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Connect to MySQL database from PHP

MySQL and PHP are two technologies used by many web developers. Connecting to MySQL from PHP is easy and when we consider that both PHP and MySQL are free technologies, the pair sounds like winning choice. This article shows how to connect to MySQL with PHP. The PHP script below simply connects to a MySQL database and then immediately closes the connection. Of course you will want to do more than that – reading, updating, inserting and deleting data, but once you are connected to the db, these tasks are easy.
"; $password = ""; $hostname = "localhost"; $database = ""; $conn = mysql_connect($hostname, $username, $password) or die("Connecting to MySQL failed"); mysql_close($conn); ?>

Now that you have connected to the MySQL server from your PHP script, how do you select which database to work with (there can be more than one database on the same MySQL server)? Here is how to select a MySQL database to work with, from PHP:
"; $password = ""; $hostname = "localhost"; $database = ""; $conn = mysql_connect($hostname, $username, $password) or die("Connecting to MySQL failed"); mysql_select_db($database, $conn) or die("Selecting MySQL database failed"); mysql_close($conn); ?>

Now that we have selected a MySQL database, we can retrieve some data from it and send it back to the browser from our PHP script:
"; $password = ""; $hostname = "localhost"; $database = ""; $conn = mysql_connect($hostname, $username, $password) or die("Connecting to MySQL failed");

$row->LastName . " ". and fields. set up tables. but there is an easier way. then I use PHP calls to MySQL to manage the database by retrieving values from it. ?> In the PHP script above we are connecting to MySQL database. LastName FROM Users". $conn) or die("Selecting MySQL database failed"). An example is: $status = mysql_create_db($dbname). PHP MySQL Calls Most commonly used PHP calls to MySQL include:  bool mysql_create_db This function tries to create a new database associated with the optional resource link identifier. $conn). resource link_identifier]). $sSQL = "SELECT FirstName.mysql_select_db($database.org. or deleting entries. selecting data with mysql_query and printing it to the browser. " " . PHP MySQL This page introduces PHP calls to MySQL and is the second half of the forms page of this document showing a display of available databases or database tables. } mysql_close($conn). You can get more information at http://www. changing values. $result = mysql_query($sSQL. The syntax is: bool mysql_create_db( string database name [.phpmyadmin. An example statement is: . PHP MyAdmin You can use PHP calls to MySQL to set up your database. while($row = mysql_fetch_object($result)) { echo $row->FirstName . It makes it very easy to create the databese.  mysql_connect .Opens a connection to the database. After the initial setup is done. There is a tool called "PHP MyAdmin".

$query1) or die("Failed Query of " . An example statement is: $boolval=mysql_select_db($dbname."). " where id = " . I used mysql_db_query. An example query statement using update is: $newval = 1. " as t1 where t1. "\" The variable "$mainsection" is the name of the table the delete operation will be performed on. $mainsection . An example query statement using delete is: $query1="delete from " . use of \" is used to place a quote in a query statement which is how this is used in the above statement. $dbuser). $query1="select * from " .Used to remove a database entry. This statement relies on the query statement provided above as "$query1".Used to get information from the database. In my code. o Update . $mainsection . " Database not found. $chandle) or die ($dbname . Some of the commonly used ones are. The variable "$mainsection" is the name of the table the delete operation will be performed on. $section2 . "\"" . An example statement is: $result = mysql_db_query($dbname. $value. You should be able to use the statement mysql_query. $newval .idname = " . and INSERT. $mainsection .The query statement is used to send queries to the database. " where id = " . When inside quotes (". $dbuser. without the database name string. o Delete . but this statement is depreciated. DELETE. $query1="update " . UPDATE." . o Select . Just remember that the query will be to the last selected database or last queried database. There are several types of queries which can be performed using mysql_db_query or mysql_query.  mysql_select_db .Selects the database to be associated with the database handle (link identifier) which is the second parameter passed to the function... The item t1 is used to identify the database fields and idname is the name of one of the fields. The most commonly queries are SELECT. $query1). The variable "$section2" is a string that the value in the idname field is to match in order to qualify the database entry for retrieval into the result value when the query call is done.$chandle = mysql_connect("localhost". . This statement will return the contents of all matching database entries. $dbpass). The id is a database field used as a unique identifier.  QUERY Statement . " set dbflag=" .Used to change the value of a field one or more database entries.

