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BIOS 1301 Introductory Ecology and Sustainability Intro Lecture · Foodwebs – Divide species in an ecosystem into trophic levels

based on their main source of nutrition. Trophic Levels- Determine the energy flow through an ecosystem Sustainability Lecture · Key Issues of sustainability- Can lead to extinction caused by humans, fish species caused by overfishing -Loss of Biodiversity Extinction- extinction IS natural process, however in human times, species rates of extinction have increased dramatically ( as compared with background rates in fossils) Loss of Biodiversity- Important as it disrupts ecosystem regulation and therefore impacts ecosystem services. Can directly impact societies ie poor societies that depend on the biology for living. Utilitarian values such as ecosystem services pollination, water quality control air quality. Human population – exponentially rising and therefore having great impacts on biodiversity with increasing needs. Ever expanding diet and omnivorous consuming a very large range in their diet. The major threats to the environment: o Habitat Loss – forestry, conservation of estuaries, land clearing development o Invasive Species- exotic plant and animal species becoming pests o Pollution- Climate change, air and water pollution from fertilizers o Overexploitation – from rec hunting and overfishing, population increase o Diseases – in water and other pollutants Sustainability Lecture 2

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little funding to make a significant change. poverty. international cooperation And some downfalls: National commitment was lacked. Ie. conflict between nations. responsibility of self) Agenda 21 has some successes: Public awareness. no solid leadership · · Unsustainability – Why? Overconsumption.avoiding depletion of natural resources Inter-generational equity-fairness of inter-temporal distribution of the natural assets available and the right to the exploitation.themes by United Nations which aims to address importance of sustainability on international scale o Shared World o Growth of new world with sustainability o Habitable o Fertile ( remaining with abundant resources) o Clean world ( pollution minimisation) o Peoples World ( social participation and awareness. private company interest. uneven wealth lack of technology Economic indicators – GNP: Gross national Product: GDP: Gross Domestic Product: .· · Sustainability. It means that we inherit the Earth from previous generations and have an obligation to pass it on in reasonable condition to future generations so they can meet their needs. AGENDA 21.

and deduction (deriving from theories and laws) Induction issues: can easily be disproved. review paper . Therefore a natural capital would define the worth of natural resources such as water body or a tree. peer reviewed Secondary. its value is $0. environmental sustainability Redefining Sustainable development – development which does not degrade the environment and its ecosystems in a long term scale · Environmental Science 1 · Two types of reasoning: induction (by sufficient observation making a judgment). “Natural capital “– the environment only has value once it has been made into a product ie a timber table. Before this. · Sustainable Development-economic security and prosperity. Replication. goes beyond evidence Scientific Method: Hypothesis>Observation>Question>Data analysis>Conclusion Types of Approaches: Theoredical (models and simulations not real life). social development and advancement. Comparative (comparing data from various real life groups)Experimental (designing a controlled experiment for science and carefully testing) Science is FALSIFIABLE Environmental Science 2 · · Randomisation.synthesis of scientific papers.GDP and GNP do not measure environmental sustainability. Repeatability Inference · · · · Scientific Literature · · Primary –original research.

pest and disease regulation. providing goods and services through food and fibre Provisional services.· · Tertiary – textbooks and magazines Grey. Nitrogen is the limiting nutrient factor for terrestrial plants Inorganic N2(gas) is made accessible through NITROGEN FIXATION which converts it to more reactive forms in ammonia and nitrates for organisms– done by bacteria and legumes (biological) in soil and litter NITROGEN FIXATION also done by fertilizers (industrial) HIGH ENERGY NITROGEN FIXATION cosmic radiation and meteorite trails · · · · Ecosystem Services · · Support human life and society SERVICES: Natural Capital (ie natural resources) – maintaining assets through regeneration. protein.Food. fibre biochemicals Regulatory services (regulating the earth) – Air quality regulation.not quality controlled Vegetation Classification Maps · · Generally identifies plant communities Can be used to define habitats and environmental conditions Life’s fundamental biogeochemical processes Nitrogen Cycle · · N essential for life for manufacture dna.BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTIVITY Free N2 (gas) is found mainly in atmosphere however this is not accessible to plants/animals etc. pollution. climate regulation · · .

· · Cultural Services – Spiritual services. and are dynamic ie biota is constantly changing with seasons and other factors. educational Supporting services ( ie supporting the functioning of an ecosystem). Within an ecosystem they are many niches. each niche is different in its own way for each species. Eg no two wetlands are the same · · Pollination is an ecosystem service ( done by insects for fruits) Pest control ecosystem service ( eg done by ibises and bats for insect control) good for crops Water Quality control regulatory service ( artificial mini wetlands made to take the nutrients from storm water and make it more suitable to runoff into harbour) · Ecosystem Structure and Function · An ecosystem definition: A biological community of interacting organisms and their environment. However habitats do not really have a dollar value as they are not equal. The definition is scale independent ie can go from an oceanic system to a microbial community. soil formation Some services are identified in the market as having a dollar value ie natural resources such as wood and food etc. nitrogen fixing. Only recently defined as ecology is a relatively new area of study.photosynthesis. ( no two niches are the same) Niche definition.Eltonian definition: The function or position of an organism or population within an ecological community · · · · . ecotourism.

