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FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF EGGS

An Assignment Submitted Towards Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Course of

PROCESSING OF MEAT, FISH & POULTRY PRODUCTS

By

MOUSUMI MAZUMDAR Enrollment No-A4312608003 B.Tech. Food Technology Batch 2008, Semester VII

To Dr. Neha Sharma

AMITY INSTITUTE OF FOOD TECHNOLOGY I-1 BLOCK, 4TH FLOOR, AMITY UNIVERSITY SECTOR-125, NOIDA 201303, U.P., INDIA

 Rich in nutrients Eggs are a handy food parcel containing all the nutrients except Vitamin C. but without the flavor. the egg yolks natural emulsifiers can coat liquids with fat to create smooth. An egg yolk. With the addition of only carbohydrates (a slice of whole wheat bread) and Vitamin C (a tomato or a glass of orange juice) eggs form a fully balanced meal. lecithin. an entire cup of tiny droplets oil droplets is packed into about two tablespoons of liquid to produce a thick spread. Simply. which acts as a stabilizing emulsion between oil and water. Those functions include the abilities to add color. egg yolks are an essential ingredient in the “-aises” like Mayonnaise and Hollandaise & Béarnaise sauce. and are often used in various foods to hold water & oil based liquids together. color & nutrients contributed by egg yolk. Second. in yolk-emulsified mayonnaise. creamy textures in products from custards to chocolate truffles.Egg yolks contain a number of emulsifiers. lipoprotein & proteins found in egg yolks are surface active agents that enable the formation of emulsions from immiscible liquids such as oil & water. As a result. Using eggs in bakery food formulas will simplify bakery foods' ingredient labels.FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES:Eggs perform more than 20 different functions. and one end that dissolves in oil. as well as cream puffs and cake batters containing shortening. This prevents oil and water mixtures from separation. emulsify and add texture to bakery foods. For example. Lecithin attracts oil and water particles and forms a thin layer around them to keep them from dispersing. which are molecules that have one end that dissolves in water. emulsifiers such as those in egg yolk. enabling bakers to eliminate the use of additives or additional ingredients. such as gums.The phospholipids. can provide emulsification. an emulsion is fine droplets of one of immiscible liquids dispersed in another liquid. whisked into a sauce after it is removed from the heat. coagulate. These emulsifiers include phospholipids ad lecithin. but they are especially renowned for the high quality of the protein they contain and are therefore an important part of a balanced diet.Other ingredients.  Emulsification The egg yolk contains an emulsifying agent. Egg yolk emulsions impact the texture of food into two ways:First. binds fats and liquids for slight thickening and improved texture. also thicken. .

the foam is able to set in the risen position. preventing them from joining and discharging oil.65oC. the volume of the foam increases. the protein coagulates to light crisp texture. Egg white protein is elastic. These different coagulation temperatures are the result of the difference in the structure of the egg white and egg yolk. stabilized with egg lecithin. The air expands with heat and thus acts as a raising agent. Butter sauces. such as Hollandaise sauce for example. the emulsifying quality of eggs is essential to ensure a light texture. When heated. it also provides the fat-free protein of the egg white. Whisked egg white is added to soufflés or mixtures for baking. it is important to use a clean glass or porcelain bowl and a clean egg whisk. Coagulation is caused by heat. . When whipped egg is added to creamed butter and sugar. egg yolk at 65oC and whole egg at 63 . the egg lecithin surrounds the oil particles.  Coagulation (congealing) Coagulation is a physio-chemical change which takes place when protein is converted from a fluid to a semi-solid or solid state. the twisted protein spiral unfolds and stretches capturing and surrounding the air in stable foam. air is included. the sugar dissolves in the egg and the egg lecithin stabilizes the butter and water emulsion. The egg yolk and white must be separated carefully. acid. because a drop of yolk will lessen the foaming the ability of the egg white. to include more air. Air is trapped in this emulsion. Whole whisked egg has the same ability to foam as egg white. At the same time. salt. While a whole egg provides the yolk’s emulsifiers. alkali and whipping. In the preparation of sweets. which can dry out products when the proteins coagulate and pull moisture out of the system.  Foaming ability Foam is created when air molecules are surrounded by egg protein and captured. Egg white coagulates at 60oC. When egg and sugar are whipped over water. it is important to determine when egg yolks alone are necessary or if whole egg product can be used. When egg whites are whisked. are an emulsion of butter in combination with water or vinegar. the air expands to give a lighter texture when baking. When heated. but to a lesser extent. the addition of egg white makes the inclusion of air possible as a solution of sugar and water alone cannot capture air. When making mayonnaise. Whisked egg white is used for meringues when sugar is added. Egg white foams easiest at a temperature of 14oC. Owing to the coagulation of the egg protein. For maximum foaming. enabling captured air to expand with heat without damaging the foam.Depending upon the application. In cakes prepared by using the creaming method.

