You are on page 1of 12

# Introduction The following notes are general guidance notes showing methods of calculation of the strength and size

of welds. Welded joints are often crucially important affecting the safety of the design systems. It is important that the notes and data below are only used for preliminary design evaluations. Final detail design should be completed in a formal way using appropriate codes and standards and quality reference documents

Relevant Standards BS 5950-1:2000 ..Structural use of steelwork in building. Code of practice for design. Rolled and welded sections BS EN 10025-1:2004 - Hot rolled products of structural steels. General technical delivery conditions

Variables related to welded joints 1. Strength of deposited weld material 2. Type of joint and weld..important 3. Size of weld ..important 4. Location of weld in relation to parts joined..important 5. Types of stress to which the weld is subjected 6. Conditions under which weld is carried out 7. Type of equipment used for welding 8. Skill of welder

8.7.3 .clause 6. The other method identifed in BS 5950 .8.7.Table of bracket weld subject to direct and bending stresses Stress in Weld Method of Loading Weldment σb τs Weld size (h) Stress in Weld Weldment Stress in Weld Weldment σb τs Weld size (h) τb τs Weld size (h) Assessment of Fillet Weld Groups ref notes and table Properties of Fillet Welds as lines Important note: The methods described below is based on the simple method of calculation of weld stress as identified in BS 5950.2 .1 clause 6.

2) The (unit) Moment of Inertia I u is calculated assuming the weld is one unit thick....e. i. The polar moment of inertia J = I xx + I yy 3) The maximum shear stress due to torsion is determined.. illustrated this method in my examples below The method of assessing fillet welds groups treating welds as lines is reasonably safe and conservative and is very convenient to use.r/J u 4) The maximum shear stress due to direct shear is determined. P = Applied load = 10 000N .e. 1) The area of the fillet weld A u (unit thickness) is calculated assuming the weld is one unit thick 2) The (unit) Polar Moment of Inertia J u is calculated assuming the weld is one unit thick. I have.414t a) Weld subject to torsion. to some extent. 1) The area of the fillet weld A u. a) Weld subject to bending. if the τ r /p w = 5 then the throat thickess t = 5 units and the weld leg size h = 1.. τ s = P /A 2 2 5) The resultant stress τ r = Sqrt (τ b + τ s ) 6) By comparing the design strength p w with the resultant stress τ r the value of the weld throat thickness is calculated and then the weld size..See table below for typical unit areas and unit Moments of Inertia A fillet weld subject to bending is easily assessed as follows.See table below for typical unit areas and unit Polar moments of Inertia A fillet weld subject to torsion is easily assessed as follows.. i..as the direction method uses the method of resolving the forces transmitted by unit thickness welds per unit length into traverse forces (FT ) and longitudinal forces (FL ).(unit thickness) is calculated assuming the weld is one unit thick. 3) The maximum shear stress due to bending is determined... if the τ r /p w = 5 then the throat thickess t = 5 units and the weld leg size h = 1.414.y/I u 4) The maximum shear stress due to direct shear is determined. r is chosen to give the highest value of τ r 6) By comparing the design strength p w with the resultant stress τ r the value of the weld throat thickness is calculated and then the weld size.t Examples of Fillet Weld Calculations Example of Weld in Torsion.... τ s = P /A u 5) The resultant stress τ r is the vector sum of τ t and τ s.. τ b = M.. τ t = T..

