NASA/TP–2006–213725

Crew Station Aspects of Manned Spacecraft
Volume 1
Jerry Goodman Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center Houston, Texas

October 2006

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NASA/TP–2006–213725

Crew Aspects of Manned Spacecraft
Volume 1
Jerry Goodman Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center Houston, Texas

October 2006

Available from: NASA Center for AeroSpace Information 7121 Standard Drive Hanover, MD 21076-1320 301-621-0390 National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161 703-605-6000

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i

CREW

STATION

ASPECTS

OF MANNED

SPACECRAFT

DESIGN

!"

BY JERRY B.S.M.E RONALD GOODMAN University, 1958

, Purdue

THESIS Submitted for the degree University in partial fulfillment of the requirements Engineering 1972

of Master of Science in in the Graduate College of Illinois at

Industrial of the

Urbana-Champaign,

Urbana,

Illinois

ii
1i

U>J--cl_P-7[
UNIVERSITY OF THE

_
ILLINOIS GRADUATE

_'
AT

"<
URBANA-CHAMPAIGN

"

COLLEGE

i; January, 1972 li

E

I HEREBY

RECOMMEND

THAT

THE

THESIS

PREPARED

UNDER

MY

!4

SUPERVISION

BY_

JERRY

RONALD

GOODMAN

i!':

! .

ENTITLED BE ACCEPTED

CREW IN

STATION PARTIAL

ASPECTS

OF MANNED

SPACECRAFT OF THE

DESIGN FOR

II i7 ii

1
1

FULFILLMENT

REQUIREMENTS

i

MASTER Ol SCIENCE m THE DEGREE OF /_,3 .... /Itn Charge of ,_]aesis

Ii ii

Head of Department

[i i

¢.?omI_l_on

concurred

in*

'<i
171

% \

'i
Committee ['i

on
Final Examination-_

[i
'li
i t

!,i
¢ Required for doctor's degree but not /or master's. ! t[ Id

DS_Z

i_

iii
ACKNCWLEDGMENTS

This graduate

thesis program I

was for

made

possible of

by

a NASA-Manned degree in and this thesis NASA.

Spacecraft Industrial aid in

Center

a Master

Science

Engineering. the photographs Much or

appreciate and artwork

NASA,s which included

sponsorship appear in in

obtaining

thesis. are from NASA sources repredoes not

of the and

material my years opinions NASA's to to to

this

documents my views

of experience as a result

with of

This

thesis and

sents in any

and

this

experience

way

represent thanks desire wish

official

position of to

or viewpoint. NASA, write Aaron in who The and who strongly of and this this

Special supported nature. Stanley effort. and mentor I my

Richard do

S. Johnston work and

graduate Joseph

a thesis Cohen,

also

thank

P. Loftus, their Mr.

Goldstein, I am

also

of NASA, grateful on the has

for to

support

achieving was

especially my work

Loftus, Program.

a teacher support aided

during

Apollo been

liaisc_ greatly

of Miss me in

Jeanie

Walker

of NASA

significant

assemblying I also wish

materials to

for

this and of my

thesis. express advisor, C. appreciation Dr. Bruce for A. the

acknowledge suggestions

helpful The of

advice and

and

Hertig. Department

advice Psychology

suggestions were also to

of Dr. helpful thank my the

Robert

Williges

of the

and

appreciated. Sally I was for her understanding, with this thesis.

Finally, support, and

I wish patience

wife time

during

"pregn_mt"

iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page INTRODUCTION ........................................................ 1

Crew Station Desi@n ....................................... Preview of Thesis Contents ................................. CHAPTER I CREW STATION DESIGN/DEVELOPMENT: CONTROL _qD MANAGEMENT .....

2 5

36

Crew

Station

Inte@ration Contract Effort

Organization

.......................

36 37 38 41 44 45 46 46 61 82 114 115 122 126 151 164 167 176 177 180

General

.................................

General NASA and S/C Contractor Responsibilities ....... Specific S/C Contractor Responsibilities ................ Flight Crew Support Teams ............................... S/C Design S/C S/C S/C S/C Contractor Requirements Design Support and Teams ............................. Configuration Documentation Control ..............

Requirements

...................

Configuration Control ................................ to GFE Interface Configuration Control .............. and Configuration Reviews ..................

Development

Mockup Utilization ....................................... Flight Crew Participation ................................ Crew Station Review Perspective .......................... Preliminary Design Reviews ............................... Critical Design Reviews .................................. Crew Compartment Stowage Reviews ......................... S/C Bench Layout Reviews ................................ Crew Compartment Fit and Function Equipment Interface Test ........................................ Other Crew Station Reviews ............................... II GENERAL INTERNAL CREW STATION LAYOUT/CONFIGURATION REQUIREMENTS ................................................. Total Crew Functional Volume ............................... 7 Stowage/C_npartment ................................

186 186

General EquipmentArl_n@ement La[out_ and Habitabilit[

198

Page
Basic Factors .......................................... 198 201 203 205

Habitability ........................................... Equipment and Stowage Arrangement ...................... Task Analysis and Detailed Requirements ................

Crew Size/Anthropometrz_ Mobilitz_ and Visibility Requirements ........................................... Crew Size/Anthropometric Criteria for Spacecraft Design .............................................. Clothing Effects on Size ............................... Suit Crew and Suited Capabilities Closeout ........................... ......................

206

206 231 231 257 257 261 265 266 266 271 279 279 283 297 301 307

Cempartment Panels

Provisions

Closeout

or Provisions

..........................

Debris/Equipment Traps and Nets ........................ Wire/Tubing Protection ................................. Windows ................................................... S/C Use/Design and T and ................................. Requirements Protrusion ..................... Hazards ..............

Current General Sharp Edges_

Functions Corners

Basic Factors .......................................... Recommended Criteria ................................... III RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS ..............................

BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES

........................................................ ..........................................................

1
INTRODUCTION

Considerable involved designs, Crew (S/C) in the

manpower, Apollo

money,

design (CM)

ingenuity and Lunar and the

and

modification (LM) crew

were station

Con_nand

Module

Module systems

with

their

many as used and

man-machine here, all is other

interfaces defined areas the as which

requirements. spacecraft or may

station,

crew

compartment, interfaces,

interior

cabin,

a crewman _ich or

potentially operates, Where consists crew

interface. monitors,

It or which

includes is

hardware to

a crewman sustain

uses, his activities. crew station The

required (EVA) is

support

extravehicular of the

activity

a design any

requirement, suppo]ct and

the

crew-S/C includes

interface the

and

additional operations

hardware.

station to

also satisfy

man-machine

interactions The sleep stations,

required physical and all

design, the

systems, has in

or mission with S/C

requirements/goals. couches, of rest or

interaction types the of

crewman are,

equipment crew S/C design human end the

effect, The and

examples station

substations

which involves operator, technical

constitute integration systems efforts and

S/C's

station. systems

crew

development the and human other

of various detailed to the

subsystems

with

engineering,

anthropometry,

related at

factors. of this section, of the Apollo and crew are crew CM figures stations and LM and photos which S/C. as the the to

Included generally Depicted Russian

illustrate are the

makeup Gemini, Soyuz, S/C in

of various S/C, as well

Mercury, Voskhod,

Vostok,

Salyut. stations,

This and

information serves as

shows

configurations material

of

current later

a reference

presented

the

text.

Crew The the design of of spacecraft

Station

Design station had as its predecessors and Design The controls, ensure are more in other of

interior

crew

designs

aircraft or

cockpits, confined from

automobile living

interiors or work in an

9 submarines_ stations. ways. of to

moderately S/C crew

enclosed stations function and and

quarters predecessors to provide and tasks

differs of a crew

these is

numerous arrangement provisions

primary displays_ adequate

station

other safe more on

essential

monitoring of mission demanding in

support and

performance complex, whole where

goals, and

qhese

tasks and true

significantly time-critical later space up

training

time-cn-task, is especially in S/C

the

than man Apollo

other played

systems. a more

This active have

programs, to the

role

operations. which and is equipment

Missions autonomous and

present to High

generation

required

a S/C

relative

onboard systems to

power,

provision

for

expendables, as individual safety_ The and

maintenance. are with and part,

reliability_ assure crew and

as well and mission

hardware to minimize for for

reliability, interference monitoring the most

essential crew

performance control

mission required the

timeline. to fly work

hardware

active the be

functions portions and of

missions station.

occupies_ These

critical visually

on-duty

instruments W. are J.

must North to shown and

physically

accessible. cockpit man's 1 design and control in of philosophy was

suggested that used the

that for

spacecraft

similar

aircraft_ as be in

since aircraft.

performance variety

space other

initially equipment

to be

same must

A wide to

provisions

carried

onboard

support

mission

tasks_

IW. J. North, "Crew Station Design Engineering Design and C_eration_ Norman F. Smith (eds. (New York:

and Operation,_! in Manned Spacecraft: Paul E. Purser_ Maxime A. Faget, and Fairchild Publications, 1964), pp. 169-78.

hardware portion which the

operations, of the

and

normal crewmen

crew are

living exposed

and to

habitation. weightlessness, and one other

For

the

greatest

mission, special Gemini interior cases, of

a condition equipment. within In the cock-

dictates Mercury and In and the

mobility S/C, the

aids, crew and

restraints, had basically were the

position to an

cabin, pit. closest in earth

design spacecraft

layout in

similar

aircraft area S/C,

these to

needs

control/display Also return of extra in to these ear:h,

came an abort the

those

high

performance in a relatively or

aircraft. speedy

orbit many the

resulted redundant

without and

need

for In

systems

a plethora volume, for

supplies and

equipment. with for a

Apollo

mission, were the moon.

sufficient provided

supplies,

equipment crew

appropriate 14-day an

redundancy to

sustaining and

a three-man hardware and were

roundtrip

Guidance within

navigation CM. and volume which

dictated equipment centralized carried manned for work a for

additional stations of

primary also

work

station

the

Volume stowage of

rest

were

provided.

