °€ °n  ¾n°– ½  °n ¾ ¾¯  ¾ fn ¾ ¾° ¾ €.  °¾f¾n f   ¯f°°¾n°–  f° f ° –  f¾n¾f – . ¾¾f¾f¯ f¾ €°°f °  nf€°n°°–  O O O O O O O O ½€€  °n ¾f° .¾n ¾ @ ¾¾f– f¾n°–°€ °n ¾.¾n ¾ nf¾ ¾n¾ fn ½ €°€¯f°f° ¾¾n  °° ½ €¯ °° – °n  ¾¾  nf¾ .

–°   ¾  ¾ fn¾¾fn  °€¯ €€  ° °nf° fnf–½¾   n ½°€¾f° ¯ nf°¾ ¾n ¾–°€nf° f°°– ¯ nf°n  °°f  ¯ f¾ €n–° f  ¯   °n ¾–– ¾¾f °n €€  °n ¾°fn  ¯ °f °f°–    ¯f°f–  .f° fn  ¯ ° ¾¾n ¾f   ¾nff°  n°¯n€fn¾ J ° €€  °n ¾°¾n n°¯n fn–° f n° ½ €¯f°n –f½¾°f  °n¯½   ¾f½½ f ¯ €fn¾fn°     ½ €¯f°n € °n¯° ¾°¯ °f ¾¾°n f°–f–  f n €€  °n ¾ f¾nn f€f¾ ¯  O O .¾ ¾ fn ¾   f °n €€  °n ¾°¾ °¾ .

nf nf°½–f¯¾f  ¾–° ½¯  f nf°f½½° ¾f° °n f¾ ½¾  ° –½f ¾f° f ¾ .¾ ¾ fn ¾ –¾f°  ¾f¾¯ ¾¯ff° €€  °°  n–° f  ¾  €€¾ ½f°– °  €€  °n ¾°n–° f  ¾€n¾° –nff°  °°¯ °f°€ °n ¾ @ °€ °n €¯° ¾f°  f° –f°f°°n–° €°n°°–¾° ° ¾ @  € ¯¾ ¾ fn ¾€n¾° €€  °n ¾°n  ° ¾¾nff° ½  °n ¾ @  ¾n°¾ f    °n f ¾f° –¾f  f  €€  °f°  °nf– ½¾  €€  °fn ¾f¯   ¾ fnf¾f¾ n¯ °  °¯ ¾f¾ ¾f° –¾f  f  €€  °f¾n n¾ °  ½ n – ° °  ¾° ¾n   n¾° ¯f f   €€n f  f°°– °°¯ °¾f½  f ¾n ¾  °nf– ¯ ° f° ½½° ¾€ ¾ f° –¾€f fn–° ¾ .nf¾¾¾ °¾ f° fn°–¾¾ ¯¾f¯¯°n  ° ¾ f°°–f° fn  ¯ °½½° ¾°¾n   °  €€  °n ¾°¾ °¾ n–° f  ¾f  ¾¾  ° ff° f¾f– €€  °n ¾f ¾¯f€ ¾¾€  f ¾f ¾½ff  f° ¯f ¯fnff  ¾   ¯f°f– € ¾¾€¾n °€n¾¾ .

 f°–f½¾  f°°– °°¯ °€f¾ °¾° f nfnf°– ¾°nn¯¯f f¾   –f°f°f° n €¾n¾  f ¾f°   €¾€¾n¾f€€ f°  f¾¾ °¾f n °f–f° f¾¾ ¾¾  O O O @  ¾° .

¯½ ¾ f° .

  ° ¾ f°°– °f f– n  °fn¾€  ¾°½  f °– n  °fn¯   ¾°f°f  ¾n °¾  f°  ¾fn¯    ¾°f°–¾   @  ¾°¾°–  °n f  ¾° ¾½fn ¾ f °–¯ ¯  @  €€ n¾€  ¾° °– ½ ° ° f¯°€ °–¯ f° n° ° J °n  °fn¯ f°¾€  ¾°½    nf°f f° –f ¯½fn°¾nfn  ¯ °  – f  ¾°½–f¯¾€n  °nf°f ½¾  €€ n¾° f¯ff°  f °–¾¾ f¾ f¾¾n f ° ¾¾f° f ©¾¯ °  .

¯½ ¾f  n¯°–f° ½f€n  ° ¾ ¾  fnn ¾¾– fn¯½ ¾f° ¾€f ¾ €f¯°n¯   °¾ ¾ €n¯½ ¾€¾n  f ½½¾ ¾°n f¾ ¾f– @  f ¾¯f½f °¾€n¯½ ¾ €–¾f°  ¾ f   ¾ fn°  €€ n¾€n¯½ ¾°¾ °¾  f°°–¾€f¯ .

¯½ ½–f¯¾ ° f  – f ¾¯½fn ° ¾ f n°¾n¾f½½fnf°  ¯½f¾ –  °°–¾¾  O O O O O O O f°–f–   ½¯ °f° @ fn°– °   f ¯¾  fn¾ f  f f°  .  f n°¾   fn¯ f°¾ °–f  n¯¯°nf n ff°  °f°fnf °¾½ f°– ¾ °°–  f °– f° °– °n¯½ n °  f¾  ½ff € n°–nf  fn ¾ ¾nf¾n¯½ f°   fn  f °°–¯fnnf€  °–f€¯f¾ f¾f€  f °–f  °¾  fn °n ¾n¯¯°nf n¯½  °n ½°f¾ f¾°°½°¾n ¾  .

