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Effects of Dietary Fat and Endurance Exercise on Plasma Cortisol, Prostaglandin E2, Interferon- and Lipid Peroxides in Runners
Jaya T. Venkatraman, PhD, CNS, FACN, Xiaohong Feng, MS, and David Pendergast, EdD Department of Physical Therapy, Exercise and Nutrition Sciences (J.T.V., X.F.), Department of Physiology (D.P.), State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York Key words: cortisol, diet fat, exercise, interferon- , prostaglandins, peroxides, runners
Objective: Exercise and the neuroendocrine and oxidative stress it elicits on immune function is modulated by dietary fat intake. The effects of increasing dietary fat on endurance exercise-induced alterations (80% of ˙ VO2max for 2 hours) in the plasma levels of cortisol and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interferon- (IFN- ) and lipid peroxides were investigated. As higher levels of cortisol, PGE2 and lipid peroxides could be immunosuppressive, the effects of different levels of dietary fat on these measures in runners were determined. Methods: Healthy trained runners (males and females) consumed serially 15% fat diet (of daily energy), 30% fat diet and 40% fat diets for four weeks each. In the last week of each diet period the subjects ran to ˙ exhaustion at 80% of their VO2max and blood was drawn pre- and post-run. Cortisol, IFN- , PGE2 and lipid peroxides were determined using standard techniques. Results: Pre-exercise levels of plasma cortisol were elevated, IFN- was unchanged and PGE2 and lipid peroxides decreased on the 40%F diet compared to 30%F and 15%F. Post-exercise levels of plasma cortisol (p 0.004), PGE2 (p 0.0057) and lipid peroxide levels increased (p 0.0001) after endurance exercise on all diets. The rates of increase of plasma cortisol levels during exercise were similar on all three diets. Although absolute cortisol levels were higher in the high fat group, the rate of increase of plasma cortisol level during exercise was similar on each diet. The dietary fat levels did not affect IFN- , however, PGE2 and lipid peroxides decreased with increasing fat at baseline at 40%F level (p 0.01; 30%F vs. 40%F: p 0.002; 15%F vs. 40%F: p 0.007). Conclusions: Data from the present study suggest that higher levels of fat in the diet, up to 40%, increase endurance running time without adverse effects on plasma cortisol, IFN- , and lipid peroxide levels.
Intense exercise has been associated with both immunosuppression and oxidative stress. It has also been suggested that high fat diets may lead to increased neuroendocrine and oxidative stress and further immunosuppression . The elevated oxygen consumption (VO2) and associated stress during aerobic exercise is reported to result in increased neuroendocrine stress (increased cortisol, prostaglandins (PGs), interferon(IFN- ) and the generation of free radicals. Both the intensity and duration of the exercise determine the level of these stresses. Restriction of dietary fat intake to 16% of total energy intake has been shown to be detrimental to endurance performance [2,3] as it compromises intramuscular fat stores  in
trained runners. Low fat diets also compromise the intake of micronutrients and fats instrumental in immune function. Intramuscular fat stores , endurance performance [2,3] and micro- and macronutrients can be restored by higher fat (40%) intake . Although high fat diets may improve performance, it has been suggested that they may compromise immune function . Fat intake may affect cortisol, PGs, IFN- and lipid peroxides [1,6]. Our observations in a previous study  on the suppression of proliferation response in peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMN) cells to T cell mitogens after exercise, elicited our interest in examining whether the decrease in proliferation response could be related to increases in the level of PGE2 after intense exercise. We have previously reported increases in
Address reprint requests to: Jaya T. Venkatraman, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Nutrition Program, Department of Physical Therapy, Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, 15 Farber Hall, Buffalo, NY 14214. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 20, No. 5, 529–536 (2001) Published by the American College of Nutrition 529
