You are on page 1of 3

Biodiversity : A simple definition of biodiversity or biological diversity is "the variety of life, including diversity at the level of genes, species

and ecosystems". Biotechnology involves the use of all life forms for human welfare. Therefore, extinction of wild species and destruction of ecosystems has been a major concern of policy makers and biotechnologists alike. National parks and sanctuaries have been established in many countries to meet this objective. Under the auspices of the United Nations also, funds are being established and other efforts being made for conservation of germplasm at the global level. Conservation of biodiversity : There are two ways to conserve Biodiversity they are: 1. Ex-situ 2. In-situ . Ex-situ conservation means literally, "off-site conservation". It is the process of protecting an endangered species of plant or animal by removing part of the population from a threatened habitat and placing it in a new location, which may be a wild area or within the care of humans. Ex situ conservation , Attention is to be focused on a large number of medicinals, which due to their therapeutic value are gradually becoming rare and facing extinction as a result of over-exploitation from natural habitats and absence of systematic cultivation. Wild and other species of these genera need to be preserved for widening of their gene pool. Fortunately for legumes, the focus is widespread and conservative programmes are attended While ex-situ conservation comprises some of the oldest and best known conservation methods, it also involves newer, sometimes controversial laboratory methods. (a).The Cucurbits serve both as vegetables and medicinals, and have wide distribution in West Bengal. Concerted effort is needed to collect wild varieties of Cucurbits in this zone - the group, which undoubtedly is going to be one of the most important families yielding drugs and vegetables for the future. Of the tropical resources, Cucurbits now occupy a prominent position in the western world. In-situ conservation means "on-site conservation". It is the process of protecting an endangered plant or animal species in its natural habitat, either by protecting or cleaning up the habitat itself, or by defending the

because of the absence of human interference. Wynad in the Nilgiris with the Silent Valley (ii) Kanchendzonga National Park on Sikkim (iii) The Nanda Devi Sanctuary (iv) Valley of Floowers (v) Kedarnath in Uttar Pradesh (vi) Simlipal and Jeypore Hill Forest stretch in Orissa (vii) Kanha National Park. ( b ) In situ conservation other than in BRs In addition to Biosphere Reserves. tissue culture may be resorted to along with hardening of plants. Madhya Pradesh (viii) North Island of Andaman and Jarawa Tribal Reserves (ix) Sundarbans in West Bengal (x) Namdapha. genotypes adapted to changed niches survive with the gradual elimination of the unfit. remain undisturbed and the environment with its ecosystem reflects the dynamics of evolution. The regions of BRs are protected from human interference. Through struggle for existence and natural environmental changes. Tawang and Welong in Arunachal Pradesh (xi) Gulf of Mannar in Tamil Nadu. coupled with the fact that their preferences are very specific in a restricted set-up of nature. certain species with high medicinal and economic value with strict ecological preferences. The origin and death of genotypes is a common feature of such natural reserves.species from predators. As such. In order to increase the number of individuals of such species. Along with establishment of Biosphere Reserves. The best method of in situ conservation of areas rich in bioresources is the designation of areas as “Biosphere Reserves” (BR) as well as natural sanctuaries. This term refers also to the conservation of genetic resources in natural populations of plant or animal species. such as alpine. their conservation in situ is essential for propagation and sustainable utilisation. In view of their wide importance. These include: (i) Mysore Plateau . documentation of the flora and fauna of the biosphere should be a continuing process to record the dynamicity of species change in evolution. which normally harbour a wide variety of genotypes. such as forest genetic resources in natural populations of tree species. the continuous documentation and monitoring with exploration of resources is essential. such as of orchids. and (xii) Tura Ridge in Meghalaya. Pakku. Lalichopra. germplasm centers as well as orchid sanctuaries. including stress environments. Biosphere Reserves Several areas so far have been identified in India as potential BRs. semi-alpine or even desert regions need to be preserved in situ. Reserves can be created with such plants in . (a) Monitoring of BRs Biosphere Reserves. which has already been achieved. Those areas can be considered as natures playground where dynamics of evolution can be studied.

.one or more than one areas representing special ecological niches. Allium strachyii.etc. Allium wallichii. The taxa requiring growth in such special areas in West Bengal (in situ) should include Daphne cannabina.