42/1.τ tv 2 τ sv = P /A u = 10000/270 = 37 N/mm 6 6 2 τ tv = M.93/1. d = 150 mm 2 x = b / 2(b+d) = 27mm.23.10 = 57..45 N/mm run The horizontal force /mm run for unit(mm) weld width F h = F sh + F th F sh = 0 6 6 F th = M.mm Ju = Polar Moment of inertia for weld 1unit(mm) thick. using the method below.10 N.04.86 N/mm Horizontal distance from centroid r wh = 27mm Vertical distance from centroid r wv = 150-42= 108mm The vertical forces per mm run F v = F sv .10 .04.The vector sum of the stresses due to forces and moments should not exceed the design strength Pw A u = Unit Throat Area 2 = (From table below) b + d = (120 + 150) = 270mm To obtain radius of Force from weld centre of gravity A = 250-27 =223mm 6 Moment M = P. It is generally prudent to calculate the total shear stress at both positions.r zv /J u = 2.45 N/mm The horizontal stress τ h = τ sh + τ th τ sh = 0 6 6 2 τ th = M. (From table below) 2 y = d / 2(b+d) = 42mm.04.10 .For a weld subject to only torsion this would be simply at the point furthest from the COG.r wh /J u = 2. A = 250-27 =223mm 6 Moment M = P.223 = 2.93/1.(From Table) 2 It is necessary to locate the point subject to the highest shear stress.6b d ] /12 (b+d) = 1.10 .10 = 90 N/mm run F h = 90 N/mm run The resultant force on the weld/mm run at z 2 2 F r = Sqrt (F h + F v ) = 253 N/mm run Now considering point w Now considering point w Horizontal distance from centroid r wh = 27mm Vertical distance from centroid r wv = 150-42= 108mm The vertical stress τ v = τ sv . A normal method of determining the stresses in these cases is to use vector addition..10 = 199 N/mm run F v = 236. However because the weld is subject to torsion and direct shear the problem is more complicated.23.04.7..8.10 = 90 N/mm 2 τ h = 90 N/mm The resultant stress on the weld at z 2 2 2 τ r = Sqrt (τ h + τ v ) = 253 N/mm First considering point Z Horizontal distance from centroid r zh = 120-27= 93mm Vertical distance from centroid r zv = 42mm The vertical force /mm run F v = F sv + F tv F sv = P /L = 10000/270 = 37 N/mm run 6 6 F tv = M.223 = 2.7. A normal method of determining the stresses in these cases is to use vector addition. using the method below.P w = Design Strength = 220 N/mm (Electrode E35 steel S275) Design Strength b = 120mm.r wh /J u = 2.10 .04.10 N.r = 10000.r zh /J u = 2. However because the weld is subject to torsion and direct shear the problem is more complicated..3 L = Length of weld 1 unit thick = (From table below) b + d = (120 + 150) = 270mm To obtain radius of Force from weld Centre of Gravity (Cog) .F tv F sv = P /L = 10000/270 = 37 N/mm run 6 6 F tv = M.27/1..10 .86 N/mm run The horizontal force /mm run = F h = F sh + F th .10 = 199 N/mm 2 τ v = 236.9 N/mm 2 τ v = 20.10 = 57.For a weld subject to only torsion this would be simply at the point furthest from the COG.8. For this example the method used is to resolve the stresses in the x and y directions It is necessary to locate the point subject to the highest shear stress.23.r = 10000.10 mm /mm.6b d ] /12 (b+d) = 1.04.23.r zv /J u = 2.mm 4 2 2 6 J u = [(b+d) . 4 2 2 6 4 = [(b+d) .42/1.9 N/mm run F v = 20. For this example the method used is to resolve the stresses in the x and y directions First considering point Z Horizontal distance from centroid r zh = 120-27= 93mm Vertical distance from centroid r zv = 42mm The vertical stress τ v = τ sv + τ tv 2 τ sv = P /A u = 10000/270 = 37 N/mm 6 6 2 τ tv = M. It is generally prudent to calculate the total shear stress at both positions.r zh /J u = 2.2 . and select the highest..(From Table) Direction Method as BS 5950 clause 6..04.23.27/1. and select the highest.10 .23.23.23.10 .(From table below) Simple Method as BS 5950 clause 6.04...

