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Nenzatol. nzedit.

(2002), 30: 31-44

STUDIES ON SOME SPECIES OF THE XIPHINEMA AMERICANUMGROUP (NEMATODA, DORYLAIMIDA) OCCURRING IN FLORIDA
F. Lamberti, F. De Luca, S. Molinari, L.W. Duncan, A. Agostinelli, M.I. Coiro, D. Dunn and V. Radicci
Istituto di Nematologia Agvavia, C.N.R., 70126 Bavz; Italy Citvus Reseavch and Education Centev, Uniuevstty of Florida Lake Alfved, Flovida 33850, U.S.A

Summary. The study of the morphometrics of putative Xiphinema amevicanum group populations collected in various habitats in Lamberti et Bleve-Zacheo, 1979; X. j7ovidae Florida, United States of America, revealed the presence of four species: X. citvtcol~m Larnberti et Bleve -Zacheo, 1979;X. geovgianum Lamberti et Bleve-Zacheo, 1979 and X. Iaevistn'atu??zLamberti et Bleve-Zacheo, 1979. The relationships of these species with X. amevicanum sensu stvicto and similar species are discussed. It is shown for the first time that X. citn'col~nzand X. laeuistviatum have three juvenile stages. The SOD isozyme iso-electrofocusingpatterns also separated the studied populations into four groups; however, it confirmed only partially the morphotypes. The analysis of the ribosomal DNA of seven populations characterized three groups identifying X. flovidae, X. citvicolum and X. laeuistviatum. However, one population morphometrically identified as X. laeuistviatum presented a pattern as X. citvicolum.

Xiphinema americanum sensu lato is wide-spread in Florida (Tarjan, 1974) and severa1 putative species of the group were originally described from the State (Lamberti and Bleve-Zacheo, 1979). They are X . citricolum Lamberti et Bleve-Zacheo, 1979; X . floridae Lamberti et Bleve-Zacheo, 1979; X. intermedium Lamberti et Bleve-Zacheo, 1979; X . laevistriatum Lamberti et Bleve-Zacheo, 1979 and X . tarjanense Lamberti e t Bleve-Zacheo, 1979. Populations collected in Florida were also used, although not as type populations, in the original description of X . diffusum Lamberti et BleveZacheo, 1979 and of X . georgianum Lamberti et BleveZacheo, 1979. Later, also X . luci Lamberti et BleveZacheo, 1979 and X . sheri Lamberti et Bleve-Zacheo, 1979 have been reported in Florida (Lamberti et al., 2000). However, some identifications require confirmation (Robbins, 1993) and the validity of various species attributed to the X . americanzinz group is questioned (Luc et al., 1998). Severa1 populations belonging to the X . americanum group were collected during a nematode survey carried out in Florida during October - November 1996. They were studied biometrically and, for some population, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the DNA of the ITS region were characterized. When available, the juvenile stages were determined and illustrated.

SOD isozymes were separated by iso-electric-focusing on lots of 15-20 specimens (Molinari et al., 1997). Genomic DNA was amplified with the ITS primers (Molinari et al., 1997) and the PCR amplification products were digested with the restriction enzymes A l u I, Bam HI, Dde I, Hinf I, Rsa I and Xba I ((Lambertiet al., 1999). DNA of four specimens from each population was analyzed to confirm the reproducibility of the fragment profiles.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The 13 populations studied (Table I) were identified as four species.
XIPHINEMA CITRICOLUM

Lamberti et Bleve-Zacheo, 1979 (Tables I, I1 and VI; Figs 1-3, 9 and 10)
Xiphinema citricolum was the most commonly encountered species (Table I ) . Its morphometrics differ from the origina1 description (Lamberti and BleveZacheo, 1979) in its shorter odontostyle and thinner body profile. However, the old specimens of the original description were partially collapsed. Juveniles occurred in the populations collected at Eustis and Quincy and three stages were identifiable in both populations (Fig. 3). Two males, occurred in each of the populations from Yancey and Merrit Island. They are similar to females and the adanal pair of supplements is preceded by a row of nine or eleven ventromedian supplements. Xiphinema citricolum differs from X . americanum Cobb, 1913 (Lamberti and Golden, 1984) in its more set off and frontally flattenet lip region (only slightly

