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2011 Sikkim earthquake

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2011 Sikkim earthquake

Epicenter
Map showing the epicenter of the earthquake

Date

18 September 2011

Origin time

18:10 IST (UTC+05:30) 18:25 NPT (UTC+05:45) 18:40 BTT (UTC+06:00) 20:40 CST (UTC+08:00)

Duration

30–40 seconds

Magnitude

6.9 (Mw)

Depth

19.7 km (12.1 miles) 27.723°N 88.064°ECoordinates: 88.064°E 27.723°N

Epicenter

and across Tibet.[5] Several buildings collapsed in Gangtok.Type Countries or regions Intraplate[1] India Bangladesh Nepal Bhutan People's Republic of China Max.[3] At its location. 18 September 2011.9 (Mw) earthquake centered within the Kanchenjunga Conservation Area.[4] Most of the deaths occurred in Sikkim.2 mi). Bhutan. Bhutan. at 18:10 IST (12:40 UTC) on Sunday.2 magnitude hit Haryana's Sonipat district.7 km (12.[8] The earthquake was the fourth significant earthquake in India of September 2011. with reports of fatalities in and near Singtam in the East Sikkimdistrict. Sikkim at a shallow depth of 19. was a magnitude 6. structural damage occurred in Bangladesh. including three killed when a wall collapsed in the British Embassy inKathmandu. Bangladesh and southernTibet. another seven fatalities were confirmed in the latter region. also known as the 2011 Himalayan earthquake (Hindi: २०११ िहमालय भूकमप Himalaya Bhūkamp). Nepal. [6] Eleven are reported dead in Nepal.[7] Elsewhere. The quake came just a few days after an earthquake of 4.9 (Mw) earthquake occurred inland at 18:10 IST on 18 September 2011. near the border of Nepal and the Indian state ofSikkim. Although earthquakes in this . sending tremors in New Delhi. the continental Indian and Eurasian Plates converge with one another along a tectonic boundary beneath the mountainous region of northeast India near the Nepalese border. At least 111 people were killed in the earthquake. intensity Tsunami Landslides Aftershocks Casualties MM VII[2] No Yes Yes At least 111 killed The 2011 Sikkim earthquake (Hindi: २०११ िसिकम भूकमप Sikkim Bhūkamp).[3] The earthquake was felt across northeastern India. about 68 km (42 mi) northwest of Gangtok.[9] • [edit]Earthquake [edit]Geology The magnitude 6.

[17] However.[13] Kathmandu experienced two aftershocks that both had a magnitude of 4. the earthquake was felt in Shigatse and Lhasa.1. Chandigarh and Delhi states of India. Tremors were felt in Assam.[18] . Jharkhand. Initial analyses also indicate a complex origin. the earthquake caused strong shaking in many areas adjacent to its epicenter reportedly lasting 30–40 seconds. Bihar. Tripura. Bangladesh and China. no loss of life or property was reported.6 (Mw) within 30 minutes of the initial earthquake. India. the earthquake was felt in Nepal. tremors shook some parts of Maharashtra measuring 3.[1] USGS shake map Located at a shallow depth beneath the surface. with these motions reported in the Patna capital of Bihar and as far southwest as Bihar Sharif.8 Mw. The aftershocks had no serious impact in the region. [14] At least 20 aftershocks back-to-back throughout the night created panic in the Gangtok.7.[10][non-primary source needed] The strongest shaking occurred to the west in Gangtok and further south in Siliguri. and 4. occurring at magnitudes of 5. Osmanabad and Solapur districts.[11] In Tibet. all of which had already suffered the 1993 earthquake. parts of West Bengal. although similar ground motions registering at MM VI (strong) on the Mercalli scale were recorded in many smaller towns such as Mangan across elevated regions. Lighter tremors (MM IV–III) spread southward through populous regions. 5.[15] On 19 September.Rajasthan.[12] [edit]Aftershocks Sikkim experienced three aftershocks since the earthquake. Uttar Pradesh. Meghalaya.region are usually interplate in nature. [2] In all. with the perceived tremor likely being a result of two separate events occurring close together in time at similar focal depths. preliminary data suggests the Sikkim earthquake was triggered by shallow strike-slip faulting from an intraplate source within the over-riding Eurasian Plate. Bhutan.9 (Mw)[16] at around 06:30 IST includingLatur.

