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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1Background of the Study

Since education is one oI the pillars oI social system, without its development one cannot
imagine all-round development oI society and nation. In addition, education is an
essential aspect oI liIe. Education upliIts the capabilities oI each person and helps in
adjusting to the society. It needs to be revised regularly in order to adapt to the changing
times. At present times, providing education to the citizens has been one oI the main
objectives oI all nations. There has been suIIicient investment to produce educated
manpower in order to attain all round development, ranging Irom lower-level education
to higher level education. Among the tiers oI education, higher secondary is one oI the
most crucial stages.

Nepal in 1950 had 321 primary schools enrolling about 8,000 students; 11 secondary
schools with 1,500 students; and one small college and a technical school with a
combined student body oI 250. At that time the country had no educational Iacilities Ior
girls, and Iew who were educated were either privately tutored or had studied in India.
Literacy was negligible.

1.1.1 Education in Nepal, From Rhetoric to Reality

Education plays a pivotal role in developing patriotic, disciplined and productive human
resources in one hand and strengthening the institutions oI democracy and civil society
on the other. Be it the time oI the Gurukul or the modern equipped schools oI today,
education has always been the pathIinder in the liIe oI each and every individual. In the
context oI Nepal, we have travelled a very long path to be where we are today. The
educational scenario oI Nepal in historical perspective seems very interesting. As there
were almost no educational institutions in the country during the Rana Period (1856-
1950), public access to these institutions was almost non-existent or unheard oI. The
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privileged access oI members oI the higher castes and wealthier economic strata to
education was Ior centuries a distinguishing Ieature oI society. The Ranas kept education
the exclusive prerogative oI the ruling elite; the rest oI the population remained largely
illiterate. With the introduction oI the multi party democracy (MPD) In 1951 aIter the Iall
oI the Rana regime, the establishment oI educational institutions was encouraged,
however, the institutions oI higher education were directly aIIiliated with Indian
Universities and Colleges. But aIter the establishment oI Tribhuvan University (TU) in
1960 under the TU Act, 1959, it started conducting its own examinations since 1960 and
also prescribed its own syllabuses according to the need and situation oI the country.
Many colleges aIIiliated with TU were also declared open in various parts oI the
kingdom. Since then, TU has been playing a major role in the development oI education
in Nepal. During the period oI 1961-1989, the establishment oI educational institutions
was Iurther encouraged. As the donor community showed keen interest in the
strengthening oI the educational institutions, Foreign aid was also mobilized in this
direction. Under the American aid scheme, the New Education System Plan (NESP) was
also introduced in 1971, which, besides other things, stressed on vocational education,
and separated the traditional education system Irom that oI the existing one. It aimed at
producing a new generation rising up above the tradition oI the past. With the
dispensation oI pluralistic democracy in Nepal in 1990 aIter the historic mass uprising,
education system took a new direction. The government Iormed aIter 1990 encouraged
the establishment oI educational institutions, including the private ones under the
privatization scheme, at diIIerent levels. During 1990-1999, attempts were made to
increase the literacy rate and improve the quality oI education in the kingdom. In order to
make education accessible Ior girl children, increase, the number oI girls enrollment in
schools, encourage educated women enter the Iield oI education and ensure greater
number oI girls complete primary education, a total oI 84,399 girl students, studying at
diIIerent levels were provided various scholarship in FY 1997/98. In FY 1997/98 through
the Basic and Primary Education Project, 86,863 children were made literate. Moreover,
through National Non-Iormal Education Council (NNEC) 4,800 children and 228
thousand adults became literate. Today, the importance oI education has been accepted
by the present constitution oI Nepal, which provides equal educational opportunities to
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all citizens irrespective oI region, caste, ethnicity, religion and sex The post 1990 legal
provisions have Iurther encouraged every citizen's right to education. In order to create
positive environment Ior this, some structural and institutional changes have been made
in this direction. The Ministry oI Education (MOE) has been restructured and the
Department oI Education (DOE) has been setup in the central level during the FY 1999-
2000. The post 1990 constitutional and legal provisions, thus, leave greater room Ior
equal educational opportunities to all citizens.

1.1.2 Introduction of Higher Secondary Education Board

The thrust oI higher secondary education is to make suitable and Iavorable learning
environment Ior the adolescent's students. Further the students oI this age group require a
disciplined environment oI the schools rather than that oI the universities because oI their
sensitive age Iactor. It was precisely Ior these kinds oI reasons that the educational planners,
administrators, pedagogues and experts took the initiative to bring about a change in the
existing educational structure by incorporating two more years oI schooling in it, grade XI
and grade XII, known as higher secondary level. For this purpose, two important seminars
were organized in which educational proIessionals and responsible authorities participated,
and eventually concluded with a consensus that the 10¹2 system be established and operated
with optimum eIIiciency and eIIectiveness. Following this outcome, Government oI Nepal
decided to introduce the Higher Secondary Education Act, which came into eIIect in 1989
A.D. Later, as stipulated in the Act, the Higher Secondary Education Assembly was
constituted under the chairmanship oI the Minister oI Education.

