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CHAPTER I

GEOLOGY

1. INTRODUCTION

The study area lies between longitudes 25 degree to 31 degree E (about 600
km.), and latitude 28 degree to 31 degree N (about 300 km.). The area
covers about 180,000 Sq. km. The study area is bounded to the north by the
Mediterranean Sea, to the south by the Bahariya Oasis, to the east by the
River Nile and to the west by the Libyan border.
This regional geologic study was undertaken to evaluate the stratigraphic
and the structural history oI the area, in order to outline the diIIerent
geologic provinces.

. STRATIGRAPHY

.1 Paleozoic (Early Cambrian Late Permian)
The Paleozoic sediments overlain unconIormably by the Jurassic or younger
sediments (Fig. 1.1). It is dominated by sandstones and siltstones with an
abundance oI limestone and shales in the Upper part oI the section.


Figure 1.1: Western Desert Geologic Column.
In 1988 5,04807;.0 examined cuttings Iorm 24 Western Desert wells and
they Iound Acritarchs and Miospores which suggested that shallow marine
to delta complex conditions prevailed at the time oI Paleozoic deposition in
Egypt. The Paleozoic in north Egypt ranges in age Iorm early Cambrian to
late Permian and it non-conIormably overlies the basement. Only the
Cambro-Ordovician section was Iound covering most oI the Western Desert
While amore complete Paleozoic covered only the northern belt oI Egypt
(Mediterranean coast) and the Ghiarabub Siwa area (Fig.1.2) The subsurIace
Paleozoic succession is deIined by !,04807;.0 (1986) into the Siwa and
Faghur groups.

Figure 1.2: Paleozoic Sub-crop Map.
The Siwa group is the lower oI the Paleozoic section and it overlies
nonconIormably the Pre-Cambrian crystalline basement (Fig. 1.1). It ranges
in age Iorm Cambrian to late Silurian and is subdivided into three Iormations
which are "ShiIah, Kohla and Basur Formations."

. Mesozoic

..1 1urassic
The Jurassic sediments in the Western Desert represent the Iirst main
transgression which invaded the area aIter the Hercynian orogeny. The
Jurassic section is divided into Iour Iormations, which are:"The Baharein,
Wadi Natrun, Khatatba and Masajid Iormations" (Fig.1.1). The
environments oI these sediments range Irom a deep marine (Kattaniya,
North Kattaniya and abu Gharadig areas) to a shallow marine environment
(Matruh Sidi Barrani and the southern part oI the Western Desert).
The Jurassic overlies conIormably the Paleozoic and in some cases,
unconIormably throughout the study area. The Jurassic strata overlie
nonconIormably the basement in the eastern part oI the Western Desert in
the Kattaniya area. It is apparently overlain unconIormably throughout most
oI the study area by the lower part oI the lower Cretaceous (Barremian
Aptian) while in the Sharib-Sheiba high and southern platIorm areas it is
overlain uncoIormably by the upper section oI the Lower Cretaceous
(Kharita-Bahariya Formation).
The Jurassic exceeds 8156 Ieet in the Natrun T 57-1 well (drilled thickness,
base not reached) which is near the center oI the Jurassic depocenter
(Kattaniya Area) (Figs. 1.3& 1.4).




Figure 1.3: Khatatba Formation Isopach Map.

Figure 1.4: Masajid Formation Isopach Map
It is thin, mostly less than 845 Ieet (Bahariya-1 well), along the Southern
platIorm. The Jurassic strata become more continental to the south and west
(Bahrien Formation). It is absent along the crest oI the upliIted axis oI the
Ghiarabub-Siwa Paleozoic basin.

.. Cretaceous
Cretaceous sediments cover the whole study area, and represent the Western
Deserts second major transgressive Mesozoic cycle which occurred aIter a
period oI up-liIt and erosion that prevailed in the Late Jurassic and Early
Cretaceous. The Lower Cretaceous is divided into three main Formations,
Alam El Bueib, Alamein and Kharita which are mainly oI continental
environment; while the upper Cretaceous is also divided into three
Formations: Bahariya, Abu Roash and Khoman, which are mainly oI
shallow marine to open marine environment. An unconIormity is present
between the Lower and Upper Cretaceous (Fig. 1.1).
Cyclic sedimentation prevailed during the Cretaceous where it can be seen
that the base oI the section was continental to shallow marine (Alam El
Bueib Formation), then became shallow marine (Alamein Formation) during
the Aptian, then continental to shallow marine (Kharita Formation) during
the Albian and become shallow marine to open marine (Bahariya, Abu
Roash and Khoman Formations) during the Cenomanian, Turonian and
Senonian.

The lithology oI the Lower Cretaceous shows rapid Iacies variations in the
Northwestern portion oI the study area where the sandstones in the Aptian
(Alam El Bueib Formation) either laterally change into the carbonates oI the
Sidi Barrani Member or into a shale known as the Matruh shale. The top oI
the Aptian (Alamein Formation) is mainly carbonate, with an overlying
shale member (Dahab member). The Albian is mainly sand and sandstone,
while the base oI the Upper Cretaceous (Baharyia and Abu Roash
Formations) is mainly sandstone, shale and limestone. The Senonian, which
is the top upper part oI the Cretaceous, (Khoman Formation) is mainly
chalky limestone.

.3 Tertiary

Apollonia Formation (Paleocene Eocene)
The Apollonia Formation ranges in age Irom Paleocene in some area to Late
Eocene, and consists oI an open marine sequence oI limestones and some
shales. The Formation is divided lithologically and partly paleontologically
into Iour units, arranged Irom top to bottom as:-

Apollonia A (Middle to Late Eocene) Massive chalky limestone.
Apollonia B (Middle Eocene) Mainly shale.
Apollonia C (Middle Eocene) glauconitic limestone.
Apollonia D (Early Eocene to Paleocene) limestone with shale
intercalations.
The Apollonia Formation mostly overlies unconIormably the Khoman
Formation, (Cretaceous age) where the Paleocene and Lower Eocene is
missing. In areas which were structurally low during deposition, the
Paleocene is present in some wells in the Abu Gharadig province, on the
Ilanks oI the Kattaniya horst and to the northwest. The Apollonia is overlain
unconIormably by the Daba Formation, where the top part oI the Apollonia
is missing, while it is overlain conIormably by the Daba in the Eocene
depocenter areas (Fig.1.1).
The thickest Apollonia section was recorded in the El Gindi-1 well, where it
reaches 5868 Ieet. It is well developed in the El Gindi, Natrun, and Abu
Gharadig basins. The Apollonia is thick over the invested Ghiarabub Siwa
Paleozoic basin and thickens westward toward Libya where it becomes very
thick in the Sirte basin. The Apollonia is thin, less than 500 Ieet, in the
Meleiha Khalda Razzak Alamein complex, while it is absent along the
coastal ridge and in the Kattaniya high (Fig. 1.5).


Figure 1.5: Apollonia Formation Isopach Map.

The Apollonia Formation consists oI white, light grey, brownish grey, hard
dense, cherty limestone occasionally chalky, dolomitic to the northwest,
calcarenitic in many places, nummulitic, with some shaly zones , where the
Formation is thickest. An increase in sand and clay percentage occurs on the
Ilanks oI the Kattaniya horst.
Daba Formation (Upper Eocene Oligocene)
The Daba Formation consists oI Late Eocene to Oligocene age shale with
thin beds oI limestone. The limestone content is great in the Zebeida-1 and
Um Barka-2 wells. In other wells as in T 65-1 well, thin beds oI dolomite
and sandstone occur.
The Daba generally overlies unconIormably the Apollonia Formation; but in
the coastal ridge, WD 19 areas, Sidi Barrani-1, Mamura-1 and Alamein-1
wells it overlies the Khoman Formation. The Daba Formation is overlain
conIormably by the Moghra Formation (Fig.1.1).
The thicknest Daba section was recorded in the WD 7-1 well, where it
reaches 2712 Ieet. It is well developed in the Abu Gharadig, Natrun and
Burg el Arab areas, while it is absent along the Kattaniya high, Matruh area
and the Ghiarabub Siwa Paleozoic basin (Fig. 1.6).

Figure 1.6: Daba Formation Isopach Map.
The Daba Formation consists mainly oI shale, which is grey green, greenish
grey, calcareous, glauconitic and pyrite in character.

Moghra Formation (Upper Oligocene Lower Miocene)
The moghra Formation consists oI shallow marine sandstone, siltstone and
shale with thin beds oI limestone. Where the carbonate sediments increase
within the Moghra Formation, it is named the Mamura Formation. In the
eastern part oI the study area the Moghra section includes a basalt extrusion
known as the Abu Zabal basalt oI Oligocene age.
It overlies conIormably the Daba Formation and is overlain conIormably by
the Marmarica Formation iI it is present. The thickest Moghra section is
3163 Ieet in Dahad-1 well.

Marmarica Formation (Middle Miocene Late Neogene)
The Marmarica Formation is oI Middle Miocene to late Neogene age,
shallow to marginal marine limestone with some shale intercalations in the
lower part oI the section.
The Marmarica is present in the northern part oI the Western Desert, while it
is absent in the south.

3. SEDIMENTARY POROVINCES

Nine sedimentary provinces could be deIined in this study. These provinces
are structurally distinct. All the provinces generally trend east- west except
the Paleozoic basin along the Libyan Egyptian border (Fig.1.7).

















Figure 1.7: Sedimentary Provinces Occurrence Map.
3.1 Coastal Ridge Province
This province lies along the Mediterranean coast line and includes the Sidi
Barrani-1, Mamura-1, and Mersa Matruh-1, wells. The coastal Ridge
province is characterized by the absence oI the Eocene sediments and is the
site oI a CarboniIerous and Mesozoic carbonate platIorm, except Ior the
Cretaceous-age Matruh shale tongue which is limited to the Mersa Mtruh
area (Fig.1.8). The province is characterized by the thickening oI Jurassic
and Cretaceous sediments north oI a hinge line extending to the east Irom
Libya. The area contains open marine sediments deposited since
CarboniIerous and until the Late Cretaceous, time. Later it was upliIted,
Iorming the Coastal Ridge where the Apollonia Formation was not deposited
and where the Daba Formation unconIormably overlies a thin Khoman
Formation.