then speed was increased to 9. three different seven-day menus were generated for each subject using Auto-Nutritionist IV (First Databank. The differences in subject numbers for the three diet interventions reflect the unavailability of the data for selected subjects at various time intervals. Increasing fat intake progressively protected the subjects from potential negative affects of 40%-fat on immune or blood lipoprotein responses. Each diet was continued for 28 to 31 days. The missing data was due to failure to follow the diet. NF.20]. IL-2 biosynthesis is suppressed by oxidative stress . Based on the fact that a high fat diet is postulated to suppress the immune system and increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in the current experiment we were required by the Human Subjects Committee to increase the percent fat stepwise (15% to 30% to 40%). but not at other points. Subjects walked on a ˙ treadmill for five minutes at about 30% of their VO2max.and cortisol may attenuate oxidative stress [17. activity records.18] while PGs of the E series may increase oxidative stress .81 . In addition. METHODS AND MATERIALS Subjects The data presented in this paper were collected as part of a large project that examined the effects of increasing the level of dietary fat from 15% to 40% of total energy intake on the performance. CA) [5. cardiovascular risk factors. and a list of food preferences. are suggested to be responsible for the exercise-induced changes in the immune system [8 –12]. subject injury or scheduling conflicts at one point.levels as suggested by studies on animal models . Recent evidence suggests that elevated oxygen consumption may increase free radical activity . NO. The subjects recorded their food intake after each meal and returned the records weekly for review and to check compliance with the diets.prior to and after an endurance run of short duration compared to a diet higher in fat (30%) and with longer running time (40%). respectively. and decrease IFN. PGE2. and had a fatty acid ratio of 1:1:1 (saturated:monounsaturated:polyunsaturated). and men. respectively. Based on this information.or lipid peroxides. PGE2 and lipid peroxides. biochemical and metabolic aspects. Little information is available on immunological conditions modulating the susceptibility to peroxidation . Evidence indicates that free radicals play an important role as mediators of skeletal muscle damage and inflammation after strenuous exercise. We hypothesized that a low-fat diet (15%) would result in higher cortisol. Data on endurance performance were collected at the beginning and end of each diet period. Oxidative stress may up-regulate inflammatory cytokines thereby causing immunosuppression . missed blood samples. 5 . We propose that the increase in NK cells would be associated with an increase in plasma IFN. Oxidative stress inflicted by monocytes/macrophages is recognized as an important immunosuppressive mechanism in several human diseases. 20. in the protocol. we propose that increasing dietary fat intake further (40% of total energy) would not significantly affect cortisol. including energy requirements.Fat. IFN. The level of protein intake was set at 15% of total energy intake for all diets. Neuroendocrine factors released in situations of stress. and 40% energy from fat. The diets were based on an initial consultation including three-day food-intake records.0 2. Three levels of dietary fat were studied: 15% energy from fat. medical history. All procedures were performed according to the guidelines of American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and were approved by the Human Subjects Committee of the School of Medicine at the State University of New York at Buffalo. The subjects were given the seven-day menus as examples. and immune status of well-trained runners. Experimental Diets Diets were designed such that total energy intake equaled estimated energy expenditure.6 3. The number of subjects in each diet group was as follows: 15%F—7 women and 7 men. such as intense exercise. The subjects completed a questionnaire to document training distance. The subjects were highly fit but not elite distance runners with ˙ VO2max values of 50 2 and 58 3 (mL/min/kg) for women Protocol for Endurance Performance ˙ Data on VO2max were collected at the beginning of the study. 30%F—9 women and 6 men. The mean age of the runners was 35 3 years. there are no reports on the effects of dietary fat on exercise-induced alterations in neuroendocrine hormones. Cytokines and Peroxides in Exercise natural killer (NK) cell number with exercise and dietary fat .02 m and 1.2 kg and 72.3 km/hour (women and men 530 VOL. The overall aim of this study was to determine if increasing dietary fat intake from 15% to 30% and then from 30% to 40% of total energy and the resultant increase in exercise time would affect the neuroendocrine and oxidative stress responses in training runners. The subjects were informed about the procedures and risks associated with the study and gave written consent. 45%F— 8 women and 6 men. height was 1.67 . The non-random order introduced a potential order effect error. and dietary pattern. but they selected their own food. At the present time. and fatty acids composition. The diets were designed to meet all the United States Recommended Dietary Allowances (USRDA).7 or 11.0 kg for women and men. although none of the subjects had to be eliminated from the study. The diets were analyzed for nutritional composition with Auto-Nutritionist IV for macronutrients.B is activated by oxidative stress causing activation of genes responsible for synthesis of inflammatory cytokines. NY.7. micronutrients. Buffalo. and the body masses were 58. San Bruno. 30% energy from fat. Both IFN.03 m. Hormones.