Equipment and

because required relatively stations The give and only should dictated cabin

limited

space--the storage. during to

quantity The flight, the LM

equipment had to be two

high-density short and time

cabin,

provided lunar and work S/C the

primarily mission. future station are

:flight

equipment Skylab to

support

larger

Orbiting a primary

Workshop flight For

space

stations by

should efficient or

less compact used be

emphasis storage for earth

surrounded primarily and is

provisions. orbital than and

which

passive displays largely of

activity, of

flightcontrols S/C, where The design

different by launch will

those

current

landing new

requirements. design

large where

expanse in

free S/C,

volume

present

requirements,

the Apollo

the

limited

volumes

offered in zero

the

crewman

natural

restraints

and

aided

free-

floating The essential layout

movements design part of of

gravity. CM and LM crew was and stations use was evolutionary. for design A An

the the

Apollo

development and the for

program formal

of mockups design the S/C

and

varification, portion by the of

informal onboard

reviews. is either

significant furnished vided and to

equipment (Government by must

carried

government S/C this

Furnished

Equipment,

GFE),

or procontrol

the

prime of

contractor equipment and

a subcontractor. be available to within is

Sufficient ensure the

definition of number exist

adequate S/C. significant for are hard-

allocation The problems ware and S/C

stowage of in

operational of S/C and

interfaces equipment implementing drawings and

suppliers establishing

prodigious; cow,non

standards

suppliers. maintained is associated

Interface for

control these

specifications In

created when the

satisfying with a

requirements.

development, a degree

specific

mission, in its

it undergoes and

of missionproare

oriented vision

modification, configuration. for on each each S/C;

primarily A formally S/C. the are These drawing

stowage

"loose" list define stowage and

hardware drawing

approved documents details to

stowage serve the to

maintained carried High

the

provisions

actual

configuration. stowage with configuand

fidelity and

mockups formal

configured of this

a full-up

mission are and held

ration, back-up With flight and the

reviews

configuration timelines compartment reviews

flight are held

crews. actual

Representative S/C, a series

mission of crew

sequences are the

used. using fit

reviews check to

or representative of Such all mating are

hardware. and

These

physical their of the

function

operational to

interfaces flight

assure

adequacy.

tests

essential

verify

readiness

crew to

station

and when

assure they can

identification be readily

of fixed

fit

or

function affecting

problems the

prior

flight,

without

mission.

Preview This maintaining interfaces, requirements to NASA start this thesis discusses

of

Thesis

Contents which have prow_d and ils and successful hardware detailed My Sam efforts C. Phillips, Apollo In in

management control of

tools the

configuration and, to

crew

station of

a limited S/C

extent, crew by NASA

examples design

general _d Lt. to

of interior work were

station a letter

layout, Genera] Mr. George

spurred

from

Apollo

Program

Director, Manned

Headquarters, Center that of

Low, Texas. in

Program this the money the

Manager,

NASA

Spacecraft indicated constraints

(MSC),

Houston,

letter crew

General

Phillips the

"The space,

difficulties weight, associated and

designing and

station

within and are the

time

available, vehicle(s),

functional

requirement but to

with

operating

generally " He

recognized, went on

I do

not

feel

specifically in in

understood this the area form

or identified. should of and be

state and

that

"our

e:operience something l ypes in of

properly station

communicated," handbook with been

suggested of to the

a crew

"inclusion experienced

problems of design, Table Compilation of for a team such

limitations

that and an

have .2

date

the

area

development 1 contains of with such crew

use.

outline

of would

a complete require This its of

crew

station time

handbook. and resources

a handbook station plus the

extensive thesis

expertise. of

provides I have

a framework written a

a handbook chapter on

examples key element

contents. station

complete

a crew

progri_m--that

2Letter MAO, to Mr. George M. Low, Apollo Program Manager, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston, Texas, from Sam C. Phillips, Lt. General, USAF, NASA Apollo Program Director, NASA Headquarters (Washington, D.. C.: March 17, 19 69 ).

Table CHAPTER A. Crew i. 2. 3. 4. 5. B. I--CREW

i.

CREW

STATION

HANDBOOK

O_LINE C_TROL AND MANAGEMENT

STATION

DESIGN/DEVELOPMENT: Organization

Station General General

Integration Contract NASA and

Effort S/C Contractor

Responsibilities

Specific S/C Contractor Responsibilities Flight Crew Support Teams S/C Contractor Support Teams Requirements and Configuration Control

Design i. 2. 3. S/C S/C S/C

Design Requirements Documentation Configuration Control to GFE Interface Configuration Control and Configuration Reviews

C.

S/C i. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Development

Mockup Utilization Flight Crew Participation Crew Station Review Perspective Preliminary Design Reviews Critical Design Reviews Crew Compartment Stowage Reviews S/C Bench Layout Reviews Crew Compartment Fit and Function/Crew Other Crew Station Reviews

Equipment

Interface

Test

CHAPTER A. B. Total

II--GENERAL Crew

INTERNAL

CREW

STATION

LAYOUT/C_FIGURATION

REQUIREMENTS

Functional

Volume Stowage/Compartment Layout, and Habitability

General i. 2. 3. 4.

Equipment, Factors

Basic

Habitability Equipment and Task Analysis

Stowage Arrangement and Detailed Requirements Mobility and Visibility for Requirements Design

C.

Crew 1.

Size/Anthropometry, Crew a. Size/Anthropometric Examples of

Criteria

Spacecraft

Problems on Size

2.

Clothing

Effects

Table 3.

1

continued Suit a. b. c. and Suited

-Suited Capabilities

Dimensions

Suited Mobility Values Examples of Problems Supports: Design, Articulation, and Stroking

D. E. F.

Crew

Couches/Body and

Controls Crew i. 2. 3.

Displays/Subsystem Closeout or

Operations

Compartment Closeout

Provisions

Panels

Provisions and Nets

Debris/Equipment Traps Wire/Tubing Protection and Materials

G. H.

Flammability Windows I. 2.

Requirements

Definition/Description Function/Utilization Activity Aids Requirements; Crewman Restraint, Stability,

I.

Intravehicular and Translation Ingress/Egress Work, Rest,

J. K. L. M. N.

Requirements, Sleep and other

Transfer Stations

Hatch,

and

Tunnel

Provisions

Artificial Crew Sharp i. 2. 3.

and

Natural

Illumination and

and Cleanup

Visibility Provisions

Aids

Compartment Edges, Basic

Cleanliness and

Corners_

Protrusion

Hazards

Factors

Examples of Problems Recommended Criteria Environment and Environmental and Repair Control

O. P.

Cabin

Sparing,

i Maintenance,

CHAPTER A. Controls i. 2. Remote Location Actuation

III--DETAILED

CREW

STATION

DESIGNS

Controls

Mounting

Table B.

1

continued-Alignment Provisions for Equipment Attachment

General

i. Alignment Marks 2°Keying 3. Positioning Alignment C. Electrical i. 2. 3. 4. 5. D. Connections for and Wiring

Protection

Connectors

Keying/Alignment Dust/Humidity Covers Utility Outlets Moveable Cable: flexibility, Covering Provisions/Safety

protection, Locks

and

service

loops

Protective i. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Connectors/Connections Wiring Tubing Switch

Protection

and

Guards

Equipment

Protection/Covers

E. F. G. H.

Safety Static

Locks/Latches Charge and Dissipation/Grounding Mounts Management Systems Requirements

Bracketry Body I. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Hygiene/Waste

Urine Collection Feces Collection Emesis Collection Body Cleansing/Cleanup Shaving Provisions Gravity Crewman Hardware Requirements Mobility, Stability, Retention, and Support Aids

I.

Zero i. 2°

J.

NomenclatureMarkingsCoding i. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Color Coding in Design Shape Coding Crew Equipment Identification/Marking Instructive Decals/Placards Alignment Orientation Provisions Aids Crew Equipment Design

K.

Miscellaneous

Table

I continued-CHAPTER IV--STOWAGE

A. B.

Stowage Stowage I. 2. 3. 4.

Control

Documentation Requirements Sequence of Use, and Location of Use

Location/Configuration Frequency, Flammability

Function, Materials

Criticality, Requirements and

Safety Hardware Accessibility Restraint for Mission Forces, Stowage Design

Clearance

Factors

C.

