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Nursing & Nursing Related Theories & Theorists: An Ultimate Guide There are different nursing theories and health theories

to help us explain the phenomena we are experiencing in health. Since nursing knowledge is the inclusive total of the philosophies, theories, research, and practice wisdom of the discipline, these theories define what nursing is or what sets it apart from different professions. Below is a shortlist of different health and nursing theories. Abraham Maslow

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Hierarchy of Needs Physiologic Needs: breathing, food, water, sex, sleep, homeostasis, excretion. Safety Needs: security of: body, employment, resources, morality, family, health, property. Love and Belonging Needs: friendship, sexual intimacy, family Esteem Needs: self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of others, respect by others Self-actualization Needs: morality, creativity, spontaneity, problem solving, lack of prejudice, acceptance of facts.

Adolf Meyer

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Believes in totality of man or the holistic approach to man. Patients could best be understood through consideration of their life situations.

Alfred Adler

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Superiority and inferiority complex and birth order. He emphasized that one’s birth order as having an influence on the style of life and the strengths and weaknesses in one’s psychological make up. Read more about Alfred Alder

Anne Boykin & Savina Schoenhofer

All persons are caring and nursing is a response to unique social call.

Betty Neuman

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Carl Jung

She developed the Health Care Systems Model. Nursing is concerned with all the variables affecting an individual’s response to stress, which are interpersonal, intrapersonal and extrapersonal in nature.

Introversion and extroversion–persona

Dorothea Orem

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Developed self-care, self-care deficit and nursing systems theory. Nurses have to supply care when the patients cannot provide care to themselves. By measuring the clients deficit relative to self care needs.

Dorothy Johnson

Conceptualized the Behavioral Systems Model.

therefore to society. Trust vs Mistrust. and reactions o To identify and accept the interrelatedness of emotions and organic illness o To facilitate the maintenance of effective verbal and nonverbal communication o To promote the development of productive interpersonal relationships o To facilitate progress toward achievement of personal spiritual goals o To create and maintain a therapeutic environment o To facilitate awareness of self as an individual with varying physical. o To promote good hygiene and physical comfort o To promote optimal activity. Generativity vs Stagnation. exercise. Ego Integrity vs Despair. a practice and the art. Initiative vs Guilt. Identity vs Role Confusion. Intimacy vs Isolation. feelings. Erik Erikson   Psychosocial development of man. Ernestine Weidenbach   Nurse’s individual philosophy lends credence to nursing care. rest. and sleep o To promote safety through prevention of accidents. aggressive. and developmental needs o To accept the optimum possible goals in light of physical and emotional limitations o To use community resources as an aid in resolving problems arising from illness o To understand the role of social problems as influencing factors in the cause of illness Florence Nightingale   Environmental Theory. Faye Abdellah   Defined nursing as a service to individuals and families. achievement and sexual. dependence. Identified 21 nursing problems. Wiedenbach believed that there were 4 main elements to clinical nursing. a purpose. She also stated that nursing was “concerned with man as an integrated whole and this is the specific knowledge of order we require”. Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt. They included: a philosophy.  Each person is composed of 7 subsystems namely: ingestive. o Pure or fresh air o Pure water o Sufficient food supplies o Efficient drainage o Cleanliness o Light (especially direct sunlight) . Industry vs Inferiority. Focused on manipulating the environment for the patient’s recovery. affiliative. eliminative. injury. or other trauma and through the prevention of the spread of infection o To maintain good body mechanics and prevent and correct deformities o To facilitate the maintenance of a supply of oxygen to all body cells o To facilitate the maintenance of nutrition of all body cells o To facilitate the maintenance of elimination o To facilitate the maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance o To recognize the physiologic responses of the body to disease conditions o To facilitate the maintenance of regulatory mechanisms and functions o To facilitate the maintenance of sensory function o To identify and accept positive and negative expressions. emotional.

Nursing is the application of the art and human science through transpersonal caring. formal operations Jean Watson   Human Caring Model. Nursing is an interpersonal process of therapeutic interactions between the sick and the nurse Ida Jean Orlando   Believed that nurses can help patients meet a perceived need that they cannot meet themselves. concrete operations. Nursing Process theory. preoperational. o choleric is a do-er. o phlegmatic tends to be self-content and kind. Lawrence Kohlberg  Three (3) levels of moral development: . Hildegard Peplau  Interpersonal model. Imogene King   Goal attainment theory Nursing is a helping profession Jean Piaget   Cognitive development theory Sensorimotor. Harry Stack Sullivan  Interpersonal theory and anxiety occurs due to poor interpersonal relationship.Galen  Four temperaments o sanguine personality is fairly extroverted. o melancholic is a person who is a thoughtful ponderer.

Human beings are more than and different from the sum of their parts.o o o Premoral or preconventional Conventional level Post conventional level Madeleine Leininger   Transcultural nursing. Humans are unitary beings in whom disease is a manifestation of the pattern of health. o personal integrity and o social integrity Sigmund Freud  Psychosexual theory and Psychoanalytical Theory Sister Calista Roy   Adaptation model. Virginia Henderson   Identified 14 basic needs. recovery. Myra Levine  Four conservation principles: o conservation of energy. o structural integrity. Nurse functions to assist clients in performing activities contributing to health. Nursing is a humanistic and scientific mode of helping a client through specific cultural caring process. Martha Rogers   Science of Unitary Human Beings. or peaceful death. Each person is a unified biopsychosocial system in constant interaction with changing environment. Margaret Newman   Health as expanding consciousness. .

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