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Q1.How are the following issues related to poverty? A1. 1.Landlessness: In cultivation, land is a major asset. Those who do not own land are the landless class and are most vulnerable to poverty. 2.Unemployment: Those who do not own any land have to look for work elsewhere. Nonavailability of work means hunger and poverty. 3.Size of families: A large family means more people who are dependent. In this situation, consumption expenditure rises and capacity to save becomes zero. The family is caught in the vicious circle of poverty. 4.Illiteracy: Knowledge, skill and training is very important for well-paid jobs. Illiterate people can hope to get only low paid jobs. 5.Poor Health: Poor health means less ability and capacity to work, so either these people have no jobs, or only low-paid jobs. 6.Child labour: Poverty forces a family to send the children for work. They are denied education and health care. 7:Helplessness: A poor person is a weak person and cannot fight the injustice against him, so he gets adjusted to his weak status. Q2.Define poverty. What are the implications or dimensions of poverty? OR What does poverty mean? A2. Poverty is a situation where people cannot fulfill the basic necessities of life of food, clothing and shelter. The implications or dimensions of poverty are: 1.Hunger and lack of shelter. 2.Parents not able to send their children to school. 3.Sick people cannot afford treatment. 4.Lack of clean water and sanitation. 5.Lack of a regular job. 6.Living with a sense of helplessness. 7.Being ill-treated everywhere. Q3.What do you mean by social exclusion? A3. 1.Social exclusion is a process through which individuals or groups are prevented from using facilities, benefits and opportunities which others enjoy. 2. It can be more damaging than having a low income. It can be a cause and consequence of poverty. Eg the low caste people are excluded from many benefits. Q4.Explain poverty as seen by social scientists. A4. Social scientists look at poverty through many indicators: 1.Illiteracy level. 2.Lack of general resistance due to malnutrition. 3.Lack of access to healthcare. 4.Lack of job opportunities. 5.Lack of access to safe drinking water, sanitation, etc. Q5.Explain vulnerability. A5.Vulnerability describes the greater probability of being adversely affected than other people when bad time comes for everybody eg a disaster or a fall in the availability of jobs. It means that some people eg backward classes, or individuals like widows or handicapped people are more affected ie they are pushed further into poverty. Q6.What is poverty line?

Since people living in rural areas do more physical work than people living in urban areas. their calorie requirement is higher.50% of casual workers in urban areas are below poverty line. It is the minimum level of income which can fulfill the basic requirements of food. Therefore women.These physical quantities are multiplied by their prices in rupees. footwear. the poverty line in the rural areas was fixed at Rs.For eg a person not having a car in USA may be considered poor.How is the poverty line determined in India? A8. the poverty line in India will be different from that of USA. 4.About 50% of landless agricultural workers and 43% of scheduled castes are also poor. fuel and light. 3. for the year 2000. many commodities. Women. etc. 4.Why do different countries use different poverty lines? A7. water.Why is minimum calorie requirement more in rural areas than in urban areas? Why is the poverty line higher in urban areas than in rural areas? A10.A6. A11. 51 out of 100 people belonging to scheduled tribes are not able to meet their basic needs. the girl child and old people are the poorest of the poor. become available free of cost. 2. and 2100 calories per person per day in the urban areas. but some suffer more than others. In rural areas. Q7. clothing.Identify the Social and Economic groups which are most vulnerable to poverty. . 4. 3. 328 per month. Q8. 2. a minimum level of food requirement. by custom. educational and medical requirement.In poor families. These surveys are carried out by National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO). Q10. clothing. a)The poverty line is estimated periodically ( normally every 5 yrs) by conducting sample surveys. all suffer. b)For making comparisons b/w developing countries. 2. 1.Poverty line is an imaginary line.Food requirement is based on the desired calorie requirement. The Expenditure method is used to determine the poverty line: 1. and Rs 454 per month for the urban areas. and economic groups are the rural agricultural labour households and the urban casual labour households.Explain a)NSSO b) How does the World Bank determine the poverty line? A9. Q12. owning a car is still a luxury. 1.What is necessary to satisfy basic needs is different at different times and in different countries. but in India. Q9. The accepted calorie requirement in India is 2400 calories per person per day in rural areas. 3.Although the average for people below poverty line for all groups in India is 26.While determining the poverty line in India. the World Bank uses a uniform standard for the poverty line ie minimum availability for the equivalent of 1$ per person per day. A person is considered poor if his income level falls below this minimum level. On the basis of these calculations.So.Social groups are scheduled caste and scheduled tribe households. shelter. elderly people and female infants are denied equal access to resources available to the family. The poverty line is higher in urban areas because of high prices of many essential commodities. etc are determined for subsistence.Each country uses an imaginary line that is considered appropriate for its existing level of development. Q11.How do you explain inequalities within the family? OR Who are the poorest of the poor? A12.