[22] Water supply was .[2] Upon impact.[10] at least 111 people were confirmed killed by the effects of the earthquake.[19] [edit]India Northern India suffered the most from the earthquake. tens of thousands of residents evacuated their homes.[21] Power supply was disrupted in areas near Sikkim. with at least 75 people killed. while 6 deaths have been reported from West Bengal.[15] 60 people were reportedly killed in Sikkim alone. albeit very populous region near the Sikkim–Nepal border. and many areas suffered from communication and power outages.[edit]Impact Casualties by country Country Deaths India 97 China 7 Nepal 6 Bhutan 1 Bangladesh 0 Total 111 The earthquake struck near a mountainous. The strong shaking caused significant building collapse and mudslides. and hundreds of others sustained injuries.[20] At least 7 people have died in Bihar. and adjoining Jalpaiguri and Cooch Behardistricts. heavy rain and landslides rendered rescue work more difficult. As the earthquake occurred in the monsoon season. most of the structures were reported to be highly vulnerable to earthquake shaking. the outages were in part blamed on an affected electric substation in Siliguri. including Kalimpong of Darjeeling district.

building collapse was reported in Yadong.[30] Panicked people rushed out of their homes and offices. with cellular networks unavailable after the quake.[27] [edit]Nepal In the capital city of Nepal. the major highway linking Sikkim to the rest of India. Sylhet. in Nepal 6 people died due to the earthquake. There are also reports of a landslide right after crossing the Isuna Bridge from Paro towards Thimphu.interrupted in Sikkim. however cracks on walls and ceilings of houses have been reported in Wangthangkha village. [36] . Lango and the town area in Paro.[31] Cell phone lines were also down for a few minutes during the quake. Kathmandu. [14] Three people were killed when a wall at the British Embassy collapsed.[29] Overall. There. and many others suffered injuries. many government offices and hospitals were left unusable.[14] Two people were killed in the eastern city of Dharan.[33] Dinggyê and Gamba.[19] Ten of the dead were workers at a hydroelectric project on the Teesta River. Pentong. Telecommunications networks were disrupted.000 crore (US$22. and falling boulders after crossing Chundzom Bridge. [25] In Gangtok.[12] At least seven people were reported dead in Yadong. damage from the earthquake was comparatively limited.[23] In India.[35] [edit]Bhutan So far there have been no reports of casualties in Bhutan.[31] [edit]China In Tibet. Sakyong.[24] [edit]Sikkim Two buildings of the Indo-Tibetan Border Police in the Pegong area of North Sikkim collapsed. Bogra and as far as Chittagong.[26] The heavy shaking destroyed the villages of Lingzya. which is closer to the epicenter. The quake was also felt in Dhaka. and due to saturated soil from preceding heavy rains widespread mudslides impacted the region. Faridpur. National Highway 31.[34] Telephone service was interrupted in the seat of Yadong County. [14] [edit]Bangladesh The earthquake was felt most strongly in northern Bangladesh.3 billion) with the actual report yet to come. Citizens were asked to avoid traveling on the Paro-Thimphu highway. was damaged. property damage is estimated to be around 100. The shaking effects were more severe in eastern Nepal.[30][31]but the only damage seems to be tilted and cracked buildings.[32] no casualties were reported. Bay and Tholong.[28] Sunsari experienced power and telephone communication outages. hundreds of homes sustained significant damage.

announced 2 lakh (US$4. on 19 September. Rain and landslides had hampered the rescue efforts of workers searching for survivors. four Dhruv and five Cheetah helicopters. The army had deployed 72 columns including infantry troops.[15] .Phuntsholing road.[13] However.[15][38] Indian Prime Minister Dr. Please remain calm and alert.200) for seriously injured. No damage reported from East Bhutan.5) for those with minor injuries was announced by Sikkim chief minister Pawan Chamling. Ex-gratia compensation of 5 lakh (US$11. Manmohan Singh.000 (US$1. Four road blocks caused by falling debris are reported on the Chukha .115) for those grievously injured and 25.000 (US$557.Prime Minister of Bhutan Jigmi Thinley updated in his status [37] as "Phone lines remains clogged reflecting our caring and close knit society. combat engineers. South and West Sikkim remained inaccessible delaying rescue operations owing to landslides caused by rainfall. 50. A group of 14 tourists were rescued by the army from north Sikkim.200) for the kin of the deceased. Thimphu Dzong has sustained some cracks in the Utse and one of the four corner towers." [edit]Rescue [edit]India operations and compensation Early rescue operations included four teams of National Disaster Response Force been rushed to Sikkim and five more teams were being sent from Kolkata. Occupants have been moved out to safer parts. Two homes in Haa report damage with 3-4 people having suffered minor injury.500) as exgratia to a family member of those killed in the earthquake and 1 lakh (US$2.