The preparation Ior launching higher secondary education took almost 3 years and in 1992,
some 38 higher secondary schools came into existence. The Eighth Five-Year Plan had
envisaged 125 higher secondary schools by 1997. Today the number oI higher secondary
schools is 3067. AIter the introduction oI higher secondary education several exercises were
done to make this sub-sector more quality-oriented and a more uniIied. To streamline the
process Tribhuvan University and the Ministry oI Education issued a joint statement in
September 1993, which reads 'Higher Secondary Education will be the only vehicle Ior
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delivering the program. The perceived timing and modalities oI phasing in and phasing out as
well as the overlap period will depend on the transition plan being developed'. A transition
plan was developed in 1994 by the World Bank, which suggested total phase-in oI higher
secondary education and phase-out oI proIiciency certiIicate level by 2000 AD. The
transition plan proposed the phase-out PCL Irom all the campuses in a gradual manner so that
by 2001 AD no campuses will have the PCL program. Accordingly, TU stopped providing
new aIIiliations Ior proIiciency certiIicate level. However, the process oI phasing-in and
phasing-out is still in dilemma and the 'phasing-in' goal has not been achieved. In this way
Nepal runs two parallel systems oI Plus Two education, one Irom the university campuses
and the other Irom higher secondary schools. Both the systems have separate curricula,
although the goal oI both the programs is similar. Both the programs envisage that their
activities would help the products to go through higher education and/or to Iind job in the
market. by 2001 AD no campuses will have the PCL program. Accordingly, TU stopped
providing new aIIiliations Ior proIiciency certiIicate level. However, the process oI
phasing-in and phasing-out is still in dilemma and the 'phasing-in' goal has not been
achieved. In this way Nepal runs two parallel systems oI Plus Two education, one Irom
the university campuses and the other Irom higher secondary schools. Both the systems
have separate curricula, although the goal oI both the programs is similar. Both the
programs envisage that their activities would help the products to go through higher
education and/or to Iind job in the market.

1.1.3 Vision Mission and Goals

1. Vision
Promote knowledge skills oI country's youths to make them able to live and compete
with others in the 21
st
century.

2. Mission
Enable students to cope with the ever- advancing world oI knowledge by involving them
in the dynamics oI learning characterized by Iront line curricular system.

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3. Goals
· Expose students to higher level oI knowledge in diIIerent disciplines;
· Promote problem solving and creative thinking abilities in the citizens oI tomorrow to
cope with the changing demands oI society committed to use science, technology and
inIormatics to alleviate poverty and to raise quality oI liIe oI general masses;
· Assist students to explore their interests and aptitude so that they can choose
appropriate careers to shape their Iuture;
· Expose students to diIIerent ways oI collecting and processing data and inIormation
under speciIic disciplines and help them arrive at conclusions and generate new
insights and knowledge in the process.

4. Objectives
The objectives oI Higher Secondary Education are to:
· Prepare students Ior the world oI work especially in meeting middle level manpower
requirements in diIIerent Iields.
· Prepare students Ior general higher education and Ior proIessional disciples.

1.1.4 Function

The main Iunctions oI HSEB are as Iollows:
· Granting approval Ior higher secondary schools;
· Developing and revising curricula and textbook materials;
· Conducting examinations and publishing results;
· Awarding certiIicates to higher secondary school graduates;
· Supervising and monitoring higher Secondary Schools;
· Recruiting technical, proIessional and administrative staII.
· Designing and implementing training programmes Ior ¹2 school teachers and other
staII;
· Conducting Seminars and workshops;
· Undertaking research activities with Iocus on various issues in this Iield.
· Keeping liaison with various national and international institutions.
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1.2 Statement of Problems