04..15mm . 50 / 5..23.75 +100) / 6 =5.108/1. Referring to weld capacities for longitudinal stresses P L for fillet welds Capacities of Fillet Welds the weld capacity for a 3mm weld with and E35 Electrode S275 Steel is 462N /mm run..6 N/mm run The specific force on the weld at w 2 2 F r = Sqrt (F h + F v ) = 232. The design strength p w for the weld material is 220 N/mm 2 The weld throat thickness should be 253 /220 = 1.3 Length of Weld of unit thickness = L = 2(d+b) =2(100+75) =350mm Moment of Inertia / mm throat thickness = I u / mm 2 2 5 = d (3b+d) / 6 = 100 (3.7.r wv /J u = 2..7.108/1.10 = 166..5 N/mm F sh = 0 6 6 F th = M.86 N/mm τ r / p w = 186.85 = Throat Thickness.6 N/mm run F h = 231.5 N/mm run The maximum stress is similar but greatest at z . The weld size is therefore 1. 1.10 = 231.8. Example of Weld in Bending..71 N/mm 5 5 2 τ b = M.414.42.10 .10 mm 4 / mm τ r = Sqrt(τ s + τ b ) 2 τ s = P / A u = 30000/350 = 85.y / I u = 18..10 = 231..42. F b = Bending force per unit length of weld.10 .71 + 166. This weld would be more than sufficient.62mm use 3mm fillet weld The maximum specific is greatest at z = 253 N/mm run.42.05 ) =186. 2 ( Throat thickness for τ<SUBR< sub> = 220 N/mm ) 2 2 F r = Resultant force per unit length of weld..8.23.The horizontal stress τ h = τ sh + τ th τ sh = 0 6 6 2 τ th = T.05 N/mm 2 2 2 τ r = Sqrt(85.04.10 mm 2 Direction Method as BS 5950 clause 6.6 N/mm 2 τ h = 231. F s = Shear force per unit length of weld.10 .75 +100) / 6 =5. P= 30000 Newtons d= 100mm b= 75mm y = 50mm 2 Design Stress p w = 220 N/mm (Electrode E35 steel S275) Design Strength 5 Moment = M = 30000*60=18.15 = 1.10 Nmm Simple Method as BS 5950 clause 6...86 / 220 = 0.r wv /J u = 2.6 N/mm The resultant stress on the weld at w 2 2 2 τ r = Sqrt (τ h + τ v ) = 232.2 Unit Weld Area = A u = 2(d+b) =2(100+75) =350mm Unit Moment of Inertia = I u 2 2 5 4 = d (3b+d) / 6 = 100 (3. F r = Sqrt(F s + F b ) 2 2 .

86 N per mm length 2 N/mm and a value of τ s = 100 N/mm results with a of weld.414 = 1.05 N per mm length of Note : If a leg length h= 1..42.2mm use 3mm weld thickness F s = P / L = 30000/350 = 85.Leg Length = Throat thickness *1. A 3mm weld (a = 2.5 .5 Referring to weld capacities table below.5)= 27.y / I u 5 5 = 18. .10 = 166. The bending stress 222N/mm .Weld Capacities K is calculated at 1.. 2 2 For this case for the welds under greatest loading the resultant stress of Sqrt (τ b + τ s ) = 2 type of loading is traverse loading.pwfor a E35 Weld electrode used with S275 steel 2 2 pw = 220 N/mm and therefore PT = a*300N/mm ..71 2 + 166.71 N per mm length of weld F b = M..10 .36 for this resultant direction of forces. 50 / 5.5 = o 72.86 N per mm run Properties of weld groups with welds treated as lines It is accepted that it is reasonably accurate to use properties based on unit weld thickness in calculation to determine the strength of welds as shown in the examples on this page.2mm is used in the equations weld in relevant part of the "Table of bracket weld subject to direct and bending stresses" above a value of τ b = 198 F r = Sqrt(85. The angle of the resulting specific load to the horizontal element o = arctan(85. The weld properties Ixx Iyy and J are assumed to be proportional to the weld thickness. The typical accuracy of this method of calculation is shown below.1mm) therefore will therefore have a design capacity of 630 N/mm run and will easily be able to support the load of 186. o o This is an angle with the weld throat θ = 45 + 27.K. PT = a.Which is in general agreement with the is in line with horizontal element and the shear stress is above result in line with vertical member.71/166.052) =186.

5.55 + 2 50) = 565.55.3. and Ju 1) Area of weld = 0.(2. This error is such that the resulting designs are conservative.707. centroid.6mm .5mm) Area = (57.707.(2b+d) Area = 0.5 + 2 2.This is illustrated in the tabled values below J= Ixx +Iyy 1063080 1008000 5% d Accurate 3 Simple Error 3 b 60 60 h 50 50 Ixx 955080 900000 6% Iyy 108000 108000 0 Note: The error identified with this method is lower as h increases relative to d. Example illustrating use of stress vectors Calculation based on real weld sizes 1) The area of the welds (based on throat weld thickness at 0.3.707.5.5 = 3.5mm Calculations based on unit values This calculation uses equations from table below for Area.5) = 584.