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Soil samples were collected from the rhizosphere of cultivated plants and in natura1 habitats. Nematodes were extracted by a wet sieving technique. Specimens for biometric studies were fixed in 5 % boiling formalin and mounted in anhydrous glycerin. Measurements were taken with the aid of a camera lucida.

pachtakm (Lamberti and Bleve-Zacheo. c O m ~ a r e t0 X. 8 pm in X . 2 0 pm 400pm . male posterior region. lambertii). posterior repion of first. pachtaicum) and straight tail (ventrally slightly bent and concave in X. Xiphinema citvicolum: A.r . oxycaudatum Lamberti et Bleve Zacheo. 1979. intermedium (Lamberti and Bleve-Zacheo.Table I. Sour orange. pachtaicunz according to Lamberti and Martelli. X.) Jaccl Caruarrna sp. straight.1979. Live oak Long necdle pine.(L Raf. citricolum has longer body (L= 1. Sea grape. 1979. oxycaudatum). 1979. 19791. X. 1951. compared to X. Cariiar. Swingle citrumelo Citrus parailiii Macf. lambertii). X. longer hyaline portion of the tail U= 9 ' . Citrus ~ e t i c u l a t a Bianco Bermuda grass. tayanense Lamberti et Bleve Zacheo. pachtaicum). However. posterior basa1 guide ring (48-54 pm from the anterior extremity in X.4 in X.A+F G Fig.citricolum has more expanded lip region (slightly sett of in X. americanum) and longer hyaline portion of the tail U= 7 pm in X . tenuicutis Lamberti et Bleve Zacheo. anterior vulva (V more than 55% in X. compared to X. Coccoloba uulfera (L. Pnpulatinn numbei F1. citricolum has higher a and C' values (a= 43 and C'= 1. acute tail (dorsally curved and subacute terminus in X. X . 1989 and X. 1977. compared to X.31. C. Cynodon daciylon (L. 124 124 bis 156 158 183 192 201 201 bis 205 218 Loc~liry ii Host Biometrics Studies performed Isoiymes DNA Species identification Lake Alfred Lake Alfied Lahelle Lahelle Moore Haven Oklawaha Altoona Altoona Altoona Eustis Quincy M e ~ ~Island it Livc o ~ k Que~c>~. G. lambertii). more expanded lip region (diam. pakistanense Nasira et Maqbool. d oxy~audatum (Lamberti and Bleve Zacheo. 1998. X. D-F. lambertii) and straight tail (ventrally bent and concave in X. Y citricoluin X ritricolum 227 X citrin~inm 775 X c~incolum 284 Merrit Island + i - X laevistriatuin . X. intermedium) and straight pointed tail (ventrally bent and in X. 1977) X. X. americanum) Xiphinema citricolum is similar to X.i>insp. 1979). . 1938) Kirjanova. bricole?zse Ebsary. female posterior region. pachtaicum (Tulaganov. hubitus. second and third juvenile stage respectively.intcrmedium). pachtaicum). at lip region ca. 1971). lambertii Bajaj et Jairajpuri. X . longer odontostyle (55-64 pm in X . peruvianum L a m b e r t i et Bleve Zacheo. 1979. female anterior region. uzrginiana Mill. separated from the rest of the body and frontally rounded in X. Citrui sp + + + + + + + + + + + + + X laevistriatuin + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + X georgianum X laevistriatum X lae~rsf~iafum X laeuirtriatum X cit~~colurn X floridae X citricoluin Aust~alianpine. symmetrical. Citrui aurantium L. americanum). Xiphinema citricolum has lower C value (always more than 55 in X. X. 1. Populations of Xiphinemu from Florida studied (+).5 in X. B. intermedium Lamberti et Bleve Zacheo. Sour otange Sour otange Cleopatra mandarin. l'inur palustrzs Mill.) Pers. Vrain et Graham. lai7zbertii (Bajaj and Jarajpuri. 1979). x l'oncirur irzfolzaia.