together with the milk and flour. Further cooking often results in this evidence turning to steam and vanishing. lends structure to baking. When food is dipped in egg and fried in oil the egg forms a protective layer around the food which prevents the oil from being absorbed by the food. Constant stirring promotes even heating.9. however. releasing the liquid held within their molecular structure. Ph at or above 11. influenced by time & temperature. they coagulate. egg proteins coagulate. the molecules unite. Egg white protein coagulates between 144oF& 149oF. but high heat speeds up the process. egg yolk protein coagulates between 149oF & 158oF. . or denatures. folded and coiled individual molecules. Coagulation occurs as the result of the joining of protein molecules. When two unfolded protein molecules with their bonds sticking out approach each other. Loose bonds across the folds and coils hold each protein molecule in a tight. With high heat. becoming too firm. causing the egg product to change from a liquid to a semi-solid or solid. separate unit. These unfolded molecules have their bonds exposed. to thicken sauces like custard sauce and to set tart fillings and baked custard. Natural protein consists of complex. and whole egg protein coagulates between 144oF & 158oF. there may be less than a 1oF difference between thickening and the beginning of curd formation. for glazing when baking. With low heat applied slowly.Too much heat applied too quickly or even low heat applied for too long causes the protein molecules to over-coagulate. millions of protein molecules join in a 3D network.Because of its coagulating properties. helping to ensure that some parts of an egg mixture don’t over coagulate while the rest continues to cook. Coagulation is a delicate process. At low temperatures. coagulation can occur gradually over a time period. to clarify fluids. coagulation begins at a lower temperature and curdling is much easier to prevent. Coagulation temperature is also influenced by Ph. This can cause them rupture. It is the ability to coagulate that makes egg products important functional ingredients. the egg protein. Essentially. egg white gels or sets even at room temperature. undesirable small holes or craters from which the liquid escaped typically remain. the loose bonds that hold the protein together break and the protein unfolds. as well as ingredients. the evidence is tiny liquid-filled holes or liquid droplets on the surface of the food. Commonly called weeping or curdling and technically called synersis. Coagulation is also important when binding ingredients. When heated or exposed to acid. though after a while the gel liquefies. or simply. When the protein is heated or exposed to acids. for example in fish or pumpkin cakes. and makes coagulation almost instant.