Figure 1.8: Aptian-Neocomian Facies Occurrence Map.

3. Northern Province
This province extends Irom the Barakat, Bir Khamsa and East Faghur-1
wells in the west, to the Shaltut and Burg El Arab wells in the east. The
province is characterized by a thick Lower Cretaceous section and relatively
thick Jurassic sediments (Figs. 1.7 & 1.9). The province is divided into two
sub-basins which are: the Northern Meleiha Alamein sub-basins and the
southern Meleiha Alamein sub-basins. Details oI each will be discusses
below:




Figure 1.9: North-South Structural Cross Section (B-B`).


3..1 Northern Meleiha - Alamein sub-basins
This area is characterized by the presence oI the intra-Turonian
unconIormity and, in addition, the presence oI both the Alamein and Um
Barka carbonates (Fig. 1.8). These Ieatures indicate that this sub-basin was a
basinal low during the Lower Cretaceous and was partially upliIted during
Turonian time (intra- Turonian unconIormity).

3.. Southern Meleiha - Alamein sub-basins
This area is characterized by a complete and relatively thick Turonian
section and by the presence oI only the Alamein Carbonate while the Um
Barka Carbonate is absent (Fig. 1.8). This sub-basins was considered as the
southern, near basin edge portion oI the early Cretaceous-age Alamein
Meleiha basins (Fig. 1.7).

3.3 Sharib - Sheiba High
The Sharib-Sheiba high, which occupies a large area in the central Western
Desert was at least partly tectonically active since Paleozoic time, because
there is a thick middle Jurassic and CarboniIerous limestones south oI that
high in the Abu Gharadig Basin margin (Sheiba 42-1 well), while there is a
thin middle Jurassic and no CarboniIerous in the Sharib-Sheiba high itselI
(Fig. 1.2) the Sharib Sheiba high is characterized by the absence oI the Um
Barka and Alamein Carbonates (Fig. 1.8 & 1.7), the presence oI well
developed, severe unconIormities within the Mesozoic sections which leaves
the Mesozoic very thin in comparison to the basins to the north and south (
Fig. 1.9) and general absence oI the Khoman Formation (Fig. 1.10).


Figure 1.10: Apollonia Formation Isopach Map.

3.4 Abu Gharadig Basin province
The Abu Gharadig basin was actively subsiding since the Paleozoic which is
reIlected by the presence oI thick Middle Jurassic and
CarboniIerous sediments in the basin margin to the north ( in Sheiba 42-1
well) ( Fig. 1.2 & 1.9). Most oI the wells in the basin were bottomed in the
Kharita sandstone, except the Sheiba 42-1 well, which penetrated the
CarboniIerous. Thus the basin down warp was initiated since CarboniIerous
time and contained throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous. The strongest
down warp was during the Maastrichtian when a thick Khoman section was
deposited (Fig. 1.7 &1.9). This province is characterized by a very thick
Upper Cretaceous (Khoman, Abu Rawash and Baharyia sections) and
relatively thick Eocene and Jurassic sediments. Lower Cretaceous Alamein
Carbonate and CarboniIerous are also present.

3.5 Southern Platform Province
This Province occupies mostly the southern part oI the study area where
most oI the Mesozoic section pinches out and/or becomes very thin (Figs.1.7
& 1.11). NashIa-1 well penetrated this section. The platIorm also is
characterized by the presence oI severe unconIormities within Mesozoic
sections.



Figure 1.11: North-South Structural Cross Section (C-C`).


3.6 Kattaniya High Province
This Province is characterized by the presence oI very thick Jurassic
sediments (the thickest Jurassic section in the Western Desert) and also by
the presence oI thick lower Cretaceous sediments (Fig. 1.11 &1.12). The
absence oI the Khoman and Apollonia sections are one oI the characteristic
Ieatures oI the area (Fig. 1.7). The Jurassic basin depocenter was mainly
developed in the same area as the present-day Kattaniya Horst which was
structurally inverted during the latest Cretaceous/early Tertiary time.

3.7 Natrun Basin Province
The Natrun Basin is characterized by the presence oI a very thick Eocene
section (Apollonia Formation) as well as a relatively thick lower Cretaceous
(Fig. 1.11 & 1.12). It was structurally down warped at the same time the
Kattaniya Horst was upliIted and is considered the northern Eocene Ilank oI
that horst (Fig. 1.7).

3.8 Gindi Basin Province
This basin is characterized also by the presence oI a very thick Eocene
section (Apollonia Formation) ( Fig. 1.11). It is considered as an Eocene
basin along the southern Ilank oI the Kattaniya Horst (Fig. 1.7).

Figure 1.12: East-West Structural Cross Section (D-D`).


3.9 Ghirabub - Siwa Basin Province
This province is a north south oriented sedimentary basin which was a
Paleozoic depocenter that has been inverted during the early Mesozoic. The
Mesozoic section on laps the Paleozoic basin whose present-day NW-SE
trending structural axis is near the Libyan border (Fig. 1.13). The basin is
characterized by the absence oI the Daba section, the presence oI relatively
thick Apollonia section and an on lapping oI thin Upper Cretaceous section.
The lower Cretaceous Alamein and Um Barka carbonate markers are absent.
The Jurassic sediments are also absent. The Paleozoic is relatively complete
and thick (Figs. 1.7, 1.2 & 1.13).



Figure 1.13: East-West Structural Cross Section (A-A`)

CHAPTER II
STRUCTURE

The structures in the Western Desert are related to the plate tectonic motions
between AIrica and Eurasia. There were three main stage oI motion which
was reIlected the signiIicant structural Ieatures in the Western Desert these
three stages are;
1. Jurassic pre Turonian sinistral motion which is oriented mainly
northwest.
2. East West post Turonian dextral motion.
3. Middle Late Tertiary compression related to the Alpine tectonism.
The Iirst two stages were mainly extensional Iorces (wrenching).
In addition, it might be expected that Tertiary extensional Ieatures could
have occurred in relation to the opening oI Red Sea/GulI oI Suez riIt system.
The structural trends in the heterogeneous crystalline basement beneath the
Western Desert no doubt also aIIected the structural picture oI the Western
Desert.
The structure in the Western Desert will be discussed under two main
subjects which are;

1. STRUCTURAL BASINAL DEVELOPMENT

A series oI isopach maps which show syndepositional tectonic elements
were compiled Ior the Western Desert. These cover the geological
succession Irom Middle Jurassic to Oligocene. The maps show the basinal
history in the area and highlight areas or trends which were relatively
positive during given periods oI deposition.

1.1 Bahrein / Wadi Natrun Formations
They include older continental strata and contain sandstones with minor
shales and anhydrites; these are derived as a result oI weathering Irom
underlying Paleozoic and Basement, exposed during the Hercynian
movement. It laterally changed to a marine carbonate interbedded with
shallow marine shales and siltstone sediments in the Eastern part oI Egypt
(restricted in the area oI Wadi Natrun, Kattaniya and El Gindi provinces).
These carbonate sediments are known as Wadi Natrun Formation.

1. Khatatba Isopach and Facies Maps
From these maps, northeast trending structural Ieatures can clearly be
observed throughout the study area (Fig. 1.3). The rhombic pattern
throughout the area suggests the wrenching mechanism that prevailed during
Jurassic time (right lateral motion oI Gondawana land with Eurasia that lead
to the opening oI the Tethyan Sea). These rhombic Ieatures Iorm basins and
highs, with the basins being named the Abu Gharadig, Kattaniya, East
Matruh, Sidi Barrani and East Alamein basins, while the high areas are
Sharib- Sheiba, Burg El Arab and North Dada highs (Fig. 1.3).
The dominant lithology oI the Khatatba Formation is shale. It changes
laterally to sand toward the southwest and west and carbonates to the
northwest. In the Iar northwest corner oI Egypt it changes to massive
carbonates ranging in age Irom Middle Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous (Sidi
Barrani Formation) (Figs. 2.1 & 1.8).


Figure 2.1: Khatatba Formation Facies Summary Map

1.3 Masajid Formation Isopach Map
The same Khatatba can be seen to extend the masajid time, but the structural
orientations become closer to the Cretaceous trends which are East-West
(Fig. 1.4). In general, the middle Jurassic (Katatba and Masajid) was a
period oI a throughgoing Iault trends generally northeast. These
throughgoing Iaults, known as transcurrent AIrican Iaults, were initiated in
the middle CarboniIerous and are highlighted by the associated isopach
trends observed in middle Jurassic time (Fig. 1.2). Some oI these Iaults are:
the Abu Gharadig main Iaults; the Kattaniya graben Iaults; the Qattara,
Razzag and Alamein Iaults; complexes; and the GPT, GPY, GPZ and WD33
Iields complex Iaults within the Abu Gharadig province (Fig. 1.7 & 2.2).
The Masajid Formation consists oI Middle to Late Jurassic-age shallow
marine carbonates with shales interbeds.


Figure 2.2: Total Paleozoic Isopach Map.
Masajid partly change into study Iacies to the south and west, while it
become a part oI Sidi Barrani sediments to the Iar north west oI Egypt as
mentioned beIore (Fig. 1.8).

1.4 Alam El Bueib Isopach and Facies Maps
All the structural Ieatures observed Irom the isopach map ( highs and
troughs ) trend mostly east west and include the Iollowing basins and
troughs: Shoushan, Sidi Barrani Matruh, Alamein, Burg El Arab and Abu
Gharadig basins while the high areas include the well established Sharib-
Sheiba high (extending Irom kadam and Ras Qattara in the west to the Tiba
wells in the east) (Figs. 2.3 & 2.4). The basins still retain a rhombic shape,
but tend to trend east-west.