  °fn ¾½ °f°–f–   n°¾n°f° °f f ¾¯ °  f– € n  ° –°¾f°– °  f ¾  °n¯ °°– ¾ f° ¯°–°¯½  ½f¾ ¾f° ¾ ° °n ¾   f– € f°f ¾½ f ° f ½ n °€ –f¯¯fnf¾n ¾€°–¾  °–¾nfn f ¾ n  °f f°ff–  f°f°–f– °  n¯¯°nf  –¾f°  ¾ ¾ ¾  f°–f– fn¾°¾f½n ¾¾f ¾ fn ¾nf°°n¯½   ½f°   f  ¾f  °½½¾ °n °–  f¾   ¯ff°¾ f°  ° fn°¾ – fn f¾¯f°¾  ° fn°¾ nn¯ ° ¾  ¯ °¾€   ½ ¾  ¯¾n¯½  °¾ f° €   fnn°€n  °fn f°–f– ° fn°f ½½¾ ¾ff°–f– ¾n ¾  f¾f  ¾€ ° ½f  °fn #¾° °f¯ °f¾n ¾f°    °f¾nf   ° fn° ¾¾½¯f  .

  °° n°¾n  ¾f° ½f °¾€ f°–f–  fn  ¾°–½ ¾¾f  f°–f– ¾¾ ¯ @ ¯¾– ° f  ¾ ¾nf¾   f  ° ¾n  °– ° f €¾ f    ½ ¯ °¯ n¯½nf   ¯ °¾€ f°–f– ¾nf¾  °¾ €¯¾  ¾°¾ f° ° –f ¾  @ nnf½  ½ ¾¾¾–– ¾¾f€n f°° °f  °fn° °¾ f f°–f–   ½¯ °f ¯¾¾°– °fn  °   f°f°–f– ° f ¾°¾€¾½ ¾¾f ¾½½   ¾ fn    ¾ f ½°–n  °€¯f° ° fn°f° f°–f– ff° ff– ¯½f f°–f–   ½¯ ° @   °€  f¯f– f ¾ ½ ° °–°  °–€¯  f°  n #¾f– f ¯ € ½f°  €n  °–½°f€f¯n¯¯°°nf°–f– ¾f ¾½ °  °  –½ °–f °–n  °f nf½f   € f°°–¾  ff°–f– ¾¾¯f° ¾n°€¾° ¯ff °– €fn n°¾n–f¯¯f¾€¾  ff°–f– ¾f °n   ¯  €fn¾°f° ½f °€  ½¯ °f  fn ¾f¯ €fn  f°°–°° f°–f–  n  °f°  f ¾ f°°–¾ n° f°–f– ¾ ½  °n  €€  °½f °¾€fn¾°  O O O O O O Jf¾¯ – ° fn" .¾n  ° f° f f°  °¾n ¾f–° °°f fn°–°f½° n °°¯ ° .

  °f ¯f   ½½° fn ° f – °¯f°½½° ¾ °–f– ½½¾ € ¾°f °n¾f°¾ n ½n¾½f¾  f °  ¾n ff½½ °¾ ° nf¾   f n¯½  °¾° ¾°¾ f°¾  f  °  °f f n n  ° f°f  nffn ¾n¾f° ½n ¾¾ ¾€ f °–f° °–€¯  f  ½¯ °f½n ¾¾nf  O O .

¯ – ° fn @– ½  °n  ¾ ½ ¾n ¾ f°f½°nf ¾¯ f°°–  n–°   ¾f°  ¾ f° nf°¯¯n   f °–  n°–¯ ¯ ¾ ¾  .

  °¯f ½– ¾¾°–f°  f °– °   ½½° ¯nff ° ¾¾ f° ° ¾f° °–f ¾n°f° ¾°n  ½° ¯ ¾%¾° ¾% ½ ¾ °    ¾ @   ½¾ € n°¾n¾° – f  ½° ½ ¾ °¾¾½ °f°–f–  ¾ ¾ ¯fn°–¾° ¾  ¾ n  °¯¾ n–°  ¾°–¾ f° ½ n    ¾€ f½f  n¾°–° ¾°n € f ¾f°  ¾½ff °f°f ¾f – ¾f ½n  °fnn¯½¾¾f¾  nfn° f¾ – f ¾ €€ n°  f½ ¾° n¯ ¾f½€n ° f f°    f  °°¯ °   ¾°fn  nf €fn f°¾ ¾n  ¯ ¾° °nn  °#¾ ½  °n ¾½°f €f °n½½¾ ¾f° °nf ¾f  f° ½fn½f ° f °–f° °– ¯¾  ¾  O O  f°°– f   f °–¾fn¯½ ½n ¾¾ °–n  f f°¾f ¾½°° ¾ n¯½  ° ¾f° ½ n¾¯ f°°– f° ° fn¾ ¯°f  nffn ¾  °¾€ ¾  n °–¾ ½n ¾¾€  ¯°°– f °n  ° ¾ .

¯½  °¾°¾ fn  ½n ¾¾€f¾n °–¯ f°°–f¯ ¾¾f– .

¯½  °¾° ½ ° ¾°  f #¾f ¾ ¾°fnn ¾ ¯f°n f° ½f–¯fn°€¯f° ° ¯f ¾ °¾ €f¾ °° ½f–  @   ¾€ f °–°¾n°f n ° ° ¾½ n€n ¾¾f½½fn f fn  fn ¾  nf¾ n °–f° n¯½  °¾° ¾¾¾°–f° ½n € ° n ¯  €°¾n° @ ¾ ¾¾f € °f–°¾f° ¾ ½ff €¯ fnf f °–€ ¾ ¾fn ¾ @ ¾nf°–f– f½½fn½½¾fn  °° n  f°f°   ½¾½ n€n f °–f  ¾ f¾ °  °¾  f° f  ½  °n ¾½° .