General I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Modularization/Prepackaging Lockers/Compartments Cushions and other Containment Pouches/Bags Internal Restraint of Items Temporary or Interim Stowage Specific Provisions

Devices

Provisions

D.

Hardware:

CHAPTER

V--INFLIGHT

EVA

A.

Translation I. 2.

Aids

Requirements

Configuration Location Restraint Restraints Tether Aids Provisions

B.

Crewman i. 2. 3. Foot

Body Tethers Lifeline/Safety Lighting/Lighting

C.

EVA i. 2. 3.

Area Illumination Visual Aids Glare/Reflection/Contrast Retrieval Support System

Criteria Requirements

D. E.

Hardware EVA i. 2. 3. Life

Requirements

Metabolic/Ventilation Umbilical Life Support Systems

i0

Table F.

1 continued-S/C i. 2. 3. 4. Design for EVA Accessability Hardware Position

Positive Indications of Tether Attachments Hardware Removal Forces Thermal Coverings Design Requirements

G.

Specific i. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Tether Hook Waist Belts Tethers Retrieval Handrails Testing Systems

H.

EVA I. 2. 3.

and

Simulation Facilities and Fidelity Requirements

Types of Simulation Uses/Limitations Hardware Support

CHAPTER

VI--CREW

STATION

REVIEW

RESULTS

AND

ANALYSIS

A. B. C. D.

Taxonomy Summary Summary

of of of

Results Results Main Design and Lessons

Recommendations

Conclusions

II

related addition, written depending In potential S/C

to

crew I have

station singled

design/development, out on specific design

control, areas

and from in

management° this outline, and

In and

sample on

sections design

them. and

These current for

sections knowledge.

w_ry

style

content,

subject

establishing pitfall can be of

requirements inferring to

crew

station

design, and

one lessons of

faces of these

the current

that future by

the

requirements However,

design

applied only be

designs. a specific needs. or

some or

requirements would have to

can be

dictated for use

mission Other other be

:[unction

and

modified which

specific human

design basic

requirements, lessons, in can this

particularly remain thesis firm. by I have described do exist I or of

those These

factors

requirements or other to laymen

will normative

generally terms.

identified

"shall not

be"

attempted to other

relate

various

management However,

techniques such

and

tools

here and

applications.

applications

merit from space crew my

attention. experiences and in the Apollo Spacecraft Program, use other is made U.S.

draw

U.S.S.R. the many

programs, station

related design

literature. reviews at and these and Apollo

Maximum flight reviews

mockup It was

cJ_ew reviews where considerable were

from

the

Apollo

Program.

primarily and

resources, applied for

astronaut achieving

experience

know-how, and safe

engineering S/C

judgment

a successful

configuration.

Figure 1

Source: “Results of First United States Orbital Spaceflight,” NASA, February 20, 1962, p. 6

12

13

Figure

2

MERCURY

SPACECRAFT

CABIN

ARRANGEMENT

FLOOD

LIGRT

FAS'TRONAUTS

WINDG'N

M_N

w,_Dow

INITIATOR. FLOOD UG_T--_ NC£ HATCH

U

LIGHT

TAPE R PP.E5_URE

MAP AND CI4KRT KIT TOE

DISPLKf

Source:

"Results Flight,"

of

First

United

States 207

Manned p. 7.

Orbital

S]Dace

NASA,

February

19627

Figure 1

Source: “Results of First United States Orbital Spaceflight,” NASA, February 20, 1962, p. 6

14

Photo 1 A “Fish-Eye” View of the Gemini Crew Station

15

Figure 4

Adapted from: R. M. Machel, et al., Crew Station and Extravehicular Equipment,” Gemini Midprogram Conference (Houston, Texas: NASA, 1966) p. 58

16

Figure 5

Source: J. P. Loftus and R. L. Bond, "Crew Tasks and Trainings,, Lunar Landing Symposium

17

18 Figure 6 APOLLO COMMAND
• +z _ -Y FORWARD HEAT SHIELD -X OMBINED TUNNEL HATCH

MODULE
+X

SPACECP_%FT
+Y

CONFIGURATION

ATTACHMENT (TYPIC_ L)

SIDE WINDOW (TYPICAL 2 PLACES}

PITCH _

CREW COMPARTMENT HEATSHIELD (RENDE_zVOUS)WINDOWS

HATCH AFT HEATSHIELD xlCHOR ATTACH POINT

YAW C BAND ANT ST WASTEWATER S BAND ROLL ENGINES (TYPICAL) " AIR VENT

+X

+y

FORWARDC CREW COMPARTMENT CREW _ COUCH (TYPICAl..

+Z _1_1 -Y -X LEFT HAND )RWARD EQUIPMENT BAY RIGHT HAND FORWARD EQUIPMENT LOWER

L

-Z COMBINED TUNNEL HATCH

COMPARTMENT _ CREW ,JCOMPARTMENT

._TTENUATIONsTRUT

\

',1

AFT EQUIPMENT STORAGE BAY LEFT HAND EQUIPMENT BAY RIGHT HAND EQUIPMENT" BAY

AFT COMPARTMENT

AFT COMPARTMENT

SM-2,_-1274D

Source:

Apollo Operations Handbook, Block II Spacecraft, Vol. Spacecraft DescriDtion_ Apollo Document SID 66-1508 SM2A-03-Block p. 1-5. II-i (North _m_erican Aviation, January

I: 15, 1970,

19

20

Figure

8.

Details

of Apollo

CM Crew Station.

LOWER EQUIPMENT BAY !LEB)
(_ (_ v (_) AUXILIARY TESTPANEL ]01 OPTICS STOWAGE COMPARTMENT LIGHTING CONTROL PANEL !01 " /

'_ .z-_.y
_ _ Q

RIGHT HAND FORWARD
EQUIPMENT o, _ThWA_ BAY (RHFEB) r_0YA_KIt .............

R2 STOWAGE COMPARTMEN"

C)
' (_

OPTICSPANELI_I
LE_ mSPLAY KEYBOARD 140 PANEL •_

\"

_\,

"'/

C)
(_

RSSTOWAGECOMPARTMENT
R4 STOWAGE COMPARTMENT

Q Q
_-_

_. OONT_O_PANELIRR E, TOWAGR_O_ARTMiNT(POOO) _
T_ANSLATION CONTROL LEB MOUNT

RY0HT HANDFORWARD%, EQUIPMENTAY B

X \
HAND INTERMEDIATE

EQUIPMENTBAY

RIGHT

(_ I_
(_ (_ (_ (_ _'_ (_)

ROTATIONALCONTROL MOUNT LEB
B2 STOWAGE COMPARTMENT (MED KIT) . (_ (_ _) (_ ,_) _6_ _

RIGHTHAND INTERMEDIATE EQUIPMENTBAY (RHIEB)
R5 STOWAGECOMPARTMENAUX CIRCUIT BKR PANEL "A" 225 R6STOWAGE COMPARTMEN_ AUX CIRCUIT BKR PANEL "B" 226 RR STOWAGE COMPARFMEN-

B3 STbWAGE COMpARTM[NT (CAMERA EQUip) B4 STOWAGE COMPARTMENT (CHLORINE EQUIP) B5 STOWAGE COMPARYMENT(CO2 ABSORBERS) R6 STOWAGECOMPAR?MENT (CO2 ARSORBERS) B7 STOWAG[ COMPARTMENT

ACCESSPANEL FORVHF TRIPLEXER .BS STOWAGE COMPARTMENT (CAMERA EQUIP)

R9 STOWAGECOMPARTMENT 0MMS} R]0 STOWAGE COMPARTMENT

CIRCUITBKR PANEL 229

,*

I_

MAIN DISPLAY CONSOLE 5 • MAIN DISPLAY CONSOLE 4

!:

' _

AFTBULKHEAD(AB) (_
._ _4_ (_

RIGHTHAND !
i 1 '_" _'_ _ (_ * (_ ___ (_ _ (_

FIRE EXTIIRGUISHER
A3 STOWAGE A4 STOWAGE A5 STOWAGE LOOKER LOCKER LOCKER

EQUIPMENT BAY IRHEB:
BATTERY CIRCUIT BKR PANEL 250 POWER CIRCUITBKR PANEL 275 POWER CIRCUITBKR PANEL 27& UPRIQI.ITING SYS PANEL 27R WASTEMGMT SVSPANEL 251 BATTERY VENT PANEL 252 RIGHTANTENNUATOR PANELS

A6 STOylAGE LOCKER • A7 STOWAGE LOCKER ELECTRICAL CABLRWAY

_,_

AR STOWAGE LOCKER

VIEW-L00KING AFT& OUTBOARD
• .A_TRLKHD, L,E,_, & RI_EQUIP'RAY

_

RI_ STO_IAGE COMPARTMENT

'
'

Source:

Apollo
SID

O_)erations Handbogk , Block
SM2A-03-BIock iI-i

II Spacecraft,
American

Vol. I:
Aviation,

Sp_cecraft
January 15,

Descri_t-ion, Apollo
1970) pp. 1-41,42.