Morphometrics (mean I standard deviation. . range) of X. cztrzcolunz.Table 11.

peruvianum). peruvianum). second and third juvenile stage respectively. female anterior region. higher C' value (1. compared to X . - pm in X. 1979).Fig.3 mm in X. E-G. peruvianum (Lamberti and Bleve Zacheo. first stage juvenile anterior region (arrow indicates the tip of the replacernent odontostyle inserted in the odontophore). citricolum has longer body (L= 1. longer h~aline portion of the tail (T= 8 in X . X . female posterior region. asymand more gradually tapering tail (dorsall~ metrica1 in X. citricolum:A. compared to X. B. Photomicrographs of X. D. 1979). peruvianum). tarjanense) and anterior vulva (V= 5 4 % in X. 2. peruvianum) and straight symmetrical tail (dorsally convex. compared to X . asymmetrical in X. X. tarjanense (Lamberti and Bleve Zacheo. posterior region of first. male posterior region. tarjanense). citricolum has lower C value (56 in X. oxycaudatum) and straight more symmetrical convex.4 in X. tenuicutis (Lamberti and . C. oxycaudatum).

218. 3. compared to X.227).700 900 1100 1300 1500 I Body length (pm) Odontos tyle i Replacement odontostylel I Body length p m Odontostyle Replacement odontos tyle ] Fig.. 19891. Bleve Zacheo.9 in X. set . bottom pop. bricolense). X. citricobm has lower C value (61 in X. tenuicutis) and hyaline portion of the tail (J= 8 in X. tenuicutis). Scatter diagrams plotting body and odontostyle length of individua1 juveniles and females of X. 1979). citricolum has shorter body (L= 1. F1. bricolense (Ebsary et al. tenuicutis) and longer tail (29 pm in X. citricolum (top pop. more expanded lip region (only m o d e r a t e l ~ off in X. F1. X.

pakistanense). compared to X.5 .8+0. Body diam. franci Heyns et Coomans. calzfornicum). 1979. compared to X. anzericanunz Cobb. (1997) consider X. floridae differs from X. calzyornicum Lamberti et Bleve-Zacheo. lower C' value (1. pakistanense). X. oxycaudatum Lamberti et BleveZacheo. at beginning of J pm 11. americanum) and thicker body profile. compared to X. 1913 (Lamberti and Golden. 1984) in its expanded lip region (separated by a shallow depression in X. floridae is similar to X. 1979). X. X. floridae has lower a value (60 in X. compared t o X. 1979).2 in X. However.. Leone et al. 1979. X. californicum (Lamberti et Bleve-Zacheo. XIPHINEMA FLORIDAE Lamberti et Bleve-Zacheo. pakistanense) and longer tail (29 pm in X.7in X. oxycaudatunz (Lamberti et Bleve-Zacheo. more clearly set off lip region (moderately in X. peruvianum Lamberti et BleveZacheo. conica1 straight tail (ventrally bent in X. citricolum) and lower C' value ((1. pakistanense). 1979). pakistanense (Nasir and Maqbool. wider tail and fatter body profile. floridae has - (Tables I. X. Table 111.6 in X.6-13. citricolum. X. anzericanunz). floridae occurred in the rhizosphere of sour orange near Altoona.90 10. citricolum). Morphometrics of X. floridae Table IV. Morphometrics of X. 1994. calzyornicum). 1979. Figs 4 . posterior basa1 guide ring (56 pm from the anterior extremity in X. americanum). 1979). 1998). 5 . I11 and VI. intermedium the casual agent of a decline of Bermuda grass in Florida. longer body (L= 1. 9 and 10) A population of X. This population should now be regarded as X. and X. Its morphometrics correspond to the origina1 description with the only exception of being slightly longer (Lamberti and Bleve Zacheo. 1979. citricolunz has higher C' value (1. citricolum (Lamberti et Bleve-Zacheo. georgz'anum. in X.bricolense) and more gradually tapering tail. citricolum Lamberti et BleveZacheo. longer odontostyle (66 pm in X. floridae has higher C value (48-50 in X. finally. X.6 ca. 1979 Males and juveniles were not found. X. X. in X. pakistanense).6-1. americanunz). longer odontostyle (80 pm ca.