  ° f n¯½   ¾¾ ¾€f °n½½¾ ¾ @  ° –f f½½fnf¾¾¯ ¾f n  °¯¾  °–f– °f °n%¯ f°°–€% fnfn ¾ f¾¯¾ f°¾½ n€n¾¾ D¾°–f°° –f f½½fn  fn ¾ – n  °¯f°f °n ½  °n ¾ f °–f° °–    n°¾n°° f °–¾¾¾½  °° n ¾¾f  O O  f°°–J  J ° f°°–¾½  n  ° ½ ¯ °¾° ¾f°   ¾ @ °n° °°f½f °¾f nf ° ° ¾½ °–f° ¾ °   –f f¾ ¾ ° ° ¾½ °–°n f¾ ¾n  °#¾€ °n ¯f ¾ f¾ € ¯n¯½¾ f°   ¾°° €   f °– n° °°f¾½ °–  ½¯ °  @  ¾¾ °n € n¯°–f ¾ f°°–n¯½¾ .

¯½¾°–¾fn¯½ ½n ¾¾f°n ¾½f°°°–  f€°–  ¾°–  °– f°  ½ ¾°– – °–½n ¾¾nf°  ¾n f¾f°– ¾n  ½f¾ ¯f° ¾ ° ½  °n  ¯¾ ½ff °f°¾    .

  °°¯f° ¯ nf°nff¾½ n¾€°– € €n¾°–°½ € n°– °–½n ¾¾ °n  ¾° °f¾ n°¾ °– ° ¾€ f  °n f¾ °– ¾f°n €¯   ¾ ¯¾ €€n½f€ ½n ¾¾ f° ° ½½ –f ¾f°  –¾n n  ° n¯ ½€n ° ½¾°–f° ¾ °–f¾ff€ f°°–° fnf ¯n ¾n½° ¾  O O .

nf nf° € ¾ fn°–f  ¾°nf  f°¯f f¾ f° ¾nnn¯¾f € n   €¾ f °¾  f° n° °¾€f½ ½ °f° °nf  ¾ ¾n   . f°  fn ½ ¾°#¾f°–f–  f n ¯f°° €¾½ f°– € n¾ € f ¾€ ¾nf  n°¯n f° nf fn–°  f n¾fff° €f¾°– f°–f– ¾½ ° ¯ ¯ ¾€f¾½ nn¯¯° @ f°–f– €°¾n°°¾n¾ ¾¯ ¯ ¾nf ¾f° f ¯ nf° °–¾%% ¾€ °°  f n€°–¾¾½ °°n  °#¾¾½ nn¯¯° ¾ °¾ f € © n°–fn #¾¯  f n f fn nf°  ½n  °fn f°  f n  °–  f nf ½¾°  f¾€°n° €€ n ° €€  °¾nf¾ °–¾  .

f° °–f n  °f ¯ °–¾½€n °n%9% ¯  °–f½–f¯¾f  ¾–° ¯ n  °°°–¾ ¯°f°nf¾¾¯¾   f¾  ½–f¯¾f ¯½ fn°–¾f° ¯f°f°f¯ f°–f– ¾nf¾½f°¾  °–f nf°½–f¯¾ € n¯nf ff ° ¾¾  O O O ° –f°–.  °f f  ¾½ f  f  ¾¯ °–¾°f ° °f f°–f– f n°¾   °–f f° ¾ .

  °n ½°f- ¾ O @ ½nfnf¾¾¯n°f°¾¯n° °  ff° °f°  fff°f¯°–n  ° J °° °  f €€  °n ¾f ¾–°€nf°  fn ¾¾fnf¾¾€ f° f   ° –   n  ¾½ nf nf°¾ n ¾  f °–n  °¾fn° ¾f½fnn f ° ¾°€ °n   ¾f  f f° °  f#¾f  ¾ ° f¯°¯  ° –f f °– €€ n¾¾¾ ½ ½ €¾ ¯°– @¾ ¯° ¾¾f ½ ¾°¾¯n¯ f°¾  ¾f  °  ¾    ¾f ¾¯  ° f¾½ n€fn #¾f½ ¾°f  .

 ° ¯ n  ° n ½°f° ¾f  °–° –f °– ° fnf¾¾¯¾ ¾½ nf nf¾ ° °– nf¾¾¯ ½ ¾ n ¾ ½ nf nf¾f° nf¾¾¯ fn ¾nf f  ¾f°– ¾½°¾ €¯ °–¾ °° ¾  ½½¯f ½ n °€¾°f°#¾¾n f– n  °f ° € €°–€ f ¾–°f  ¾f  ¾ ¾½ n€n f°°– ¾f  ¾ n¯¯°nf° ¾ ¾ ¯ °f f f°  ¯°f ff ¾ ¾ ¾   f° ¯½  ¾f  ¾   f ¯½f¯ °¾  f€° ¾¾f°  f°–¯½f¯ ° ½¾nf ¾f  ¾ ¾° ° ° ¾¾ f¾¯ f¯fn f°°©  f€ ° ° ¾¾ @ f °fnf – ¾€ n ½°ff ¾  ° ¾n¾ f °° €n ¾ ¾f° –€  @ °  f¾¾f  ¾° nf°n%%–ff° ¾ –¾€n  ° ¾f  ¾ ° € ¯¾¾f °–¾¾f   n   nf°°  f¾ ¾n  °°¯ °  O O O O .

ffn ¾n¾€.

  °n ½°f- ¾ .

O O ¯ n¯¯°–½nffn ¾n¾ ¾€ fn€  ¾f nf – ¾  ¾½ ff°– €°  f° °f°  f €€  °n ¾  .

  °¾½ n€n f°°– ¾f  ¾ ½  °n f ¾n ½f°n  °° – °n f° fn  ¯ ° @¾ ¾n ½f°n¯fnn°°  ¯ f f¾ ¾½ °f°–f–  °f°–f– f¯ n  f¾°°– .f°f  €€n ¾f °° ¯ ¯ ¯ fn–°° f°  – ° ff° ¯ f¾f ½  ¯¾°½ n ½° ¯  ½¯ ° ¾nf° fn° f° ¯f°  .

  °n¯¯°nf° ¾ ¾f  f °  ¾½ nf°–f–   .¾ °n° fnf ¯n½  ¯¾ ½fnf°  f °– ¯ n  °#¾°f ° ¾f° f° ¾ f°–f– f¾° €  ¾ ¾nf  ½¯ °  .