and align themselves with the gas bubbles and bond with each other. which come from the flour and egg product. For extra aeration. This prevents products from crumbling. the heat of the oven causes the liquid in the batter to turn to steam. thus speeding up the coagulation. During baking. yolks and yolks and whites can be beaten separately into a batter or dough. the starch swells so much that it blocks the protein molecules from finding each other and joining. Blending milk. It may be that.The addition of acidic ingredients impacts coagulation. raising the coagulation temperature and slowing down the rate of coagulation.  Binding When heated or exposed to acid. Eventually the proteins coagulate.  Aeration It refers to the process of introducing a gas into a liquid or viscous solution. before the egg protein molecules unwind. losing shape or simply falling apart. . Functioning similar to liquids. solidifying the structure. Acid added to whole eggs changes the electrical environment. making it more difficult for them to join. and thus raising the coagulation temperature and slowing down thickening. changing from a liquid to semi-solid or solid. In many multi-ingredient product formulations.  Structure Eggs contribute to a lighter product with a more delicate crumb and supply structure-building proteins to help baked foods rise & keep well. the incorporated air yields a lighter product with a more delicate crumb. sugar separates egg protein molecules from one another. When air is incorporated into food. water or another liquid into beaten egg dilutes & separates the protein molecules. lowering the coagulation temperature and. Even a tiny amount of slat changes the electrical makeup of the egg protein to permit & speed up coagulation. air is a critical component of many recipes. These structure-building proteins help baked foods rise & keep well. egg products assist with the binding of ingredients through their ability to coagulate. In the baking industry. Products with generous amounts of egg may need to bake at lower temperatures for a longer time than products with little or no egg in order to fully benefit from the aeration function. The proteins in the batter or dough. which increases its height & reduces its density. Most food starches prevent egg & other proteins from curdling even when the mixture is brought to boiling. egg proteins coagulate. That foam leavens the food. Acid added to egg white foam prevents over-coagulation and keeps the foam elastic. which is basically entrapped air bubbles. Further. The exact mechanism is known. a foam forms. heat & swell.

which ordinarily will not brown. Just prior to baking. resulting in a crisp surface. This sticky solution helps topically applied nuts and/or seeds bind to the surface during baking.rolls.  Browning Proteins. alkaline eggs can improve the browning of acidic products. resulting in a crystal-clear product. In addition to their own ability to aid browning. the egg mixture is brushed on the surface of breads. and usually involves heat. When whites are used alone. allowing the clarified mixture to be carefully poured off. added egg white coagulates. can clarify or clear various fluid products. In general. The proteins in egg products can participate in browning reactions. yolks contribute a golden color. When the protein coagulates. cookies.The following equations apply:Egg + Salt= Shiny surface Egg + Milk= Medium-shiny surface Egg + Water= Less-intense shine. The egg mixture can also be applied about 15 min before the end of baking to prevent over-browning. This helps prevent crust from drying out & becoming tough. Research suggests that batters with protein levels of 10% to 15% tend to be most effective as binding agents. broth and even wine. they assist with the adhesion and well as create a seal. can be brushed onto the surface of baked foods. capturing and holding minute particles. and also gives the baked products a finished. golden surface Egg Yolk + Water= Shiny-golden surface .an egg wash. Depending on the size and weight of the encased particles. which eventually evaporates. slightly glossy look. in particular the Maillard browning reaction. For eg:. with the fat component preventing product from drying out. This is a chemical reaction between a protein’s amino acids and reducing sugars. based on desired final appearance and texture.There are many glaze variations. including consommé.etc. pastries. Sometimes the whites may bubble to the top where they are skimmed off.  Coating Slightly beaten liquid egg products can be used as a coating or a glaze on baked goods. especially whites. which is slightly beaten egg whites with some water.  Clarification Eggs.Egg products are often added to batters used for breaded foods to help bind the breading to the food. the cooked whites may sink to the bottom. by reducing their acidity. When the fluid is heated. the coagulation function draws moisture from the product. The white is the primary source of proteins. reducing sugars & acidity all influence browning reactions.