The commercial sector has become a little active in education recently establishing
'Private Schools¨ charging high Iees. The private schools have increased in Nepal in
phenomenal way. The total number oI private schools increased Irom 5574 in 2001 to
9742 in 2009(Source: Economic Survey 2009/10). The private schools are also blamed
that they are creating class- based education system i.e. rich people`s education and poor
people`s education.
Higher Secondary Education is regarded as a prerequisite to higher education. The
teenagers who have passed the SLC examinations are not ready Ior the challenges and
pressure oI university courses. That is why a policy was Iormulated to phase out all PCL
education system by 2004 AD and hence run 10¹2 system as the educational system aIter
SLC.
There are a deIinite policies and regulations regarding the involvement oI the private
sector in the education. Consequently, the schools operated in the private sector are
predominantly inIused by commercial motives.
Currently the basis problems and challenges oI higher secondary education is attempted
to list below:
1) Lack oI Iunding Irom the government to achieve the objectives oI Higher
Secondary Education
2) Higher Secondary level (10¹2) has been set as the last point oI school education;
however, the present structure oI higher secondary level remains at diverse Iorms.
3) Management oI higher secondary education has not been made clear, capable,
eIIective, decentralized and contribution oriented.
4) Political instability and Irequent government changes and subsequent changes in
the policies.
5) Lack oI good and Iar-sighted management.
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6) Higher secondary level syllabus has Iailed to produce necessary manpower to
IulIill the development requirement oI the country.
7) Inability to mobilize the local resources eIIectively.
8) Lack oI physical Iacilities like buildings, Iurniture, and so on.
9) Lack oI production oI educational materials and its utilization.
10) Yawning gap between the private and public institutions in terms oI quality oI
education.
11)Inability to bear the indirect investment by the parents.
12) Not any policy barrier by private higher secondary school.
13) HSEB cannot supervise and monitor private higher secondary schools` programs
Irom time to time.

1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives oI this study are as Iollows:
1) To know about the Education Budget in DiIIerent Fiscal year on Higher
Secondary School (regular and Development).
2) To know the Student Enrollment and Financial Target.
3) To Iind out the exact number oI Higher Secondary Schools.
4) To Iind out the Region wise AIIiliated School.
5) To Iind out the number oI Class 11 and 12 students attending their Examinations.


1.4 Significance of the Study

The main importance oI the study is as Iollows:
1) To IulIill the requirement oI the degree oI Bachelor oI Business oI Business
Studies (BBS) according to T.U. Curriculum.
2) It is useIul Ior Iuture reIerence to those scholars who want to carry out similar
type oI research work.
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3) For library use Ior general readers.


1.5 Research Methodology
Research and study are very important and complex work. They give us important
inIormation and help us to reach conclusions. It can be Iinalized by Iield study,
questionnaires, observations, unstructured interviews and structured interviews. This
study is based on primary and secondary data. The data play an important role in this
research.

1.5.1 Data Management

Collection oI data is the Iirst step in statistical investigation. The super structure oI
statistical analysis and decision making is built on the data collected. Thus, government,
businessman, houses and individuals collect requisite statistical data to carry out their
activities eIIiciently and eIIectively. The statistical data are collected primarily due to the
realization that better are possible with more inIormation. But iI the data are inaccurate
and inadequate the whole analysis and decisions taken may be wrong. Hence, utmost care
must be taken while collecting data.
Data can be obtained either Irom the primary source or the secondary source.
A. Primary Data:
Primary data collection source is more preIerable because oI these reasons.
1. Primary data are original in character.
2. Primary source usually shows data in greater in detail.
3. Unlike secondary data primary data may not contain mistakes as due Iigures in
secondary data are copied Irom secondary data.
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4. Primary data are collected by individual institution and research bodies. For e.g.
data collected Ior population census by oIIice oI the registered minister oI health
and planning commission (central bureau statistics)
Primary data are original as they are Iirst hand in character. They are generated by
surveys or inquiries conducted by government, any individual institution or
research bodies.

Methods of collecting primary data
Primary data can be collected through:
a. Scheduled
b. Questionnaire
c. Survey
d. observations

a) Scheduled
Primary data can be collected by distributing shelled papers among the people. Scheduled
is indeed the easier method oI collecting required inIormation. Researcher easily collects
inIormation through scheduled method. In this scheduled paper all the questionnaire are
already prepared and people can marks the tick in their subject matter.

b) Questionnaire
This is also another method oI collecting Primary data. It is proceed by putting sets oI
question the people living over the sites. It is simple method oI collecting inIormation.
Even the people cannot read and write researcher can collect inIormation in their related
Iield. It does not response the complex structure oI society.

c) Survey
Primary data can be collected by conducting survey by the researcher in the related Iield.
Survey is most preIerable in collecting primary data by visiting sites. Researcher may
come to know the real problem oI the selected area. By conducting survey researcher can
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solve the problem oI society and nation by recommending in making policies Ior the
social welIare.

d) Observation
This is also simple method oI collecting primary data. In this method investigator collect
required inIormation by conducting observations in various ways either by watching
situation or taking interview in the selected sites. The researcher during the observations
Iully experiences the site situation and come to know the deposit or the truth oI the
problem oI the selected area.

B. Secondary Data
Secondary data is not original in character.
Secondary data is second in character.
Secondary data may contain many mistakes.
Secondary data is collected Irom the previous source.