40.5 ) = 36.5.(100+21) = 5 6.10 mm 3 Ixx = 2.5/2 + 2. 2 2 θA = θB = tan ((5518.4.(100+18.5.7 -1 θC = θD = tan o ((21)/28.6 2 N/mm τ TC = τ TD = 5 5..9mm 4) The radii rA.10 Nmm 8) The polar moment of inertia of the weld group = J = Ixx + Iyy Iyy = 2. θB.3.5 57 / 12 + 2 3.5/2) ] 3 + 57 .[55.097 .(50/2 + 3. rA = rB = Sqrt ((58.3.55 +6. 5) The angles θA.9mm / 5 4 4.3.5^2 ) = 47.1 rC = rD = Sqrt ((21)^2 + 28.10 mm 9) The stress due to torsion 3 9) The stress due to torsion τ TA = τ TB = M.b +6bd +d )/12 + 4 b /(2b+d) Ju = 3 2 0.34 5) The angles θA. rB.43.(27.5.55+50)= 18.5. rA = rB = Sqrt ((5518.5.10 mm J = Ixx +Iyy= 5 4 5.9) = 5 5.29 -1 θC = θD = tan ((18..50 3 + 50 )/12 3 5 55 /(2. rC & rD are calculated .55..31.9)/25 o ) = 37 .5 = 8.84 N/mm 2 τ S = 5000/584 = 8.5 2 21) ] 3 + 3.10 Nmm.[55 .5 ) = 52.34mm / 5 .69.3.5/12 = 5 4 3.521)/ 28. 2) There is no need to calculate the Moment of Area with this method 3) The centroid v = b /(2b+d) v = 55 /(2.rA/J. θB.5.55.707.10 7) The Moment on the weld group = Force..5.3.55.5^2 ) = 35.10 Nmm 8) The Unit Polar moment of inertia of the weld group = 3 2 3 Ju = 0.9)^2 + 25^2 ) = 43.55+50) = 4.94 Nmm.4 .94..τ TC = τ TD = M.56 N/mm 2 7) The Moment on the weld group = Force .94.10 mm =55. rB. θC & θD are calculated .(8. and .57.9 rC = rD = Sqrt (18.5 + 3.9)/ 25 ) = 55. rC & rD are calculated .rC/J τ TA = 5..5)) = 3 12 284mm 3) The centroid v = Moment of Area/Area M of Area / Area = 21 mm 4) The radii rA...3. θC & θD are calculated .3.2) The moment of area about x-x = M of Area = (57.5/2) = 5 4 2.5 /12 + 2 3.55.distance to centroid M = 5000.(8.Distance to centroid M = 5000.(21-3.707.69..521)^2 + 28.(55/2 + 3..05. o o -1 θA = θB = tan ((58.. 6) The direct shear stress on the area = Force /Area 6) The direct shear stress on the area = Force /Area -1 τ S = 5000/565..9^2 + 25^2 ) = 31.5/12 + 3.

05 Nmm.56N/mm 2 2 τ RA = τ RB=46. = τ RB and τ RA..35.69N/mm 10) The resultant stresses τ RA.rA/J.10 mm =52. If the welds were smaller i.τ TA = τ TB = M..31N/mm 2 Note: The example above simply illustrates the vector method adding direct and torsional shear stresses and compares the difference in using the unit weld width method and using real weld sizes.70N/mm 10) The resultant stresses τ RA. Table properties of a range of fillet weld groups with welds treated as lines - Weld Throat Area Unit Area Location of COG x y I xx-(unit) J-(Unit) .29 N/mm τ RC = τ RD = = 2 45. = τ RB and τ RA.69.1mm / 5 4 5.8 2 N/mm τ TC = τ TD = 5 6.10 mm = 2 39.59 N/mm τ RC = τ RD = 45.4. The example calculates the stress levels in an existing weld group it is clear that the weld is oversized for the loading scenario. = τ RB are obtained by adding the stress vectos graphically as shown below 5 τ RA = τ RB=48.τ TC = τ TD = M.10 mm = 2 39. and .e 3mm then the differences would be even smaller. The difference in the resulting values are in less than 4%.05 Nmm.4mm / 5 4 5.rC/J 4. = τ RB are obtained by adding the stress vectos graphically as shown below 5 4 τ TA = 6.47.4.