  °f –€ f° f ° f   f f°n °n–°°f° fnf ¯nfn  ¯ °  ¯ f ° n f .f° n ° f°–f– f° ¾¾¯ ¯f f€€ n nffn ¾n¾ ¾nf¾ f ¾½¾¾f° –f  n  f @¾nf – €€ ¾€¯   ¾  nf¾ ¾ f¾ °n  °#¾f  ¾f° ¾ °–¾f f°°  f° ¾¾ ¾  .

f° ½  °n ½  ¯¾°¯ ¯  ½  ¯¾°– f° fnf ¯n¾ ¯  ½  °n ½ ° fn° €€n ¾ €¾f° ¾ f° ¾ € ¾ ¯  .  °f °° €n ¾ ¾f  €€n ¾f °° ¯½¾ n° f° fn   .

  °¯ °f f f°f °° – °n f° f f½  f ¾¾f °f  f½ ¾° ° ½ ° ° .¾f¾ ½  °n ¾–°€nf°f°–f–  f¾f¾ f¾°f °° ¯ ¯½  ¯¾ ¾ € ¾ ¯   °fn¾€n° f° – ° ff° €€n ¾ @  f¾°n–°° f f½  f f° f°–f– ¯ff°– €¯¯ ¾   ½€°  .

  ° ¯°f ff ¾ ¾f f¾ €€n ¾°½¾n¾nf  ½¯ °     °f°–% – ½½¾°f  f°¾nf f–– ¾¾ %° °f°–% –  ff f°   ½ ¾¾°%½  ¯¾ .¾f  €n¾°f°–f– f° ¾nf n–° ¾¾  .

f°n  °°  ¾ nf – ¾nf° f°° – ° fnf¾¾¯ ¾ €¾½ nf  ½¯ ° °n °–f–¯ °f n¯¯°nf° n ¾  f f½  n ¾ ¯ nf n°– f° ¾°f ¾  O O O O O O  °€°–f° @ fn°– °¾n ½°f- ¾ O @ ½n ¾¾€ °€°–f° ¾ °–n  ° n ½°f° ¾nn¾°¾f– ¾ °f¯  ½  € f  € f  ff° °  f  nf°½f°%9% ½fn ¯ ° f°    ¾f¯ ¯ €f¯ ¾n½°f f¯ fnf¾¾¯ fn ½f¾f°fn  –  n¾° ¯f°–½n ¾¾  °  fnf  ¾ –½€ f° ¾  fn ¾¯¾f f ½  € fn°–¾f – ¾°n °– f°°–n ° ¾ n¯½  f¾¾¾  °¾n° nf¾¾¯fnn¯¯ f°¾ n½ f  f°°– ½ °–   ¾¾ ¯¾  f°°–¾f – ¾f°°– f° ¾ € ¯f°f– ¯ ° °¾n°  .  °¾   f° ¯½  ¾f  ¾   f¯½f¯ °¾  f€° ¾¾f°  f°–¯½f¯ ° ½¾nf ¾f  ¾ ¾° ° ° ¾¾ f¾¯ f¯fn f°°© f°  f€ ° ° ¾¾f ff°– €° ¾¾nf  fn¾¾   ½¯ °f ¯f°¾ .

f¾¾¯ fn ¾f fnn ¾¾ff € ¾n ¾f° ¾½½ J° ¾n  nf°½  ¯¾ n f– ¾°– ° ff°  °¾½ nf nf° .f°¾f f° °f°f½€ ¾¾°ff° ½f °–f°f°¾€€ f¾¾¾f°n f¾ f¾n f°–¾ ¾f° °€¯f° n ° ¾  O O ¾°#¾@ €9¾n¾nf  ½¯ ° ¾°½ f€f¯ €° ¾f° °–n  °#¾½ ¾°f  ½¯ ° ¾  ½¾¾° ¾f°   ¯ – °n € ¾ €° f  ½¯ °  ° €¾ € ¾€€n °n° ¾n f¾ f°  ¾ fn€ °°f  ¾n °n nn °–¾° n  °°  f¾f€ f° ¾ n  °°¯ °°   ½f¾ °¾ €¾ @ f¾° ½½° ¾°f fn ¾f°  f°f   €€  °¾ °–¾f° ½°¾€ €  O ° f°¾€nff° ¯°f  ½¯ ° O .

  °#¾¾nff°  ¯°f  ½¯ ° –°¾ fffn¯ ° f°¾ .

  °° ¾ n ffn¯ °¾½f °¾f  f¯  ¾½°¾ f° nf°–  fn¯ °¾nf – ¾ °n °– fn ¾ nf°f€€ n¯f° f¾¯½f°€¾n¾nn ¾¾ °n °–n¾ f °° ½  ¯ ¾°– f f° ½ ¾¾ °n  J  ½¯ ° n  ° n¯   ° ½  ¾€½ ½ #¾ ¯°¾f°   f  ¾ ¾°€¯f°° –f°–  f  @ f¾ n¯   f   ½ ¾¾f° ° ¾f° n¯½  ¯°¾¾nf¾ ¯ ff¾¾¯ ° – f° © f¾  ° f° nf ½ nf°¾nf°°€ °n f ¯°¾f  ½ ¾¾ f°  f  ½ ¾¾   € n°° ¾   f ¾ €n–°  ff¾f – ¾fn  f ¾ –f ¾¯½f°€ ¾f ¾°–½¾ ¾nf  f°¾ €f ©¾°–¾n € f°°– f° € °– ¾€f  ¾n ° ff° ¾f€ ½  ¯¾   ° f– ¾€f°  n  °¾f°°n f¾ f ¾ n–° f°  ff¾f – ¾€n°°–¯½¾ ¾  f°– €¾f° f°  f°––f€nf°  nnf°½ff°¯½f° °   ½¯ °€ ¯°fn¯½  °n ° nf¾¾¯ @ fn ¾° %%n f f½¾ f€€ n  °°¯ °€¾ °¾ %%¯   f°  ½ ¾¾ ¯°¾ %% ¾n¾¾ ¯°¾¾ °¾ f° %%½  ½n°¾n°  –f °–f°   ¯°¾f° ¾ ¾¾  O O O O O   ½¯ °€ € .