47 8.0.Table V.4-23.8 18.5-8. at be-g of J 17.7-5. Morphometrics of X.4 19.4-.5 6.51 7.46 7.6-12.81 8.510.5 8.56 6-8.6 10.4-23 9.2-9.6 20.4 1 20-23.410.910.7-6.320.3 4.3 14-17 5.6-23 h0.89 8.61 4.6-20. laevistviatum.2 .6 8.6-9. I i 19.6~0.2-23.30 4.5 9.2-10.910.8-10.5 Body di-.

americanum) lower C' value (1. 1994) in its slightly posterior vulva (V= 5 0 % in X. in X. peruvianum (Lamberti et Bleve-Zacheo. luin ci).5 mm in X. shorter odontostyle (95~1m X. finally.. X. longistilum). franci). X. X. oxycaudatum) and wider tail. 1984) in its longer body (L= 1. C. oxycaudatum). paramonovi). F. minor (Ahmad et al. XIPHINEMA LAEVTSTRD1 TUM Lamberti et Bleve-Zacheo. americanzlm). posterior region. georgianum has longer odontostyle (103 pm ca. finally.2 in X. americanum) and longer hyaline portion of the tail U= 7pm in X. floridae has expanded lip region (almost continuous with the rest of the body in X. longistilum). Figs 4 . 1975. peruvianum) and wider more symmetrical tail (subdigitate in X. X. fmnci) and wider straight tail (slightly bent and concave ventrally in X. 1979) with the only exception of having slightly longer . longistilum) and shorter tail (35 pm in X. 1975) Khan et Ahmad. Agostinelli et Lemos. 1979 (Tables I and IV. inaequale (Khan et Ahmad. franci (Heyns and Coomans. higher C' value (1. longistilum (Lamberti et al. inaequale). mesostilum Lamberti. compared to X. X. georgianum differs from X. mesostilum). shorter tail (36 pm ca. minor). compared t o X. laevistriatzlm has shorter body (L= 2 mm in X. minor) and longer tail (30 pm X.2 in X. luci) and pointed tail terminus (rounded in X. longer odontostyle (80 pm ca.8 mm in X. 1913 (Lamberti and Golden. Female of Xiphznema georgianum: A..5 m m in X. longer odontostyle (69 pm in X. luci (Lamberti and Bleve-Zacheo.6 in X. However. the only remarkable differences were observed in the population collected at Lake Alfred which. in X. XIPHNEEMA G E O R G W U M Lamberti et Bleve-Zacheo. compared to X. anterior region. longistilum Lamberti. 1998). However. X. georgianum is similar t o X. americanum). anterior vulva (V= 56 in X. mesostilum (Lamberti et al. georgianunz occurred in the rhizosphere of live oak at Lake Alfred. paramonovi (Romanenko. 1994). E. mesostilum) and much lower a and C values (91 and 98 respectively in X. 1981). compared t o X. lower value of C' (1. X. Fig. Lamberti. 1977). X.. laevistriatum has lower C value (65 in X. in X. peruvianum). Bravo.odontostyle and odontophore.9 in X. georgianziiiz has shorter body (L= 2. posterior ergion. males were not found. inaequale). compared to X. anterior region. mesostilum). anterior vulva (V=57 in X. Khan and Ahmad. paramonovi) and more tapering and pointed tail (rounded terminus in X. laevistriatum has longer body (L= 1. compared to X. 1979). in X. laevistriatum differs from X. X. longer body (L= 1. 1979).8 in X. X. habitus. in X. Figs 6-10) Five populations were identified as X. paranzonovi). Its morphometrics fit the original description (Lamberti et Bleve-Zacheo.4 mm in X. 9 and 10) A population of X. 1977. laevistriatum. Males and juveniles were not found. inaequale (Khan and Ahmad.6 mm ca. luci Lamberti et Bleve-Zacheo. Rowat. franci). 1994). 1979). 4. longer odontostyle (82-85 pm in X. B. 1994 and X. floridae has more expanded lip region (body diam at lip region 10 pm in X. americanum) and shorter tail (35 pm ca. Bravo Agostinelli et Lemos. higher C' value (1. luci). floridae: D. minor). female of X . 1979 (Tables 1 and VI. X. Juveniles occurred in the population from Merrit 1sland. Their morphometrics are in the range of the origina1 description (Lamberti et Bleve Zacheo. X. finally. 1998. 1981. Agostinelli et Srivastava. 1979 and X. minor Ahmad. americanum). X. paramonovi Romanenko. americanum). 5 . compared to X. habitus.X. 1994). amerzcanum Cobb. georgianum possesses shorter body (L=2. longer body (L= 1. compared to X. americanum Cobb. 1994. compared to the others. 1913 (Lamberti and Golden. inaequale) and pointed terminus of the tail (rounded in X. laevistriatunz is similar to X. luci). has longer odontostyle and posterior basa1 guide ring.

