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Experiment No:- 10 Title:- Viewing s Satellite Image

Aim: To view a satellite using various combination of bands. Resources Used: ESRI ArcView 3 Theory: Raster data model is used for representing continuous phenomenon. The raster data model uses a regular grid to cover the space. A raster is divided into rows, coloums. Cells are also called pixels with images. Row functions as y-coordinates and columns as x-coordinates. Each cell in the raster is explicitly defined by its row and column position.Raster data represent points with single cells, lines with sequence of neighboring cells, and areas with collection of contiguous cells. Each cell in a raster carries a value, which represents the characteristic of a spatial phenomenon at the location denoted by its rows and column. Depending on the coding of its cell, a raster can be either an integer or a floating –point raster. The cell size determines the resolution of the raster data model. A raster may have a single band or multiple bands. A large variety of data that we use in GIS are encoded in a raster format. They include digital elevation data, satellite images, digital orthophotos, scanned maps and graphic files. Raster data tend to require large amounts of the computer memory.These data all share the same basic elements of the raster data model. Data for GIS are collected from various sources. Satellite Image: Remotely sensed satellite data are familiar to GIS users. The spatial resolution of a satellite image relates to the ground pixel size. The pixel value also called the brightness value, represent light energy reflected or emitted from the Earth’s surface. The measurement of light energy is based on spectral bands from a continuum of wavelength known as electromagnetic spectrum. Visible light in the range from 0.4 m to 0.7 m. Short Infrared or near –IR between 0.7 m to1.0 m behaves like visible light and can be detected by special photographic film. Reflected IR band from 1. 0 m to 3.0 m is reflected by the earth . Beyond the wavelength of 3 m, IR radiation emitted by the earth’s surface can be sensed in the form of heat. The region of the EM radiation with wavelengths between 1mm to 300mm is called the microwave band and radiation at these wavelengths can penetrate through clouds. Each cell in a multiband raster is associated with more than one cell value. An example of a multiband raster is a satellite image, which may have five, seven or more bands at each cell location. Each cell in a single band raster ha only one cell value An example of a single band raster is elevation raster , which has one elevation value at each cell location. Panchromatic images are comprised of a single spectral band. Multispectral images are comprised of multiple bands.

in which the displacement caused by camera tilt and terrain relief has bee removed. Alter the view of the image by changing the color assignment to each of the bands. Orthophotos are digitized image prepared from an Ariel photograph or other remotely sense data . Activity: Create a new project with tmrect. A Digital Elevation model consists of a array of uniformly spaced elevation data.shp. Conclusion: Roll No: Signature of faculty in-charge with date .Existing maps are another source of data for GIS .