°n ½°¾  € n°n ½ € ¾f¾ €  €¾ f ¾  f¾ f° ° – f½ ½ f f  ¯¾  ¾ °–n  ° ¾n  ¯¾  ¾° O .

 ¯¾€½¾nff¾   f¾ n  °f° f  ¾n °¾¾ ½¾n–nff¾% ° – ° ¾ nf°–  n %f° f ¾fn n°n ½¾% –  .

fn% °f ° f¾n  °¯f  ¾ € n°n ½¾ n¯ ¯  €€  °f f° ° –f @ ¾   ¯¾  ¾f¾f°–¯½ f  ¾ f°   –°¾ °¾  ° ½f¾ ½ ¾ ° f° € ¾  ¾ ¾n  ° n¯ ¯  °¾½ n f–  nf° n¯ ¯ ¾ € n°¾n¾f° ¾ € nnf °–  f¾n f¾ n  °#¾¾ € ¾ ¯°n f¾ ¾f¾  fn  ¾nn ¾¾°½  f°¾ –  ¾n°¾ f  ¾f °n  °#¾¾ € ¾ ¯  f   ¯ °f f¾  ¾n °°¯ °½f¾f ¯½f° ° ½°–n  °f° f  ¾n °¾¯f°f°½¾ ¾ € ¾ ¯ @ fn ¾¾n°n °f  ¾ °¾ ° ¾ °¾° n¾°¯f°– f°  °nf– ¾ € ¾€€n °nnf°f f½¾ °€ °n °¾ € ¾ ¯ n¾f° nf¾¾¯¾ ff –¾n n°°– f° n¯½  nf°f f° –f °€ °n °¾ € ¾ ¯   °¾#½ n ½°¾f°  ff°¾€ f  ¾°€ °n  ½ €¯f°n °¾n °– °¾nnf° ¾ ¾ € ¾ ¯ n  °° nf°f€€ n ¾ °¾ °¾nf ° °n fn #¾¾ °¾ €f ¾€¯ ¾f ¾ nf°f f¾°– °€ °n ° fnf ¯n½ €¯f°n f°–f ¾ ¾f° f   ¾¾n ¾ f°  ¯ f¾ ¾€f   .

  ° –°  ½f°ff ° ¾¾€ °n €€  °n ¾ f  f–  n  °nf°n n °€¾°nf°  ° °n–½  nf¾ €fnf½ © n ¾f° ¾  ½ ¾ ¯f  €€n€ °n¯°n  °  ½½¾ € °–¾€n¯½  °nf°   f ¾ fn¾–– ¾ fff– ½ n °f– €€nf° ¯ nf°f° -f ¯ nf°n  °f° n  °¯¾ °€  °n–½ @¾¯¾ °€nf°f¾½ ¾¯ ° nf ¾ € ¾ ¯f° ¾ € f .

¾¾  ¾ f ½  €€  °n ° f° €nf° ¯ nf°n  °#¾¾ € ½ n ½°¾ € f ¾nn °–°¾nf° f   °– –f  ½f °¾f° ½ ¾ @ fnfn¯½¾°€ ¾nnf°f¾f  f°¯½f°°€ °n ° ¾ € n°n ½¾f° ¾ € ¾ ¯€ °n¯°¾  @ €€¯°–f° °n °– ° ff ¾½fn °f  ¾n °n °n¯°¾f €½¾¾  f¾ ¾  ° ¾¾ ¾ @ nf°f¾¾¯f   ¯°f°n  n¯ f¯f–°f¯ ¯ €  ¯°f°n  °f   nf°n¾  f¾¾nf ° ° °n–½  f  ¾n °¾nf° n¯  nf ¯f°f°°– ¾ n ¾–f½n ¾¾€ n ¾n°– D°€°f  ¾¯ ¾ ¾   °n¾¾ €¯°–f° –f  ° @ f © n f ¾€  ¯°f°n f¾ f¾ °   °   °¾f n¯½° °€ ¾ € °– ¾n f¾ n  °fn f°° ¾f° °–€f¯ f°¾ f¯f f°  € ¯f °¾n  @ – °   n°n ½¾€°–n  ° °   – f°  f–– f @  €  – °    f¾f°  f ¾€°–n  ° °   ¾ ¾  °¾#¾ € n°n ½¾€f  ¾ € nf °f¾ ¾  ½ ¾  ¾f   f ½¾nf ¯f ¯fnf f°  n°nffn ¾ f° –¾f   f  f ¾nf f°  ¯ ¾nfn ¾ Jn–° ¯f n  °#¾ – °   n°n ½¾ n¯ ¯ €   f°  ¾¾f ¾   ¾n °¾f f  ° €¯f¾n° f° € ¯°° f¾%  f  f° –°¾% ° f – ¾ ¯ ½¾ ¾ € n°n ½¾ f° – n½°–¾¾   °    f¾f° f ¾f  f° €¯  °°¯ °– ½n ¾¾€¾nff° 9f °¾f   ¯ °€ °f ¾nf ¾€– ° °¯¾ . ° ¾ fn    ¾–– ¾¾f¾ f ¯ff  ° f¾ °€ff¾¾¯½°¾ .