Document

66-1508

(North

3

penuT%uoo _8 a,./nbT,_ TZ

Figure 9

22

23

24

25 Figure 12 LM ASCENT STAGE CREW STATION, LOOKING AFT

'

NOIINC_lWlE ! 2 t1._ m I)_l_l mslmlmll d_ll_ :.ww

LOCATION -- Z 27 b/Mk_l

KG.

NO.

REMARKS CFE CFE

ITEM I t4 15 16

NOMEhK,'LATURE Utility li_t o-.ty (2) 11.55 Curloi. (ram,rod) Mm, t I_.._

LOCATION

PKG. NO. 134 107 109

_ CFE CFE CFE

_ 25

I

NO_J_NC_TUIE l',Oll Imlmlt,_,_lle _[_ timm_e klt_ _

rOtATION _llimm_t" (Imllm, |)

PI_. IR

NO. ¢.,FEt_IF'

114 112

la_de declklnll _1 (i,,lld_l _I1_)

Ih_lmqle s_m Frcmt of PLS5

4
m e_4 _dl ImedbNk

,AIm,m _"LM,
A_we PLSS

i:14
135 GFE 18

and SRC/OI'S (,dap_
Pilot's pmfe_e kit Above OF_ 104

26
_17

IJOtim,,b_
O_ emblk_ m_f (C(_)

/_lmcV_% ,drd_
-J- Z 27 bdk_ad

_

cm_r

h,

_E

_

tma_ _w_

MIm_ I_S_

)35

_

21

Dmto_m_,,"k_,_

+ Z _ff bdkl_ad

115

I_E

emllmg_l_

I1_

10

t.m _--''_"

_m.ss

la_

_m

_

_.b._._o_*_@o,m)

... _,_,

:z: .

- _z%

I$1

.. _

....

Sl

_,._M_,Im.%._)

....

I0_

_,_

Source:

Lunar Module Data (_e_¢i_±on 2, G_an
NASA 9-ii00, June

Book, Volume TT: LM Conf±cl_rstion, Aerospace Corporation, LED-540-54,
9, 1970), pp. 2-ii,12.

SNA-8-027II NASA Contract

Figure
m

13

LM

CREWMEN

FLIGHT

POSITIONS

i

ibm

o

_--\

=

ASTRONAUT USING ALIONMENT OPTICAL TELESCOPE

ASTRONAUT

FLIGHT

STATIONS

ASTRONAUT

FLIGHT STATION

ASTRONAUT LOOKING THROUGH DOCKING WINDOW

ASTRONAUT

REST POSITIONS

PLSS RECHARGE STATION

RLSS DONNING

STATION

R._4.86

Source:

Apol!o Operations Handbook, LMA 790-3-LM_ (Bethpage, N. March 15, 1969), p. 1-17.

Lunar Module, Y. : Grumman

Vol. I: Aerospace

Spacecraft Corporation,

Description. Apollo Document NASA Contract HAS 9-1100,

Photo 2

27

Photo 3. LM Crew Station Left-Hand Aft Stowage (Compartments Open)

28

29

Key:

1 2 3 4

Main Cabin Bolt

suspension lining hole

rings

for

ejection

seat's

parachute,

a

material. for hatch.

receptacles

Pilot's desk equipped with levers and switches for controlling the operation of the radio-telephonic system for regulating cabin temperature and for switching on manual controls and the retro-rocket, b TV cameras the other Instrument Porthole Cabin Mirror, Radio. Manual Food Clock. Unknown Ejection control seat knob. headrest. seat, which is reported spacecraft in a complete May 31, 1965, pp. to be capable circle, e 58,59. of c (two). One with a small panel with with camera with large-scale scale image, d revolving optical covering earth-globe, image en-face,

5

c 6 7 8 9 I0 Ii 12 13 14 15 16 not c 'Vzor' material orientation equipment device. inspection hatch, c visible in picture.

lining

rotatable.

control container.

handle c

for

yaw,

pitch,

and

roll

inputs,

c'd

Cosmonaut's ejection rotating within the Week and Space

aAviation

Technolo_,

b"Details of the Pravda (London:

Flight Royal

of the 'Vostok'," translated Aircraft Establishment, May

by J. 1961).

W.

Palmer

from

CKenneth flight

Gatland, in Color,

Manned Spacecraft, The (New York: Macmillan,

Pocket Encyclopedia 1967) p. 26.

of Space-

_illiam Shelton, Washington Square

Soviet Press,

Space Exploration, 1968).

The

First

Decade

(New

York:

eU.S.,

Senate

Committee

on Aeronautical

and

Space

Sciences,

Soviet

Space

Pro@rams_ 1962-1965; Goals International Implications Office, December 30, 1966).

and purposes_ Achievements T Plans_ and (Washington D. C.: Government Printing

Photo 4. USSR Vostok Spacecraft’s Crew Station 4 3 5 6 7 8 9

10 11 12 2 13 14 15 1 1 16

Adapted from: Aviation Week & Space technology 30

Photo 7. USSR Voskhod 2 Spacecraft Crew Station (Modified Voskhod Spacecraft for Two-Man and EVA Operations) 5 2 4 3 1

6

9 Key: 1 Snow-White porolon paddinga 2 Oxygen/air umbilicals for 7 Porthole with 'Vzor’ optical cabin environmental control orientation device b 3 General control and display 8 Control stick pane] 9 Contoured couch 4 Instrument panel with switches for S/C orientation system
a

8

7

Adapted from: Opera Mundi & Novosti Agencies 5 Instrument panel with ”Globus” (revolving Earth-globe), ships clock and other instruments Camera lens Porthole with ‘Vzor’ optical orientation deviceb Control stick Contoured couch

6 7 8 9

William Shelton, Soviet Space Exploration, The First Decade (New York: Washington Square Press, 1968). b Kenneth Gatland, Manned Spacecraft (New York: Macmillan, 1967) p. 27. 31

Photo 6. USSR Voskhod 2 Spacecraft Crew Station Design, View of Main Displays 1 2 3

4

5

6

7

11

10

9

8 Adapted from: Opera Mundi & Novosti Agencies

Key 1 Instrument panel with Globus, ship’s clock and other instruments 2 3 4 5 Pull tab for cover to EVA hatch Snow-white porolon padding TV camera TV screen and perhaps CRT display

6 7 8 9

Window, shown covered by shade General control and display panel TV camera Control stick (two shown)

10 Couch support strut (cylinder) 11 Pull tab for cover 32

Photo 5. USSR Voskhod 1 Spacecraft Crew Station, View of Left Hand Side of Cabin 2

3

1

4

Adapted from: Soviet Life Key: 1 2 3 4 Snow-white porolon padding. a Globus, revolving Earth globe. a Instrument panel with Globus, ship’s clock and other instruments. a Porthole with ‘Vzor’ optical orientation device. b

William Shelton, Soviet Space Exploration, The First Decade (New York: Washington Square Press, 1968.
b

a

Kenneth Gatland, Manned Spacecraft (New York: Macmillan, 1967) p. 27.

33

Photo 8. Soyuz 9 Spacecraft-Cosmonauts Cabin Simulator, with Cosmonauts Nikolayev and Sevastyanov. 3 4 5 2

1

11

10

6 9

8 Key: 1. Main cosmonaut’s controls and display panel 2. Hatch leading to orbital compartment 3. Device which appears to be a cabin fan 4. Porolon cabin lining 5. Right-hand porthole 6. Commander’s position (center of cabin), contoured couch 7. Instruments, containers of film for still and motion picture photography and supply of magnetic tape installed in place of third couch normally in this locationa
a

7

Adapted from: Soviet Life 8. Hand controller for S/C translational thrusting 9. Hand controller for S/C rotational control (knob not shown) 10. Porthole with ‘Vzor’ optical orientation device 11. Cathode ray tube for visual sighting of cocking or other display of information.

Soviet Life (Washington, D.C., October 1970) p.13.

34

Photo 9. Salyut Spacecraft Main Working Comaprtment 1 2 3 4

5

10 6

7 9

8 Adapted from: Aviation Week & Space Technology Key: 1. handrails for cosmonaut translation and restraint in zero gravity 2. S/C orientation nomenclature 3. Tunnel 4. Tie-down straps for equipment 5. Instructions , flight plan, or some other part of flight data file material 6. Controls and display panel 7. Couch/chair, similar to lawn chair 8. Cabin padding/closeout material, probably porolon 9. Seat with lap-belt restraint 10. Flashlight

35

36

Chapter CREW STATION CONTROL

I

DESIGN/DEVELOPMENT: AND MANAGEMENT

Crew An the and overall crew aim with of

Station crew

Integration management onboard this and

Organization is efficient integration and and S/C systems of

station equipment,

flight their

cabin To

provisions, design

operation. testing the and crew

accomplish

through

development reviews factors, role equipwith a

phases, and

verification, station

during

crew-to-S/C basic

integration facets This as of human management individual

tests,

organization and their Such involves

applies

systems involves ment

engineering many S/C

management, systems and

tactful

coercion.

integration, a role entails

as well numerous

design of

and

operations. and

interfaces or

variety conflicts. and which

disciplines It as is

potential that

technical the crew

organizational be recognized function NASA and the as a 2

essential,

therefore, an entity

station

accepted spans

a "station," of S/C

involving 1 To for

an integration this,

a number must have

subsystems. control necessary not

accomplish the crew for need groups

contractors capacity This but to

a central the does to

station, crew to

as well

readily control have

direct group

support

station

efforts. functions, respon-

central it must

explicitly design

perform may have

these such

authority

direct

who

sibility.