813 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 15 18 20 22 25 Weld Capacity E42 Electrode S355 Steel Leg Throat Length Thickness mm 2.100 2.pw a = weld throat size.6 14.465 3.2 5.25 Weld Capacity E35 Electrode S275 Steel Leg Throat Length Thickness mm 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 15 18 20 22 25 2.938 4.25 √ (1.469 Design Strength p w of fillet welds .5 / (1 + Cos 2 2 2 θ) PT based on elements transmitting forces at 90o i.2 5.1 2.924 1.281 3.625 3.577 0..848 2.310 2.500 3.925 2.4 10.08 3.750 2.700 0.4 17.150 3.616 0.750 2.388 3.094 1.155 1.540 1.772 3. Design Strength PL = a.850 4.0 8.1 2.963 1.5 mm Longitudinal Transverse Capacity Capacity PL kN/mm 0.875 1.5 4.e θ = 45o and K = 1.235 4..0 15.375 PT kN/mm 0.875 1.310 2.770 0.625 3.6 14.K.656 0.4 17.813 5.0 8.5 4.312 1.888 3. K =1.0 15.232 1.pw PT = a.4 10.The weld loading should be such that { (FL/PL) + (FT/PT) } ≤ 1 The following table is in accord with data in BS 5950 part 1.540 1.375 4.6 7.188 2.050 1.850 4.5 12.720 0. Based on design strengths as shown in table below .5 12.8 3.850 PT (kN/mm) kN/mm 0.5 mm Longitudinal Transverse Capacity Capacity P L(kN/mm) kN/mm 0.8 3.6 7.462 0.525 0.400 1.

Electrode classification Steel Grade S275 S355 S460 220 220 220 35 N/mm 2 43 N/mm 220 250 250 2 50 N/mm 220 250 280 2 .

66571.71.*.-*668071.2/5  .665671.72-5..6 8  #1.5.:.*2/71.*.687*7675.*5./.-*668071.66 6.666..5.*5675.   #1..5.8*7.-.:.72/.1.5.:.66-8.2/71. #1.861.06. #1.57*86..9.:..66-8.5 3:71.8771.-*-71.126.*.*56-.8*7.761.:.-8 8771. 7# 5 8  #1.72725626-.-6.7.679*8.-62.71..7209.*. 87 2*52.7:..8771.57*.9*8.32*5 2.7.667876*-71.861. #1.-7152*7 71.60675.725682/7*-6 56.   .71.*5675.*.101.8*7.23*5071.687*7675.72/.7152*771.-62.0713::7171.-. /71.

.

8*726 .*3.62/.7&.-*. 7     .

.250410/3%47843   !550/4./    !083\$97039 .

22  0..974/08900\$ 083\$97039 - 22  / 22  .

-0-04   / . ./ 22  7429.

3/ 242039884:/3490.017420/./  ..08.00/90/083897039!  :&39%74.-0-04 - /     22  %44-9..9  22  42039! 7     22     : .712-*6" .9478:2419089708808/:094147./:84147.*86.37.    %0. .-0-04  "3.0.970.03970417.   7429./ (./ 22 7429.

99490089 80.09089708808390. 9.9944394784398 4:/-0825.01742.897088.!.909054398:-0.088.9090949.57:/03994.07-0.7944... 8.7897088 .8.99054391:79089174290   40.0/8:-0.-0    9830.03974/7 22 '079. .425.3/ /70.9-495489438 :83902094/-04 ...01742.980.:80900/88:-0.80...//943   980307.7897088 47.:.3./    742%.250902094/:80/894 7084.3//70.079.438/0735439  47439. 2094/41/0907233908970880839080..9438  789./89.947..03974/7./89.808894 :80.3.0.790574-0282470.90/ 3472.3/800.9 90089 47980.22  %0.994947843.

: .

 .

22 9. 7.

:    .

   .

742039413079.72.    039410/:399. 7429.22 5.        .-0-04 - /     22 %44-9.712-*6" ..9 4    22  42039! 7     22 :!4./  .1470/:39 22 9./ (.*86.017420/03970417.37./:84147..

 ./    22 .

80.3..947.:.9090949.7897088 47.09089708808390.079.088.0.:80900/88:-0.3.438/0735439  47439..03974/7./89. 2094/41/0907233908970880839080.7897088 .7944.99490089 80.22 742 %.9 90089 47980.//943   980307.-0    9830.01742.99054391:79089174290   40.250902094/:80/894 7084.01742..425.790574-0282470./89.3/ /70.22  %0..0.980.147.07-0.03974/7 22 '079.9438  789.909054398:-0.3//70.9944394784398 4:/-0825.90/ 3472.0/8:-0.3/800.9-495489438 :83902094/-04 ..57:/03994..808894 :80...994947843.