Less energy=smaller populations are sustained. can be rare in one place and common in another. Eg pH. Energy level is a limiting factor for the size of ecosystem food chain. Trophic level pyramidal nature. water depth.· Hutchinsonian definition: the particular area and abiotic conditions within a habitat occupied by an organism.decrease in each trophic level step is due to stored energy loss through heat and kinetic energy. As energy is gradually lost there it reaches a point where there is not enough energy to sustain higher trophic levels. This loss is due to respiration. . Distribution and Abundance Distribution of a species changes over time and abundance varies widely. temperature Trophic levels Autotrophs self nutrition ( make their own food if given inorganic Carbon and energy usually through photosynthesis) Eg Primary producers such as plants · Heterotrophs (herbi-omni-carnivores cannot produce own food) Eg primary. bacteria There is a big energy loss from the initial energy from the sun as each trophic level is reached. secondary Consumers of food chain such as animals Saprotrophs ( gets energy from dead organic matter cannot make food themselves therefore considered a type of heterotroph) Eg Decomposers such as fungi mushrooms.

floods. climate change induced by humans . pH level. mixed forests have distinguishable biota · Biotic Factors such as predators. disease Human – Habitat loss. and then there are areas of low to 0 distribution in environments beyond the species tolerance limits. Ecological sucession following clearing etc. Mediterranean . landslides Biotic – Predators. competition where there is partial overlapping of niches Human Impacts ie if humans have destroyed their habitat they won’t be distributed there. Distribution determined by the species NICHE ( n-dimensional hyper volume) Disturbance Ecology · · · Physical – Fire. drought. Biomes of the world eg tundra. competition.Factors affecting distribution and abundance: · Abiotic Factors such as temperature. or developments. There are some areas of maximum distribution where they are in the preferred environmental conditions. water depth. water availability important usually. terrestrial such as sandy or soils or hills. food availability. then there are areas of lower distribution where there is some physiological stresses. climatic zone eg arid. savannah. overharvesting. · Evolutionary History specialisation-certain animals are found in certain places due to pangea and changes in land mass causing animals to migrate Divergent (evolving dependent on selective pressures changes in environments) Convergent( dissimilar biota becoming similar due to similar conditions and adaptations) · Environmental gradient – there is a bell curve of distribution of species. polar Water and temperature – physiological temperature tolerances. metabolic rates.

are sometimes essential for ecosystem functioning. creates patches of heterogeneity. may create patches in an ecosystem and then lead to primary succession as colonisation begins. or predator-prey dynamics) Ecosystem dynamics Traditional view is that there is a maximum state that is reached after various sucession takes place. intensity. not many species can cope with high disturbances. · Physical disturbance natural disasters. area.Population either reaches a stable point called carrying capacity (which is due to limits caused by predation. size. medium length and medium size = highest species diversity Why? Creates overlapping of past successional species and newer sucessional species. frequency The spatial and temporal scale can vary greatly Intermediate disturbance: medium frequency. prevents competitive exclusion resulting in greater niche overlapping · Blue-green algae Lecture (cyanobacteria) . can wipe out some species and thus change the dynamics of an ecosystem Disturbance modelling · · · · · Parameters include. time. Changes are the result of disturbances which cause sucession. Biotic disturbances such as insects are disease. Physical disturbances such as fire and floods. competition. Modern understanding is that ecosystems are dynamic and is there no single state that is aimed to be reached. food and disturbances Or population is dynamic (due to biotic changes in seasons ie less food sources during winter.

River form. estuaries. River segment>section>river reach>pool>microhabitat The Flow signature. “Boom and bust cycles”.studying the flow pattern of a river will tell you the temporal variability. there is also groundwater aquifers which contain organisms.the terrestrial structure can tell what the flow will be like. The different spatial scales . vertical and time (temporal) Vertical dimension.studying rivers can take place at a range of spatial scales.· · · · Produced from photosynthesis and oxygen Global distribution Land and sea Long evolutionary history.is not just the flow of water above ground. can live in very diverse habitats yet low species diversity Physiology · · · Nitrogen fixing agent Releases toxins (heptoxics. species and sediments. eg in Australia quite flat so flows are slow due to small gradients. depending on the aim of the study. lateral.lotic systems with four dimensions. It also helps to identify the landscape.are changes in habitat due to changes in river flow. promotes tumours Rivers and their dependent ecosystems · Wetlands include lakes. floodplains which are ALL dependent on river flow for functioning Rivers . It can cause changes in species and changes in food web. nutrients. swamps. River Zones · · · · · · . longitudinal. cytotoxins) Microcystin toxin.inhibits protein growth. neurotoxins.