was around RDA values (0. MA) and following their protocol. Exercise Performance On the 15%F diet. IFN. The percent of protein in the diets of the men was significantly higher compared to that of the diets of the women. utilizing kits purchased from Genzyme Diagnostics (Cambridge.05). The level of vitamin E.037). as they ˙ both ran at the same % of VO2max. The plates were read at 450 nm in a microtiter plate reader. respectively). The subjects then began running at 80% VO2max. Statistical analyses of the data were carried out using Statview 4.07 mg/day for men and 0.2 and 16 0. After that. The plates were read at 450 nm in a microplate reader. data collected on women and men were pooled. Cortisol was extracted from plasma by adding 1 mL of ethyl ether to 100 L of plasma. The manufacturer’s procedures were followed explicitly.0001). The kits were supplied with 96 well microtiter plates pre-coated with anti-PGE2 rabbit antibody. The blood was centrifuged at 10. Clear plasma was stored at 70° C for analyses. resting heart rate or systolic (118 7 mm Hg) and diastolic (73 5 mm Hg) blood pressure. and ran until voluntary exhaustion. Collection of and Analysis of Blood Blood was collected from the antecubital vein of the runners in heparinized tubes at base line (resting level) before and immediately after each test. The microtiter plates were read at 600 nm. the level of iron was higher on all diets than the RDA values (10 mg/day). The kits were supplied with 96 well microtiter plates pre-coated with anti-cortisol rabbit antibody. with significantly greater intakes occurring in men compared to women (Table 2).level in plasma was analyzed by ELISA.8% for women and men respectively).. compared to 15%F and 30%F diets. the women ran 39.3 9. Cytokines and Peroxides in Exercise ˙ respectively) at zero grade (40% VO2max) for five minutes. and a standard curve was constructed to quantitate the concentration of cortisol in the samples. although significantly higher in men compared with women (p 0.2 minutes and the men ran 44. The intake of zinc by the runners was lower than the RDA values (15 mg/day). The testing was carried out at the same time of day. Calcium and zinc intake increased with the increase in dietary fat intake.000 g for 10 minutes at 4 C. (Rockford.8 and 72 2. Protein consumption was significantly higher with 40%F. KY). Hormones. increased with the increase in the level of dietary fat. Fisher’s protected least significant difference test was used to describe differences in the means among groups (p 0. and a standard curve was constructed to quantify the concentration of PGE2 in the samples. Winooski. A standard curve was constructed to quantify the concentration of H2O2.0001). Cortisol ELISA kit was purchased from Neogen Corporation (Lexington. Statistical Analysis The values are presented as mean SEM. The amount of vitamin A intake was not affected by an increasing level of dietary fat. where a significant F ratio was found. IL) and used following their protocol. and linoleic acid (18:2 -6) were higher in the diets of men compared with women (Table 1). Selenium intake. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance using 3 (diets) 2 (gender) 2 (exercise) factorial design.02) in the 15%F compared with the 30%F and 40%F diets in both women and men. Berkeley.concentrations in the samples.46 – 0.6 minutes. The levels of oleic acid (18:1). There was no significant difference between the times of the women and men. with increasing level of fat in the diets (Table 1). The lipid-compatible formulation of the Peroxoquant peroxide assay kit was purchased from Pierce Chemical Co. the subjects were stopped for blood mea˙ surement. RESULTS Increasing the dietary fat level from 15% to 40% did not affect body weight (57 1.2 kg for women and men respectively) body fat (18 1. The level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was lower in all the diets when compared with saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA).2 11. as predicted from the nutrition analysis. The levels of oleic acid and linoleic acid increased as the level of dietary fat increased. CA). on average. The plates were read at 450 nm in a microplate reader (Biotek Instruments Inc. and ˙ then speed was increased to 60% of their VO2max for 10 minutes. In male subjects. In spite of the fact that the subjects were requested to consume the same number of calories of food on each diet. The total amount of fat consumption was significantly greater for men than women on all three diets (p 0.75 in the diets and decreased as the level of fat increased. The PUFA/SFA (P/S) ratio was in the range of 0. Wherever there was no significant effect of gender.055 mg/day for women). and a standard curve was constructed to quantify IFN. while the amount of -carotene intake was significantly higher (p 0. day of the week and month to avoid circadian variations and menstrual-cycle variations in women on each diet.Fat. there was an increase of 435 27 Kcal. Plasma PGE2 was determined by the ELISA technique utilizing kits purchased from Neogen Corporation and following their protocol.0/Super ANOVA package software (Abacus Concepts. Vitamin C intake was much higher than RDA values (60 mg/day) in both men and women and significantly greater in men than in women (p 0. VT). Composition of the Diets Total energy consumption (Table 1) was not different between men and women when adjusted for body mass (36 7 and 37 6 Kcal/d/kg for women and men. Increasing dietary fat to JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF NUTRITION 531 .
8 3.8 29.01) during the endurance run among the three diet groups or between women and men.9 4. 30% and 40% of Total Calories from Fat for Male and Female Endurance Runners Women 15%* (n7) Vit.4 12.2 1.7 1.2 10.6 0.6 0.8 11 40%* (n6) 1428 463 17.8 68.7 7 Data generated by analyzing dietary intake records using Nutritionist IV databank program.0 21.5 2.5 6.7 1.7 14 89 2. C (mg/d) Calcium (mg/d) Iron (mg/d) Zinc (mg/d) Selenium ( g/d) 1730 1149 10.Fat.70 7. NO.7 0.1 6.1 214 861 16.4 0.4 9 15%* (n7) 1982 1136 7.1 0.45 401 39 Data generated by dietary intake analysis by Nutritionist IV software.0 3. respectively).6 0.012).7 5 Men 30%* (n6) 1441 554 11.3 0.002.6 1.6 4.1 