°¾ f   ¾ fn¾–– ¾¾f ¯ ¾  ½  f¾   °nf–  ¾f° –¾ °–f– °¾  ½ fn ¾ f°   f ¾f° –¾ €€  ° °– €f¯f°  ¯f¾¾¯ f ¾n¾f f°¯½f° °– °    ¾nff° ° ¾f°   ¾°½–f¯¾ ¯f f° € ¯f nffn ¾n°° ½ €¯°¾  ¾  ½nnn½f°¾f°  ¯ ¾n  ¾ @ ¾n¾ °–¾f°¯½f°½fn €n°€¯°–f° n°¾ f°–– °   n°n ½°¾ D°€°f   ¯f– ¾€¯f¾n° f° € ¯°°n  °f  ½¾ f¾nn°°  ¾  ¾  ½n  O O O O O   ½¯ °€n  ¯ °.f°f¾ ° €° f¾f° ° °– f f¾f°f¾f f° f¾ €n–°°¾ f ¾ f°   €¾ .f°½  ¯¾f ½ f °f¯°– °n¯ n  °  fn€ ¾n ¾f¯  ¾½½ f°°– ¯¾¯fn ¾  ° ¯ f° ¾n °°¯ ° f°  fn€ nf°ff°  ¯½¯ °½½° ¾  ¾n  °½– ¾¾°¾n   ½ ¾ € ½ n ½°¾€f   ¾¾n°  f°°–  ¾¾°°¾n¯f° f° f° ¯  f° f –f ¾f°  ff° ¾   f ¾ nf°– ¾ ¾€¯ °  ff°  °°¯ °fnf°– ¾ ¾n  °¯f  n–°   f   f   ff f° ° –f  €€  °¾n ¾€°€¯f°f  f  ¾ @ f f¾  f   n¯½f  f  ¾¾ € ¾  ¯¾ ¾¾   f n° ¾°¯f° ¾€¯nf°– ¾° ¾n °°¯ °  ¾¾ °¾½– ¾¾°¾n   f°°– °°¯ ° n¯ ¾¯ ¾n n°°– ¯½ ¾°f f°  ff @ ¾ n° °¾ ¯f  €€n€¾ °¾¯f°f°½¾ ½ n ½°¾€ f  ¾f° ¾¾f°f°°°¾n°  ¾° f°°–  O O O D° ¾f° °– ¾ O O  ¾ fn ¾¾   ¯¾¾nfn–°° ¾n n  °#¾° ¾f° °–€ ½ ½ #¾–¾ € °–¾ f°  f¾  9 ¾½ n f°–° ¾ f f f° ½ ¾°#¾½°€  9 ¾½ n f°–f  ¾  ½–f f °–   ¯ °f ¾n f¾ .f° °fn  ¯ °¾f°¾ ¯f° € ¾€n ¾f°f ¾¾f° f°  ¯°f  f .¾n° ¯½f  ¾€¯f°€f° n–° ¯   @ ¾   ¾ ¯½f¾  ¯½f°n € €€nfn  €¾ fn  ¯ °f ¾ nf¾ff °¾ f° fn  ¯ °–f¾ € ¾ n–°    ¾ –f ¯f½  ¯¾¾ €€f¯ € fn ¾ J °n  °f €n¾ ° f°°––f¾   €°   n¯½  °n ° ¯¾€¯½ ¯ ° €n¾°  €€¾ ½ n   ¾f¾f½f€  f°°–½n ¾¾ f   €€n ¾fn€ €€  f° ½ ¾¾f€° °– n n¾° Jf f°°–€n¾ ¾ °¾¾ n–° ¾f – ¾fnf° °f°n n°n ½f° ¾f° °–f°   °–  ¯  °°€°€¯f° °n°f¾ f½ €¯f°n  °f° ° ¾ f¾¾nf    ¾€n–°  °–f– ¯ °°  f°°–fn ¾f° ° –f f€€ nf° f¾f f°n  ° f°°–f¾¾f  €€n  @ ¯  °°¯ °¾f¾n €°  f €€  °n ¾°¯f° °– f  ½¯ ° n  °° f°½½° ½ f°  f f° €€ n°  °°¯ ° 9f °°–¾ ¾f¾½½n  °#¾° ½ ° °n f ½¾ f¾¾nf –   ¾€ ½ n  n¯½  °n f° °°¾n¯f° ¾ n  °  f  ¾f¾¾¯ °–fnf°  °f°n – €€f°  ½fnn f –   ¾€½ n  n¯½  °n f° °°¾n¯f° J °n  °½ n   f  ¾f¾€ f° °nf°– f   nf°f f° –f  €€ n°¯f° .

  °f °f   ¾f°¾ ¯¾  ¾€¯f° #¾½ ¾½ n ° f ¯  n   f¾  9 ¾½ n f°–f  ¾f ¯½f°€¾nf f°¾f° ¯f  ½¯ ° °n ½°¾€ ¯¾ n°¾   @  f ½ff ¾  °n  °#¾¾ € n°n ½°¾f° ½ ¾°½ n ½°¾ J  ½¯ ° n  °#¾½ n ½°¾€ ½ ½  n¯ ¯  €€  °f f° €n¾ °½¾n–nff¾fnf°  ¾  °¯f° €€  °¾f°¾  .

  °nf°nf – ½ ½ °fnff°  °nnf – ¾ff°–f–  ¾n #¾fnf f¾ ¾ °–n  °  ½f½    °f°f n f¾ ¾°  ¯ °f¾n °n  °  ½f¯  ff°n  € °n   ¾n °¾nf°°f  °n O O .

€¯f¾nf½ ¾½ n f° n°¾ ¾nf¯½nf°¾% –  €€  °n ¾°¾°– °n¯ ½½° ¾%  9  f°¾ O 9  f°¾f ° n ¾¾f€°¯f½¾n–nf  ½¯ ° 9¾ ½  f°¾nf°°€ °n n  °#¾€ °–¾€ €€nfn  n¯½  °n f° ¾ €  9 ¾nf°f¾°€ °n ¾ °¾#¾nfn  ¯ ° J ° ½ €½¾ ½  f°¾ n  °¯f ½  °n ¾ € ¾ ¯ ½¾nfn  ¯ °f°  ½ ¾¾°  @ f °f f° ¯f°f°½¾ ° fn°¾ ¾¾ ¯f°½ n€½ ½½f 9½fn  ° °  € °   n½ f ¾ °¾ f° – °f  © n n  ° °  f–– ¾¾ ¾ f°  ¾½ ¯ n  °f °  ½½f°  © n   ½ ¾ - – n ½ ¾ °  ¾f°  f°  @ fn ¾nf° °f°n n  °#¾½  f°¾°f°¯ €f¾ .