Figure 2.3: Alam El Bueib Formation Isopach Map.

Figure 2.4: Alamein Carbonate Fault Shape Map.

It represents the Iirst continental to shallow marine deposits which came
aIter the post Jurassic upliIt. It is mainly sandstone and shale with thin
carbonate beds. The sediments change laterally to the northwest and
northeast either to carbonate (Sidi Barrani Iormation) or to mostly shale
body which is known as Matuh shale (restricted in Matruh and north
Alamein areas).The Upper part oI the Alam El Bueib is characterized by the
presence oI two carbonate bodies (Alamein and Umbarka beds). The
occurrence oI these two bodies is shown in (Fig. 1.8), the lower most part oI
Alam El Bueib is known as Betty member where it is recognized by its red,
kaolinitic sandstone (Fig. 2.5).


Figure 2.5: Alam El Bueib Formation Facies Map.

1.5 Kharita Formation Isopach and Facies Maps
The same Alam El Bueib structural Ieatures extend to the Kharita and can be
observed Irom the Alam El Bueib Isopach map (Fig. 2.6). The signiIicant
Ieatures oI the map are as Iollows:

Figure 2.6: Kharita Formation Isopach Map.

1. The Abu Gharadig Basin is well established and extends to the east to
include what is called the Mubarak low (Fig. 1.12).
2. A new, large east-west trough is developed in the south which
includes the Bahrein and Bahariya wells (Fig. 2.6).
3. The Kattaniya-Gindi trough is established with a strongly developed
north-east trend.
4. The Sidi Barrani-Matruh, Alamein and west Delta basins complex are
established.
The Kharita Formation consists mainly oI sandstones with shale interbeds.



1.6 Bahariya Formation Isopach and Facies Maps
The same structural Ieatures present during Kharita time are observed in the
Bahariya map with some deviation oI the structural trends Irom east-west to
the north-west in the Sidi Barrani and Shoushan areas (Fig. 2.7).

Figure 2.7: Bahariya Formation Isopach Map.

Bahariya Formation consists oI shallow marine sandstone with shale and
thin carbonate beds. It is characterized by the presence oI limestone marker
at the basin the Northern Province. Generally the Bahariya sediment is
mainly sandstones which become more calcareous to the north and east,
while it becomes mainly shaly in part to the west (Fig. 2.8). The lower part
oI Kharita changes partly to a green sandstones (highly glauconitic) bed
which is known as Varaconian sandstone (Razzak Member) and is restricted
to the Alamein and WD 19 areas (Fig. 2.9).

Figure 2.8: Bahariya Formation Facies Summary Map.

Figure 2.9: Kharita Formation Facies Summary Map.
1.7 Abu Roash "G" Isopach and Facies Maps
Most oI the structural Ieatures appear to trend east-west, (Fig. 2.7) and
include the Iollowings:
1. Abu Subeiha, Daba and Burg El Arab troughs.
2. Abu Gharadig, Mubarak and southern Kattaniya troughs.
3. UmBarka, Barakat, Meleiha and Khalda hings.
4. Razzak-Alamein high.
The Abu Roash 'G" sediment consists oI marine shale, limestone and
sandstone. It is heterogeneous both vertically and laterally. It has more
carbonate to the north (Sharib-Sheiba, Coastal ridge, and northern provinces)
while it becomes more sandy throughout Abu Gharadig, Mubarak and
southern platIorm provinces (Fig. 2.10).


Figure 2.10: Abu Roash "G" Member Facies Summary Map.
1.8 Turonian Isopach and Facies Maps
On this map it can be seen that most oI the Ieatures trend strongly east-west.
All the earlier Cretaceous structural Ieatures noted above extend to the
Turonian and become even more pronounced (Fig. 2.11).


Figure 2.11: Abu Roash "G" Member Isopach Map.

The Turonian sediments consist oI marine limestones, shales and sandstones
with an anhydrite marker within Abu Roash 'E" member. Turonian sediment
changes mostly to carbonate north oI Sharib-Sheiba province while it
becomes heterogeneous to mainly sandy to the south oI Northern Province
(Fig. 2.12).



Figure 2.12: Turonian Facies Summary Map.

1.9 Khoman Isopach Map
The Khoman Isopach map shows strongly all the major structural Ieatures
known in the Western Desert, and includes the Abu Gharadig Basin,
Mubarak Basin, Kattaniya high, Natrun and Gindi Basins. All Kattaniya
high Natrun and Gindi Basins which are trending northeast (Fig. 1.10).
The Khoman sediment consists mainly oI deep marine chalky limestones.
The Iacies variation is limited.


1.10 Apollonia Isopach Map
This map shows very strongly the northeast trending Kataniya high and its
southern and northern Ilanks oI El Gindi and Natrun basins respectively.
Also it shows the north to north-northwest low trend over the old Paleozoic
basin to the west oI the study area (Fig. 1.5). All the other previously
described structural Ieatures are still strongly observed.
The Apollonia sediments consist oI an open marine sequenceoI limestone
and some shales. An increase in the sand and shale percentage occurs on the
Ilanks oI the Kattaniya high.
The Esna shale is equivalent to the Paleocene and lower Eocene (Part oI the
Apollonia), where there are shale beds. The Thebes Formation is equivalent
to the lower Eocene while the Mokattam Formation is equivalent to the
middle and upper Eocene (part oI the Apollonia Formation).

1.11 Daba Isopach Map
This map shows north-northwest trending structural Ieatures which includes
the area lying to the east oI the old Paleozoic Ghiarabub Siwa Basin (Fig.
1.6). The Paleozoic Ghiarabub Siwa Basin during Daba time was a high
structural trend which developed over the old Eocene low in the area.
The Daba sediment consists oI shale with thin beds oI Limestone. The
Carbonate content increases in Zebeida and Umbarka areas.
. STRUCTURAL PROVINCES

There are nine geological provinces in the Western Desert which have been
observed and were discussed above in the "Sedimentary Provinces " (Fig.
1.7). These provinces will be analyzed and described here Irom the structural
point oI view by using the Alamein Fault shape map, as Iollows;

.1 Abu Gharadig Province
The Abu Gharadig basin is an east-west rhombic basin complex composed
oI two main areas; which are the basin margin area to the north and the main
basin area (Fig. 2.4). This province is separated Irom the Sharib-Sheiba high
by a series oI en-echelon Iaults which trend east-west and partly west-
northwest. The basin margin area lies between two sets oI these en-echelon
Iaults and has a relatively thin sedimentary section compared to that in the
main basin area.
From the geological history and ispoach map discussion it is seen that the
Abu Gharadig basin is a generally complex structural low composed oI halI
grabens (pullapart grabens). Along the areas oI 'master " Iault bends
structural, "pop-ups " occur, such as northeast Abu Gharadig Iield, structure,
especially along the northern edge oI the basin these "pop-up" structures also
are observed near the ends oI the en-echelon Iaults. These Ieatures oI
both "pop-up" highs and pull-apart grabens are probably the up-ward
expression oI a deep-seated, pattern oI pre-existing Iaults (Jurassic northeast
and throughgoing Iaults). In addition to these structural Ieatures, there are
also buckle Iolds, which trend in a north-east direction (example: the Abu
Gharadig Iold and the GPC structures). All these Ieatures oI Abu Gharadig
basin were the result oI extension during Turonian time imposed on major
pre-existing east-west Iault trends (Jurassic time) (Fig. 2.4 &1.9).

. Northern Province
This province is a basin complex extending Irom the Umbarka and Barakat
areas in the west to the western edge oI the Delta province in the east. The
dominant structural Ieatures within this province are the large numbers oI an
en-echelon Iaults which trend east-west or north-west. These Iaults generally
have less individual length than the main en-echelon Iaults oI the Abu
Gharadig province. The northwest trending Iaults are associated with a series
oI northeast trending Iolds (one oI these Iold series is the Alamein-Razzak
Iield complex). The northwestern portion oI the basin complex is
characterized by the presence oI north-south trending Iaults which Iorm a set
oI north-south horsts and grabens (Fig. 2.4).
As in the Abu Gharadig basin, there are some pull-apart grabens at the ends
oI the en-echelon Iaults; examples oI these pull-apart grabens are the east
Alamein basin and Shushan basin. Near the eastern portion oI Northern
province, in the area north oI Natrun basin, the en-echelon Iaults having a
more east-west trend, were throughgoing, and stronger. No major
compressional phase oI the Alpine orogeny (mddle-late Miocene), but it may
have led to a north-south tightening oI the structures seen in the northeast
portion oI this province.

.3 Sharib-Sheiba province
The Sharib-Sheiba province was a relatively high area since the Paleozoic as
noted in the stratigraphy and geological history. This high area separates the
two major Western Desert basin complexes (the Northern and Abu Gharadig
Basins complex). Because the area was more, or less stable since the
Paleozoic, no observed wrench type structures are present. Some east-west
closures have been noted along the up-thrown sides oI the main en-echelon
Iaults oI the Abu Gharadig basin margin (Figs. 2.4 & 1.9).


.4 El Gindi Province
This province is basically a large Eocene basin. From the structural point oI
view, the basin is a big pull-apart graben due to the strong bend oI the main
north-east trending Iault which bounds this graben to the north one, or
possibly two, pull-apart, minor grabens can be observed in the province (Fig.
2.4 & 1.11).

.5 Natrun Province
This area is similar structurally to the Northern Province, where there are
northwest to east-west trending en-echelon Iaults associated with a series oI
pull-apart grabens and "pop-up" structures. (Figs. 2.4, 1.11 & 1.12).
.6 Kattaniya Province
The Kattaniya province is a big high which separates the Natrun Eocene
basin to the north, and El Gindi Eocene basin to the south (Fig.1.7). The
only observed discrete structure on the high is a Iour way anticline. The
Kattaniya high is considered to be a large scale inverted structure due to a
combination oI major north-south Eocene compression and wrench Iaulting
along its Ilanks (Fig. 2.4).