0.1 0. Cytokines and Peroxides in Exercise Table 1.8 41. the cortisol data for men and women were pooled. A (RE) -carotene ( g/d) Vit.5 0.4 9.0 4.3 5 150 13.07 170 25 40%* (n8) 2553 153 332 16 83 4 106 10.1 37.9 0.95 0.7 14. Values Mean SEM.7 36.6 0. E (mg/d) Vit.5 0.0 26.1 for women and and 80% of V men.4 39.0 2. when compared to the time on the 30% fat diet for either women or men.0 159 657 15.8 7.3 1.9 8.6 60 209 160 2.6 10.9 24 69 1.4 2.6 0.5 21.7 10.0 1.0 39. LNA linolenic acid.9 0.1 84 222 181 2. E acetate (mg/d) Vit.4 0.0 12.0 35. polyunsaturated fatty acids.0 0.3 36.8 5.5 min) and 24% for men (54.6 33.53 26.4 1.0 15.2 1.0 1.2 1.4 180 965 19.4 27.07 126 9 30%* (n9) 2011 145 282 23 70. Plasma cortisol levels were significantly higher after the endurance run compared to baseline levels on all diets (p 0.6 0.4 82 214 143 1. Plasma Cortisol Level As no significant gender effects were observed.7 1. SFA saturated fatty acids.9 0.9 23.8 7 104 12.4 0.6 3. vitamin.7 0.1 and 46.1 33.8 0. Macronutrients and Lipid Components of Diets with 15%.2 5.0 38.4 2.2 1. Increasing the dietary fat to 40% did not significantly increase endurance time. The plasma cortisol level ranged between 2.9 2.5 11.1 36. 30% significantly increased (p 0. mg/d milligrams per day.4 7.3 2. g/d grams per Table 2.8 37.6 7.3 161 1227 19.0 0.6 24.9 41 121 1. 40% F p 0.4 0.9 7.05) the running time to exhaustion 19% for women (46.2 0.7 18.6 5 30%* (n9) 1133 481 11.5 2.004).6 11 84 1.9 0.4 3. Kcal/d kilocalories/day.4 6.5 7. 20.1 1.3 31.3 4. 5 .1 38.5 0.6 71 542 452 1. 60% ˙ O2max (39. There were no significant differences in heart rates (161 2 beats/min) or the respiratory gas exchange ratios (0.9 40.7 144 856 12. Hormones. LA linoleic acid. At post exercise points. g/d micrograms per day.8 0.75 6.54 26. * % Kcal of total Kcal intake from fat. There ˙ were no significant differences in VO2’s running at 40%. * % of the total energy intake from fat. 30% and 40% of Total Calories from Fat for Male and Female Endurance Runners Women 15%* (n7) Kcal/day Protein (Kcal/d) Protein (g/d) Fat (g/d) Fat (%) SFA (g/d) MUFA (g/d) PUFA (g/d) SFA (%) MUFA (%) PUFA (%) PUFA/saturates Oleic acid (g/d) LA (g/d) LNA (g/d) Cholesterol (mg/d) 1708 150 282 29 70.5 0.9 0.5 1.6 50.8 0.0 1.3 2.1 16 55 1.2 0.6 13.2 136 1004 15. The post-exercise plasma cortisol level significantly increased with increasing dietary fat (15% F vs. 532 VOL. 30% F vs. 1).0 0.2 1.55 18.9 50 407 433 2. Pre-run baseline plasma cortisol levels increased with the increase in dietary fat.7 48 164 104 1.7 0.0 2. Vit.8 21.9 0.9 12.1 40.6 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.0 2.17 260 16 15%* (n7) 2201 211 362 24 90.32–5.2 40.9 1.0 19. Vitamin and Mineral Components of Diets with 15%.2 41.4 2.03 ng/mL (Fig. MUFA monounsaturated fatty acids.1 4.5 5. PUFA day. Values Mean SEM.9 8. RE retinol equivalents.5 6 37.1 17.1 11.6 0.3 1.0 6.3 13.6 30.8 min).8 3.0 0.0 2.8 13 107 0.9 18.7 2.7 8.6 4.4 53.46 39.0 4. 40% F p 0.1 1.1 1.9 4.10 153 21 Men 30%* (n6) 2674 265 391 28 97.7 22.6 1.5 4 40%* (n8) 1234 470 15.9 9.17 263 27 40%* (n6) 3097 186 421 21 105.8 13.7 36.7 2.