laevistriatum and F1. identified as X. 124 bis. 6. including F1. Photomicrographs of females of X. anterior and D. n.5. (3) a group comprehending populations F1. citricolum. n. citricolum) and F1. cituicolum. 10): (1) population F1. Iso-electrofocusing of S O D isoforms (Fig. geor- gianum. characterized by three main bands at p H 8. laeuistria- . n. from Lake Alfred. (2) population F1.Fig. 218 from Eustis (X. citricolum). fioridae which shows only one band of SOD activity at basic pH. n. n. (4) a group of five populations. 158 from Labeile. which is characterized by a bandof p H 7. 156 from Labelle (X. 227 from Quincy (X. 183 from Moore Haven (X. 284 from Merrit Island (X. n. laevistriatum). identified as X. F1. 9) grouped the populations into four phenotypes (Fig.8. n.1. F1.1 and 4. 5. identified as X. n. anterior and B. n. posterior regions. identified as X. laevistriatum) F1. georgianum: C. 205 from Altoona. posterior regions and X. n. F1. 192 from Oklawaha. floridae: A. 201 from Altoona. identified as X.

laevistriatum body length 1. female posterior region. F1. citricolum. n. odontostyle length of ca. body lengtli of ca. female anterior region. tail straight. were similar to X.Table VI.1-1. However. odontostyle length of 110-120 p". lip region set off from body profile. 227 Pol. B. 218 identified as X. CONCLUSIONS This work does not solve the complex and debated problem of the valid species belonging to the X.3. varied from the group (3) for having an additional band at p14 5.3. it permits to characterize four species which clearly posses discriminant differences and for which tl-ie following diagnoses are proposed. FS. floridae. however.8. posterior region of first. 201 Pop. 284 Bani H1 780. 205. A. americanztm-group is 1. syrnmetrically conoid. 6. G. The DNA analysis. symmetrically conoid. not present in X. value of C' 1. 11C) which yielded two fragments of 280 and 250 bp. X. Fig. 205 Pop. 11B). citricoluvz and 227. identified as X. V ca. populations F1. C. tail straight.6. as population Fl. 11) indicated that tl-ie PCR product of the ITS region of tl-iree species within the X.4. odontostyle lengtl-i of 75- . n. D-F. n. showed a peculiar pattern with tl-ie enzyme Rsa I (Table VI. X. 183 Pop.2.6-1. citricolum. m o r p h ~ m e t r i c a l l ~ (Table VI. value of C' 1. 156 which morphometrically was identified as X. V= 50-52%. Fig. americanum-group. Xipbinema laeuistriatitm: A. 80 pm. laevistriatum. lip region set off from body profile.6 mm. body length 1. value of C' 1. 150 (Table VI.0 mm. FS. X. odontostyle length of ca. babitus. n. n. 201 identified as X. F1. symmetrically conoid. Pop.7-1. Estimated restrictiot-i fragment sizes (bp) of PCR amplified ITS of populations within the Xipbinemn nniericanum group. n. Fig. FS. lip region continuous with body profile.2-1. floridae. tum). 1. with pointed terminus. 218 Pop. body length of ca. 53 %. population F1.8 mm. V= 52-54%.380 uncut Ddr I Xba I 1350. with pointed terminus. 2 mm. n. n.650 430. laevistriatum. X. was not digested by the enzyme Bam H1 and showed a peculiar restriction profile with enzymes Dde I and Hinf I (Table VI. populations Fl.8. - Fig. B and C. 156 Pop. georghnum. Tl-ie population of X. 90-95 pm. 183 and 284. FS. n. n. FS. with pointed terminus. n. lip region set off from body profile.5 k b . georgzdnum was not analyzed. second and third juvenile stage respectvively. Fig. performed on seven populations . citricolum.390. tail straight. 11A) showed the same restriction pattern.