.7 Coastal Ridge Province
This province is an inverted basin, most oI the structural Ieatures observed
are northwest trending Iolds with en-echelon northwest Iaults (Fig. 2.4). The
north-west anticlinal Iolds seen in Egypt are also present on the northern
Cyrenaica platIorm in Libya. These Iolds are also considered as "pop-
ups" due to possible wrench Iaulting and the north-south compressional
Iorce which prevailed during the Eocene to late Miocene i.e. a small scale
equivalent oI the Kattaniya horst.

.8 Ghiarabub-Siwa Province
This province is a complex oI two structural Ieatures. The Iirst one
comprises en-echelon, northwest trending Iaults with pull-apart grabens and
some northeast trending buckle Iolds. The second structural Ieature, which
prevails in the northern area, is the northwest structural Iolds. There may be
also a north-south Iault trends at the eastern edge oI this province. The area
also includes the eastern edge oI the Cyrenaica platIorm and a deep-seated
Paleozoic structural axis (Fig. 1.13).

.9 Southern Platform Province
This province is a high and tilted since Jurassic time (Figs. 2.4, 1.9 &1.11).
Most oI the Iaults seen in this area are throughgoing northeast trending
Iaults. No observed closures can be seen on the Alamein Iault shape map.
There is a possibility oI structural highs and, rarely, pull-apart grabens at the
unmapped Paleozoic and Jurassic levels

CHAPTER III

ACTIVE FAULTING AND SEISMIC HAZARD
ASSESSMENT

1. INTRODUCTION
Earthquakes are the most important phenomena oI natural hazard. They
aIIect human liIe and man-made constructions. The evaluation oI ground
motion oI moderate to strong events, as the reIerence or controlling
earthquakes, expected by using the deterministic approach is oI importance
Ior designing the earthquake resistant structures. The geophysical data
provide inIormation on the geometry oI large-scale structures at depth,
which add the critical third spatial dimension to our observation. So, the
Bouguer gravity anomaly map oI the Western Desert province was used to
interpret and to evaluate the deep-seated structures and the tectonic setting oI
the region, which are the principle contributors to its geologic hazards.
The basic GIS data set layers are the geologic, interpreted subsurIace
structures derived Irom geophysical data and the catalogue oI earthquake
databank. The accumulated data provide a central core oI inIormation that
needs only to be updated. Currently, the available personal computer is
suIIiciently powerIul to IulIil this goal and it has enough strong Ior the
archiving, displaying and analyses oI the natural hazard data oI the site oI
interest using a relatively simple database concept. This database concept
makes possible the utilization oI valuable data and inIormation Ior disaster
mitigation, prevention and preparedness.

. GEOMORPHOLOGY
The study area is the north Western Desert, which extends Irom the Nile
valley to the Egyptian-Libyan border and Irom latitude 27´ N northward to
the Mediterranean Sea coast (Fig. 3.1). Geomorphologically, it is a plateau
oI stone desert with numerous large and deep closed-in topographic
depressions. An outstanding characteristic oI northwestern Desert is the
almost complete absence oI drainage system and the paucity oI water in
general. Another particular Ieature is represented by the NNW-SSE trending
high longitudinal sand dunes. In the deep oIIshore area, northwest oI the
Nile Delta, reIerred to as the Herodotus Basin, the sedimentary Iill is likely
to exceed 13 km in thickness. West oI Alexandria, the shelI narrows
considerably to widen again in the GulI oI Salum near the Libyan border
(Fig. 3.2) (Schlumberger 1984).

Figure 3.1: Location Map oI the Study Area.



Figure 3.2: Main Structural Features oI the Northern Western Desert and
Mediterranean Sea (Eyal et al. 1981; Schlumberger 1984, Wood World-
Clyde Consultants 1985 and MeshreI 1990)

3. GEOLOGIC SETTING

Egypt is a part oI the North AIrican Craton, which during its geologic
history underwent periodic transgressions Irom the ancient Tethys situated to
the north and northeast oI the country. The Egyptian Western Desert
platIorm may be subdivided Irom south to north into major geological
portions. These are the well-deIined Nubian-Arabian Shield or massiI and
the surrounding shelI areas, oI which structural unit boundaries cannot be
traced with any great precision. Thus, the area is subdivided according to its
salient Ieatures into the Mediterranean Sea, the hinge zone and the unstable
shelI, (Fig. 3.2) (Schlumberger 1984).

1. Mediterranean Sea
Presently submerged and partially buried under thick Plio-Pleistocene
deposits related to the Nile Delta. During the Paleozoic time, at least two
phases oI major deIormations produced a N to NW trending system oI block
Iaulting and gentle Iolding with marked unconIormities within the Paleozoic
section. Although these movements were rejuvenated, a new trend oI
structures was superimposed and became predominant in the modeling oI
basement and the overlying sedimentary rocks. With a general easterly trend
(ENE to ESE), this new grain resulted Irom the Alpine orogenic phases,
which Iollowed one another throughout the Mesozoic time and had their
climax during the Early Tertiary.
The structures consist mainly oI parallel and elongated tilted Iault blocks
that are horst and halI-graben structures with associated erosion oI the
upthrown blocks. Concurrently, Irom Late Jurassic onwards, diIIerential
depocenters developed with correspondingly strong changes in thickness and
Iacies, especially during the late Cretaceous. Structures result primarily Irom
vertical movements oI basement blocks and consist oI draped layers over
and/or Iaulted anticlinal Ieatures. Compressional anticlines are subordinate
and probably derived Irom drag Iolding, related to lateral movements along
basement Iaults.

2. Hinge Zone
It is located between the mobile shelI, which has normal Iaults, their
down thrown sides are in the northern direction, and the Mediterranean basin
area. It causes a raped basinwards thickening oI Oligocene to Pliocene
sediments, coinciding with the present Mediterranean coastal area.

3. Unstable Shelf
This is situated north oI the stable shelI with the transition between the
two structural depositional units Iollowing a line approximately set Irom the
Siwa Oasis through FaraIra Oasis and Suez into Central Sinai. The
sedimentary sequence oI the unstable shelI is relatively thick with the lower
part oI the section composed mainly oI clastic sediments, Iollowed up by a
section oI middle calcareous series and topped by a blanket oI biogenic
carbonates (Fig. 3.3). The Iormations are gently Iolded and show signs oI
lateral stress. Overthrusts are reported Irom the northern structures. These
structural deIormations are related to the Laramide phase oI the Alpine
Orogeny. The trend oI these Iold bundles is slightly arcuate to the NE and
reIerred to as the Syrian arc system. The structural setting oI the
Mediterranean Sea is aIIected by the structures oI the north Western Desert.


Figure 3.3: Geologic Map oI the Study area (modiIied aIter EGSMA 1981)
4. REGIONAL PLATE TECTONIC SETTING

The primary tectonic Ieatures in the vicinity oI Egypt are three major plate
boundaries. The AIrican-Eurasian plate margin, Aqaba-Dead Sea transIorm
Iault and the Sea-Iloor spreading oI the Red Sea. These separate the AIrican,
Eurasian and Arabian plates, in which the AIrican and Eurasian plates are
converging across a wide zone in the northern Mediterranean Sea. This zone
is characterized by Iolding within the Mediterranean sea-Iloor and
subduction oI the northeastern AIrican plate beneath Cyprus and Crete
(Mckenzie et al. 1970 and Maamoun et al. 1980). It is believed that, there is
a zone oI convergence (Iolding and reverse Iaulting) and strike-slip Iaulting
to the north oI the margin. The eIIects oI the plate interactions are mainly
northward and remote Irom the Egyptian coastal margin. Some secondary
deIormations appear to be occurring along the northern Egyptian coast, as
represented by earthquakes and tectonic activities, such as the subsidence oI
the Nile River Delta, the vertical movements in the Qattara and Faiyum
areas and the rotation oI Sinai block (Maamoun et al. 1980).

The presence oI three plates is postulated Ior the northeast part oI AIrica.
The relative motion oI these plates has led to the opening oI the Red Sea,
GulI oI Aqaba and in part, the GulI oI Suez. The spreading oI the Red Sea is,
without doubt, due to the northwestward motion oI the Arabian plate along a
transIorm Iault. LeIt-lateral movement oI the Arabian plate along the GulI oI
Aqaba has also been established. The lateral displacement (Freund et al.
1970) amounts to about 110 km along the Dead Sea riIt.
The opening oI the Red Sea near Aqaba and Suez GulIs junction is Iar larger
than the lateral displacement along the Aqaba GulI. The width oI the Red
Sea in its northern part is about 190 km. The diIIerence may have been
absorbed by diIIerential plate movements between Sinai and the Arabian
plates and although plates are considered rigid units, the Sinai plate might
have undergone deIormations to some degree with Ior-shortening, that led to
the partial opening oI the GulI oI Suez. A clockwise movement oI the
Nubian plate away Irom the Arabian and Sinai plates could be also taken
into consideration. It is interesting to note however that, the GulI oI Suez
took part to a certain extent in the spreading only and it represents the
aborted arm oI the triple junction oI Red Sea and GulI oI Aqaba. Pelusium
line oI ENE to WSW trending lineation passing just to the north oI Cairo is
postulated to be a boundary between the continental and oceanic crusts. The
eastern extension oI the Pelusium line cuts ENE across the continental shelI
oI Northern Sinai beIore bending northwards Iorming a series oI NNE to
SSW striking Iaults, that Iollow the continental slope oI Palestine. In
Northern Sinai, it separates a belt oI contrasting structural orientations.
LeIt lateral transcurrent movements along the Pelusium Iault zone has
created a compressional stress Iield Ior halokinesis in the diaper belt and
Levant platIorm. Structures in the South Delta province aIIect essentially the
Eocene to Triassic succession, similar to that oI the Western Desert and
Northern Sinai. The NE-SW Iolds oI Northern Sinai cross the southern part
oI the Nile Delta in apparent continuity with a zone oI linear upliIts
southeast oI Khatatba. The northern boundary oI the area is marked by the
Iaulted Ilexture, where a rapid northward increase in the slope oI pre-
Oligocene sequence is occurred. In the south Delta province, there is a
contrast between the structures in the south east part Irom Abu Sultan to Abu
Roash-Khatatba, which have NE-SW and ENE-WSW trends and the
northwestern and central Delta parts, where deep structures have E-W and
ENE-WSW trends. Both types oI structures were upliIted essentially in the
Late Cretaceous to Eocene and suIIered considerable erosion. On and under
the continental slope, the surIace sediments are aIIected by extensive
superIicial Iaulting, large-scale slumping and diapiric phenomena. The
northeastern margin oI the Nile Delta and the southwestern margin oI the
Nile cone are marked by the Bardawil escarpment, which delineates a major
WNW-ESE Iault zone comprised oI several steep NNE Iacing Iractures and
southwestward tilting oI sediments.
Two areas in northeastern AIrica showed strong subsidence during the
Paleozoic, the KuIra basin and Dakhla basin, more than 2.5 km oI Paleozoic
sediments in KuIra basin and 3.0 km oI Early Paleozoic to CarboniIerous
rocks in Dakhla basin. Subsidence initiated in the closing stage oI Pan
AIrican crustal accretion. The KuIra basin is related to the transcontinental
shear, the Pelusium line, which stretches Irom Anatolia down to the Nile
Delta, SW across AIrica to Niger Delta and into the Atlantic Ocean.
The sedimentary cover oI the north Western Desert is a part oI the Ioreland
deposits, which Iringe the northern continental margin oI the AIro-Arabian
Shield. From the southern most part oI the Western Desert, the exposed Pre-
Paleozoic basement shows a regional northward slope, with corresponding
increasing thickening oI the unconIormable sedimentary cover, made up oI
Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Tertiary to Recent rock units. In the Mediterranean
Coastal area, the basement lies 5 km below the surIace.