deposition significant. light penetration close to bank Limnetic zone. Mangroves areas of higher temperatures and high rainfall. increased flow volume WETLANDS-Area covered with water supporting aquatic biota and usually lots of vegetation. Salt Flats which are hypersaline water bodies which home many fisheries. erosion and deposition both significant. valley broadens. There are weeds. more meandering increased flow volume. rapid flow.Also light penetration but further out from land. erosion greater than deposition Transition zone .Headwater streams.low elevation streams. No introduced species. also a habitat for fish. high biological activity Estuaries and Groundwater Lecture Esturaries provide    Fishing industry Recreation Wetlands for biota The 4 Main types of estuaries are as follows: Sea grass beds which are flowering plants which are food for dugongs.slow meander. flat valley broadens out. also contains algae and cyanobacteria. Estuary Issues . Habitat Zones Littoral zone – Greatest biodiversity. Salt Marshes species richness of salt marshes increases as you go down the east coast.top part which is the steepest section. mainly plankton Profundal (deeper) zone. Depositional zone . limited life Benthic (bottom) zone – decomposition.light does not support photosynthesis.

yet birds still arriving at the same time therefore no food. many species do not travel fast Changes in phenology. on rivers and wetlands if deep mining Mining townships may also cause a greater ecological footprint than the actual mining as infrastructure and water is required in such remote areas. mountains. freshwater rivers. therefore need to modify the estuaries for accessibility Introduced species can be brought from shipping liners without anyone knowing Pollution Reduced river flows Groundwater and bore holes – great artesian basin Mining lecture – effects of mining on the environment      Pollution. landfill Subsidence. air and water pollution smog and co2 from combustion End point disposal of biproducts. contains 3.     Human settlement near estuaries as humans likes to be situated near water. choking up rivers and changing flooding patterns Smelting of ores. and can evolve with changes. 80% of pollution originates from land . oak trees leafing earlier. dust Sedimentation. Industry and ports need to be near the coast.5milliob tons Garbage bags are mistaken as jellyfish by marine animals and can kill them Biological Amplification. This modifies the area and causes sand movement alternations. however others need to move to different climates There are hard limits which restrict migrations. Climate Change Lecture         Definite increase in co2 levels since industrial revolution Some species are tolerant. islands topography And soft limits.  however these toxins are accumulated up the food chain Nearshore pollution. recycling may require more energy. breeding cycles are changing Decoupling interactions. Organic chemical concentrations in ocean are usually low. Rainfall changes Coral reefs are getting bleached Marine Pollution    Great Pacific Garbage Patch 80m deep.

hard to extract from crop seed so you bring them both. heavy metals. Human affects from weeds. can cause collateral damage to native plants. Crude oil spills – large volume. BACI before after control impacts Weeds. organic chemicals. some are toxic. Marine plants are also affected as oil on the water surface reduces light penetration and thus hampers photosynthesis. soil waste. nutrient from sewage and agriculture runoff (leading to dead zones). organic farmers require 0% gmos. herbicides. approval processs The genes are from other organisms and transfer is POSSIBLE but highly unlikely. does not disperse easily Refined oil spills (transported by sea) .Agricultural and environmental       Agricultural. less common. invasive plant species cause competition with native and loss of habitat and resources for native species. Usually die if no human intervention. loss of resources for crops such as pollination as weed is pollinated too. interfers with harvesting causing rotting Other broader problems. more disruptive. herbicide drift. hayfever. reduces yield. Other marine life such as seals too get oil on their body and reduces insulating abilities. – competition. Also birds may ingest the oil and can cause kidney damage. gene flow causing hybridization Environmental. In Australia. some herbicides may remain in soil for longer time. only uses gmo in cotton Pollen spread – creating buffer zones. asthma Controlling weeds. Quantity. most common type. heat sediment and exotic species.smaller volume. spreads engineered traits into the wild and can cause hybridisation . toxicity ( amount required to cause damage) and persistence (length of time it lasts) Oil spills 90% of oil enters ocean by human activities.Common types of pollution are oil. manual control Herbicides. a greater concern Problem? Affects birds by reducing insulating ability of their feathers.

Detecting emergent diseases. Establishing “normal health range” ie calcium content and blood pressure etc. Development of physiological tests by changing environments.in-situ programs. awareness. Sumatran rhinos poaching. ie daintree rainforest.more energy going into farming such as the switch from horses to internal combustion engines for harvesting International resources – shipping internationally. labeling is now being used to show Water – cutting down trees causes less transpiration and therefore changing water cycles Biodiversity affects – o Clearing of rainforests loss of biodiversity o Soil – invertebrate biodiversity loss and abundance reduced o Forests are major reservoirs for ecosystem services Forestry produces economically viable resources. OLD GROWTH VS NEW GROWTH Trees of old growth contain much high biodiversity. treatment trials. . therefore new trees take a long time to reach this stage and do not compare. srilanka elephants education of proper treatment etc. application of research findings 360 partnerships where conservation is done away from the zoo but it is involved. Science.  Farming forestry Sustainability      Fertilizers used to provide N and P. preference testing Conservation – controlled breeding. converting to agricultural land is an unsustainable service.have now caused excess N and runoff causes eutrophication Energy costs.increasing knowledge of a species by being able to observe under very controlled conditions. schools.Conservation Management Role of zoos   Education. community programs.

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