php". " (url. "\". email. ?> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4." . ". CURDATE(). "\".Used to get the results of a query row by row. gifurl.\"" . description. $mainsection . $email .Used to add a new database entry to the database. o Insert . } }  mysql_close .\"" . "\". $uname . An example query statement using insert is: $query1="insert into " . An example: mysql_close($chandle). $stype . echo $field_name . <?php session_start(). "\". creator. The dbflag is a database field which is being set to a value of 1. Here is the file "dblist.Used to close the database. "\"." . while ($i < mysql_num_fields($result)) { $field_name=mysql_fetch_field($result. cat1. The variable "$mainsection" is the name of the table the delete operation will be performed on. An example is $thisrow=mysql_fetch_row($result) The above statement will only return one row or returned database entry. "=" . $thisrow[$i] . "\". ")".\"" . $url . The example below will read all the returned rows and print the field names and values out. id.01 Transitional//EN"> <html> <head> . $i). "\". "<br>". $category . while($thisrow=mysql_fetch_row($result)) { $i=0. $i++. sitetype) values (\"" . Any field value not specified here will be set to the default value for the field.\"" . The value returned is an array of field values in the database.  mysql_fetch_row .\"" . $title .$value. $i2 . $description . $gifurl . entdate. sitetitle.\"" . PHP MYSQL Example Below is an example of how to use the mysql functions supported by PHP to access a MySQL database.

echo "<UL>". $tablelist=mysql_list_tables($database). $i=0. $table++. "</th>". "\">".php?". } echo "</tr>". $chandle) or die ("Database not found. while ($table < mysql_num_rows($tablelist)) { $tablename=mysql_tablename($tablelist. echo "<th>".<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html. $tablename. } echo "</tr>". $i=0. $query1="select * from " . $table = 0. $result = mysql_db_query($database. while ($i < mysql_num_fields($result)) { $field_name=mysql_fetch_field($result. $i++. $username. while ($thisrow=mysql_fetch_row($result)) //get one row at a time { echo "<tr>". charset=iso-8859-1"> <meta name="description" content="Database List"> <title>Database List</title> </head> <body> <?php if ($location1=="database") { $chandle = mysql_pconnect("localhost". } elseif ($location1=="table") { $chandle = mysql_pconnect("localhost". $username. " Database:</H3>"."). // The database name is passed using QUERY_STRING mysql_select_db($database. . $i++."). mysql_close($chandle). $password) or die("Connection Failure to Database"). $table). while ($i < mysql_num_fields($result)) //print all items in the row { echo $thisrow[$i]. $field_name->name. $tablename. $database=$QUERY_STRING. $query1) or die("Failed Query"). $chandle) or die ("Database not found. } echo "</UL>". $database. $password) or die("Connection Failure to Database"). "</A><BR>". $QUERY_STRING. echo "<H3>Available Tables in the ". $location1="table". mysql_select_db($database. echo "<LI><A href=\"dblist. echo "<table rules=\"all\"><tr>". "<br>". session_register("database"). $i).

. mysql_close($chandle). o mysql_num_fields($result) . Although it is functional. . $QUERY_STRING. . It is passed using sessions. This list is a dimensioned string and the following two functions are used to list the names of the tables: o mysql_num_rows($tablelist) . It does not allow for multiple queries based on one login.} echo "</table>". and is used to tell if we are showing the available databases or tables. Mysql functions that are used include:       $chandle = mysql_pconnect("localhost". $tablelist=mysql_list_tables($database) .Used to select the default database to query. $query1) . Additional controls should be added to make this example completely functional. $chandle) .Used to get the entire row. .This is used to get the name of the table from the string of availabel tables using the table list reference and the index value. $i). mysql_close($chandle).Used to determine the number of fields in the query result. PHP SQL Connect This statement opens a connection to the database server.Indicates the number of items in the tablelist string. o $thisrow=mysql_fetch_row($result). The "mysql_connect" or "mysql_pconnect" statements may be used to do this. $username. this file is not nearly complete. } ?> </body> </html> The value of location1 is initialized in the file in section 9 called "Using PHP with Forms". $result = mysql_db_query($database. mysql_free_result($result). Here's the line that adds the strings: $query1="select * from " . o $tablename=mysql_tablename($tablelist. I recommend that the "mysql_connect" .Used to connect to the server. mysql_free_result($result).Closes the connection to the mysql database server. o field_name=mysql_fetch_field($result.Used to get a list of tables that are available in the database. . Its value is initally "database" then it is changed to "table". This is a string array.Used to get the field object (not the name) for the query with the specified index. mysql_select_db($database. In this example one feature is that two strings are added using the period sign. $password) . $table).Used to send a query to the database.Frees the memory occupied by the $result string.