posterior region of first. The DNA analysis revealed that more restriction enzyrnes are needed to characterize populations within the X. D. It may be that small morphologi- cal differences among X. 7. female posterior region. laevistriatum: A.5-1. V= 5 1-53%. first stage juvenile of anterior region (arrow indicates the tip of the replacement odontostyle inserted in the odontophore).7. americanum-group. americanum-group species are not likely to be resolved in a system based on enzyme polymorphism. female anterior region. E-G. 90 pm. O n the basis of our present knowledge SOD isoforms. . B and C.Fig. tail ventrally bent and slightly concave. Photomicrograpl~s X. americanum populations identified by morphometric characters. with pointed terminus. second and third juvenile stage respectively. isoelectrofocusing patterns did not discriminate between X. value of C' 1.

--.:.l .. lileuirtriaturn . :-.. . turned into negatives and printed on photo quality paper.. - . Isoelectrofocusing of SOD isozymes from extracts of populations belonging to the Xiphinema americanum-group. . 9. : .~ g:.. & . < . C) Fl 201.I Body length (pm) Odontostyle i Replacement odontostY/e 1 Fig. f) Fl218. i) F1158. 1) F1156. ' ' -.. Minigels were stained for SOD.. g) Fl205.: t'* ' ... 8. Fig..i .. .'.'i: < . . -.:....*a2. . d) Fl12.. q. Bands of SOD activity appear black over a white background. . ..'O'?.* W?. . . t !t?. Scatter diagram plotting body and odontostyle length of individua1 juveililes and females of X. h) F1132.. ..$-.1 bis.. .. *.. ' .:. . i-. ' .. b) Fl284. " - .v< *'. : .I. .I.< :v 8-. < A ...6 .. e) Fl183. Nematode populations are shown as follows: a) Fl227. . * ~ . . .$-. . . $$. .. L. .' . dried. . .. scanned into computer images.$" + .+ :.

A.. Ebsary B.K..B. Type (1) include~ 1 192. 67: 801-804. 4 (1976): 195-200. Agostinelli A. Nematologia Mediterranea. Canadian Journal of Zoology.. 1998 . citricolum type. and Coomans A.. X. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors wish to express heartfelt gratitude to Teresa Lamberti who crossed the Atlantic with 30 Kg of soil samples in her hand-luggage..7- 7 N D B D R A X H M N D B D R A X H M Fig 10. Longidoridae) from islands in the Western Indian Ocean. 11. C /- A Y M B D R A X H N D LITERATURE CITED Ahmad M. H= Hinf I. Nematologica. 1994 .. * Fig. and Graham M. Restriction digestions of the PCR amplification product of the ITS region of X.Two new species of Xiphinema from India.S. Rawat V.C. F1284. type (2) F1201. laevistriatum type. F1218. 26: 131-138.Two new species of Xiphinema (Nematoda. F1227. Nematologia Mediterranea. 40: 12-24. 1977 . Longidoridae) from British Columbia vineyards. X. and Franco Zacheo for slide preparation. C. A= Alu I. Vrain T. Dorylaimida) from Garhwal Himalayas.. Diagram of the main 4 types of SOD isozyme patterns shown by the X. F1 158. type (4) Fl 156. americanum . Jason Zellers for assistance in collecting and processing those samples. type (3) F1 124 bis.group populations: A. B. X. India.Four species of the Xiphinema americanum group (Nernatoda.S. floridae type. 1989 .Two new species within the Xiphinema americanum-group (Nematoda.. R= Rsa I. Heyns J. and Srivastava N. Bajaj H. B= Bam HI. F1 F 205. ND= not digested. . separated on a 2 % agarose gel and stained with ethidium brornide (M= 100bp DNA ladder. and Jairajpuri M. F1183. X= Xba I. americanum-group populations. Lamberti F. D= Dde I.