7.In Latin America. c)Creates more employment opportunities. there has been a decline in poverty in the following states as certain measures were taken: a)Punjab and Haryana: High agricultural growth b)Kerela: Focused more on human resource development.Caste system.Along with rural poverty.Promotion of economic growth: a)This widens opportunities and provides the resources needed to invest in human development. Nepal. 1.In comparison. A15.High growth rate of population.Poverty has declined in China and Southeast Asian countries due to rapid economic growth and investment in human resource development. 2. 3. urban poverty is also high in Orissa. 5. 3. Bangladesh. 6.Describe the global poverty trend.Less job opportunities and low growth rate of incomes. d)Helps people to save money. MP.In countries of South Asia ie India.Orissa and Bihar are the 2 poorest states with poverty ratios of 47% and 43% respectively. to schools. Bihar and UP. A14. 4. the ratio of poverty has remained the same.Unequal distribution of land and other resources.In Sub-Saharan Africa.The current anti-poverty strategy of the government is based on 2 planks: 1. 2. A16. 6. a)International poverty line means population below 1$ a day. Tripura and UP.Poverty has also resurfaced in some socialist countries like Russia. Assam. 8. .Increased dependency on agriculture.Poverty is still a serious problem in Orissa. 3.Explain a) International Poverty Line b) Millennium Development Goals. 2.The major reasons are: 1. 4. Pakistan. c)West Bengal: Land reform measures were taken. Q14.What are the current government strategies of poverty alleviation? A17.The proportion of people in developing countries living in extreme economic poverty has fallen from 28% in 1990 to 21% in 2001. b)Encourages people to send their children. What measures were taken to reduce poverty in some states? A13. d)Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu: Public distribution of food grains. b)The Millennium Development Goals of the UN calls for reducing the proportion of people living on less than 1$ a day to half the 1990 level by 2015.Large size of family and law of inheritance. Bihar.Give an account of inter-state disparities in poverty in India. Q16. including the girl child. 4.Low level of economic development under the British colonial administration. poverty rose from 41% in 1981 to 46% in 2001.High level of indebtedness and extravagance on social obligations. 5. Q17.Discuss the major reasons for poverty in India. The policies ruined traditional handicrafts and discouraged development of industries like textiles. Q15. Sri Lanka. the decline has not been rapid. 1.Q13.

c)Overlapping of schemes. 2. B)NFWP 2004: 1. he/she will be entitled to a daily unemployment allowance.2.It is implemented as a 100% centrally sponsored scheme and food grains are provided free of cost to the states. NFWP will be integrated within it. 4. by making available cheap loans to buy an asset which would bring regular income.Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY)—It was started in 2000.Once the NREGA is in force. d)Benefits of schemes not fully reaching the deserving poor.The National Food for Work was launched in 2005 in 150 most backward districts in India. 2.Under the programme. Q19.Targeted anti-poverty programmers: A number of Poverty Alleviation programmers have been formulated from which only the poor can gain. These programmers create employment which can be of 2 types: a)Wage employment.Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana (PMRY-1993 ) and Rural Employment Generation Programme (REGP-1995 )— The aim of both the programmes is to create self-employment opportunities for educated unemployed youth in rural areas and small towns. 3.Positive: a)The incidence of poverty has declined. rural drinking water and rural electrification.Declining population growth. 5. 2.Write about the 1)NREGA 2005 ---2)NFWP 2004 A18. Q18.National Rural Employment Act was passed in September 2005. b)Self employment. b)There has also been a fall in the poverty ratio from 55% BPL to 26%.It provides 100 days assured employment every year to every rural household in 200 districts. They are helped in setting up small industries and industries.National Rural Employment Guarantee Act. Q20. 3.What measures are expected to result in sharp reduction in poverty? A20. b)Lack of right targeting.Some measures that can be taken are: 1. primary education.The results of these programmers have been mixed: 1.Increasing stress on free elementary education. A few eg of the programmes are: 1. In this programme additional central help is given to states for basic services such as primary health. A)NREGA 2005: 1.2005 (NREGA) (ans 18) 2.It is open to all rural poor who are in need of wage employment and a desire to do manual unskilled work. 3. if an applicant is not provided with a job within 15 days. The aim is to bring poor families above poverty line by organizing them into self help groups through a mix of bank credits and government subsidies.Negative: a)Lack of proper implementation.Higher economic growth. 3.Make an assessment of the poverty alleviation programmers.The scheme will be extended to 600 districts. 4. rural shelter.1/3 of the jobs would be reserved for women. .Swarnajyanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY)—It was started in 1999. by starting labour intensive projects. A19. 2. 4.

both in rural and urban areas. Q23. self confidence. 1. it is known as human poverty. 4. job security. job security. NEETA .What do understand by human poverty? A21.The poverty ratio has come down.The % of population living BPL has come down. A large number of people may be able to feed themselves.Poverty means minimum level of subsistence. face gender and caste discrimination.Do you think that the present methodology or definition of poverty is appropriate? A22.Describe poverty trends in India since 1973. are not free from caste and gender discrimination. It should in fact be changed to ‘a reasonable of subsistence’.Although the poverty ratio declined around 1993-94 . the definition of poverty also changes. then they still fall in the category of poor.Since 1993-94. In this situation. Q21. A large number of people may be able to feed themselves but if they do not have education. but they may still fall in the category of poor if they do not have education. A23.The present definition of poverty is a ‘minimum level of subsistence’.4. 2. Q22. With development. number of people living BPL did not show a change because the population growth rate is more than the rate of decline of poverty ratio. 3.Increasing empowerment of women and economically weaker sections of society. poverty ratio and number of BPL has also declined.