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Final Exam


Instructions to Candidates 1. Answer ALL questions in Part A and THREE questions in Part B 2. No dictionaries are permitted 3. Only the following calculators are permitted: Casio FX83MS, FX83ES, FX83WA (battery powered) and Casio FX85MS, FX85ES, FX85WA (solar powered). 4. 10 minutes reading time is allowed in addition to the 3 hours for completing the paper 5. You may NOT start writing during the 10 minute reading time at the beginning of the test 6. The last page of this exam provides constants needed to do the questions. When the exam starts, you may remove this page from the exam.

Date: Friday 25th June 2010

Location: Christopher Ingold (Chemistry) Auditorium Length: 3 Hours

Time: 10:00 am – 1:00 pm

What is the average emf induced in the coil during this process? [3] 5) A string of mass 0. a) What is the magnitude and direction of the velocity of the mass at a time t = 0.25 m. His speed relative to the water is 4. In what direction should the boat be headed? What is the speed of the boat relative to the banks of the river? How long does he take to cross the river? [4] 3) A mass is attached to the lower end of a vertical spring and as a result the spring extends by 0.2 m s-1.5 s. What is the average power lost as heat when this emf is connected across a resistor of 200 Ω? What assumption have you made about the source of emf? [3] 7) a) Explain why and how the conductivity of an intrinsic semiconductor changes with increasing temperature. The coil is picked up.12 m and released. You should allow 45 minutes for this section. From this equilibrium position the mass is pulled down a further distance of 0. It is vibrating at its fundamental frequency of 256 Hz.8 × 10-3 kg is stretched between two supports a distance 0.2 Section A Answer ALL of these questions. How long does it take for the police car to catch up the motorist? How far has the police car travelled from its original position? [4] 2) A river of width 88 m flows from north to due south with a speed of 2. the police car starts off in pursuit at a constant acceleration of 3 m s -2. Evaluate the tension in the string. The total mark for this section is 40 marks. Just as the motorist passes. A man steers a motorboat across the river such that he arrives at the opposite bank directly east from his starting point.0 m s-1. b) Explain why doped semiconductors have both majority and minority charge carriers.75 m apart. [5] . The marks for each question are shown at the end of the question.35 s after being released? b) What is the displacement of the mass from equilibrium when the kinetic energy of the mass is 4 times the potential energy of the mass? [5] 4) A flat coil with 1000 turns and area 500 cm2 lies on a horizontal surface in a region where the vertical component of the Earth’s magnetic field is 40 μT.5 V. [4] 6) A sinusoidal emf from a signal generator is displayed on an oscilloscope and seen to have an amplitude of 12. turned over and then replaced on the surface in a time of 1. 1) A motorist travelling at a constant speed of 15 m s-1 passes a stationary police car.

The tennis ball has mass 0. due to the rod is given by the expression: E= Q  L2 4π ε  a 2 − 0 4      [4] 9) A flywheel of moment of inertia 16 kg m2 is slowed down by a frictional torque of 7. calculate: a) the time it takes to stop b) the number of revolutions it undergoes before stopping [4] 10) The graph below represents the force on a tennis ball during its collision with a wall. show that the electric field at a point P.0 Nm. Its initial velocity is 32 m s-1 perpendicular to the wall and it rebounds with the same speed also perpendicular to the wall. the maximum force exerted on the ball during the collision? [4] . L P a Using calculus. What is the magnitude of Fmax. If it is initially rotating at 22 rad s-1.3 8) A conducting rod of length L carries a charge Q.058 kg. P lies on a line through the axis of the rod and at a distance a from the mid-point of the rod as shown in the diagram.

8 m before take off. It then takes off at angle of 35º to the horizontal (as shown).42. c) Find the final angular speed of the door after the mud hits the door. what is the mass of the heaviest person who can safely climb to the top of the ladder? b) How far along the ladder could a 97-kg person climb before the ladder starts to slip? [10] B) A marble starts from rest and rolls without slipping down a slope and then up another smaller slope as shown in the diagram. The marble’s centre of mass drops a total vertical distance of 1. a) Determine the marble’s speed at take off. show that the moment of inertia of a uniform density rod of mass M and length L about one end is given by: I = ML 2 3 A solid door 1 m wide is hinged along one side and has a total mass of 40. You should allow 45 minutes for each question. (Note: the marble can be considered as a solid sphere with moment of inertia is 2/5MR2 about its diameter). travelling perpendicular to the door at 12. b) Determine the horizontal distance travelled before the marble hits the ground. The mark for each question is 40 marks. b) Find the angular momentum of the mud about the hinge at the instant just before it strikes the door.500 kg. Initially it is open and stationary.5 kg and is leaning against a frictionless wall. Question 1 A) A ladder of length 5. [10] . making a 66° angle with the horizontal. A handful of mud of mass 0.0 kg.0 m has a mass of 9.8 m from the hinged side.0 m s-1 hits and sticks to the door a horizontal distance 0. a) If the coefficient of friction between the ladder and ground is 0.4 SECTION B Answer THREE questions ONLY in this part. Marks for each part of the question are shown in brackets at the end of that part. [10] C) a) Using calculus.