IMemorandum Operation_ craft

PM_/MI269, Division written

Crew Station to PA/Manager by PM5/J. P.

Management at NAA, Command and Service Loftus, May i0,

from PM/Chief Mission Modules Apollo Space-

Program,

1965.

2Originally, during somewhat inhibited function.

development of and ineffectual

the CSM's,_ crew stati6n integrationwas because o{ lack of a central control

37

In support Kennedy for and crew. The crew these the to

addition teams are

to

NASA's

central to follow

control, the S/C

the

contractor's, mission teams

flight

crew to

required Center of crew

from

definition are

Spacecraft maintenance the numerous

(KSC),

and

flight. control maintain

These over and

important

station they

assigned manage

spacecraft, for the flight

interfaces

next

section management,

describes and

the

functions valuable

and

responsibilities for

of

station

offers

techniques

affecting

responsibilities.

General The systems, been

Contract need for

Effort a crew and station facilities, by type program in in the development vehicle of military systems and 1965. separately of should a program be has

equipment, and Space

and

NASA

launch

recognized

documented Flight

Military Standard

Specification MSFC-STD-391,

MIL-H-46855 July to 28, be

NASA-Marshall These documents as

Center

specify of the

a human overall In

factors program, S/C

engineering and require

program

performed plan after

part

submission plan

contract

award.

development,

a similar

This

plan

should

include

information

as

per

MIL-H-46855:

The plan, including human engineering test plans, must describe an integrated effort within the total project; it shall provide specific information to show how the Contractor will meet specified human engineering requirements during development including the design concepts to be utilized. engineering shall be The manner described. of demonstrating Other technical human and

administrative data pertinent to the program, furnished by the contractor the contract, requirements shall herein. [efleet

human engineering as prescribed by of the

consideration

3Military Military

Specification, MIL-H-46855, "Human Systems, Equipment, and Facilities,"

Engineering March 29,

Requirements 1968.

for

38

Contents the areas

of

the

Plan

shall

include below.

how

the

contractor

will

implement

of responsibility

listed

General The what was

NASA

and

S/C

Contractor of

Responsibilities organizational Apollo responsibilities Office, The is a model Intefor

following originally Branch of

summary the the

NASA-MSC

Program

Operations model

gration the from

Systems of

Engineering crew

Division. station role,

reflects primarily of efforts. related to GFE

efforts the

required

a central NASA,s

organization, and as

standpoint Furnished has are, of

of

management (GFE)

a monitor contractor's functions related

Government The to

Equipment parallel of course, lesser

development but and

and his

contractor S/C design are

responsibilities, more detailed,

those

monitoring

a much

degree.

Crew

Station

Organization--Areas

of Responsibility

I.

Crew

Station

Desiqn

and

Inteqration

Areas I. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Controls

of

Responsibility and displays i.

Functions Monitor the design and

Crew compartment configuration Visual docking aids Cabin lighting Physiological criteria and limits Orbital EVA provisions Lunar surface EVA provisions

2.

3.

the integration, evaluation, and postflight analysis of these systems. Manage mockup reviews and stowage reviews at the contractor's facility. Integrate simulation, evaluation, and test requirements, establish program priorities, and monitor the resulting implementation.

39

Areas

of

Responsibility 4.

Functions Serve as single contact for MSC and 5. S/C point of elements on crew

contractors

station and integration. Establish and collate crew station design and interface requirements. Integrate subsystems managers' requirements. Monitor all crew compartmeht and stowage changes. Serve as scheduled with the chairman at regularly crew station meetings contractors.

6. 7. 8.

9.

Coordinate crew training equipment requirements and contractor mockup support programs. Assist responsible procurement of training equipment.

II.

Crew I. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Equipment

Desiqn

and

Inteqration I. Monitor the design, ment, testing, and of these systems. developevaluation

Space suits and EMU provisions Extravehicular provisions Crew operational equipment Crew personal equipment Biomedical monitoring equipment (Bioinstrumentation, dosimeters)

2.

Manage the program integration of the systems with the S/C contractor. Manage the interface design and control of the systems with the S/C contractor. Establish design and int_face requirements. Coordinate on or provide, as required, direction to the spacecraft contractor and to the MSC divisions concerning crew equipment interfaces and changes thereto.

3.

4. 5.

6.

Monitor

design

reviews,

tests,

or evaluations ment to ensure with S/C ments. 7. and

of the equipcompatibility mission require-

Establish equipment support requirements for CCSR,s, CCFF,s, etc.

4O

III.

Experiments Experiments

Inteqration integration into S/C i. Apollo Program office point of contact for flight crew integration and stowage of all experiments. Monitor reviews of experiment equipment installation and stowage into S/C.

2.

IV.

Mission i.

Operations

Inteqration crew i. Integrate mission requirements, detailed test objectives, and flight plan into design and test of crew equipment and crew station. Support mission planning and establish crew station design requirements planning objectives. 3. to meet

2. 3.

Overall suitability of station and spacecraft design for crew utilization Mission planning Hazardous testing

2.

Assure integration of the provisions required to implement Program Directives on hazardous testing.

V.

Support of and Related i. 2.

Fliqht Crew Participation Fliqht Hardware Reviews

in

OCP's

and

Prelaunch

Testinq,

Integration of GFE All crew supported

i. OCP,s

Assist vehicle manager in all areas of crew and crew equipment integration during S/C checkout and testing at the contractor and _SC.

VI.

Support i. 2. 3. 4. Crew

of

Vehicle

Readiness design and

Reviews inteI. Act as team leader for crew

station

gration Crew equipment design and integration Experiments integration Crew station Specification Change Notice (SCN) and Interface Control Document (ICD) status

2.

station encompassing all areas of responsibility described above, for CARR, FRR's, and similar reviews. Manage the updating of Specification Change Notices and ICD status as required to support vehicle readiness reviews.

41

VII.

Support i.

of Confiquration

Manatement i. Review and coordinate on all requests for Engineering Change Proposals (RECP,s), and Engineering Change Proposals (ECP's), SCN's, and ICD changes affecting crew station or crew integration. Draft original stowage list for each S/C and define changes ments. 3. to stowage require-

2. 3. 4.

Configuration Control Panel and Configuration Control Board support Crew station/crew equipment ICD management Stowage list requirements and presentation to CCP/CCB Specification change review and maintenance

2.

Serve as focal point of contact between S/C contractor on stowage requirements and contractor changes.

VIII.

Fliqht i. 2. 3.

Mission

Support Assist ground team monitoring the flight to assure: i. Rapid assessment of potential problems or real problems which develop during the flight. 2. Provide crew station mockup in readiness for support of flight problems. 3. Provide recommendations on stowage location and method of stowage as required to support the mission. Use mockup as required for verification. Coordinate inputs before with MSC elements

Monitor Mockup Stowage

flight mission support revisions

submittal.

Specific The gration

S/C

Contractor

Responsibilities have personnel The

4 responsible and for the design inte-

contractor of the crew

shall

station. are

implementation on company

internal

assignment structure,

of responsibilities policy, etc.

dependent

organizational

4Ibi_NASA Command Dale D. Aviation

letter PMS/L696-67, from Kenneth S. Kleinknecht, Manager of Service Modules, Apollo Spacecraft Program NASA-MSC to Myers, Vice President Apollo Program Manager North American Inc., Space and Information Systems Division, May 12, 1967.

42

Specific organization i. Crew a.

responsibilities shall be:

and

particular

functions

of

the

contractor's

compartment Design ,_ stowage equipments. Prepare and

arrangement containment

and

stowage and arrangements of stowed

closures

b. c.

maintain

for

each

spacecraft

a stowage

drawing.

Prepare and maintain all Interface Control Documents for Government Furnished Crew Equipments and act as point of contact for all stowed GFE. Prepare and maintain for each spacecraft Operational Checkout Procedures (OCP) for use during Crew Compartment Stowage Review (CCSR), Crew Compartment Fit and Function test (CCFF), or Crew Equipment Interface Test and applicable portions of OCP's for Altitude Chamber Flight Readiness and other tests designated for to each flight crew participation. from coordination of the initial

d.

e.

Furnish

spacecraft,

stowage list until during the period, the contractor and ments, f. Act as etc. point of

flight, a crew station manager who shall, act as a single point of contact between NASA-MSC on all matters of stowed equip-

contact

for

definition configuration

of

crew

compartment of training

arrangements devices and 2. Nomenclature a. Develop displays, b. and and

to support MSC test articles. markings maintain

control

documentation mechanisms, and

to

establish

suitable elements.

actuation

functional

Prepare and to indicate shape codes

maintain for each spacecraft a markings drawing all lettering, symbols, colors, and color or used within or on the spacecraft. with and

c.

