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43J - Integrated Microelectronic Devices - Fall 2002

Lecture 6-1

Lecture 6 - Carrier generation and recombination (cont.) Carrier drift and diﬀusion September 13, 2002 Contents: 1. Dynamics of excess carriers in uniform situations 2. Thermal motion Reading assignment: del Alamo, Ch. 3, §§3.5,3.7, Ch. 4, §4.1.

if one shines light onto a semiconductor.43J .720J/3.6. how do the carrier concentrations evolve in time? • What happens when the light is turned oﬀ ? • How about if the light excitation is turned on and oﬀ very quickly? • Are carriers sitting still in thermal equilibrium? .Integrated Microelectronic Devices .Fall 2002 Lecture 6-2 Key questions • What governs the carriers dynamics in semiconduc tors outside equilibrium? • In particular.

720J/3. Dynamics of excess carriers in uniform situations Consider: • extrinsic uniformly doped semiconductor • no surfaces nearby In thermal equilibrium: n = no p = po G o − Ro = 0 no Ec Go Ro Ev po thermal equilibrium .Integrated Microelectronic Devices .43J .6.Fall 2002 Lecture 6-3 1.

Fall 2002 Lecture 6-4 Now add: • uniform excitation throughout body. carrier concentrations change in time: dn dp = = G − R dt dt • if G > R ⇒ n. Gext hυ no Go po thermal equilibrium Ec Ro Ev Gext Gint n=no R Ec Ev p=po under external illumination If there is imbalance between total generation and recom bination.43J .720J/3. p ↑ • if G < R ⇒ n.6. p ↓ Distinguish between internal and external generation: G = G ext + Gint .Integrated Microelectronic Devices .

43J . p ↓ Under LLI: n� U� τ Also: dn dn� = dt dt Then: dn� n� = Gext − dt τ Homogeneous solution (Gext = 0) is: e−t/τ .6. p ↑ • if Gext < U ⇒ n.720J/3.Integrated Microelectronic Devices .Fall 2002 Lecture 6-5 Then: G − R = Gext + Gint − R = Gext − U and: dn dp = = Gext − U dt dt • if Gext > U ⇒ n.

43J .Integrated Microelectronic Devices .6.720J/3.Fall 2002 Lecture 6-6 • Example 1: Turn-on transient Gext gl 0 n'(t) glτ t=0 t 0 t=0 τ t n�(t) = gl τ (1 − e −t/τ ) Deﬁne: for t ≥ 0 steady-state ≡ initial transient died out (need a few τ ’s) In steady state: g eneration = r ecombination or Then n� gl = τ n� = gl τ .

1977] .720J/3.Integrated Microelectronic Devices .Fall 2002 Lecture 6-7 • Example 2: Turn-oﬀ transient Gext gl 0 t=0 n'(t) glτ t 0 t=0 τ t n�(t) = gl τ e−t/τ Technique to measure τ : for t ≥ 0 [Dziewior & Silber.43J .6.

6.720J/3.Fall 2002 Lecture 6-8 • Example 3: A pulse of light Gext gl 0 n'(t) glτ 0 T t 0 0 T t n�(t) = gl τ (1 − e−t/τ ) n�(t) = gl τ (1 − e−T /τ )e−(t−T )/τ for 0 ≤ t ≤ T for T ≤ t .Integrated Microelectronic Devices .43J .

6.720J/3. ﬁnal value of n � achieved quickly: n�(t) � gl τ3 for 0 ≤ t ≤ T shape of n�(t) similar to shape of light pulse: quasistatic situation ≡ no memory eﬀect dn� n� = Gext − ⇒ n�(t) � Gext(t) τ dt τ .43J . pulse too short for ﬁnal value of n� to be reached: n�(t) � gl t for 0 ≤ t ≤ T • If τ3 � T .Fall 2002 Lecture 6-9 Two extreme cases: n'(t) glT τ1>>T τ2>>T glτ3 τ3<<T 0 0 T t • If τ1 � T .Integrated Microelectronic Devices .

t2 0 0 t n'(t) glτ τ >> t1.Integrated Microelectronic Devices .6.720J/3.43J .Fall 2002 Lecture 6-10 • Example 4: A pulse train Important point: diﬀerence between quasi-static and steady-state -steady-state: initial transient associated with turn-on of excitation has died oﬀ -quasi-static: time derivatives irrelevant in time scale of interest Gext gl 0 0 t1 t2 t n'(t) glτ τ << t1. t2 0 0 t .

Then: lc = v thτc . Thermal motion At ﬁnite T .720J/3. • Scattering time.6.Integrated Microelectronic Devices . etc. Deﬁne: • Thermal velocity. lc: average distance travelled between collisions [cm]. ionized impurities. carriers moving around in a random way suﬀering frequent collisions with vibrating lattice.Fall 2002 Lecture 6-11 2. • Mean free path. vth: average magnitude of carrier velocity between collisions [cm/s].43J . τc: average time between collisions [s].

43J . vthe � ce 7 2 × 10 cm/s.720J/3.6. � � � � � � � . For electrons in Si at 300 K (m∗ = 0.Fall 2002 Lecture 6-12 � Thermal velocity depends on material and tempera ture: 8 kT vth = π m∗ c Where: m∗ ≡ conductivity eﬀective mass [eV · s2/cm2] c m∗ accounts for all interactions between the carriers and c the perfect periodic potential of the lattice.Integrated Microelectronic Devices .28mo).

720J/3. Then. neutral impurity scattering with neutral dopants. order of magnitude of lc < 50 nm. in terstitials.Fall 2002 Lecture 6-13 � Scattering mechanisms: 1.Integrated Microelectronic Devices . vacancies. surface scattering in inversion layer 4. ionized impurity scattering: Coulombic interaction between charged impurities and carriers ⇒ no energy exchanged 3.6.43J . carrier-carrier scattering No need for detailed models. . lattice or phonon scattering: carriers collide with vibrating lattice atoms (phonon absorption and emis sion) ⇒ some energy exchanged (∼ tens of meV ) 2. Order of magnitude of τc < 1 ps (will learn to estimate next time). etc 5.

• Dominant scattering mechanisms in Si at 300K: phonon scattering. and surface scattering (in inversion layer).Fall 2002 Lecture 6-14 Key conclusions • Dynamics of carrier concentrations in quasi-neutral low-level injected situations governed by carrier lifetime. carriers move around in a ran dom way suﬀering many collisions (thermal motion).43J . • At ﬁnite temperatures. • Order of magnitude of key parameters for Si at 300K: – vth ∼ 2 × 107 cm/s – τc < 1 ps – lc < 50 nm .720J/3.Integrated Microelectronic Devices .6. • Steady-state situation: condition established after initial transient has died oﬀ. • Quasi-static situation: perturbations with time scale much longer than τ . ionized impurity scattering.

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