At the top of the circle the bob’s speed is 2. The bob rotates in a horizontal circle of radius 0.the linear speed of the bob.70 m.15 kg attached to an inextensible string of length 0.5 D) A conical pendulum consists of a small bob of mass 0. Calculate: a) the tension in the string b) the period of the rotation of the bob c). The same pendulum is now swung vertically and moves in a vertical circle with constant mechanical energy.40 m. d) What is its speed at the bottom of the circle? e) What is the tension in the string when the bob is at the bottom of the circle? [10] . of which the centre is vertically below the point of suspension.4 m s-1.

75 eV photon and ends up in an excited state. It then drops to the next lower state.9206 u.6 Question 2 A) In a photoelectric experiment. What is the energy of the photon emitted in this process? c) A hydrogen atom is in its n=5 state. how does this affect the emitted electrons? [8] B) a) State what is meant by ionisation. a) Calculate the threshold frequency at which photoemission occurs. Find the binding energy per nucleon. b) The ground state of a hydrogen atom has an energy of -13. monochromatic light is incident onto the surface of sodium metal which has a work function of 2.2 nm. 26 Fe which has a nuclear mass of 55. b) If the incident light is ultraviolet of wavelength 12. The half-life of oxygen-15 is 122 seconds. what is the final speed of the electron? b) According to special relativity.0087 u). In the laboratory. derive an equation for the number of radioactive nuclei N(t) at time t.28 eV. b) How many atoms of oxygen are initially in the sample? c) What would be the radioactivity of the sample 5 minutes after preparation? d) After how many seconds will the radioactivity reduce to 4% of its original value? [8] D) a) Explain in the context of nuclear physics what mass defect is. what would be the actual final speed of the electron? [5] . [6] E) An observer on Earth sees a spaceship travel the 2. a) According to classical physics. What is the largest wavelength of radiation that will ionize the atom? [8] C) a) Given that the rate of change of number of radioactive nuclei is proportional to number of nuclei present. i) How long does the journey take according to an astronaut on board the spaceship? ii) What is the Earth–Mars distance as measured by the astronaut? [5] F) An electron is accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 180 kV. a sample is prepared and it has a radioactivity of 14 MBq.0073 u and mass of neutron 0 n = 1. A hydrogen atom in its ground state absorbs a 12.3 × 1011 m journey from Earth to Mars at a speed of 0. 1 1 (Mass of proton 1 p = 1. c) If the intensity of the same ultraviolet light is increased by a factor of three.55c. what is the maximum kinetic energy of the electrons emitted from the sodium surface? (Give your answer in eV).6 eV. 56 b) One of the most stable nuclei is iron.

b) Two large conducting parallel plates are a distance of 4 mm apart as shown. On the diagram the B field is directed perpendicular to the plane of the paper and into the paper. A uniform magnetic field of 0.5 × 104 m s-1 and travels directly towards the upper plate. A proton is projected through a small hole at point A in the lower plate at a speed of 7. What is the minimum speed of this proton if it is to reach the upper plate? [10] B Two charges of 5 μC and 10 μC are located on the circumference of circle at points A and D as shown.5 T is applied between the plates in a direction parallel to the plane of the plates. [10] . B O 5 μC A C 10 μC i) ii) D Find the magnitude and direction of the electric field at the centre of the circle (O) Find the work done in moving a charge of +2μC from point C to point B. What is its nearest distance of approach to the upper plate? ii) The two plates are then connected together by a wire of negligible resistance so that the electric field becomes zero. 4 mm A The upper plate is at a potential of +50 V and the lower at -50 V i) Find the electric field between the plates. Describe in words the possible motion of this proton. The diameters AC and BD are perpendicular to each other and have length 0.7 Question 3 A) a) Define i) potential difference between two points ii) the electric potential field V iii) the electric field vector E . Describe its subsequent motion in words.03 m. Another proton is projected through the hole at A and directed towards the upper plate.