Coordinate associate markings.

and maintain Interface Control Documents contractors to standardize abbreviations

3.

Flight a.

and

ground

crew

control

mechanisms

Provide and assure compliance to design criteria for forces, extent of movement, and direction of operation for all mechanical actuations to ensure capability of crew operation in all modes of crew operation for both development and design missions.

43

b.

Coordinate and maintain Interface Control Documents associate contractors as needed to standardize such conventions. and controls of and display and control elements other locations within or on

with

4.

Displays a.

Provide arrangement main display panel spacecraft. Control design

on the the

b.

interfaces

between

the

display

and

control

elements and the sensing or active element within each subsystem to ensure functional integrity of the crew interface. Such control shall assure that measurement locations and and the uncertainties that suitable data. Such are are consistent with crew requirements nomenclature reflects the character control at shall points assure in that the active subsystem of

control consistent

elements

selected

with crew requirements reflects the character c. Design and develop for the spacecraft Design and functions. develop

and that suitable of the control.

nomenclature

the lighting interior and auxiliary

arrangements exterior. aids for

and

controls

d.

crew

system

management

e.

Prepare and maintain appropriate Interface with associate contractors to standardize, terms, other abbreviations, lighting, movement appropriate design details. activity provisions

Control as far

Documents as possible, and

conventions,

5.

Extra a.

vehicular

DeSign, develop, and test handrails, tether ment, stabilization devices, and other aids lation and task accomplishment.

points, to crew

deploytraris-

b.

Design, develop, and test active and passive lighting, lighting controls, and markings required for extra vehicular activity. station reviews station

6.

Crew a.

Develop and maintain an integrated plan for all crew and flight crew related mockup reviews and S/C tests. Plan i. shall include: as shown to and test. be integrated with related

Schedules, development

S/C

44

2.

Plans

for

the

contractor's

mockup

use

to

support

design

reviews, flight crew reviews, and mission to indicate method of supporting different as 3. dictated by various missions. for support preliminary

support. Plans S/C configuration(s)

Status of design effort i.e., concept drawings, release drawings, etc.

of each specific review, drawings, preproduction

b.

Manage contractor's efforts to schedule, set up, crew station related reviews at the contractor's Prepare internal direction Crew Station Reviews. Monitor to crew various station to internal to ensure NASA as required to affect

and perform facility. results of

all

c.

all

d.

efforts proper

to

implement to close

design task out review

changes completion, action

integration,

etc. Report items. e. Coordinate

actions

taken

with

NASA

counterpart

to

ensure

proper

and

timely

authorization of changes, action is authorized and

and assurance appropriate.

that

contractor's

Flight An support the

Crew

Support

Teams part of the mission. Station crew At station NASA-MSC, Flight The on the team organization these Crew is a flight are crew to

essential team from for the

each Crew

personnel Support the

assigned of the

team

Branch,

Division following:

Flight leader, systems the in

Crew and

Operations for each and

Directorate. S/C involved

includes

a team

mission,

a clew 5

_t_tion This

engineer, team Review launch follows and, time.

engineer,

a crew

equipment before

liaison Crew and

engineer.

assigned effect, team

S/C configuration stays with as the

Compartment flight specific

Stowage crew S/C until crew

spacecraft

its on

This

serves

the

principal

contact

station:statds

_'Crew Integration Branch, 1970). Flight

Plan Crew

for

Skylab_!iRev_sion Division

A,

prepared Texas:

by

Crew

Station October

Support

(Houston,

NASA-MSC,

45

and team

flight to

crew

reviews. updated team also

All and

crew to

station

changes changes crew of is

are

coordinated design or tnese

with or

the

keep

them This

ensure that

that the

avoid aware

schedule

conflicts. and team at are some,

assures crew

changes a is,

encourages member least,

early

flight

assessment Station Late if to

such.

Whenever his

possible, S/C and

participates informed with or S/C of this

in Crew changes. team,

Reviews changes change flight

involving to the

the

crew

station

at KSC

coordinated mockup

and

the the

is particularly crew are arranged.

trouble-

demonstrations

S/C

Contractor Initially

Support
during manager which was the

Teams the to CSM development, the the contractor to KSC was and asked remain In to provide

a crew until

station launch,

accompany for the

spacecraft few

there later trained, was perHowever, and of any

done

first KSC

Apollo were

missions. sufficiently function)

missions, etc, formed the

however,

contractor's (which in

personnel the with support the

so this by KSC

function personnel

parallels

team

coordination contractor's for _±± at the at

originating proved first

facility. significant

initial

support and should

from be

the

facility least the

valuable, new Crew S/C or

required

few

flights

corn ex. pl

±_m oug_uu_ Review

_=-_, Contractor's, Familiarity reviews. to NASA:and with Also, keep S/C contractor prepacking of crew Of the and station

Compartment

Stowage from KSC

representatives stowage reviews crew procedures are

participate. from KSC these

develops to the

minutes abreast are

forwarded status. these

personnel, and when

them

station to

Such

participation and pay off

information the S/C is

of long-range tO KSC for

benefit checkout

personnel,

shipped

and

installation.

46

Desiqn

Requirements

and

Confiquration

Control

S/C

Design Design

Requirements requirements 9 they the

Documentation are are S/C specified in various in to documents the the contract Contract are during and developgradually of Inter-

ment. change Work face and

Initially to and reflect

broad design.

requirements In addition such

Statement in

contractual Documents, reviews. when

specifications, Contract

requirements

included

Control design

Change

Authorizations,

technical

directions,

Generally, product in many is

requirements sooner and

are with

initially effort in

well

defined, One

an

acceptable

received

less

andi_cost. is the poor

generic[weakness of

design to

reviews clarify

I have reasons

been for they

involved

capability that example, NASA's product design

participants is, what

a product's do want. it

unacceptability; Too often, not for

specific a S/C

requirements

NASA

rejects

contractor's is is surely really

design a waste wanted.

because to A wait good

does the of

satisfy

requirements--it discovering ments what

for set

finished initial

before

require-

is mandatory.

Contract I. The generally mission

Statement

of Work

Definition/Description Contract defines and design Statement what the of Work contractor is part is of the initial to do, contract and the and

required

baseline

requirements.

II. The Statement

Function/Utilization Crew Station If Plan the discussed program above entails should a new be included in this

of Work.

full-scale

development,

47

the

requirements

for

a crew

station

organization

as defined

should

be

included. If designs, be the the program is large enough and and involves development Mockup and of new Plan S/C

mockup

fabrication This plan

reviews, be

a separate tied

should to

required. Crew

should

appropriately

referenced

Station

Plan. aspects and portions of the are Statement provided of Work here as for the

Appropriate LM-10 of the ment and

subsequent of crew

Modification station 6 related

Program efforts

an example docu-

kind

and

requirements

this

should I.

include: Specified requirements arrangement drawings, Review (CDR). Defined meeting and to prepare necessary general etc., in support of Critical

Design

2.

program General General

review Program Program

dates

for:

Breliminary Preliminary CDR, and

Requirements Review, Design Review, later final Mockup Review. 3. Included Logistics 4. trainers and and

Review, Reviews,

mockups Plan and

in

plan

submitted Plan.

under

Support

Mockup

Specified dates for the following documentation to be submitted: Organization Plan_ Program Plan_ General Test Plan_ Master End Item Specification Part I_ &u_ lU J- L_ILl Contract Technical Specification_ M_sLe_ ........ Specification Part face Specification II; and and the Performance and InterInterface Control Documents (ICD's). were:

5.

Included

in

mission

requirements

6NASA

Contract

NAS

9.1100,

Contract Program 1969).

Change

Authorization Texas:

No. NASA,

2333, Manned

LM-10

and Subsequent Modification Spacecraft Center, Jan. 9,

(Houston,

48

The

LM

shall

be

capable

of

accommodating

the

following

mission

requirements: o Standby in environments quiescent condition noted below. for periods of mission

First day of launch window Prelaunch Launch window orbit Translunar Lunar orbit 25 hrs. + earth 7 ii0 48

Second launch 49 7 ii0 24

day of window hrs.

Total o Lunar parking orbit

190 characteristics

hrs.

190

hrs.

- Altitude - Inclination o Sun o EVA angle at landing

60 n.m. circular--60 x i0 n.m. --4 revolutions prior to landing. 0 -450 5-20 °

activity payload weight 175 lb.

o Return

o Performance The any vehicle mission shall bound be by designed to provide the following four d_id staytime capability cases: for performing

Payload

delta

V_iouity

Case Delta-Velocity (ft./sec.)

i 300 0 350 54 at

2 i00 650 350 54 landing

3 175 0 350 78 above the

4 0 650 350 78 20 ° value up

Open bay payload # Other D/S payload # Lunar staytime hours The design to 30 ° are effect of sun angles to be determined.

49

6.

Design a.

requirements and

specified mechanisms

included:

Structures (i) All

modifications

shall

be

incorporated

as

a block shall maxi-

change on LM-10 and subsequent S/C. be made inline as opposed to retrofit mum degree practical, (2) (3) LM-9 The will be the LM reference shall be baseline configured

Changes to the

vehicle. for a 78-hr. will be

modified

mission; obtained (4)

any shorter mission capability by offloading consumables.