3 pg/mL). Although the post-run plasma cortisol levels increased with increase in dietary fat intake. the data on men and women were pooled. Effects of the level of dietary lipids and the endurance run on plasma cortisol levels in endurance runners. 3. and 40% F: 0. Plasma PGE2 Level As no significant gender difference was observed in PGE2 levels. Cytokines and Peroxides in Exercise 15%F and 40%F diets. except it was significantly lower at pre-exercise on the 40%F diet.3% for 15% fat. Plasma IFN. Effects of dietary fat level and exercise on plasma PGE2 in endurance runners.8 –12.7. * Significantly lower compared to 15%F and 30%F.Level There were no significant differences in IFN. 3). The pre. As no significant effect of gender was observed in plasma lipid peroxides.005) on the DISCUSSION The present study confirmed the results of previous studies [2–5.65 nmoles/mL before the endurance run and 5. 2). Effects of dietary fat level and exercise on plasma lipid peroxides in endurance runners. No significant effects specific to gender. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF NUTRITION 533 .baseline levels in the subjects among the three diets (95.20] that trained runners on a low fat diet (15%) run ˙ significantly shorter times at 80% of their VO2max than runners on higher fat diets (30% to 40%). Fig.55–1. Preexercise baseline PGE2 levels were significantly lower on the 40%F diet than on the 30%F and 15%F diets. Plasma PGE2 levels were significantly higher after the endurance run when compared to levels before the endurance run (p 0. The plasma lipid peroxide levels ranged between 0.level after exercise was not significantly affected by diet (89. Values are mean SEM.13 ng/mL (Fig. the rate of increase of cortisol during exercise was lower on the higher fat diets (15% F: 0. 2.8). Increased running times after Fig.007) and 30%F group (p 0. Values are mean SEM.0001) on all three diets.05. the endurance run or the level of dietary fat were found at p 0. 39% and 13.04 ng/mL/min.and post-exercise plasma lipid peroxide concentrations were significantly lower on the 40%F compared to 15%F (p 0. The pre-exercise baseline level of lipid peroxide was significantly lower on the 40%F diets than on the 30%F and 15%F diets.4 nmoles/mL after the endurance run (Fig.002).02 ng/mL/min).Fat. Values are mean SEM. ● Significantly lower compared to 15%F and 30%F after endurance. Plasma Lipid Peroxide Level Fig. # Significantly lower compared to 15%F and 30%F before endurance. PGE2 levels significantly higher after endurance run compared to before the run.9 5. * Significantly higher compared to 15%F and 30%F. the PGE2 data on men and women were pooled. 1. The levels of lipid peroxides were significantly higher after the endurance run in subjects (p 0. Plasma PGE2 levels ranged between 0. Cortisol level significantly higher after endurance run compared to before run.19 –1. Plasma IFN. the percent increase in cortisol levels from baseline was 56%. Hormones. 30% fat and 40% fat diets respectively.0 2. The level of dietary fat did not significantly affect the plasma PGE2 levels. Lipid peroxides level significantly higher after endurance run compared to before.
we would expect the plasma PGE2 level of the 40%F group to be significantly higher than that of the 15%F and 30%F group. Similar observations have been previously reported [26. both pre. their intake of nutrients. high-carbohydrate diet increased concentrations of plasma cortisol and testosterone in the experimental group (55% carbohydrate. The data presented here show that plasma cortisol. iron.and post-exercise. exercise-induced lipid peroxidation during graded aerobic exercise was measured in seven healthy men and women . Perhaps the type of fats in the diet might contribute to preventing exercise-induced lipid peroxides. Isoprostanes produced during peroxidation by membrane lipids may mediate the effects of free radicals and reactive oxygen species . Hydrocortisone is reported to inhibit superoxide generation . A study conducted on hockey players suggested that a reduced-fat.e.12]. resulting in suppressive effects on certain cytokines and immune cells [8. the amount of calories coming from PUFA was lower than those coming from saturated FA and MUFAs. Antioxidant vitamins may also play a role in reducing exerciseinduced lipid peroxides. But our data showed a significant reduction in pre-exercise plasma PGE2 level on the 40% fat diet compared to the 15 and 30% fat diets. The magnitude of the antioxidant defense system enhancement depends on training loads. has less or no adverse effects on well-trained athletes who engage in exercise. In the present study. but the PUFA level stayed constant (only 23% of total fat).27]. 