[10] . The wires are a distance of 9 cm apart. Find the radial distance of the orbit from the centre of the Earth.5 × 104 m s-1 parallel to two long straight parallel wires and is equidistant from both wires as shown in the diagram.5 A and the current in the lower wire is 10 A. The current in the upper wire is 4. A satellite orbits the Earth in 90 minutes. [10] D) a) b) c) Define gravitational field and gravitational potential Find the minimum energy required to lift a spaceship of mass 5 × 104 kg from the Earth’s surface to a height of 500 × 103 m above the Earth’s surface.8 C) At some instant of time a proton is travelling at a speed of 3.5 × 104 m s-1 10 A Find the direction and magnitude of the resultant magnetic force on the charge due to the currents in the wires. 4.5 A 9 cm 3.

Heat is added to the gas until its temperature is 380 K.5 × 10-3 m3 contains ethane gas at 300 K at atmospheric pressure with the top of the flask open to the atmosphere. (molar mass of oxygen is 32.0047 kg being converted to steam and the final temperature of the system is 100oC. c) For each gas find the average translational kinetic energy of the molecule.9 Question 4 A) a) Draw a sketch graph to show the potential energy of two atoms as a function of their separation. the elastic limit. What minimum area of cross-section is required for the wire? [8] C a) Define latent heat of vaporisation and specific heat capacity.223 kg of water with both bowl and water at 21.35 kg is dropped into the water. ii) The region which relates to an atom vibrating at constant energy. and Young’s modulus for a steel wire under tension. A very hot copper object of mass 0. Sketch another graph of the corresponding force between the two atoms. b) On both graphs indicate : i) The equilibrium inter-atomic spacing. the region of plastic flow and the breaking point. b) A copper bowl of mass 0.146 kg contains 0. The top of the flask is then sealed and the flask is returned to its original temperature. A circular steel wire 1. [6] B) a) Define stress.m.80 m long is to stretch no more than 0.m. strain. For an ideal gas it is possible to show that: 1 PV = N v 2 m a) State the meaning of each 3 symbol in this equation and obtain an expression for the average kinetic energy of a molecule in an ideal gas. Sketch a graph of stress against strain for steel indicating the proportionality limit.0 g and molar mass of nitrogen is 28 g). [6] E) A flask of volume 1.15 cm when a force of 400 N is applied. a) What is the final pressure of the gas? b) Determine the mass of ethane that was lost to the atmosphere during this process (molar mass of ethane = 30. The oxygen molecules in the air have an r. b) A volume of air is at a uniform equilibrium temperature. Find the r.s speed of 650 m s-1. What was the original temperature of the copper object? [8] D) In a gas the pressure is due to the molecular collisions with the walls of a container.1 g). This causes the water to boil with 0.0oC.s speed of the nitrogen molecules in the air. [6] .

Sun’s radiation Metal pipe Find the equilibrium temperature of the pipe. The intensity of the Sun’s radiation on the pipe is 900 W m-2. The surroundings are at a temperature of 20oC. b) Find the peak wavelength at which the plate radiates energy and state to which part of the electromagnetic spectrum this belongs. [6] a) . Neglect heat exchanges at the ends of the shown the diagram below.10 F) A long metal pipe is placed so that the Sun’s radiation is incident on it in a direction perpendicular to the length of the pipe .

33. refractive index of the glass = 1. Give an example of each type of wave. Find the width of the single slit. ii) its speed at a time of t =0.3 cm c) State the equation of the travelling wave that should be added to the wave in part b) to produce a stationary wave.5 cm is propagating along a string in the positive x direction at 1. b) When one slit is blocked up so no light can pass through it. the first minimum in the diffraction pattern occurs at the same angle as the 4th order maximum for two slit interference. What is the amplitude of a particle in this standing wave at x = 0. A monochromatic laser beam is incident onto a diffraction grating with 400 lines per mm. [10] C) Define the absolute refractive index of a material. Consider a particle in the wave at x= 0. Find i) its maximum acceleration.11 Question 5 A) a) Describe the properties of a travelling longitudinal wave and a stationary transverse wave. In the diffraction pattern produced the angle θ between the central maximum and the third order (n = 3) interference fringe is 36°. glass water θi air If the angle of incidence θi is 30o what is the angle of refraction in the glass? What is the smallest angle of incidence θi such that the ray of light does not emerge into air? (refractive index of water = 1. State a mathematical expression describing the displacement y of the string as a function of time and x-position.05 m? [12] B) Briefly describe the main features of the Young’s double slit experiment and explain why it shows that light has a wave-nature. x = 0.5 m s-1.65) [8] a) b) .06 m. y = 0). A ray of light in water is incident at angle θi onto the glass wall. The diagram shows the glass wall of a vessel containing water. b) A sinusoidal wave of frequency 33 Hz and amplitude 3. (Assume that at t=0.008 s iii) the time at which the displacement of the particle is 1. a) Determine the maximum number of bright fringes on each side to the central maximum.