slows down the crystallization process to form many fine crystals and a smooth.section 139. in particular the Maillard browning reaction. alfalfa leaf meal and marigold increasing the quantity of this pigment in the yolk. and usually involves heat. Egg white.5% by weight of the solids off egg or egg yolk. chapter 21. U.according to chapter 21. o Brown: Proteins. The sugar crystallizes or produces closely packed molecules arranged around a nucleus.Egg yolk + cream= Shiny-brown surface Egg white + water = Sticky surface for adhering nuts &/or seeds Egg white+ Milk= Transparent-shiny surfaces  Color Egg products can color foods brown and/or yellow. If crystals start to form too quickly. section 135. they will be large and few and resulting in a grainy texture. noodle manufactures are prohibited from using artificial coloring. Xanthophyll content is influenced by the diet of the bird. icecreams and other confections. creamy texture. Egg yolks are used in ice cream to help control density. by reducing their acidity. In addition to their own ability to aid browning. section 135. Candies are basically a solution of sugar and water cooked to evaporate enough water to produce a very high proportion of sugar to water (a supersaturated solution). chapter 21. In fact. as carrot could mimic the coloring effect of egg yolks. This pigment contributes to a rich color to various foods such as yellow cakes & pastas. o Yellow: Egg yolk contains Xanthophylls.  Crystallization control Smoothness on the tongue is an important pleasure and quality factor in candies. Eggs products are frequently used in such product formulations to help create smooth & creamy finished products.150 specifies that the total solids of egg noodle products conatin not less than 5. with feed ingredients such as yellow corn. The proteins in egg can participate in browning reactions.165 goes as far as prohibiting the addition of carrots to enriched noodles. In regards to pasta. which ordinarily not brown.117 in the Code of Federal Regulations. a carotenoid that has a yellow-orange pigment and gives the yolk its characteristic color. corn gluten. sugar and acidity all influence browning reactions. hardness and texture by encouraging the formation of small ice crystals. This is a chemical reaction between a protein’s amino acids and reducing sugars. frosting. alkaline eggs can improve the browning of acidic products. introduced as an interfering agent. Egg yolk is an excellent emulsifier that helps disperse fat . Further.S.

The opposite effect takes place when the egg proteins are topically applied. Eggs go well with almost every other food and are appealing to the palates of people the world over.  Flavor Though eggs contain many more than 100 volatile flavor components. Second. whisked into a sauce after it is removed from the heat. An important role of fats is to pick up flavors and make them available to the palate. creamy textures in products from custards to chocolate truffles. For example. there are textural benefits. they create a barrier in certain applications. also thicken. Egg yolk is an excellent emulsifier that helps disperse fat throughout the ice cream mix and prevent it from clumping. This keeps some products from turning soggy. such as in egg wash on baked good. hardness and texture by encouraging the formation of small ice crystals. in yolk-emulsified mayonnaise.  Humectancy Egg proteins within certain food matrixes can help maintain product moisture by binding the water in the structure. serve as a backdrop to allow more strongly flavored foods or seasonings to shine.  Insualtion When egg proteins coagulate. Egg yolks are used in ice cream to help control density. without clashing. Yolk also helps improve whipping properties for desired overrun and makes ice cream dry and stiff. richness. This improves the texture and acceptability of product going through free/thaw cycles.  Freezability Egg white slows down ice crystal by interfering with the crystallization process. yet neutral. as well as keep surfaces of baked products moist when applied as an egg wash.throughout the ice cream mix and prevent it from clumping. . the egg yolks natural emulsifiers can coat liquids with fat to create smooth. thus preventing it from drying out. such as chewiness that help give products an improved mouth feel.  Mouthfeel Egg yolk emulsions impact the texture of food into two ways:-First. the end result may be described as bland. binds fats and liquids for slight thickening and improved texture. Egg yolks contain fats that carry & meld flavors when used in foods. Yolk also helps improve whipping properties for desired overrun & makes ice cream dry & stiff. an entire cup of tiny droplets oil droplets is packed into about two tablespoons of liquid to produce a thick spread. emulsifiers such as those in egg yolk. In doing so.a richness that can stand delicately on its own or.The fats & emulsifiers in egg yolk reduce the rate of moisture loss from the crumb of baked products. An egg yolk. Eggs also provide a well-rounded.