One descent stage corner able for payload stowage, Scientific Scientific interface

quadrant shall be availin addition to the

Equipment Bay; payload carried in the Equipment Bay will meet the present requirements. The payload for the corner

quadrant is not yet defined. Pending such definition, GAEC shall identify hard points for attachment and mass moment characteristics permissible.
P

b.

Crew (I)

provisions Provisions shall be made in the ascent stage the cabin longer

to provide suitable crew facilities for mission and increased cabin activity. (2) An improved ment system Provisions Support require battery c. Electronics Provisions cations. d. Fluids shall be made for shirtsleeve voice urine shall shall and PLSS condensate be provided. be included for ii

waste

manage-

(3)

Portable recharge

Life will

System

(PLSS)

recharges;

each

8.5 lb. of wat_, (5.5 lb.) and one

1.2 lb. of oxygen, one LiOH cartridge (6.8 lb.).

communi-

The ascent stage cabin environment shall be suitable for unsuited operations and sleep during time on the lunar surface. Shirtsleeve environment shall be as specified in prior NASA TWX.

5O

7.

Program

requirements review

specified shall be

a mockup held

review

as

follows: the CDR.

LM-10 mockup

concurrent

with

This mockup shall use existing GAEC hardware and primarily demonstrate stowage, habitability, deployable and erectable equipment and any crew interface items for ascent and descent stages. 8. Under a. design and analysis: performed positive to margins

A detailed determine of safety

structural analysis shall be if structural elements exhibit for the design loads and

environments. or mission changes cabin environment. with NASA,

b.

Studies shall be conducted, designs, recommended to provide a shirtsleeve The contractor shall develop, in

c.

conjunction

astronaut/vehicle timelines, and logical comfort

interfaces, establish the

evaluate crew tasks and environmental and physiocrew identify

considerations and safety.

associated with habitability, Studies shall be conducted to

changes in the ascent stage cabin arrangement to meet the habitability requirements of the extended lunar stay mission. The contractor shall perform trade-off analyses and simulations to determine solutions to problems. d. Mass properties: Preliminary specification shall be established.

weights

on

new

equipments and a

Detailed subsystem designs shall be monitored, tradeoff studies shall be performed to ensure minimum weight configuration. e. The contractor shall perform configuration studies

to to

determine an equipment stowage a_ng_ment in .... stage quad areas for the additional expendables for up 78 hours of lunar staytime, with emphasis on design features to accept large variations in mission payload weight f. or location.

Crew provisions: The contractor crew provisions management resulting Apollo donning

shall provide for the stowage of additional for the longer mission, an improved waste the incorporation of design to improve habitability of made to suits. changes the

system, and from studies

LM cabin. Provisions shall be and doffing of constant volume

permit

51

The

contractor

shall

condudt

the

necessary

design

studies

and engineering efforts required to provide stowage for the constant volume suits during the mission except for EVA activities. ICD's shall be generated jointly with AiResearch Corporation and Litton industries for the constant volume suits. The for contractor shall provide the Portable Life Support Control for storage of System (PLSS) to support expendables and the cabin a 78-hr. lunar

Environmental

Subsystem

stay and the Extravehicular Activities as defined in mission requirements. A deployable pallet, located in the descent stage shall provide for this expendable storage. Provisions shall be made for transferring equipment from the descent stage to the ascent Modularized stowage concept is to be considered primary mode of stowage for the ascent stage. Engineering drawings shall include inboard stage. the

profiles,

general arrangements ment stowage areas for crew provision The contractor

of crew work and sleep areas, equipand pallets, and manufacturing drawings details, assemblies aid installations. assist in studies of to improve to habitand

shall

ability optimize Particular the Statement of

of the LM and crew/vehicle should be

the design interfaces. given Care to the

mockups

develop

attention Work

detail be taken

and

wor_ling to in be

of

requirements. or biased by

should

not

restrictive, relating

limited, use of

this of Work

information. by design

Meister, engineers,

studies the

to the

Statements

found

Work, the known several them

despite least and

its

tendency

to

contain 7 As

the

most

general

requirements should

and include Where

specific justified

information. general

a rule r the and design

document

performance are to

requirements. is best and to

alternative request the

requirements contractor

available,

it

define alter-

and

provide

tradeoffs

recommend

natives.

7David Meister, Interscience,

Human 1971_,

Factors: Theory pp. 261-62.

and

Practice

(New

York_

Wiley-

52

Figure spacecraft relate to

14

is

an

overview program.

of

the It

various also

design

requirements how these

in

the

development design

indicates

requirements

reviews.

Contract I. A Figure MSC the

Specifications Definition/Description sample 15. 9 of the Apollo 16 is Program Specification tree is provided tree at in the at

Figure The on

a representative discusses contract. technical the

specification specifications

level. I0 MSC I. level Apollo

following a given S/C and

required

program The Apollo contains

specification: shown for in the Figures entire contain Both types 15

Program

Specification requirements

and

16

technical

program. requirements of a. b. c. e.

Lower-level for the

technical projects to

specifications and systems.

specifications Mission of the

relate

the

following: and description

requirements, program.

identification requirement @

Program performance Performance budgets Program qualification

and

test

requirements.

II

8Modification Manual, NHB

of

figure

as provided

in Apollo NASA,

Configuration January 1970).

Manaqement

8040.2

(Washington

D. C.:

9Apollo Program Specifications, J-Missions, (Washington, D. C.: NASA_ April i, 1970).

SE

005-001-l-Revision

<

10Apollo Spacecraft (Houston, Texas:

Program Configuration Mana@ement NASA-MSC, December 15, 1967), p.

Manual, 3-2]

SB07-C-001

llApollo

Configuration

Manaqement

Manual,

ibid___..

Figure

14.

APOLLO

DESIGN

REQUIREMENTS

IMPLEMENTATION

X IPROGRAM

DEFINITION_ I PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS

ACQUISITIONX. CHANGES

REQUIREMENTS | _ IBASELTNE ] DESIGN REQUIREMENTS _-_IGN REQUIREMENTS CHANGES

PRODUCT

CONFIGURATION

CHANGES

BASELINE ESTABLISHED DESIGN REQUIREMENTS BY RELEASE OF OTHER DESIGN I _

PROGRAM SPECIFICATION APOLLO

CONTRACT END ITEM PARTI SPECIFICATION I I

PART

II I I I ON

CONTRACT END ITEM SPECIFICATI

.CONTRACT OF WORK STATEMENT • SPECI]?ICATIONS (Interface, MEI) • INTERFACE C ONTR OL DOCUMENTS OCREW STATION • CONTRACT
TECHNICALDIRECTION

DOCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS

I I , _

_ ---_ _ _.-

CERTIFICATION QUALIFICATION

TESTS TESTS

1 [ I

' I REVIEWS IAND
_

I I
|

oi
tO

CHANGES,
& CONTICTUAL

I
i "

BASELINE REVIEWED

BY

"_

PRELIMINARY DESIGN REVIEW (PDR)

CRITICAL DESIGN REVIEW (CDR)

FIRST ARTICLE CONFIGURATION INSPECTION (FACI)

FLIGHT READINESS REVIEW DESIGN C ERTIFICATI REVIEW

ON

]:i,:ju.r;e 15

APOLLO

PROGRAPI

. PEC] i ICA r P]_Oi, TREE S .....

APOLLO PROGRAM SPECIFICATION

--

--T--

i I
PROJECT

,
i .u;;CL[ i , i tt'_.,[ '.'.,_[R I I .... A, U:I;t I

i
rj_..6,V¢:,

]
rkOaEk.|

;TJ®I
i i I STA_E STAGE II1 I1i STAGE Ill I c_l I// CE, !1! CE, ill

t

PROJECT

SPEC 11SPECSP_G S'EC _EC I I I
, T[.CFI TE_H I J j __

<

_EC
I

I I C_, I

GE,

I

!

1

" II t _AL_, !I! scLTo,'P.I ;_C. tf _C_' :_i,_,°'4

!