0 m-2 .50 and a = 1000.012 m from the front face i) What is the frequency of the light? ii) What is the wavelength of the light? iii) What is the speed of the light? b) How long does it take for light to travel a distance of 0.12 D) A glass slab has a refractive index that varies with distance x (in m) from the front face according to the formula: n = n0 (1 + ax 2 ) where no = 1. a) At a point 0.02 m into the slab from the front face? [10] . A beam of light of wavelength 550 nm is incident at 90o on the front face.

In each case state the direction of the current. A circuit contains three resistors and two batteries as shown. (e. R2 = 4 Ω. b) How long does it take for 80 J to be dissipated by the resistors in the circuit? [8] .g. The resistors have the following values: R1 = 6 Ω.0 µF [8] C) State Kirchhoff’s laws. upwards / downwards / to left / to right). a) Calculate the current passing through the three resistors and the two batteries. Determine the power dissipated in the 600-Ω resistor. Calculate: a) the total energy stored in the capacitors b) the charge stored on the 8. The batteries have the following values : ε1 = 6 V and ε2 = 3 V.13 Question 6 A) a) Define emf and potential difference b) A circuit contains four resistors and an emf of 12 V as shown. [8] B) Four capacitors are connected to an emf of 12 V as shown. R3 = 2 Ω.

The circuit below shows an emf connected in a circuit with two switches S1 and S2 (both initially open). The resistors are always perpendicular to the rods and maintains electrical contact with them. The values of the components are as follows R = 3 MΩ. C = 4 μF.6 m s-1. ε = 12 V. v) How long does it take for the voltage across the capacitor to fall to 2 V? [8] .4 m s-1. i) Sketch two curves on the same set of axes to show how the voltage across R and the voltage across C vary with time during the charging process. iv) Sketch two curves on the same set of axes to show how the voltage across the resistor and the voltage across the capacitor vary with time during this discharge process. ii) What is the charge on the capacitor 5. a) The 5-Ω resistor is fixed and the 10-Ω resistor is pulled to the right at 0.5 T. S1 ε R C S2 Initially the switch S2 is open and the capacitor is charged by closing switch S1. a resistor R and a capacitor C. the 10-Ω resistor is fixed and the 5-Ω resistor is pulled to the left at 0. Derive an expression for the voltage V across the capacitor as a function of time t during the discharge. What is the direction and magnitude of the induced current? What constant force must be applied to pull the 5-Ω resistor? [8] E) A capacitor C with an initial charge Q0 is discharged by connecting it in series with a resistor R.0 s after the switch S1 is closed? iii) What is the voltage across the resistor 5.0 s after the switch is closed? When the capacitor is fully charged the switch S1 is opened and switch S2 is closed so that the capacitor discharges through the resistor R. What is the direction and magnitude of the induced current? b) Now. A 5-Ω and a 10-Ω resistor lie across the rods and are free to slide along them.14 D) A pair of parallel conducting rods 12 cm apart lie at right angles to a uniform magnetic field B of magnitude 1.

34 × 105 J kg-1 2.60 × 10-19 C me = 9.66 × 10-27 kg R = 8.81 m s-2 4.18 × 103 J kg-1 K-1 3.67 × 10-8 W m-2 K-4 1u = 1.38 × 10-23 J K-1 2.31 J K-1 mol-1 k = 1.26 × 106 J kg-1 387 J kg-1 K-1 NA= 6.37× 106 m ε0 = 8.85 × 10-12 C2 N-1 m2 µ0 = 4π × 10-7 H m-1 e = – 1.14 × 10-15 eV s σ = 5.11 × 10-31 kg mp= 1.63 × 10-34 J s or 4.00 × 108 m s-1 2.013 × 10-3 Pa .02 × 1023 mol-1 h = 6.67 × 10-11 N m2 kg-2 ME = 5.898 × 10-3 m K 1.67 × 10-27 kg 340 m s-1 c = 3.98 × 1024 kg RE = 6.15 Physical constants and data: Gravitational constant Mass of the Earth Radius of the Earth Permittivity of free space Permeability of free space Charge on an electron Mass of an electron Mass of a proton Speed of sound in air Speed of light in a vacuum Young modulus for steel Acceleration due to gravity Specific heat capacity of water Latent heat of fusion of water Latent heat of vaporisation of water Specific heat of copper Avogadro’s number Planck’s constant Stefan’s constant 1 atomic mass unit Molar gas constant Boltzmann’s constant Wien’s constant 1 atmosphere G = 6.0 × 1011 Pa g = 9.