Advantages of Secondary data
It is more economical to collect Secondary data.
It takes less time less money do not required skilled person.
It does not need editing, tabulating scheduled papers, and statistical analysis.
It is highly convenient to collect secondary data someone has already complied.

Disadvantages of Secondary Data
Researcher should consult many books.
It is not reliable in big project because the previous data may not be Ior the same purpose
Ior the recent analysis.
It may be incomplete, inaccurate, not constant and not homogenous.
II reIerence data is mistake the whole paper presentation may come to the end e\with
error.

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So, Secondary data should accept at their Iace value, the reason is that such data may
have errors in many respects due to bias, inadequate size oI sample, substitution, errors oI
deIinitions and arithmetical errors and many more.


Editing of Data
Once data have been obtained either Irom primary or secondary the next step is to edit to
scrutinize.
The chieI object oI editing is to detect possible errors, irregularities. While editing we
have to give attention as Iollows.
The data should be complete.
The data should be accurate.
The data should be homogeneous.
The data should be constant.
While editing data we should see each questionnaire is complete or not in an all respects.
II some questionnaire have not been answered and those questionnaire are oI vital
important should contact again personally or correspondence.

Accuracy or correctness
Accuracy depends basically on the correctness oI inIormation. II the inIormation is
wrong conclusion can never be valid. So, researcher should check the inIormation is
accurate or not in all respects. II the inaccuracy is due to arithmetical errors it can easily
correct as soon as possible.

Homogeneity
Homogeneity is also important aspect in collecting data. Researcher should check the
entire questionnaire is homogeneous or not. II the questionnaire is in the area oI income,
someone has given annual income, others has given monthly income, still others has
given weekly income in such cases no comparison can be done.

Constant or consistency
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In the process oI data collection researcher should check all the answer to the question
are constant or not. Researcher should careIully watch answer to the question is
contradictory or not. II the answer to the question is not constant researcher should
remove this type oI conIusion answer as soon as possible.

1.5.2 Research Design

Research design tells how study is to be made. Research design helps us to collect right
inIormation and accurate data. Without research design we cannot deal with the
descriptive oI the situation and interpretation oI data.

1.6 Limitation of study

During the course oI study, it is necessary to Iix the boundaries and circumIerence oI the
study itselI does not meander Irom the main objectives. So Iollowing limitations are set
Ior the study:
1. Due to time constraint only limited Iieldwork is carried out.
2. The secondary data collected Irom diIIerent resources are its limiting Iactor.
3. This study includes the educational achievement oI private higher secondary
institutions only.
4. This study is limited to Iinancial and educational data oI private higher secondary
institutions at 2062 to 2066 only.
5. This study will be limited to educational personals only.


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CHAPTER II
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

2.1 Presentation of Data

Data presentation and analysis are integral aspects oI any survey. Raw data is processed
and interpreted to achieve a conclusion.

2.2 Analysis of Data
2.2.1 Curriculum

Curriculum and Training division is an academic division working with three sections
namely Curriculum, Training and Equivalence section. This division is responsible Ior
preparing and revising curricula as per the need oI society.. In addition, it is also responsible
Ior preparing and revising teaching manuals and directory. Likewise, writing text books as
prescribed by curriculum committees, organizing seminars, workshops and subject wise
training Ior higher secondary teachers, veriIying and providing equivalent certiIicates are the
major Iunctions oI this division.

2.2.2 Courses Offered at Higher Secondary Education

These are the Courses OIIered at Higher Secondary Education (Grades 11-12)