5. VOLCANIC ACTIVITIES

Volcanic activities in Egypt have occurred during most oI its geological
history. Paleozoic volcanic (Rabat basalts) are reported Irom the exposed
Devonian Iormations in the Siwa Oasis in the north Western Desert. During
Mesozoic time, Irequent volcanic activities are recorded in the Late
Cretaceous Iormations and related to the early phases oI crustal disturbance
during the laramide orogenic phase. Triassic intrusives (Camel Pass basalt)
are present in the northern Western Desert. Tertiary volcanic in the Iorm oI
basalt Ilows, sheets and dykes ((Abu Zabaal basalts) occurred in the north
Western Desert during the Oligo-Miocene, in the Nile Valley and Nile Delta
(Schlumberger 1984).

6. SUBSRFACE STRUCTURES DEDUCED FROM
GRAVITY DATA

The Bouguer Gravity Anomaly Map oI Egypt (Fig. 3.4) was established by
the General Petroleum Company oI Egypt in 1985 on scale 1: 2000000 and
contour interval 5 mgal. The present study area is characterized by the
dominance oI negative anomaly at the southwestern corner, which has 60
mgal, while at the southern corner, it has -30 mgal. The central part oI the
area, which has -40 mgal, is characterized by the occurrence oI negative
anomalies. These negative anomalies may be due to the presence oI basins.
Closed anomalies oI diIIerent shapes, trends and amplitudes are present.
These anomalies can be interpreted in terms oI structures dissecting the
basement surIace and also the sedimentary cover. The northwestern part oI
the area is characterized by higher positive gravity anomaly, that has 50
mgal, which suggests denser rock materials rather than shallower anomaly
sources. The major and minor anomalies oI varying trends, extensions and
gradients are probably due to Iaults separating the diIIerent basement blocks.
The considered Bouguer gravity anomaly map is digitized and converted to
digital Iormat Iile oI x, y & z points.


Figure 3.4: Bouguer Gravity Anomaly Map oI the Study area (aIter
GPC1985)
1. Euler Deconvolution For Subsurface Faults Detection
It is used Ior the rapid interpretation oI gravity Iield data. It is good Ior
delineating contacts and it is utilized to determine the subsurIace geologic
positions oI structures (Rrid et al. 1990). The quality oI such depth
estimation depends on the choice oI structural index and adequate sampling
oI data. The potential advantage oI Euler depth is that, the method does not
assume particular geologic model. Thus, it can be applied and interpreted
even when the geology can not be represented. In the Euler deconvolution
technique, the Iield and its three orthogonal gradients (two horizontals and
vertical) are used compute the anomaly source locations (Thompson 1982).
It is applied to grided data, which measure the gradients, locate the square
windows within the grids oI gradient values and Iield, and locate the
structural windows.

The Euler plots using the Structure Index oI 0.0 Ior gravity thick Iault steps
by GeosoIt program, version (1994) were calculated (Fig. 3.5). The Euler
anomalies at the northeastern and northwestern parts oI the area, as well as
the coastal plain (hinge zone) have shallow depths oI the Iaults. South oI the
Qattara Depression and Siwa Oasis have moderate to deep Iault depths. The
linear clustering oI plots shows the extension oI the expected linear steps oI
distinct density contrasts due to Iaulting at varying depths. The area is
dissected by several regional Iaults trending NW-SE and NE-SW, which
control the structures oI the area and also the path oI River Nile. The Iault
system oI N50´ - 60´E trend deIined the Pelusium megashear system, as
extending Irom the border zones oI Anatolia, along the eastern
Mediterranean Sea region and across AIrica Irom the Nile Delta to the Delta
oI Niger into the Atlantic Ocean (Neev et al. 1982). This is a major deep
seated tectonic zone oI strike slip Iaulting, it is penetrating the earth's crust
into the upper mantle, that is distinguished at the surIace by the linear
Iractures extending hundreds oI kilometers and reIlect their orientation
during the geologic time. It distinguishes the second structural deIormation
oI N70´ 80´ W trend and N54´W (Wadi Hodin Wadi Kharit trend), which
cuts with the Pelusium line (Fig. 3.6).


Figure 3.5: Interpreted subsurIace Iaults derived Irom gravity data
using Euler deconvolution technique.

Figure 3.6: Interpreted traced subsurIace Iaults derived
Irom gravity data.
Tertiary volcanic intrusions in the Iorm oI basalt Ilows, sheets and dykes
occur in the north Western Desert (Sigaev 1959) (Fig. 3.7), at the
intersection oI the two tectonic trends: the NE-SW (Pelusium Megashear
and rejuvenation oI Syrian arc Iaults, which dated to Cretaceous) and the
NW-SE, where the basalt Ilows on the extension oI Pelusium line in Gabal
Qatrani (North Qaron Lake), Gabal Abu Roash (West Giza City), Bahariya
(upliIt line) Oasis and south Wadi El-Rayan.



Figure 3.7: Comparison between the interpreted subsurIace Iaults derived
Irom gravity data, surIace Iaults aIter EGSMA (1981) and extruded basalts

The surIace Iaults (aIter EGSMA 1981) at the southern part oI the area, near
the Nile Valley, have NW-SE trend, which are parallel to the diIIerentiated
subsurIace Iaults, that are detected Irom the gravity method and basalt
extruded Ilow through these Iault (Fig. 3.7).
The surIace Iaults at the Bahariya and FaraIra Oasis have NE-SW direction,
which are parallel to the subsurIace Iaults (Pelusium line, in apparent
continuity with a zone oI linear upliIts) and it cuts with a Iault, that have
NW-SE trend, in which the area oI intersection has basaltic intrusion and
lava Ilow along the Iault trend.
The surIace Iaults at Wadi El-Natrun and Wadi El-Rayan have NW-SE
direction, which are parallel to the subsurIace Iaults. The surIace Iaults near
the coastal plain are parallel to the normal Iaults oI the hinge zone. The
Bahariya and FaraIra Oases are upliIted, where the Iault the extension oI the
sinistral strike-slip Iault oI Wadi Kharit and Wadi Hodein, that trend N54.W
in the basement rocks (Greiling et al. 1996) is observed in the northern
Western Desert with the same direction, but it cuts with the Pelusium
megashear line at Bahariya Oasis and where basalts are intruded at the
intersection area. Also, the basalts intruded along the zone oI NW-SE strike-
slip Iault at southeastern Bahariya Oasis. The continuity oI this strike-slip
Iault north oI Bahariya Oasis to the Qattara Depression is cut by the Qattara
Euratothens line, which is parallel to the Pelusium line.

2. Structural Analysis
The structural analysis is the interpreted subsurIace Iault trends are shown in
Fig. (3.6), in which the lengths oI Iault segments are measured, counted and
tabulated in table. (3.1). Also, the azimuths oI all major and minor
subsurIace Iaults are measured, clustered in 10 classes and plotted in the
Iorm oI rose diagram (Fig. 3.8).



Table 3.1: Structural analysis Ior the subsurIace Iaults characterizing the
study area.


Figure 3.8: Rose diagram showing the trends oI Iractures in the study area.

The rose diagram shows that, the major subsurIace Iault lengths are oriented
N50´- 70´E and N70´ - 80´W. Also, the minor subsurIace Iault lengths are
oriented N40´ - 50´E and N60´ - 70´E. Moreover, the rose diagram exhibits
that , the major subsurIace Iault numbers are oriented N50´ - 60´E and
NN60´ - 80´W. Also the minor subsurIace Iault lengths are oriented N40´ -
50´E, N60´ - 70´E, N40´ - 60´W added to N20´ - 30´W. It is observed that,
the subsurIace Iault numbers in the NE trend is mostly twice those extending
in the NW direction and the subsurIace Iault lengths in the NE trend is (2/3)
those in the NW direction.