20.g. Our data showed that plasma PGE2 levels were significantly higher after endurance exercise (15%F and 40%F groups) compared to before exercise. It is also known that the plasma PGE2 level increases after strenuous exercise. where it is rapidly utilized by its receptors . In the present study. when the subjects were on the 15% diet. the absolute level of circulating cortisol was highest in the 40% fat group. Higher energy and fat diets (30%F to 40%F) significantly decreased the levels of PGE2 lipid peroxides. Increased VO2 could lead to increases in free-radical production. When the plasma cortisol increases observed in the present study were adjusted for endurance run time.. PUFA are generally more susceptible to peroxidation compared to SFA and MUFA. Cytokines and Peroxides in Exercise high fat diets are due to the increased stores of intramuscular fat . NO. Cyclopentenone PGs are potential inducers of intracellular oxidative stress leading to cell degeneration . especially calcium. The post-exercise PGE2 was significantly lower on the 40% fat diet compared to the 15% fat diet. when the level of dietary fat was increased. Hormones. that were corrected when the runners ate the higher fat diets (30% and 40%). 40% fat) . Results from the present study suggest that exercise or dietary fat levels had no significant effects of plasma IFNlevel. This indicates that dietary fat may help reduce the stress caused by exercise and. physical exercise induced lipid peroxidation transiently. PGE2 and lipid peroxide levels increased significantly after endurance exercise on all diets. oxygen consumption). therefore. exercise and training appear to augment the body’s antioxidant defense system . A diet that increases intramuscular fat stores without compromising glycogen stores improves performance but at the price of higher oxygen consumption. they may be more susceptible to oxidative stress and infections after intense exercise. thus sparing glycogen . If these two effects were independent. while saturated fats were the highest (40%) and MUFA were 37%. Our data also showed that plasma PGE2 levels were not significantly different among the 15%F. Because of their training status. A possible explanation for this may be that IFN.Fat. Results from the present study suggest that endurance exercise and increases in levels of energy and dietary fat increased plasma cortisol levels. 5 . The level of energy intake and fat intake had little effect on IFN. CD4 subset decreases and CD16 subset increases after exercise. This finding is in agreement with PGE2 levels reported by other investigator . the rate of increase in plasma cortisol levels were lower with increasing dietary fat intake in women while the rate of cortisol increase was similar for the 15%F and the 40%F diets in men. Interferon. dietary analysis showed that vitamin E intake increased with increasing fat intake and vitamin C intake was higher than RDA values. The cytokine profiles in Th2 are linked to changes of humoral balance between cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone. zinc and vitamin E were below recommended levels. and 40%F groups. The plasma concentration of cortisol increases only in relation to exercise of long duration. and removal of lipid 534 VOL. 30%F. fat levels were increased. when athletes consume a low fat diet. In those healthy individuals. Cytokines such as IL-1 released from sites of inflammation cross the blood-brain barrier and drive the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis so that cortisol is released into circulation to exert indiscriminate systemic anti-inflammatory effects . nevertheless. which when coupled with the enzymatic adaptations increase lipid oxidation . Current literature suggests that it may be the type of fat and not the amount of fat that influences PGE2 and other immune indices. triathletes did not suffer from oxidative damage after they finished a long distance triathlon race . In another study. Although plasma cortisol levels were higher on the higher energy and fat diets. Athletes who restrict energy intake or go on low fat diets to achieve a low body mass (e. less than 30% fat) compared to controls (45% carbohydrate. However. In addition. the rate of increase in cortisol during acute exercise did not differ among the diets.is produced by helper T cells (CD4 ) and natural killer (CD16 ) cells. endurance runners) may not have adequate vitamin or mineral status to maintain the anti-oxidant system . As these micronutrients are essential to immune function and vitamin E is a major lipid-soluble antioxidant.is synthesized several hours after its induction and immediately released into the extra-cellular environment. Intense physical activity increases skeletal muscle capability for oxidizing pyruvate and fatty acid in order to increase ˙ energy production (i. Also.
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