Table No. 2.1
Class 11 Full
Marks
Teach
ing
Hours
Class 12 Full
Marks
Teach
ing
Hours
Compulsory English 100 150 Compulsory English 100 150
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Compulsory Nepali 100 150 Physics 100 150
Alternative English 100 150 Chemistry 100 150
Physics I 100 150 Biology 100 150
Chemistry I 100 150 Mathematics 100 150
Biology 100 150 Accountancy 100 150
Mathematics 100 150 Hotel Management 100 150
OIIice Management &
Secretarial Practice
100 150 OIIice Management &
Secretarial Practice
100 150
Business Organization
and oIIice
Management
100 150 Business Organization
and oIIice Management
100 150
Accountancy I 100 150 Travel and Tourism 100 150
Travel and Tourism 100 150 History 100 150
Hotel Management 100 150 Geography 100 150
Economics 100 150 Culture 100 150
Computer Science 100 150 Economics 100 150
Geography 100 150 Political Science 100 150
Political Science I 100 150 Population Education 100 150
History 100 150 Philosophy 100 150
Culture 100 150 Psychology 100 150
Mass Communication 100 150 Health and Physical
Education
100 150
Sociology 100 150 Linguistic 100 150
Philosophy 100 150 Dance 100 150
Dance 100 150 Music 100 150
Music 100 150 Agriculture 100 150
Agriculture 100 150 Computer Science 100 150
Psychology 100 150 Sociology 100 150
Population Education 100 150 Instructional Evaluation 100 150
Health and Physical 100 150 Child Development and 100 150
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Education learning
Linguistic 100 150 Teaching Science 100 150
Optional English 100 150 Teaching Social Studies 100 150
Japanese 100 150 Optional English 100 150
German 100 150 Elective Hindi 100 150
French 100 150 Elective Maithili 100 150
Urdu 100 150 Elective Newari 100 150
Elective Nepali I 100 150 German 100 150
Elective Newari 100 150 French 100 150
Elective Hindi 100 150 Japanese 100 150
Elective Maithili 100 150 Urdu 100 150
Introduction to
Education
100 150 Elective Nepali II 100 150
Education pedagogy 100 150 Mass Communication 100 150
Nepali Language
Teaching
50 75 Business Mathematics 100 150
Teaching oI English 50 75 Marketing 100 150
Teaching oI
Mathematics
50 75 Contemporary Society 100 150
General mathematics 100 150
General Studies 100 150
Introduction to
Educational
Technology
100 150
Environmental
Education
100 150
Instructional
Organization
100 150
Primary Education 100 150
Special Needs 100 150
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Education
Social Studies 100 150
Rural Economics 100 150
Source. HSEB, Sanothimi, Bhaktapur 2067
2.3 Distribution of Higher Secondary Education Budget in Different
Fiscal Year (Regular and Development)

Table No. 2.2
F/Y Education Budget
10+2
Total Budget Percentage (º)
2003/04 156.1 95,980 0.16
2004/05 180.5 102,000 0.17
2005/06 212.5 120,000 0.18
2006/07 261.3 140,000 0.19
2007/08 310.6 161,350 0.19
2008/09 421.7 213,578 0.20
2009/10 543.2 285,929 0.19
2010/11 608.5 337,899 0.18
Source. HSEB 2067 and budget speech 2010/2011

Figure 2.1
0
30ţ000
100ţ000
130ţ000
200ţ000
230ţ000
300ţ000
330ţ000
400ţ000
k
s

|
n

m
|
|
|
|
o
n
I|sca| ¥ear
1ota| 8udget
1oLal 8udgeL
17

According to above table, in Iiscal budget Ior higher secondary level education is in
increasing trend. In comparison to the Iiscal year 2009/10 the total budget oI 2010/11 is
higher by 65.3 million which is 12.02° more.
2.4 Student Enrollment and Financial Target
Table No. 2.3
Higher
Secondary
Student
Sixth Plan
Total
Seventh Plan
Total
Eight Plan
Total
Ninth Plan
Total
Enrollment
Target (No.)
147,400 277,000 1812,000 1852,000
Plan Outlay
(Rs.10 millions)
2.75 8.45 52.6 54.3
Annual Per
Capital
Expenditure(RS)
37.3 30.0 29.2 29.31
Source. National Planning Commission 2066.

Figure 2.2
0
200ţ000
400ţ000
600ţ000
800ţ000
1ţ000ţ000
1ţ200ţ000
1ţ400ţ000
1ţ600ţ000
1ţ800ţ000
2ţ000ţ000
SlxLh Þlan
1oLal
SevenLh Þlan
1oLal
LlghL Þlan
1oLal
nlghL Þlan
1oLal
-
o
Ŧ

o
f

S
t
u
d
e
n
t
s
Lnro||ment 1arget
LnrollmenL 1argeL (noŦ)
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In above table, it shows that the student enrollment target and per capita expenditure on
student beginningIrom the sixth Plan to Nith Plan.
The per capital expendeture on Higher Secondary school student was estimated at Rs.
37.3 in the Sixth Plan, Rs. 30.0 in the seventh Plan, Rs. 29.2 in the Eight Plan and only
29.31 in Ninth plan. The enrollment target on higher secondary was 147,400 during the
Sixth Plan period. 277,000 on seventh plan, 1812,000 on Eight plan and 40,000 in Ninth
Plan.
In eight plan Higher Secondary education a total oI 213 higher secondary schools were in
operation, while the target was to run 125 higher secondary schools in the country during
the plan period. On the enrollment target was 40,000.
In 9
th
plan target in higher secondary education was to establish 758 higher secondary
schools and raise easily observable student enrolment percentage to 60. And provide
training to 2,000 higher secondary teachers. (National Planning commission in 9
th
plan)

2.4 Details of Higher Secondary Schools

Table No. 2.4
HSS No.s Percentage (º)
Community Schools 2243 73.1
Private Schools 530 17.3
10+2 School 160 5.2
Campuses 134 4.4
Total No. of HSS 3067 100.0
Source. www.moe.gov.np
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Figure 2.3
In the above table we can see that there are 2243 government run higher secondary
schools, 160 stand alone higher secondary schools, 530 private Higher Secondary
Schools which also have secondary schools which also have secondary schools, and
colleges which run higher education were 134. As a whole total no. oI HSS are 3067. In
Nepal, there are 2243 public higher secondary schools, and this number is expected to
grow gradually in the coming years. At, present public higher secondary schools are
attached to public schools, but in practice, the Iormer operate as private institutions
separate Irom the latter, expect that they receive grants Irom the Government to employ
two teachers.