7. SEISMIC HAZARDS ASSESSMENT

Seismic hazard describes the potential Ior danger Irom earthquakes such as
ground shaking. The earthquakes cause damages to human liIe and man-
made structures. The decision-marker Ior urban planning should have
knowledge about the probable characteristics oI earthquakes to be expected
in Iuture. The results oI seismic hazard analyses are essential by the peak
ground acceleration oI ground motion, which is used to construct the seismic
saIety and Iind out the necessary steps Ior prevention or mitigation oI
damage caused by earthquakes. Then, the seismic hazard assessment
inIormation has to be applied Ior better design oI earthquake-resistance
structures Ior urbanization and construction oI a land use map Ior the Iuture
planning oI interested area. So, the seismic measures should taken in
construction work in the sustainable development oI the Western Desert
region.
1. Seismic Background
The assessment oI earthquake damage and losses must allow Ior two
parameters in particular. These are the seismicity oI a region and the
vulnerability oI the elements at risk. Most oI the concerned region is seismic
and some zones in the Eastern Mediterranean are a seismic.
II not only instrumental data are considered, but also historical records as
well, there are dangerous seismic "hot spots" in particular in some parts oI
the region. Greece and Greek islands in the Aegean Sea, Create, the western
coast oI Turkey, Cyprus, the southwest oI the East Analotion Iault and the
eastern coast oI the Mediterranean Sea Irom Aleppo to the GulI oI Aqaba.
On the southern side oI the Mediterranean particularly in the Nile Delta,
although the problem is not so much high seismicity, but dangerous sub-soil
and high vulnerability. SoIt sub-soil increase damage considerably in some
important places, where soIt alluvial deposits are Iound. There are the Nile
Delta and the low-lying areas along the Nile including the part west oI it,
especially in El Fayum and many other new settlements. Other important
parameters are the shear strength and stiIIness oI the buildings. The high
quality code protects modern buildings and there is no guarantee against the
use oI unsuitable material.
The modern buildings are very vulnerable, because oI their inadequate
strength. Old buildings oI brick or stone masonry and in particular rural
buildings are at any rate likely to suIIer sever damage. Particularly the latter
category oIten incorporates adobe, which can be called a deadly construction
material, because it either crushes or suIIocates the inhabitants. The record
oI earthquake activity in Egypt is oI moderate to low level in comparison
with the surrounding areas. Historical and recent expense showed that, their
hazards eIIect is serious.
These epicenters are dangerous in the vicinity oI the over populated cities,
soil characteristics oI areas where Egypt Ǭs big cities are considered and the
absence oI earthquake engineering codes and construction control.
The distribution oI recent seismicity (macro and micro) shows the presence
oI diIIerent seismogenic zones with diIIerent behaviors oI mechanism and
level oI activity. They are associated with pre-existing Iaults, that are
presently active. Mainly strike-slip Iaults in the solution oI earthquakes (GilI
El Kibir 1978; Aswan 1981; Dahshour 1992 and Aqaba 1993 and 1995) are
mostly active. Dead Sea-Aqaba transIorm represents a plate boundary, that
strikes in N25´E over a total length oI about 110 km. Many geological and
geophysical evidence presented multi-stage sinistral shears oI about 107 km
along the transIorm, which related to the Red Sea opening. Egypt is in a
vulnerable location Ior earthquakes, surrounded by three plate boundaries
AIrica, Arabia and Red Sea.
AIrica is moving closer to Europe at a rate oI up to 2 cm per year and sliding
below it (subduction). Arabian plate is moving away Irom the AIrica plate,
including the Sinai Peninsula in a counter clockwise direction, closing the
Arabian GulI. The sea-Iloor spreading oI the Red Sea is a common source oI
earthquakes. Egypt is located in a region, where there is a great deal oI plate
movements. An earthquake in Greece or Cyprus or Turkey may aIIect all
countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region, because the shiIting leaves
sediments 2 to 3 km into the earth's crust making Iormations unstable and
likely to ampliIy the movement Irom any subsequent nearby seismic
displacement. Recent sediments enlarge the initial motion that comes Irom
seismic waves. Egypt lies in a shallow hypocenteral earthquake zone, where
the source oI the earth's shiIting is not more than 60 km deep. The most
dangerous and destructive earthquakes are the shallow Iocal earthquakes.
The mean depth oI earthquake sources in Egypt is about 20 km below the
earth's surIace (Mckenzie 1970; Maamoun et al. 1980 and Schlumberger
1984).
Mckenzie et al. (1970) studied the seismicity oI the Mediterranean Sea
region and supposed that Sinai sub-plate is located between the AIrican plate
and Eurasian plate. The relative motion between the AIrican and Eurasian
plates were determined Irom the mechanisms oI some earthquakes. A
detailed seismicity map oI Egypt and the surrounding areas was established
by Maamoun et al. (1980) and correlated to the geological structures oI the
area. The seismicity map contains historical and recent events. Maamoun et
al. (1980) divided the area into diIIerent seismic zones according to the
earthquakes distributions and structures oI the area. They illustrated that:
1. Egypt's Mediterranean coastal area seismic zone: The earthquakes in
this zone have magnitudes range between 5 and 6. This zone occurs in
relation to the continental shelI (canyon oII Alexandria) and the
continental slope. The Iocal mechanism oI the earthquake observed
near the canyon oII Alexandria shows a dextral strike-slip movement.
2. Gaghbub-Rayan seismic zone: Its structural block is nearly oriented
E-W oI Gaghbub, Siwa, Qattara and Rayan. IT is historical
earthquakes.
3. GilI El Kibir seismic zone: It is recently marked by the GilI El Kibir
earthquake (5.8 magnitude). The Iault plane solution oI this event
shows a dextral strike-slip movement along a Iault plane striking NE.
The zone may contain the Gabal Oweinat area.

Makris et al. (1980) established the crustal structure by using deep seismic
sounding proIiles in the north Western Desert. The proIiles extend Iro Sidi
Barrani to El Alamein, Irom Sidi Barrani to Siwa Oasis and Irom Cairo to
Bahariya Oasis. The results obtained in this work indicated that: parallel to
Mediterranean Sea coast, the Moho is Iound at a depth range between 28 and
30 km. The sedimentary cover in average is about 6 km. This area is
considered a continental margin and it is characterized by a decrease oI the
crustal thickness towards the sea. The boundaries oI this block coincide with
those oI Matruh-Cyrenacia plate (Maamoun et al. 1980). The Cairo-Bahariya
section is positioned on a basement high with a thin Eocene cover, whose
thickness does not exceed 1.5 km. Here, the crustal thickness was Iound to
be about 32 to 34 km. Then, the igneous crust is thicker along the coastal
part oI Northern Egypt, since the sediments are thin and the remaining
igneous portion oI the crust is approximately 4 to 5 km thicker than along
the Mediterranean Sea coast.


2. Deterministic Approach for Seismic Hazard Analysis
It aims at estimating the horizontal peak ground acceleration Irom the
reIerence or controlling strong motion events. The deterministic analyses
make use oI discrete and single valued events or models to arrive at the
required description oI earthquake hazard. The analysis requires the
speciIication oI three basic elements; the earthquake sources, the controlling
earthquake oI speciIied size and a mean Ior determining the hazard. In this
case, the horizontal peak ground acceleration (PGA) at the speciIied distance
to the site oI interest can be determined.
1. Data
The earthquake data used Ior the current study were collected Irom the
published catalogue oI the International Seismology Center (ISC)
(http://www.iris.edu). The catalogue oI earthquakes covers a time span Irom
1964 to 2003. The epicenters map shows the epicenters oI all the reported
earthquakes with magnitude greater than or equal to 3.5 (ms) (Fig. 3.9).
The primary parameters oI earthquake catalogue are the data, time oI an
event, the location, Iocal depth and a parameter classiIying the strength
(magnitude Ms). The correlation among the epicenteral locations and
tectonic regimes (normal, thrust or strike-slip Iaulting) with the geotectonic
Iault activities and the epicenters oI earthquake occurrences oI various
magnitudes and the plots oI epicenters provide the primary basis Ior the
recognition and delineation oI hazardous regions or seismic zones.
SigniIicant earthquakes tend to occur repeatedly in certain regions, whereas
other regions have experienced Iew or no events during long historical
periods.



Figure 3.9: Epicenter distribution map in the period 1969-2003 (data
retrieved Irom ISC)
2. Seismic Sources Description
The Iirst object in a seismic hazard is the deIinition oI the sources oI
earthquakes, that could aIIect the particular location at which the hazard is
being estimated. Many researchers studied the seismic source zones oI
Egypt. The seismic source zones in Northern Egypt are established
according to the structures and seismicities (Fig. 3.10), and can be
summarized as Iollows:





Figure 3.10: Seismic source zones in the Western Desert district.