The opposite effect takes place when the egg proteins are topically applied. an entire cup of tiny droplets oil droplets is packed into about two tablespoons of liquid to produce a thick spread. slows down the crystallization process to form many fine crystals and a smooth. such as in egg wash on baked good. introduced as an interfering agent. they will be large and few and resulting in a grainy texture. binds fats and liquids for slight thickening and improved texture. Egg products can impact all of these variables. In doing so.  Tenderization The yolk has a tenderizing function: the lipids found in the yolk serve as primary tenderizers. as well as keep surfaces of baked products moist when applied as an egg wash. In doing so. If crystals start to form too quickly. it encompasses the sensory experience of chewing and swallowing. such as chewiness that helps give products an improved mouth feel. Egg white. . The fats & emulsifiers in egg yolk reduce the rate of moisture loss from the crumb of baked products. The sugar crystallizes or produces closely packed molecules arranged around a nucleus. whisked into a sauce after it is removed from the heat. hardness and texture by encouraging the formation of small ice crystals. Second. Egg proteins within certain food matrixes can help maintain product moisture by binding the water in the structure. An egg yolk. making water less available for microorganisms to grow & cause spoilage. in yolk-emulsified mayonnaise. Egg yolk is an excellent emulsifier that helps disperse fat throughout the ice cream mix and prevent it from clumping. Egg yolks are used in ice cream to help control density. there are textural benefits. creamy textures in products from custards to chocolate truffles. such as in egg wash on baked good.Candies are basically a solution of sugar and water cooked to evaporate enough water to produce a very high proportion of sugar to water (a supersaturated solution). the egg yolks natural emulsifiers can coat liquids with fat to create smooth. there are textural benefits. softer crumb and retard the onset and rate of firming that occurs with age. creamy texture. The opposite effect takes place when the egg proteins are topically applied. thus preventing it from drying out. For example.  Texture The texture of a food not only induces its feel in the hand and mouth. Egg yolk emulsions impact the texture of food into two ways:-First. emulsifiers such as those in egg yolk. Yolk also helps improve whipping properties for desired overrun and makes ice cream dry and stiff. For eg:Egg proteins within certain food matrixes can help maintain product moisture by binding the water in the structure. The fats in the yolk produces a more tender. thus preventing it from drying out.  Shelf life extension Egg proteins bind water. also thicken. such as chewiness that helps give products an improved mouth feel.

. but high heat speeds up the process. egg yolk protein coagulates between 149oF & 158oF. Thickening It is a function of egg protein coagulation. folded and coiled individual molecules. or denatures. Constant stirring promotes even heating. the loose bonds that hold the protein together break and the protein unfolds. When two unfolded protein molecules with their bonds sticking out approach each other. mousses.  APPLICATIONS & ADVANTAGES: Functions Product Usage Functional Rationale Functions Adhesive Properties Adheres ingredients such as seeds and grains to food products. soufflés. With high heat. Health bars. With low heat applied slowly. and makes coagulation almost instant. Natural protein consists of complex. Loose bonds across the folds and coils hold each protein molecule in a tight. the egg product begins to solidify as the proteins coagulate. Coagulation occurs as the result of the joining of protein molecules. When the protein is heated or exposed to acids. baked goods Binding Egg proteins provide the structure and coagulation Snack foods. or simply. Meringues. coagulation begins at a lower temperature and curdling is much easier to prevent. When egg proteins are heated or exposed to acid. they coagulate. the molecules unite. meat products. there may be less than a 1oF difference between thickening and the beginning of curd formation. coagulation can occur gradually over a time period. Egg white protein coagulates between 144oF& 149oF. snacks Aeration and Structure Improvement Egg proteins create foam in products resulting in lighter and airier products. helping to ensure that some parts of an egg mixture don’t over coagulate while the rest continues to cook. and whole egg protein coagulates between 144oF & 158oF. separate unit. variety breads. Essentially. At low temperatures. millions of protein molecules join in a 3D network. These unfolded molecules have their bonds exposed.

sauces Finish/ Gloss Used universally in baking to improve product appearance. Rolls. Whines. Salad dressings.Functions Product Usage Functional Rationale properties to bind food products together. noodles. buns. . frostings. custards Crystallization Control Egg white proteins prevent crystallization of sugar and promotes smoothness of chocolate. Baked products. snacks Color Xanthophylls pigments in egg yolk contribute yellow color to many foods. Confections Emulsification Phospholipids and lipoproteins serve as surface active agents stabilizing oil in water emulsions. change from a fluid state to gel. juices Coagulation and Gelation Egg whites and yolk proteins Cakes. custards. prepared entrées Browning Provides desirable brown color to baked products. surimi Coating Locks in flavor and aroma. Sweet breads. Baked goods. variety breads Clarification Egg whites inhibit enzymatic browning and prevent cloudiness in beverages. cookies.