0
300
1000
1300
2000
2300
CommunlLy
Schools
ÞrlvaLe Schools 10+2 School Campuses
-
u
m
b
e
r
1ype
Deta||s of n|gher Secondary Schoo|s
noŦs
20

2.5 Total Institutions by Development Region and Types

Table 2.5
Dev.
Region
Public Private Private+2 Campus Total
Total
In º
2243
73.1
530
17.3
160
5.2
134
4.4
3067
100.0
Eastern 490 91 31 23 635
Central 632 252 106 65 1055
Kath V. 95 175 79 39 388
Western 557 126 12 33 728
Mid
Western
278 34 5 6 323
Far
Western
286 27 6 7 326
Source. www.moe.gov.np

Figure 2.4
0
100
200
300
400
300
600
700
LasLern CenLral kaLh vŦ WesLern Mld
WesLern
lar WesLern
-
u
m
b
e
r
keg|on w|se Aff|||ated Schoo|
Þubllc
ÞrlvaLe
ÞrlvaLe+2
Campus
21

In above table aIIiliated Higher Secondary schools with their regional distribution is
given. In eastern region there are 635 schools aIIiliated. Likewise in Central region 1055,
Western region 728, Mid-Western 323, Iar-western 326. Total oI 3067 higher secondary
schools are aIIiliated. 388 institutions out oI 1055 located in central region is located in
Kathmandu valley.

2.6 Total Enrollment by Types of Institutions

Table 2.6
Enrollment Public Private Private+2 Campus Total
Grade XI T 193083 54717 46815 28120 322735
F 96531 22425 17318 12342 148616
Grade XII T 177140 48259 46645 28587 300631
F 92375 20004 17225 13220 142824
Source. www.moe.gov.np

Figure 2.5
0
30000
100000
130000
200000
230000
Þubllc ÞrlvaLe ÞrlvaLe+2 Campus
-
u
m
b
e
r
1ota| Lnro||ment by 1ypes of Inst|tute
rade xl 1
rade xl l
rade xll 1
rade xll l
22

In the above graph it is seen that the number students in the public campus is more than
in private, private ¹2 and campus. But the number oI students who Iail is equally high in
public campus. It can be seen that more than 50° students Iail in all types oI institute. It
is seen that in grade 11 oI public campus 193083 students were enrolled and 96531
students Iailed and in 12
th
grade 177140 students were admitted and 92375 Iailed. This is
more than 60° oI total students. In private campus 54717 got enrolled and 22425 Iailed
in grade 11 and in 12
th
grade 48259 got enrolled and 20004. Only about 40° oI total
students Iailed in both grades. While interpreting result oI grade 11 and 12 oI private ¹2,
it can be seen that in 12, 17318 students Iailed out oI 46815 students. And in grade 12,
we see that 17225 students Iailed out oI 46645 students. Which is about only 35° in both
case. In campus we can see that 12342 out oI 28120 students Iailed in grade 11. And in
grade 12, 142824 Iailed out oI 300631 students. In both grade more than 40° oI students
Iailed. In total 46° students Iailed in grade 11 and 47.5° students Iailed in grade 12.

2.7 Total Enrollment of Higher Secondary Education

Table 2.7
Dev Reg. Grade 11 Grade 12
Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total
Total 174119 148616 322735 157807 142824 300631
Eastern 33600 33869 67469 32470 37005 69475
Central 71633 56534 128167 63950 50780 114730
Kath V 35987 25101 61088 32041 22074 54115
Western 28424 27918 56342 26202 27770 53972
MW 23923 19383 43306 18441 15120 33561
FW 16539 10912 27451 16744 12149 28893
Source. www.moe.gov.np

23


Figure 2.6
It can be seen that in 2067, there were 322735 students in grade 11, among them 148616
were girls and 174119 were boys. And in grade 12, among 300631 students 142824 were
girls and 157807 were boys. In both cases it is seen that the average number oI boys
attending the institution Ior higher education, though the population oI Iemale in Nepal is
higher than that oI male. Central development region has the highest number oI students
attending Ior higher education in HSEB in both grades 11 and 12. Kathmandu valley
alone in central development region comprises oI 61088 students in grade 11 and 54115
in grade 12. This is only lower than the students oI eastern and western regions. It can be
inIerred that the density oI students attending HSEB is greater in central development
region and is most in Kathmandu valley oI Central development region. Far western has
the least number oI students attending HSEB. In grade 11 there are 27451 and 28893 in
grade 12.