3. Gulf of Aqaba Seismic Source
The GulI oI Aqaba is about 180 km long, 16-17 km wide in its northern part
and 23-25 km wide in the southern part. Its maximum depth reaches 1850 m.
The GulI oI Aqaba occupies the southern segment oI the Dead Sea riIt. The
interior oI the GulI oI Aqaba is occupied by three deep and elongated basins,
striking N 20´ - 25´E, which are arranged en-echelon and the basins are
separated by low sills. The seismicity along this part oI the plate boundary is
relatively high.
The axial trough was suggested to be the youngest part oI the Red Sea. The
Aqaba riIt has been active since the Late Mesozoic time (MeshreI 1990).
This riIt was Iormed in the Cenozoic by break-up oI the once continuous
Arabian-AIrican platIorm, which had been a tectonically stable area since
the end oI the Precambrian. The Dead Sea riIt is a plate boundary oI the
transIorm type. The transIorm Iault oI the GulI oI Aqaba is displaced with a
rate oI about 0.65 cm/year (Wood World-Clyde consultants 1985), which
connects the Red Sea, where sea-Iloor spreading occurs, with Zagros zone oI
continental collision. The riIting process oI GulI oI Aqaba, as a strike-slip
motion on Iaults along the Dead Sea riIt, led to a total leIt-lateral
displacement oI about 110 km (Freund et al. 1970). The major riIt Iaults are
arranged en-echelon and produce between them rhomb-shaped depressions.
The rhomb-shaped depressions are in the Iorm oI grabens, in which slices oI
the sedimentary cover were down-dropped.
1. GulI oI Suez Seismic Source
The GulI oI Suez is an area oI subsidence within the stable shelI oI the
northern part oI the Nubian-Arabian shield. It was Iormed originally during
the Early Paleozoic time, as a narrow embayment oI the Tethys and
intensively rejuvenated during the riIting phase oI the great East AIrican RiIt
system in the Early to Middle Tertiary time.
The GulI oI Suez is an intensely Iaulted area. The present shape oI the GulI
oI Suez has been determined by the Iracture systems, which were and
possibly still, due to the tectonic events caused by movements oI the Nubian,
Arabian and Sinai plates and the resulting East AIrican RiIt system.
The GulI oI Suez is subdivided into three provinces: northern, middle and
southern. The provinces are separated Irom each other by Iaults Iollowing
the Aqaba trend. Each province is characterized by upliIted and subsided
block on each shoulder.
The GulI oI Suez was considered as the most active seismic zone in Egypt,
in which one oI the largest earthquakes (Shedwan March 31, 1969) with
magnitude 6.9 occurred in this region. Ben Menahem and Abodi (1971)
reported that, the Iault motions along the riIt combine extensional opening oI
the riIt, which is about 10 percent oI the rate on the Red Sea (about 1cm per
year, or 1mm per year on the Suez riIt), with1 to 2mm per year oI the leIt-
slip (Wood World-Clyde consultants 1985).
2. Northern Red Sea Seismic Source
The Red Sea has a complex tectonic history. Initial doming and upliIting
events in the proto-Red Sea began in the Late Oligocene or Early Miocene.
Continental riIting or Iaulting then occurred and was Iollowed by sea-Iloor
spreading. This spreading resulted in the emplacement oI a new oceanic
crust in the southern Red Sea and possibly in the Northern Red Sea. The Red
Sea spreading is believed to be at tha rate oI 0.5 cm/year, which may
increase to 0.6 cm/year or more in the extreme northern part oI the Red Sea
at its Junction with the GulI oI Suez (MeshreI 1990). The northern Red Sea
riIt is associated to the central axial riIt oI the Red Sea. North Iaults
predominate in the region and generally Iorm a series oI eastward Iacing
steps Irom the Red Sea Mountains to the center oI the Red Sea.
3. Nile Delta Cone Zone
This zone contains sets oI events, that strike the structures oI the area, where
it consists oI anticline trends E-W and NW-SE and also the normal Iaults at
the hinge zone to the south.
4. Levantine Basin Zone
It is the eastern Mediterranean Sea coast, that has normal Faulting oI the
hinge zone, where sets oI events strike this zone.
5. High Aegean Arc and Herodotus Basin Zone
It includes the pattern oI seismicity at the oII-coast oI the Egyptian-Libyan
border. The seismicity is considered as the reIlection oI the subduction,
which exists Iurther to the north beneath the southern Europen coast line.
In addition to the Iore-mentioned seismic zones, several portions in the
vicinity oI the area oI study show some seismic activities in the recent years.
These areas are:
i. Western Desert Seismic Activities
This area is considered to include the potentially signiIicant Iaults near West
Sohag district. The main trend oI this Iault system is NW-SE (the extension
oI Wadi Kharit-Wadi Hodein sinistral strike-slip Iault). Some oI them are
accompanied by clusters oI seismic activities near or associated with the
main Iault trend.
Criteria Ior recognizing active Iaults using the data source oI the Western
Desert are:
1. Geologic as the enclosed depression oI Bahariya Oasis, side hill
ridges, warping oI young deposits and stratigraphic oII-set Quaternary
deposits by Iaulting.
2. Seismological earthquakes, when well located instrumentally, indicate
an active Iault. The earthquake epicenters are assigned to individual
Iaults with a high degree oI conIidence. Also, potential active, where
the alignment oI some earthquake epicenters along a Iault trace, but
the locations have a low degree oI conIidence. Table (3.2) represents
the criteria oI the northern Western Desert active Iaults.

Table 3.2: Criteria Ior recognizing the active Iaults in the north Western
Desert.
ii. Abu Dabbab Seismic Activities
The area is characterized by high levels oI microseismic activity.
Hypocenter depth ranges Irom 6 to 14 km. No surIace tectonic Ieatures have
been mapped in this area, that appear to be directly related to the micro-
earthquake activity, although the area is close to one oI the zones that is
perpendicular to the Red Sea, where the active region is controlled with the
NW-SE direction. One possible explanation oI the high level oI seismic
activity oI Abu Dabbab is that, it may be related to the Iracturing oI crust,
associated with the Red Sea opening (Daggett et al. 1980). Also, the
mechanism Ior the 1955 Abu Dabbab event (5.3 Ms), located near the Red
Sea coast suggests normal oblique Iaulting. Some oI the Iault planes
appropriate Ior the Iirst motion.
Data are consistent with displacement oI Iaults parallel to the Red Sea riIt
Iaults (Wood World-Clyde consultants 1985).

iii. Aswan Seismic Activities
The occurrence oI November 14
th
, 1981, Aswan earthquake (6 Ms), that lies
approximately 55km south oI the High and Aswan Dams near Marawa,
indicates the available mechanisms Ior larger earthquakes within and near to
Aswan area. The best determined mechanism Ior the 1981 Aswan event is oI
strike-slip type. These mechanisms agree with the geologic evidence,
indicating the presence oI these Iault types near the earthquake location.
Within the Aswan area, Late Cenozoic Iaulting has been observed in two
areas. Predominantly normal Iaulting on the Red Sea Iault system east oI the
crest oI the Red Sea Mountain and strike-slip Iaulting on the Iaults oI the
Western Desert Iault system on the Nubia plain and sinn El-Kaddab plateau.
The Western Desert Iault system consists oI E-W Iaults that exhibit right-
lateral slip displacement and asset oI N-S Iaults, that show leIt-lateral
displacement. The E-W Iaults dominate in the concerned area have had
greater degrees oI activity in the Quaternary and have larger total
displacements than the N-S Iaults. The E-W Iaults slip rates are about 0.03
mm per year, whereas the N-S Iaults have lower slip rates, inIerred to be
0.01 to 0.02 mm per year. The N-S Iaults are likely produced by slight block
rotations due to the eIIects oI the E-W slip. The geometry needed to produce
such clockwise rotations is that, the Western Desert Iault system apparently
represents adjustments within the AIrican plate to diIIerential spreading
within the Red Sea riIt, where the plate boundary tectonic eIIects related to
the anomalies oI the Red Sea riIt (Wood World-Clyde consultants 1985).
4. S
eis
mic
Haz
ard
Res
ults
Values oI peak ground acceleration have been determined through the
equation aIter DeiI and Khalil (2003) Ior the evaluation oI the earthquake
eIIects. The earthquake hazard at a concerned site is the horizontal peak
ground acceleration PGA (gal) resulting Irom the occurrence oI earthquake
magnitude (Ms), on a Iault at a speciIied distance R (km), between the site
and the earthquake. We calculated the hazard at the area oI interest Irom the
large controlling earthquakes. As shown in Table (3.3).


Table 3.3: The large controlling earthquakes around the study area.
Despite the Iact that Egypt is characterized by a relatively low seismicity,
the hazard map which is calculated Irom all the reIerence destructive
earthquakes, that occurred around the Western Desert (Fig. 3.11). It
represents the maximum ground acceleration in the investigated area. It
shows that, the relatively low PGA level particularly at El Salum to Marsa
Matruh area, that is expected to be about 20 Gal. On the other hand, the most
densely populated areas oI Egypt in the Nile Delta are the greater Cairo and
Faiyum areas, the maximum PGA oI approximately 50 Gal has been
calculated. Also, the PGA level oI West Sohag area is about 20 Gal and
parallel to the northern coastal plane is about 10 Gal. Then, this map
indicates that, the evaluated seismic hazard increases in the Salum Marsa
Matruh area, south oI the Nile Delta, Cairo area and West Sohag area; and
decreases outside it. The PGA is signiIicant to engineers Ior the earthquake
resistant building construction code.



















Figure 3.11 Distribution oI peak ground acceleration Ior the Western Desert,
using reIerence moderate to strong earthquakes through the deterministic
method.

CHAPTER IV

EVALUATION OF SUBSURFACE STRUCTURES OF
SIWA OASIS USING 3D MAGNETIC MODELING

1. INTRODUCTION
Siwa Oasis is located at the extreme Western part oI the Western Desert oI
Egypt, some 260 km to the south oI Matruh (Fig. 4.1). This area is located
between latitudes 29´ & 29´ 25` N and longitudes 25´ 30` & 26´E, covering
an area oI about 400 km2. The area was subjected to intensive land magnetic
survey using two magnetic protons oI Geometrics type oI accuracy 1 nT.
The qualitative and quantitative analysis was perIormed Ior the obtained
land magnetic map as well as the RTP aeromagnetic map oI the studied area
(EGPC 1979). The results oI the interpretation allow establishing the
geometry oI the basement surIace and the predominant subsurIace structures
in the studied area.
In order to detect the subsurIace structures and their continuation in the
sedimentary rocks, a Bouguer anomaly map was interpreted Ior the studied
area. Furthermore the correlation between the structural trends deduced Irom
interpretation oI the potential Iield data, and the surIace geologic lineaments
(Fig. 4.1) was perIormed.
Moreover, three dimensional magnetic model (3D) was perIormed Ior the
land survey area. The direct comparing and contrasting oI the quantitative
interpretation based on various methods; gravity, magnetic, and surIace
geologic data, Iinally lead to an integrated Iinal interpretation.



Figure 4.1: Geologic map oI Siwa area, (aIter CONOCO 1987).