you may start getting errors stating that you have too many connections open to the database and additional connections will be refused. with a passsword of "password".statement be normally used except for special circumstances. $dbpass="password". echo "Database " . " is selected". . If you use the "mysql_pconnect" statement to connect to your database on your website. $chandle) or die ($dbname . This is your webserver. mysql_close($chandle). the string contained after the "or die" part of the statement will be executed and program execution will stop. $dbuser="username". $dbpass) or die("Connection Failure to Database"). int client_flags]]]]]) PHP SQL Connect Statement Example In this example. bool mysql_select_db ( string database_name [. resource mysql_connect ( [string server [. string password [. mysql_select_db($dbname. The name "localhost" is used to specify that the database is on the same server that the PHP program is running on. $database . This is because the "mysql_pconnect" statement is used to establish a permanent connection to the database. The handle to the database is returned in the variable "$chandle". a connection is made to the database using the user called "username". bool new_link [. " Database not found. string username [. The "mysql_close" statement will NOT end connections opened with the "mysql_pconnect" statement. $dbuser. echo "Connected to database server<br>". PHP SQL Connect Statement Syntax The syntax for the mysql_connect statement is shown below. //the name of the database $chandle = mysql_connect("localhost". and it is false if the command failed. If the call fails. This statement will open a connection to the server. resource link_identifier]) The value returned is true if there is success. This statement will select the database that future queries will be sent to." . PHP SQL Select Database PHP SQL Select DB Statement Syntax The syntax for the mysql_select_db statement is shown below. $dbname="mydata". The "mysql_select_db" statement must be used later to select the database on the server to be used. $dbuser). You will want to use a unique password.

" is selected". echo "Connected to database server<br>"." . $dbpass="password". $dbname="mydata". . string query [. //do the query $thisrow=mysql_fetch_row($result). mysql_select_db($dbname. $dbuser="username". It can be used to read the database or write to the database. This page discusses the use of the query statement to read the database. The syntax for both statements is shown below. //The name of the table $query1="select * from " . $chandle) or die ($dbname . The statement mysql_db_query is depreciated and it is recommend that the mysql_query statement is used. $mainsection . //the name of the database $chandle = mysql_connect("localhost". $dbuser. resource link_identifier]) PHP SQL Query Statement Example The below example performs a query looking for an idname called "Home" in the database table "sections". mysql_close($chandle). $dbuser. $mainsection="sections". //the name of the database $chandle = mysql_connect("localhost". PHP SQL Query Statement Syntax There are two query statements which may be used.PHP SQL Select DB Statement Example $dbuser="username". $dbuser). //select the home section $result = mysql_db_query($dbname. echo "Database " . " Database not found. $query1). $query1) or die("Failed Query of " . they are mysql_db_query and mysql_query. " as t1 where t1. resource mysql_db_query ( string database. " Database not found. $chandle) or die ($dbname .idname = " . $database . $dbpass) or die("Connection Failure to Database"). PHP SQL Select Query and Getting rows The SQL query statement is uset to access the database. $dbpass="password". "\"Home\"". " . $dbpass) or die("Connection Failure to Database"). resource link_identifier]) resource mysql_query ( string query [. $dbname="mydata". $dbuser). mysql_select_db($dbname. The PHP MySQL introduction page explains some query call types and what they are used forhere.