0
20000
40000
60000
80000
100000
120000
140000
160000
180000
200000
1oLal LasLern CenLral kaLh v WesLern MW lW
-
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r
1ota| Lnro||ment of n|gher Secondary
Lducat|on
rade 11 8oys
rade 11 lrls
rade 11 8oys
rade 12 lrls
24

2.8 Higher Secondary Education Results in Different Academic Years in
2067

Table 2.8

Dev. Reg
Grade 11
Appeared Passed °
Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total
Total 155989 142062 298051 42.1 36.2 39.3
Eastern 32031 36792 68823 30.7 22.8 26.5
Central 63150 50465 113615 56.1 54.1 55.2
Western 25899 27635 53534 34.6 29.6 32.0
MW 18309 15071 33380 33.3 29.7 31.7
FW 16600 12099 28699 31.7 25.3 29.0
Source. www.moe.gov.np

Table 2.9

Dev. Reg
Grade 12
Appeared Passed °
Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total
Total 117063 112652 229715 47.0 40.6 43.9
Eastern 19600 23459 43059 41.0 31.4 35.8
Central 49946 43582 93528 56.1 52.1 54.3
Western 20025 23749 43774 40.3 40.3 37.2
MW 15452 12975 28427 39.4 39.4 36.8
FW 12040 8887 20927 40.0 40.0 37.9
Source. www.moe.gov.np


25


Figure 2.7

Figure 2.8
0
30000
100000
130000
200000
230000
300000
330000
1oLal LasLern CenLral WesLern MW lW
-
u
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o
f

S
t
u
d
e
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t
s
-oŦ of Students Apear|ng Grade 11 Lxam
Appeared 8oys
Appeared lrls
Appeared 1oLal
0
30000
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230000
1oLal LasLern CenLral WesLern MW lW
-
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-oŦ of Students Apear|ng Grade 12 Lxam
Appeared 8oys
Appeared lrls
Appeared 1oLal
26


Figure 2.9

Figure 2.10
0
10
20
30
40
30
60
1oLal LasLern CenLral WesLern MW lW
9
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
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9assed 9ercentage |n Grade 11
Þassed Ʒ 8oys
Þassed Ʒ lrls
Þassed Ʒ 1oLal
0
10
20
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40
30
60
1oLal LasLern CenLral WesLern MW lW
9
e
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9assed 9ercentage |n Grade 12
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27

In 2067 it can be seen that in grade 11, among 298051 students who appeared in exam
155989 were boys and 142062 were girls. Central development region with 113615 total
students had the highest number oI examinees and Iar- western development region with
28699 students had the least. The pass percentage oI central was highest with 55.2° pass
and Iar-western had least pass percentage with 29.0° pass. In grade 12, 229715 students
gave exam among them 117063 were boys and 112652 were girls. Central development
region had highest number oI examinees with 93528 students and Iar western had least
with 20927 students. While central development region had highest pass rate with 54.3°
pass and western development region had least with 37.2° pass.

2.9 Major Findings

1) The Courses oIIered at Higher Secondary Education (Grades 11-12).
2) Distribution oI Education Budget in DiIIerent Fiscal Year (Regular and
Development).
3) Enrollment and Financial target oI Higher Secondary Student in the Ninth Plan is
RS.1852000.
4) Under the Higher Secondary Education system (10¹2), total distribution oI
schools aIIiliated with the Higher Secondary Education Council (HSEC) by
region is 3067.
5) Number oI students oI class 11 and 12 attending examinations is 155989 and
117063 respectively.
6) Number oI community schools is greater than private schools, ¹2s, and campus
with its total number oI 2243.
7) In 2067, pass percentage in grade 11 was 39.3 and in grade 12 was 43.9.



28

CHAPTER III
SUMMARY, ASSESSMENT & EVALUATION AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
3.1 Summary