. GEOLOGY OF THE AREA
The Siwa depression is Iormed along the same structural trends that are
geologically related to lines oI extensive joining or Iaulting.
It is obvious, Irom the geologic map (EGPC 1979), that the studied area is a
depression Iormed in the Marmarica Plateau oI the northern Western Desert
(Fig. 4.1). This plateau occupies the northern part oI the studied area and
consists oI shallow marine limestone with a Iew marly intercalations. The
Moghra Formation occurs in the southern part oI the area and consists oI
shallow marine calstics oI shale and white bandy carbonates. The Mokattam
Formation consists oI mainly limestone and it is Iound in the southeastern
part oI the area. The sand dunes cover the southern part and a wide area oI
the western parts oI the study area.
According to Said (1990) the subsurIace geology oI the Western Desert is
composed oI three major lithological divisions. These, as proposed by
Barakat (1982) are Irom base to top (i) Lower Clastic Division (ii) Middle
Calcareous Division and (iii) Upper Clastic Division.

3. DATA ACQUICISITION AND INTERPRETATIONS
3.1 Land Magnetic Survey and Interpretation of RTP Magnetic Map:
A detailed land magnetic survey was perIormed Ior the study area using two
proton magnetometers oI the geometrics type. One oI them was Iixed at the
selected base station in a quiet magnetic area. The second portion
magnetometer was used in the survey along a mesh like proIiles covering the
study area (Fig. 4.2). The diurnal variations oI the magnetic Iield were
corrected Ior and also, the latitude variations (gradient) were corrected. The
corrected data oI the observed magnetic Iield were contoured and the total
magnetic intensity map was obtained.


Figure 4.2: Total magnetic intensity map oI Siwa area (land survey).
The locations oI the observed stations were determined using the Global
Positioning System (GPS) with an accuracy oI about 1 meter.

Due to the declination and inclination angles oI the magnetic vector, there
will be a shiIt in the location oI the magnetic anomalies oI the subsurIace
source on the map Irom its true location. ThereIore, reduction to the North
Pole technique (RTP) (Mendonca and Silva 1993) was applied to the total
magnetic intensity map and the RTP magnetic map was produced (Fig. 4.3).
The RTP map was used Ior the quantitative interpretation.

Figure 4.3: RTP magnetic map oI Siwa area.
Close study oI the RTP magnetic map, reveals that most oI the anomaly
have NE-SW, NW- SE and E-W trends. The presence oI negative magnetic
anomaly in the middle oI the studied area may be due to the thick
sedimentary cover, whereas the positive magnetic anomalies may be related
to thin sedimentary cover (upliIt oI basement) at that area. Also, the high
Irequencies (short wave lengths) magnetic anomalies present in the
northeastern part oI the map may be due to shallow subsurIace magnetic
sources, and the low Irequencies anomalies are present at the western part oI
the map.

3.2. Interpretation of the RTP Aeromagnetic Map:
The aeromagnetic survey (EGPC 1979) was on a Ilight elevation oI 1 km
(Fig. 4.4). On looking to on the map, it can be stated that most oI the
anomalies trend in E-W, and NE-SW directions. The high Irequency
anomalies are present in the southern and eastern parts oI the map and it
could be related to shallow subsurIace magnetic sources. The low
Irequencies anomalies are Iound in the northern part oI the map. This map
represents the regional trends oI the studied area.

Figure 4.4: RTP aeromagnetic anomaly map oI Siwa area aIter (EGPC 1979)

3.3. Interpretation of the Bouguer Anomaly Map:
The Bouguer anomaly map (EGPC 1979) oI Siwa area (Fig. 4.5) shows that
the main trends oI the anomalies are NE-SW, (Syrian Arc system tectonic
trend), E-W (Mediterranean trend) and NW-SE (GulI oI Suez tectonics). The
thick sedimentary sequences are Iound at the western and southern parts oI
the map and are indicated by negative Bouguer anomalies.




Figure 4.5: Bouguer anomaly map oI Siwa (EGPC 1979)


4. APLICATION OF THE TREND ANALYSIS
TECHNIQUE

The trend analysis method was applied to the RTP land magnetic map and
the obtained deduced structure map is shown in (Fig. 4.6). Furthermore, the
regionality oI these structures was obtained by applying this technique to the
RTP aeromagnetic and Bouguer anomaly maps covering a large-scale area
to produce a structural map (Fig. 4.7).




Figure 4.6: The structures deduced Irom the RTP land magnetic survey map.






Figure 4.7: Structural map deduced Irom the aeromagnetic and Bouguer
anomaly map oI the study area.

The deduced structures were correlated with the surIace geologic structures
published by CONOCO and Egyptian General Petroleum Cooperation, 1987
(Fig. 4.1). The structure lineaments Ior each map are grouped into 10´
degrees according to their lengths. The results oI the statistical method were
represented by rose diagrams (Fig. 4.8). These diagrams represent the main
structural trends predominant in the area.



The results indicate that the predominant structures in the study area are E-
W, N35´- 45´W and N45´- 65´E trends. This result agrees with the result
obtained by MeshreI, in Said (1990).





Figure 4.8: Rose diagram to represent the main structures prevailing in the
study area at diIIerent levels.
5. CALCULATION OF THE FAULT PARAMETERS
USING HILBERT TRANSFORM.

According to Nabighian (1974), this method is used to calculate the
parameters oI the buried causative bodies. The Helbert method was applied
to a set oI proIiles crossing the anomalies oI magnetic and Bouguer anomaly
maps to detect the parameters oI the deduced subsurIace structures.
The results (Fig. 4.9) indicate that the mean depth to the basement ranges
between 3.1 and 3.8 km. The depth to the upper surIace oI the deduced Iaults
ranges between 0.5 km to 1 km whereas the depth to the lower surIace
ranges between 3.3 km to 3.9 km respectively. The dip angels oI these Iaults
are between 25´ to 45´.

6. APPLICATION OF WERNER DECONVOLUTION
METHOD
The Werner method (1953) is used to analyze the potential Iield data oI
arbitrary bodies. The simpliIications seem to be a limitation; the method
does provide a wide range oI applications (Klingele et al. 1991). ThereIore
the Iull derivation method oI the interpretation was applied to the potential
Iield data using Cerovsky and Pasteka technique (2003). This method
depends on n-point operator and it means that we are solving n equations oI
either n or less unknowns. Furthermore the clustering algorithm was applied
to the Werner deconvolution data. These clusters were indicated by
removing the interIered noises signals and produced the most convenient
solutions.






Figure 4.9: Evaluation oI Iault parameters along Ah1-Ah1` oI aeromagnetic
map.

Where: (a) the magnetic proIile (b) amplitude, horizontal and vertical
gradient oI the anomaly (c) the analytical signal and (d) the Iault model.


The results, Figs. (4.10 And 4.11), indicate that the mean depth to the
basement ranges between 2.5 km and 3.4 km. Also, it shows more accurate
results that correlate well with the drilling data, especially the results
produced Irom the land magnetic data. This may be due to the detailed and
condensed land magnetic survey.

Figure 4.10: Results oI Werner deconvolution method along proIile L3-L3`
oI the land magnetic map
Figure 4.11: Results oI Werner deconvolution method along proIile A3-A3`
oI the aeromagnetic map.
7. APPLICATION OF THE THREE DIMENSIONS
MAGNETIC MODEL TO THE LAND MAGNETIC
DATA
The magnetic Iield was computed using Iormulae Ior polyhedral bodies
derived by Pohanka (1998) and Singh and Guptasarma (2001). This was
evaluated Ior x, y, z and total Iield components. Moreover, all components
oI the Iield derivatives tensor were computed. Magnetic Iield is computed in
user-deIined sensor height over the magnetic relieI.
The 3D model program is implemented in C¹¹ (Pohanka 1998; and Singh
and Guptasarma 2001) was applied to the land magnetic data in order to
create compact models and to simpliIy deIining the 3D geometry oI
anomalous bodies. The algorithms used in 3D model program (Cerovsky et
al., 2004) are Ior general case, arbitrary measuring point r, and polyhedron
vertices vi. The computation also includes transIormation oI coordinates
Irom degrees to meters.
The model "observation area" is a rectangular area deIined on the Earth`s
surIace in rectangular coordinates. Input and output Iiles Ior relieI and
measured, modeled or diIIerence Iield are in the Iorm oI grid Iiles. Three
main views are provided on the modeled halI-space the map view, proIile
view and 3D view.
The map view (Fig. 4.12) provides an overview on the model geometry. It
shows that the light gray color (-ve anomalies) is Iound in the central and
southwestern parts oI the map. These types oI anomalies may be considered
as indication Ior the presence oI thick sedimentary sequences or deeper
basement surIace. Whereas the dark black color (¹ve anomalies) is Iound in
the northwestern oI the map. This may be due to the presence oI shallower
basement rocks. The correlation between this map and the modeled map
(Fig. 4.13). Shows that the ve anomalies are correlated with deeper parts in
the basement rocks and the ¹ve anomalies are correlated with shallower
parts. For Iurther conIirmation, two proIiles cross sections were perIormed
along the modeled area.


Col 4 and Col 9 are the locations oI the two modeled cross section proIiles
Figure 4.12: Land magnetic map view in nT oI the studied area aIter the
coordinates transIormation.


Figure 4.13: The 3D modeled land magnetic map oI the study area.
On looking to the deduced cross section, it is noted that the ve anomalies
are represented by deeper depths to the basement rocks e.g. in the south part
oI the proIiles, Iollowed by intruded basement heights that are represented
by ¹ve anomalies along the two proIiles. Furthermore the proIiles illustrate
that the depth to the basement ranges Irom 3 km to 3.6 km and its dipping
increases toward north (Figs. 4.14 & 4.15).


Mt: modeled Iield, d Mt; diIIerence Iield and m Mt; measured Iield
Figure 4.14: Cross0section along column 4 oI the modeled
area.

Mt: modeled Iield, d Mt: diIIerence Iield and m Mt: measured Iield
Figure 4.15: Cross-Section along column 9 oI the modeled area.
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