from India and proposa1 for a new name for Xiphinema americanum sensu Carvalho (1956) non Cobb.A.. and Bleve-Zacheo T.. and Ahmad D. Loof P. and the male of X. The dagger nematodes (Xiphinema.Notes on Xiphinema mediterraneum (Nematoda. 8: 65-84. 27: 261-275.Redescription of Xiphinema americanum Cobb. 1984 . Sabova M. 1975).Studies on Xiphitzema americanum sensu lato with description of fifteen new species (Nematoda. Lamberti F. Lamberti F..S. 1981 . Agostinelli A. Nematologia Mediterranea.. 1993 .Description of Xiphinema pakistanense n..16: 1-12. 7 :21-28.. and Ahmad D.. 77: 92-95. and regional polytomous identification keys for the group. 1975 . Coiro M. Cobb) of Florida. rank (Nematoda.. Nematologia Mediterranea. Dorylaimida). 1998 . 25: 55-61. 68-69. 21: 475-490..T.Molecular methods for the identification of longidorid nematodes. pp. Lamberti F. lournal of Nematology. 1997 . 1979 . Agostinelli A. 1979 with observations on X... . Miano V. and Martelli G. Pakistan Journal of Nematolog?~. 1911. Eundamental and Applied Nematology. Nematologia Mediterranea.. Khan S. and Golden A.W. Xiphinema neoamericanum Khan et Ahmad. Coomans A.. 25: 344-348... and Brown D. 1974. Accepted for publication on 29 October 2001 . (Nematoda. Longidoridae) from the territory of the Soviet Union].A. Journal of Nematology. Molinari S. oxycaudatum Lamberti & Bleve-Zacheo. Longidorldae) from Pakistan. Moens M.D. Robbins R. Longidoridae).F. 1961 and comments on the group. Lamberti F. 17: 75-81. Duncan L... Rich J. Nematologia Mediterranea..A. and Valocka B. Lamberti F.P. 1913 with comments on its morphornetric variations..Phenotypic variations and genetic characterization of Xiphinema popula- tions from Slovakia (Nematoda. 1986 (Nematoda. Molinari S. 1971 . 2000 The Xiphinenza americanum group.The Xiphinema americanum-group in Portugal with description of four new species (Nematoda. and Lemos R.S. Molinari S..R. Dorylaimina) with description of Xiphinema neoamericanum n.J.M. and Baujard P . Russian Journal of Nematology. Tezisy Dokladov Pervoi Konferentsii po Nematodam Rastenii Pochvy i vod. 1997 .Cellular changes induced by Xiphinema vulgare in the roots of citrumelo and b y Xiphinema intennedium in the roots of Bermuda grass. their geographical occurrence and distribution. sp.. 2. Nasira K. thornei Lamberti & Golden.. Leone A.Longidoroidea (Thorne... De Luca F. Xiphinema inaequale nom..A.. 1998 . De Luca F. Dorylaimida). 22: 189-218. Longidoridae). Longidoridae). 25: 199-207. Nematologica.H. nov. Proceedings of the Soil and Crop Sn'ence Society of Florida. and Bleve-Zacheo T.The Xiphinema americarzum group (Nematoda. 1915) n.. Lamberti F. Tarjan A. 5: 93. Romanenko N.Distribution of Xiphinenza americanum and related species in North America.. 1999 . 7:51-106. sp. 1977...M. Nematologia Mediterranea. Bravo M. I . (syn. 16: 204-206.I. 1994 . A'ematologia Mediterranea. Putative species. Lamberti F.C.H. sp. 12ucM.. Observations on X@l~li~ema brevicollum Lordello & Da Costa.[A finding of a new species of nematode Xphinenza pararnonovi n. and De Giorgi C. and Maqbool M. Lamberti F. Nematologia Mediterranea.Khan S.