The per capita expenditure on higher secondary school student was estimated at RS. 37.3
In the FiIth Plan, Rs. 30.0 in the Sixth Plan and onlyRs.29.2 in the Seventh Plan. The
enrollment target on higher secondary was 147,400 during the FiIth Plan period. 277,000
during the 6
th
plan and 1,812,000 during the 7
th
plan.
Similarly there are 2243 community schools which is 73.1° oI total institutions aIIiliated
to HSEB, 550 private higher secondary schools which is 17.3, there are 160 ¹2s which
comprises oI 5.2° and 134 campus which covers 4.4°. In total there are 3067
institutions aIIiliated to HSEB. Also Higher Secondary Schools are aIIiliated by region
wise. In eastern region there are 635 schools aIIiliated. Likewise in Central region 1055,
Western region 728, Mid-Western 323, Iar-western 326. Total oI 3067 higher secondary
schools are aIIiliated. 388 institutions out oI 1055 located in central region is located in
Kathmandu valley.
In 2067, there were 322735 students enrolled in grade 11, among them 148616 were girls
and 174119 were boys. And in grade 12, among 300631 students 142824 were girls and
157807 were boys. Central development region has the highest number oI students
attending Ior higher education in HSEB in both grades 11 and 12. Kathmandu valley
alone in central development region comprises oI 61088 students in grade 11 and 54115
in grade 12. Far western has the least number oI students attending HSEB. In grade 11
there are 27451 and 28893 in grade 12.
In 2067 it can be seen that in grade 11, among 298051 students who appeared in exam
155989 were boys and 142062 were girls. Central development region with 113615 total
students had the highest number oI examinees and Iar- western development region with
28699 students had the least. The pass percentage oI central was highest with 55.2° pass
and Iar-western had least pass percentage with 29.0° pass. In grade 12, 229715 students
29

gave exam among them 117063 were boys and 112652 were girls. Central development
region had highest number oI examinees with 93528 students and Iar western had least
with 20927 students. While central development region had highest pass rate with 54.3°
pass and western development region had least with 37.2° pass.

3.2 Assessment & Evaluation

A well-designed assessment and evaluation system, which is an integral part oI the
instructional process, can beneIit both learners and teachers in particular and the whole
educational system in general. The current process oI evaluation does not provide a complete
picture oI an individual's abilities or a program oI expected outcomes oI education because it
measures a very limited range oI mental Iaculties. A meaningIul report on the quality and
extent oI a student's learning needs to be comprehensive. The curriculum is supposed to
provide guidelines Ior assessment and evaluation where creativity, innovativeness and
development oI a whole being are Iocused. These concepts must be nulliIied iI uniIorm tests
which only assess memorized Iacts and textbook based learning are put up. Assessments and
evaluation must be based on valid and reliable ways oI evaluating students learning. The
types oI questions that are set Ior assessment should go beyond what is given in the book.
Questions that are open ended and challenging are essential to assessing the matter-oI-Iact
real achievements oI the students. A good open-book examination can be a practical test
based on the curriculum.

3.3 Recommendations

1. In order to make learning lively and useIul several activities within the classroom and
outside must be perIormed. To this 25° oI the total assessment weight age in all the teaching
subjects must be assigned so that teachers can exercise their autonomy Ior the academic
development oI their students.
2. Once the distance mode is applied, the evaluation oI students must be thought oI as
required. The means to develop this is to prepare HSEB to conduct the examination only
30

when the students are ready Ior it. Two or three times a year may be enough Ior the
examination oI distance-mode students.
3. To avoid duplication oI question items and present question leakage, a question banking oI
each subject must be established. AIter the establishment oI the question banks the higher
secondary board examination must use randomly generated questions in each subject.
4. Until all the schools are ready to handle the grade 11 exam by themselves both grade 11
exam and grade 12 exam must be continued as external or board examinations. Moreover,
assurance oI quality should be given demonstrated by each school beIore grade 11 exam
becomes internally managed. For piloting, assessment oI certain subjects can be made only
internally.
5. Questions in the examinations must not promote rote memorization..
6. Pass certiIication must be started to help students to enter the job market even iI they Iail
in some subjects.
7. Initiatives must be taken to establish a multiple higher secondary education board system
so that healthy competition can take place Ior quality oI education.
8. Each year a study must be commissioned to upgrade the evaluation system oI HSEB.
9. In every three years, an impact study oI HS education must be made to assess the
perIormance oI both HSEB and HSS.

3.3 Conclusion
Without quality education, one cannot imagine the development oI person, Iamily,
society or nation. The developed countries have been able to attain the extreme
development on the basis oI education. Higher secondary education is a bridge between
high school education and higher education. Educated manpower cannot be produced
without development and extension oI higher secondary education. So, it has become
mandatory to expand the higher secondary education throughout the country. Higher
secondary education IulIills the requirement to produce medium-class manpower
required Ior the country. Thus this report proves a bridge to know about the Education
Budget in diIIerent Iiscal year on Higher Secondary School (Regular and Development).
It helps to know the student enrollment and Iinancial target and project report is thus
beneIicial to Iind out the exact number oI Higher Secondary Schools. To Iind out the
31

region wise aIIiliated school this project helps to Iind out the data related to it. It also
helps to Iind out the number oI class 11 and 12 students attending their examinations.
Finally, this data acts as a proper analysis relating to Iind out the matter oI Higher
Secondary Education and Higher Secondary Education Board.