 8.!.8. 9.227:3.

 .

 .

 7.227:3   9.

:   .

   .

 .227:3 .

227:3 .

 ..

.22  %047439.8970888 9 8  9 7.

:    .

    .

22  .

9 7\$679  .3989708843900/. .22 %0708:9.

147.0.22   %047439.

.227:3147:39 22 0//9 8 9 8    9 7.

:   .

    .

227:3  .

227:3 %0708:9.39147.043900/.

227:3.9   7\$679   . .

01742..438/0735439  47439.03974/722 '079./89..08507227:3./89.3.147.3./89.227:3    4. 9.438/0735439 4.01742.  8.8.03974/7.03974/722  '079.01742.!.  22 47439.  22  %0.079.01742..3./89.3.03974/7.

 .

 .

8.227:3 %0. 7.079.    9. 9..897088.

:   .

    .

!.227:3 8.

: .

 .

 7.22     9.

:   .

    .

 .22  .

227:3  . .

22 %047439.147.0.

8970888 9 9 7..227:38 9  8    %047439.

:    .

    .

.22 8  7:3    9% 7.

:    .

    .

22   .

227:3 %0850.9  .1.043900/.147.

22   7\$679   .  .

3989708843900/.9     7\$679   .227:3 %0708:9.  .

2:2850.9.870.1.22    %02.9089.

22  7:3  %02.7-:970.9   %0/0838970395147900/2.9089.907.8   .2:2897088882.

5.99.308884:/-0.908147439:/3...89708808! %00/974.22 #010773940/.

.9147.  22 1471090/8.974/0\$ %00/80890701470    22:80 \$9008.5.3/0.220/9..5..90841090/8900/  .

039     .227:3 %80/4:/-024709.3 221090/ 8:11.250410/303/3  .

 ! 09438 / 22 -22  22  083\$970885 .

    039410/41:399.     5...974/08900\$ 083\$97039  42039     22 "3.712-*6" .22  0.     22 42039413079.72.*86.3088 / .712-*6" ..*86.

3088:.22974.99.

/ .22    / .

      .

   22  .

 8!.0507:39039410/  -03/3147.0507:39039410/     7\$679 8  .39147.0507:39039410/  8\$0.22   7#08:9.7147.

 .

  5072203941 0/ - .

:       .

90894.../3 %0-03/3897088 8330947439.202-07   %0.3/9080.    5072203941 0/    7\$679       50722039 410/  4798../949047439.1.002039.80147900/8:3/0770.9.079./3897.7.4./390 950414.304190708:93850.3  . 002039 4 .07804.78970888 3309.

.: / .9089.08   !%.90/.974/0:80/9\$ 8900 &390/70.     4 4 %88.9Û     4    #010773940/..-0-04 0/ ...94341147.5.39 /70.    22  &3942039413079.  5147.0/00./ .9 14798708:9..5.:      / .9088.3.309900/974.:.

      .

  8!.   22      7\$679 8  .

: .

  .

22    - .

:    .

    .

22 7\$679      .

22 7.

5 .

3088   %74.99.3088147\$&#8:- .9%.  %74.

.0..22   0039%74.090/8:-0.0039 228:80/39006:.3088   4901.:041-  .3/-03/389708808.-041-7.-4.9.3088   22:80 220/9.9438 3700..99.395.794190%.994 /70..

22.:0418 ..3/..

 8   .   708:9.22 708:989.3989708841\$679 .

.0708:9           .7002039990 .830307.-4.22 .

5 .

3/90701470! %.  .22 .

..941 .22  220/ ../083.0 .5. 22 9070147090701470.

-72+..675.-3523.2/716.90            .*62*+*.3/0..7286.71.2:  / -          ..-0948:55479904.57.-*6.227:3.**.-71.8-0 ..6+*6.-052836:71:.-675.3523.-71..-9*8.66.*668.57.627163*0.0712/:.85*.*.7*+.*3.85*7..6.73.35232572*7271..66 #1. #1.57.6+.7.-6*6612:71.8*726612:+.62/:.*7.2:    #1668675*7.5.-71. *-*5.:7.:.-287:..:./41 507227:3          523.6  76*.37...*.-71*7765.8*72 72-.712-2/ .