½ f  f°°–fn ¾f ½fnf €€ n °½¯°–½¾  ½  f°¾ € fn ¾f nf €¾n f° ¯° .

¾  °f f–– ¾¾ fn¾°f  ¾n °n f n¯¯  °–½ ½ f°–¾€f–– ¾¾° @ nf¾ ¾€f–– ¾¾° ½ ° °¾f– €°¾  @  f°¾ €f–– ¾¾°  €¯fn¯½ ° ½f€ n #¾ ¯½ f¯ °f° €f¯ °°¯ °    f¾½ ¾½ff¯ ¯½f° °¾f °¾  °n f–– ¾¾° ¯ – ¾f¾ffn°½ ½ #¾ f ¾€ ° €€n nf°–  nf¾  n¯ ¾¾ €  °€n°–  n¾f  n¯°–¯ f° ¯ ° ° €€¾ n f–– ¾¾°f°  °n f¯°–¾ .  °° ½½° ¾½f n½ f ¾f f°  ° –f ½  ¯¾ ¯ n  °¯f° ¾½ nff°°–°° fn½¾  ¾f°  ¾ n°€n  9¾nf f¾° fn¾€nf°–  ½°– ¾f°– f° n½ f°– ¾ @ ¾  f¾  ½ f n°° °n f¾ ° €  °nf¾n  °¯f n–° f°  f° fn°¾f€€ n ¾ @ nf½fn°f° € f° ½ ¾°#¾ ¯°f ¾f ¾f°¯½f°  ¯°f°€½¾nf ff¾¾f½   fn   ½  °n ¾ 9f °¾f°  fn ¾nf°€¾    ½¯ °€½¾nf f°n  ° ¯ °–¾n ff°   ½°–n  ° € n°  ff€€ n¾ ¾  –– ¾¾°¾ €° f¾ ff¾° °°ff¯ ff¯°–°©°–f° ½ ¾° °–n  °¾ ½¾nf€n  f°f°  © n–  f nf¾  f ¯ ¾nff°   f¾¾    ¾½ €°¾¯ °ff–– ¾¾°¾°° ° f¯ f° ½ ¾° ¾ f–– ¾¾°¾¯ €  °f¯°–  ¯ °ff° ¾n f– n  ° f° – ° ff ¾ €¯€ f¾°–   n°– f° ¾°–f¾n  °–   °– f¾° € ¯¾n¯¯°€¯¾€f–– ¾¾°°¾n¾ °–¾ @¾€¯€f–– ¾¾°f¾f° –f ¯½fn° ¾n °°¯ ° f¾ f¾°–  ¯° –f n°¾  °n ¾€  n¯f°    .

f°¾n¾f f¾ ¯½ ¯ °°–½–f¯¾ ½f–– ¾¾ ¯¯f n  °  ½¯¾¾°–¾nf¾¾ @ ¾ ½–f¯¾f ¯¾¾nn ¾¾€ ° n¯ ° °  °°¾¯½ fnf ¯n¾¾f°  °f°n ½f ° n  f°¾  O O O O O O O   ½¯ °f.°€n ¾°f° ½ ¯ f° ½–f¯¾ n ½n  °fn  ¾¾ °  ¾ n°€n f  n¯°–¯  ¾½ f .

f°– ¾°9  f°¾   ½¯ °€n  °#¾½  f°¾€¾f½ nf  ½f ° °–n  °¾½ €  °n ¾€½f¯f ¾ f° ° fn°¾f  f¾ °¾f fn ¾ ¯f¾  n ½ –½¾€ ¾f¯ ¾   ½°  ¯ °f¾n  ° ¾½¾f ¯ff°  n½nf  @ ½ –½¾n nf°– ¾°f  ¾n °n  °n ¾f° n ¾ ¯ – .

 ¾€½ ¾¾f ¾¯f°  ¾¾f° fn ¾ ½ f¯ °¯f ¾ °–€  ½°– ° °–f° °¯f € ° ¾½¾ .

 ¾f f– –½¾€½ ¾ ¾f fn f°¾nf  ½f° .

 ¾ ¾¾  °°  ¾° f°– –°¾  ½½¯f °f  ¾n °¾° D° f f –f  ¾ f°  ¾ f ¯½ f¾½ f¾ °¯ nf°–¾n¾ f°  ½fn ¾–ff°  ¾ f°fn°¾ f  ¾€½¾nff°   ff ¾ €¯½ ¾ n¾f f –f ¾½°¾ ½ f¾f€ f°  ¾½½ f¯¾½  €f  O O O .f  ½¯ ° O  –#¾ €¯f  ½¯ °€n¾ ¾°n  °#¾n°n ½°¾€ ¾ €f° ¾¾ f° ©¾n 9 ¾nn  °    ¾¾     nf¾   f  f ¾½°¾¯ °   f¾  ¯ °fn  °  ¾f¾¯½f°€¯f°f°°–¾nf    ¯ °f f– n  °f°½ f¾  ¾f°  f°¾nff½½f  f f  ¾n °n f° f  ½ ½  –°° ¾f° f  ¾f ° °  ½½ n f¾n¯f°–¾¾nf¾ f ©¾n f° € ¯  –f°f– f¯ °f  ¯f ¯f n¾°¾ f¾ °f° n€nf n ¯½f¾ ¾n°° n°¾f¯°–½ ½ f¾ f¾ f° n€©¾n J¯ °f ¾nf nf € ¾ f°   °  ¾ ¯fn°€n¾°f¾f½ ¾  ¾nf f°¾f°  n°° n°¾ - °–¾f– ¾f¾n¾f f°¯½f°½fn €   ½¯ °€nf°–f° n¯½f¾¾°  n¾¯¾ nf°–n¯¯° ¾°nn  °€ ° ¾  ¾½ n f°  n–° n¾¯¾f¾ ½n  ° f° nf € ¯¾  ¾  ¾   °°¯ ° f°   € f¾  O O °n ½°¾€ f¯ f¯ ¾f  ¾nf° ½¯f ¾½°¾ €½ ½f°–%¾nf°–% n  f½ n f° n¯½  °¯ ¯ € ¾n   f  ¾%½¾nf°fnf°  f°°–  ¾%€€f¯¾nff°€n¾ °  €€ n¾€½f °¾°n  °#¾  ½¯ ° 9f °¾     f¾ f½ €  nf¾  n f f° ¾f½  n #¾ °°¯ ° @¾ € €f¯¾¯  €f¯¾f–n¯½ ¾¾ ¯€° fn°¾f° ½n ¾¾ ¾½ f°–f¯½   ¾ 9f °¾°€ °n n  °f¾¯nf¾n  ° O O O .