$dbpass) or die("Connection Failure to Database").<br>". //Display all the fields on one line $i++. " ". $dbpass="password". $query1) or die("Failed Query of " . } echo <br>". $dbuser="username". $mainsection . "\" or t1. //the name of the database $chandle = mysql_connect("localhost".if ($thisrow) //if the results of the query are not null { echo "The Home section was found.cat1 = \"" .cat3 = \"" .hits DESC". //select all approved links that belong to the current category $result = mysql_db_query($dbname.approved) and (t1. $i). } When a query is done. $dbuser). $section . mysql_select_db($dbname. "\" or t1. the results will be displayed in the order requested. $dbuser="username". $dbuser.cat2 = \"" .<br>". $dbname="mydata".active and t1. $dbname="mydata". $mainsection="links". " . } else { echo "The Home section was not found. $dbpass="password". //do the query while($thisrow=mysql_fetch_row($result)) { $i=0. " Database not found. " as t1 where ((t1. the results can be placed in a specific order. t1. //the name of the database $chandle = mysql_connect("localhost".score DESC. $section . $query1). The example below shows how to do this using the order by phrase. //The name of the table where web links are stored $query1="select * from " . echo $thisrow[$i] . When the query is done with a "order by" sort. while ($i < mysql_num_fields($result)) { $field_name=mysql_fetch_field($result. $dbuser. "\")) order by t1. The below example shows how this is done. $dbpass) . $chandle) or die ($dbname . $section . //put a break after each database entry } PHP SQL Delete Query The delete query is used to delete entries from the database.

$mainsection="links". $chandle) or die ($dbname .The alias of the link creator. " . cat1. The CURDATE() function generates a date string with a value of the current date. //the name of the database $chandle = mysql_connect("localhost". $dbpass="password". mysql_db_query($dbname. $description.<br>". //The name of the table where web links are stored $query1="insert into " . creator. "$idno". entdate . $idno . echo "Link with ID " .The unique id value of the link.The title of the web page referneced. In my example.The email of the link creator. " has been deleted as requested. " . $uname. $dbpass) or die("Connection Failure to Database"). These values are automatically available to the PHP page processing the form input. cat1 . The code below creates a new entry into my database setting values as shown. creator . $mainsection . The below example shows how this is done. id. $mainsection="links". and $stype were created earlier from a form submission. gifurl. $dbuser="username". sitetitle. $dbname="mydata". . //The name of the table where web links are stored $idno=10.The category the link belongs in email . $title. $category.The optional internet address of a graphic url to be displayed with the link. id . The table the entry is deleted form is the "links" table which is where internet links are stored. $query1="delete from " .The description of the web page referenced. } The delete item is chosen by inique id number. gifurl .The type of site this is such as commercial. sitetitle .or die("Connection Failure to Database"). mysql_select_db($dbname. PHP SQL Insert Query The insert query is used to add entries to the database. email. " (url. or government. description . $gifurl. Any field value not specified here will be set to the default value for the field. $dbuser). " Database not found. $mainsection .The date the link was created. description. The values of $ure. mysql_select_db($dbname. " Database not found. The database to support this effort includes the following fields:           url . which in this case is set to 10. I am creating a web site that is a directory of web links. $query1).The internet address of the web page referenced. sitetype . educational. " where id = " . $idno. $email. $chandle) or die ($dbname . $query1) or die("Failed Query of " . $dbuser. $dbuser).

\"" . $query1="update " . PHP SQL Update Query In this example a delete flag is cleared associated with a database entry is cleared. $query1). "\". $mainsection="links"." . ")".\"" . $delete_link[$i1] ." . "\". $chandle) or die ($dbname . sitetype) values (\"" . $stype . $uname . $description . mysql_db_query($dbname. "\". $i2 . . " set deletef=" .\"" . $url . " where id = " . $query1) or die("Failed Query of " . //the name of the database $chandle = mysql_connect("localhost". "\".\"" . $title . $dbpass) or die("Connection Failure to Database").\"" . $dbuser). " . $gifurl . "\". $dbpass="password". " has had the delete flag cleared and will not be deleted. mysql_select_db($dbname.entdate. //The name of the table where web links are stored $deletef=0. $query1) or die("Failed Query of " . " Database not found. "\". $mainsection .\"" . $delete_link[$i1]. $dbuser="username". $query1). $dbuser. $deletef .<br>". echo "Link with ID " . $category . ". "\". $email . $dbname="mydata". mysql_db_query($dbname. CURDATE().

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