9438-.943817429.712-62:.:.*3. .2/675.5525668..5.-0-04 14770.*6.943-.7256 ..8675*7086.    .606*5.80/4370.\$250 7747                    27.5*61.669..5525-.72.0/808 .6870-.:..:08 %8.5.7/.943:80806:..3/: .#16.80/43:39.-:71716..26.65..#1.171*7 71.59*79..03974/ .:.*79.

-    + . 5.*2/:. .

*      5.*5.*:71716.72/*5. 2.-27152*7:. #1.:.*2/71.2.*.712-     2/5.62.66*7      5.-71.5.**+287.-72.*                .8*7. ..72/5.-6 +*6.*           #1.71. #1..

..      #1. 9    .752-9+  + .

5*-5 5 55*5.8*7.   #1.752-92.*.* 5...* .* 5.*  #1.-  55"457  2/5..72/ 5.

 .

         .

 55"457 .

      .

6Û Û ÛÛ*5.-  55"457   .-   #1.*0. .5*-5 5 55*5..   #1.*.*.8*7.8*7.

       .

 55"457 .

-   #1.761.-5.*.*5675.* ÛÛ7* .           #1. .6Û Û ÛÛ*5.8*7.*0.66271.*5..

  .

       2 ÛÛ7* .

 .

    2  ÛÛ7* .

.* . 5.    2 25.

      ÛÛ7* .

 .

72.*5.  #1..     2 "         #1. 5.7271.66271..* 25.-5...*5675..* -67*.-0528325.2.761.:.752-  .

.

   "        .

   . 67*..72.\$72*52.:.7271.752- :...57*2/71.  #1.-05283 25.72/.-05283 8     +  ++ + .    #1. .2.

    .

.

   .

57*2/71.   8  #1..        .-05283.72/. :.32*52.

        .

               .

              .

   .

66-8.7272562 .675.        #1.

..    .

          .

     .

     .

    .

.   .    .

        ## 5   5  *- ## #   .

      .

         ##    .

    .

          #1.66-8.7272562 ## 5   5  *- ## .675.

6! !*- #     . #1.66.5.687*7675.

    .

**6612:+.2: !!   !!      ##         ..726 05*31.-+*--071.          ! ! *5.2+7*.669.675.

           .

66.669.726 05*31.687*7675.5.2: !!     !!  .. #1.**6612:+.-+*--071.6! ! *-! ! *5.675.2+7*.

   .

-  \$75..*5675.3523. .-6:.6:28-+.66.6671* /71..6 #1.*722/ .671.725.86071.87:.62/*5*0.-6..7*-72562*61.* 2..71.-0528376.* &.-//.27.:.5 .6*5.23*5.-629.9.-//.712-*-8605.71..56.671.6*..#1.*3..675..670:.6*.  . 71.2*-0 6.9.-*6.5...57..7:. 87   \$7                .2//..712-*--0-5.66.*7..*:.*..-052836:71:.6 *-.5..-:-71.9.6*.68709*8.:.5.-//.*+29.5    #*+.*3.638675*7..-675.*52 #1.6   #152*75.8*7.*571*771.5.5..671..-/2571.

-.:.-*3*.#:273.6 #1.2:  .7/.62/2*-0*5.2/2*-0271.2*-0*-2078-*2*-0*6612:+.-7271.73.7:..65.77*+./.-75*9./&.*7.                    #*+.7. -.*3*.56.

#1.:.68.-2*-06128-+.171*7       # #  ^.

/22:07*+..25-:71-*7*" 3*57. #1.6*.

2: .60"75.0716*6612:7*+. +.   .071 * 3: #*  3:  *:.-2-.60675. *6.-7152*76.

  .

  .

.Û2*-..6*7 2 ..-2. 26 Û  #+*6.7675*6770/25.

.7. . .7 *3*..752-.-*3*.071 #1.071 #1.7 #                                                                                                       &.7 .66 .  &.752-.66  #                                                                                                   . 2078-* #5*69.""7.7 *3*.56.-*3*.0 #152*7 *3*.0 #152*7 *3*.7 .." "7.56.. 2078-* #5*69...

60"75...*72                             .7:.*66/.5*-. .-6   "7.752-.    "  " "   ..0713:2//.