°€ °n  ¯ .

f°– °f°¯ ¯ € €f¯¾¾ ¯nf°°€ °n  ¯ ¯ ¾€ ¾¾ ¯ @ €f¯¾f¾ ¯ °f–  ¾nf¾¾ ¯¾ ° –  ¾ n¯¯° ¾ f° n  fnf°f€€ n° fn°¾°€f¯  °€ °  °° #¾ n–nf € n  °#¾  ½¯ °¾f° f¯½ €f¾¾ ¯¾f½½fn  Iff°¾°f¯n ¾ O @ ¾n €€f¯ ¾¾nf°–°– J  f¾¯¾n  °–½° ½f °€f¯ ¾   ¾f°°n f¾°–°¯ €n  ° °–f¾  °¾°– ½f °€f¯ ¾ @ ¯f©€ ¾ €f¯ ¾f  f  ¾°– ¯ ¾€fn f°¯ €nf °– ¾f°  €€n ¾ °–  €f ¾ ° €fn €   n°¯nf ¾½¾  .

  °€¯¾°– ½f °€f¯ ¾ °   ¾¾¾nn ¾¾€°¾nf°n  °€¯ ½f °€f¯ ¾ ¾€¯¾°– ½f °€f¯ ¾ ¯f¾f° f°¾ €¾ ffn @ ½ ¾ °n € n°¯n ¾n ¾f°  f ¾° ¾  nf°€€¾  ° –f  n°¾  °n ¾€f¾°– ½f °€f¯  @  f €  €€  °n ¾  °¯¾ ff°   ¾ f½f °¾ .

  °€–ff°  ¾ f°½f °¾   f°¾½ ¾f°  f ¾ f°   ¾ ¯  n  °€  ¾ f½f °¾°¯ f¾ €¾nfn¯½  °n ¾ € n°n ½ n¾€n° f° ¯f© –¯ °  O O °n ¾€f¯ ¾ €nf°¯ nf°¾n ° ½ ¾ ° f– ¾¯°–½° D° f ¾ .

  f°–½fnn ¾°€nf° ¯ nf°€f¯ ¾ °  ¯½f¾ f¾¾  ° ¾¾ ° ½ ° °n f° ¾ € n°€ °n @  f ¯  –fff°– °  ¾ f° €nf°¯ nf°  ¾½½f°   ¾n ¾€¯   ° €f¯  @ °¯ €¾½f°n ¯ nf°€f¯ ¾¾¾ f –°– @ ¾ €f¯ ¾ °  f–    n f ¾f  .

  f°–½fnn ¾° ¾½f°n ¯ nf°€f¯ ¾ ¯½f¾ °  ½ ° °n €f¯ –f° n°€¯ f° n½ f°  ¾f° ¯ nf°€f¯ ¾f¾ ¯½f¾  ¯½f°n €¾nff¯°f° °  ½ ° °n @ n ¾f–½f °n ½ ¾  f°n   ¾f° f° ¯ ¾f° ¯ nf°n  °f  ½ n   °¾n °–° €f¯  @ f °¾€-f ¯ nf°€f¯ ¾ €€   f °  ¯¾€f¯ ¾f f¯°f° n°° n ° ¾¾ @  ° -f  ¯ nf°n¯¯°½f¾f °f¾°–n  ° .

  °f  ½ n ¾– f ¾½ n€ ½f¾f° €   ¾  O O O O f¯°€ °n °  ½¯ ° O @ €f¯ °°¯ °nf° nffn  ° ¯¾€ €€  °n ¾°f¯  ¾½°¾ ° ¾¾ f° n° @ ¾  ¯ °¾°¾€¯ n°¾ f°¾€½f °°– f¾ nf ½f °°–¾ ¾ @  f €½ ¾€½f °°–¾ ¾ fff°%–n°  f¯$ ¾½°¾ ° ¾¾% ff %–n° –f¯$ ¾½°¾ ° ¾¾% ½ ¯¾¾ ° – °%n° – f¯$ ¾½°¾ ° ¾¾% f° ½ ¯¾¾ ° €€  °%n° f¯$ ¾½°¾ ° ¾¾%  f ½f °°–¾f¾¾nf  ¯¾½¾ n¯ ¾€n  ° .

  °€ff ½f °¾f ¾ €  f° ¾nf  ¾½°¾  f° ½ €¯ °¾n .

  °fff°½f °¾f  ¾ € ¾ ¯f°  fn  ¯ °f°n  ° ff ½f °¾ .

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  °¾ ½f °¾f f¯f°  ¾½°¾   °   ½½¾ ¾ °– f°¾½¾  .

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