Functions Product Usage Functional Rationale Egg wash gives surface gloss and shine. Soft breads. sweet goods. and imparts desirable egg flavor. puddings pH Stable pH. rolls Insulation Keeps products from turning soggy. confections Freezability Improves texture and acceptability of products going through freeze/thaw cycle. microwaveable food Humectancy Holds moisture in food products to help increase shelf life. Commercial bread formulations Tenderization Tenderizes foods naturally giving a soft surface feel. Custards. Frozen doughs. Won't disrupt food product formulations Shelf Life Extension Keeps starch molecules moist and fresh. frozen doughs Mouthfeel Improvement Provides substantial body and smoothness to foods. Variety breads. Variety breads. rolls . Breads. frostings Flavor Carries and enhances some flavors.

Rolls. eliminates crystallization Sauces Mayonnaise. decreases melting point. and adds body to achieve product improvement. prepared foods  Industry Product Usage Functional Rationale Industry Baking Breads. pastries. dips. increases volume. fondants. as well as other functional .toppings. and prepared foods Binds sauces and emulsifies mixtures of oil and water Meal Replacements Energy bars for active and elderly Provides excellent protein source. eliminates crystallization Confectionery Bars. cookies Adds richness. Sauces. decreases melting point. cakes. light foods Thickening Thickens sauces and gravies. salad dressings.Functions Product Usage Functional Rationale Texture Improvement Firms up the texture of food products and provides crumb improvement. custards. fillings Improves texture. frozen desserts Improves texture. and improves machine flexibility Dairy Ice cream.

and alcoholic beverages Adds creamy texture and clarifies certain wines and juices Prepared Foods An ingredient in frozen and prepared entrées and side dishes Improves texture and freeze/thaw microwave capabilities Nutraceuticals A protein supplement and a source for extraction of beneficial substances Used for the extraction of lysozyme and other substances.Industry Product Usage Functional Rationale benefits Beverages Pourable yogurts. smooth base Breads Standard breads and buns Used as an egg wash to brown the crust and for flavor and structure in specialty breads and rolls Sweet Goods Egg custard fillings and tarts Gels filling and adds color and richness to mass. such as yolk lecithin and sialic acid  Baking Product Usage Functional Rationale Industry Frostings Thickens frostings and fillings Coagulates and creates firm. height. excellent emulsifier Cakes Cakes of all sorts Aeration adds volume. and builds ingredients into . dietary drinks.

Egg is used to feed laboratory animals when a protein reference is required. Avidinbiotin technology is used in medical diagnostic applications like immunology. Lysozyme is an excellent antibacterial agent in all foods. and histopathology. Ground dried shells are fed to laying hens as a source of calcium and protein. aeration builds volume Frozen Products Frozen dough and other items to control crystallization Creates desirable characteristics in reheating and baking Healthy Snack Bars Protein-rich meal replacement bar One of the highest-quality protein sources available  Other Industries Product Usage The white is a popular ingredient for facial masks. provides structure Cookies & Specialty Items Meringues and other items where lighter texture is required Allows for aeration of baked goods. provides structural benefits Muffins & Popovers Unique pastry effect obtainable only through use of eggs Binds and produces desirable texture and mouthfeel. Yolks and whites are used in pet foods.Industry Product Usage Functional Rationale product matrix. gene probes. Both yolk and white are excellent culture media for laboratory growth of microorganisms. The yolk is used in shampoos and conditioners. Industry Cosmetics Science Animal Feed & Pet Food Egg Proteins .

eggs.htm http://www.za/characteristics.com/rd_applications/bm_imp_8806/ http://www.aeb.org/food-manufacturers/all-about-egg-products/applications-andadvantages .co.REFERENCES:-    http://baking-management.

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