[---Fr - 3_ GSE III p'c nl_s " " MA,'.'"i_] ,.T.,_ r ._PAGEERAE_// k'_'G_r_/
OPW, SBLDG
_: 'L

_]-__

I _P_C/ __sPEc _/L _l_(_SPEC <_' !__PEG _S_EC _) -_; II ,
vE.,c_[, E-,,:_.,.E _-_,_o,N[, 1/ I/ I _.SE/ / // /
/ / CEI [ | CE_ /

r SPACES,_,T CR_7,']I/----_i_----] ill OEHER t/--WL;.'C-_II--_TM _;,.T_ / A,,_ /i/ _OU,P III Ill III 0_. t
|MCE /CE_Ill MCEI /1/ ,'.",GEl lH fdCFI I it'!GEl /C[I

11 l _PFG ]._1_SPECJt I _P_C SP.: J ,:___LT__ -r L_--/7]F---_ [ Z_ -_Ik _oE{, I 7-

I.
NOEES:
l}

I .!__L_

]

2} S_PARATJ FOR MISS,ON SPEG,E,CATION EACH
_ SEPARA,. SPEClnC^TIO. M^_OP. EOR EAC, C_I •
ABBREVIATIONS: tECHNICAL PECIfiCaTION T[CH. SP[,C. S

ADDENDA COVERMISSION TO MISSION VARIAI ONS

IF&B_I,--II_2:LS_[7_L ] I ..... "'II ACES,{ ..... " I [ t:_,gE, MCEI III _,IcEi I I I ¢,tg[' J I MCEI / CE[I L-2L_cs<_JlLs_P':c_ I S_Ec I L_sP,._: _PEG _jt I l _ _ i I I -T--_1 .... -I " ,,,,k_
IOIHERCRB_-_ 11 Enu,o I11 LCRV

MCEI SPEC. MASTER CONTRACtITEM END SP[,CIFICATION GElSP[C. CONTRACT SPI':ClFICATIOI'I [,',!D ITE_,'I

A[sE._

APO'EO SURFACE PAC_OE [U,AR _XR[,R,,_E_T

I L_
1 __L

1/ i/

.... CE!

III i: I

]'FI, /

U,,

q

t _F--s_

CE_

/ 1I / II

I_

!_n _

_'z':_ I
! _t____

II II

OECOM,'._. DECO,',_MDTAEOR

I- EM,_----1 I ACE CSM E--1 B_ "-1 A'_,_o I ! i / sc_ , / iQ_u_ I _E, II c[,, I CE, II CE /
[ SPErS k SPECS__O_ ®1 L S_E_ _ specs

I __I

/ L _

_,

Figure 16

55

56

Technical for all

specifications equipment, other of

define

the

primary

requirements training_ is

contractors' support_ and

including as

spacecraft_ needed.

ground given ments tractor document 2. Master

equipment, functional interface

Emphasis

to and

the

definition

and

performance 12

requireThe conthis

intercontractor required NASA by the

requirements. of Work

is

Statement

to prepare

for end

approval. (MEI) specification: defines 13 the Such S/C Block in I technical a requirements was

item

The of the

MEI

specification or the BloCk basic two II.

master for

design.

specification Apollo was Program_

required Block

original (The

the S/C

I and

basically

a S/C

designed lunar 3.

for

earth )

orbital

missions

and

the

Block

II

S/C

for

missions. end CEI

Contract The

item (prime

(CEI)

specifications: specification provides

equipment)

designs, development, test and acceptance requirements for a single CEI type-model-series which cannot be defined by the simple formats of an identification or requirements specification. The CEI specification has two ..... "--_ ...._ ..... _ _"- ._. .... _._,_,..._'L_--'_"__,.._._....... . of CEI acquisition. Part I is Definition Phase or requirements engineering development a product analysJ of a Program s, and is the for CEI design and Specification

instrument used to contract of the CEI. Part IT of the

12Apollo Spacecraft p. 3-3.

Proqram

Configuration

Management

Manual,

ibid,

13ibid

.

57

is a product of the design and development contract; Part II specifies the CEI for the product configuration requirements of the item qualified (Or to be qualified) under terms and conditions of the design and development contract. 14 Part CEI 4. product II of this specification First Article is used in the review of the

during

the

Configuration

Inspection.

Other

specifications: Unique specifications are considered and are generated for components of a

CEI

which the end

critical. technical

Training requirements 15 are

specifications which control GFE S/C

define each

equipment of the

item

training

equipment.

In

addition, to

Performance requirements cations II. i. are

and for

Interface the

Specifications of GFE later.

used

define

accommodation in detail

items.

These

specifi-

discussed

Function/Utilization Apollo As the program an and technical of the specification: level of for such the CM a specification, included the

example

detail

original

technical

specification

following

couch

requirements: shall mission the be designed All to provide crew comfortable couch seat

Couches--"Couches support pans work of during fold and as all to

phases.

three

shall space CM

extent access

required, by the

to provide crew to all

necessary regions

adequate

the

required."16

14Apollo Spacecraft pp. XVII- 5.

Program

Confiquration

Management

Manual,

op.

cir.,

15ibid"

16Command and Service Module Technical Specification, Block I SID 63-313 (Downey, Calif. : Space and Information Systems Division North American Aviation, Inc., NASA Contract NAS 9-150, revised February 22, 1965).

58

Couch detail

requirements used these from in

are other

provided

as

an example The will

of

the

level in

specifications. specifications reviews and final and,

information encompass reflects Such the

contained the the changes

detailed

iterative

therefore,

hardware

requirements would obviously

configuration. used it during

information original Experience detailed be used

have

been had

Technical in the

Specification space of one programs such is

been permit

available. a more should Otherwise,

should

definition only when

requirements. of be the product and

These

sure may

desired. cause costly

undue

design

constraints of item effort (MEI) this for basic the and

imposed

redirection 2. Master As end

design.

specification: applies to technical In I the

noted,

specification master

requirements CM MEI, the are

or basic for as

design. the Block

requirements defined

couch

assembly

further

follows: crew assembly, The that

3.4.1.1.2.4.3 h hll The unitized mechanically crew couches

Crew Couch Assembly.--The three ................................. crew couch shall be a three unit assembled shall be

when installed in the CM. designed and constructed so

no components shall inadvertently controls to the couch mechanisms to the crewman and there shall be

become loose. All shall be accessible no freeifloating com-

ponents at zero "G". The couch design shall permit use of space aft of the left and right couches as sleeping stations. The couch assembly shall be as light as possible and still withstand limit loads with no yield, and shall withstand ultimate loads of i. 5 times limit load without failure. The crew couch design and basic goemetry visions shall be as shown in Figures 6 and 6A. Proshall be made for temporary attachment of Ground

59

Support Equipment (GSE) checkout the main couch structure, aft of during prelaunch operations. 3.4.1.1.2.4.3.1 assembly shall a. Main of

gear to the the outboard

aft side couches,

of

be

General Design Features.--The crew couch composed of the following components: main structure and sheet shall metal be constructed forming of portion for the

Structure--The

conventional

machined

parts

a torque box to efficiently carry loads. A this structure shall function as back rests crewman. b. Leg Support Assembly--This shall foldable foot support, a movable rigid leg-thigh support. shall consist of the foot support.

include a non-adjustable foot restraint, and a

The movable foot restraint operated straps mounted to

manually

The leg-thigh support shall be hinged to the seat pan. The leg-thigh support surface shall hormally have a 168-degree open angle relationship to the seat pan for all seat pan positions except for stowage access. To facilitate access to stowage areas, the leg-thigh support shall be adjustable to a 138-degree seat pan. c. Seat Pan--The open angle relationship to the

seat

pan

shall

consist

of

a pan

supporting

the crew-man's buttocks, hinged to the back rest and capable of being adjusted to achieve open angles of 108 degrees (launch, entry, and comfort positions), 182 degrees (navigation position) and 276 degrees (LEB access position)relative to the back rest. d. Head Rest--The head rest shall be designed to accommodate the Apollo Block i, spacesuit helmet. The headrest sides shall fold to a relatively flat position for side vision and ease of egress from the ingress to the couch. All head rests shall rotate aft to facilitate egress e. from the ingress to the CM.

Arm Rests--Arm rests shall be provided for the outboard couches. A fitting shall be provided for each arm rest to support either rotational or translational controllers. The arm rests shall be designed to provide ments to accommodate control operation in spacesuit. The arm rests shall be capable removed and stowed when not in use. length adjusta pressurized of being

6O

3.4.1.1.2.4.3.2 Crew Couch Assembl[ Performance.--The crew subsystem shall adequately support the crew during all phases of the mission, including landing impact and recovery period. The couch shall provide a platform for the performance of various crew tasks. The crew couch subsystem shall be capable of providing full body and hand support for the three crewmen during all nominal and emergency conditions. The couch shall be capable of withstanding acceleration forces during boost and re-entry, and attenuation loads upon landing impact. The crew couch subsystem shallpermit the crewmen to interchange positions and accommodate the crewmen in either pressurized or unpressurized Apollo Block I Type spacesuits. The couch assembly shall support the crewmen in a position that will provide optimum reach and visual capability in relation to the control and display panels and the forward viewing windows. The couch assembly shall be capable of headward travel to facilitate vision through the viewing windows. Individual seat pan and leg support assemblies shall be adjustable for crew comfort and to provide maximum work spaceand access to equipment bays. crew system, the GSE

3.4.1.1.2.4.3.3 Crew Couch Assembl[ Interface.--The couch assembly shall interface with the attenuation the crewman's spacesuit, crew restraint system, and carry-on checkout equipment. 17 3. Contract The of end CEI item specification: Part the I, will prior This the contain to the the design

specification, known the at

level and is

requirements of

time item. at

development normally Review. test,

specific and

specification

reviewed Part II

approved

Preliminary contains and

Design acceptance

of

this

specification

detailed

product It serves

configuration, as a basis III

qualification of the

requirements. hardware Readiness item

for

approval

at the

Phase

Contractor is conducted

Acceptance prior to hardware

Review

(CARR)

which

17Specification

Change

Notice

Number

197A-21a,

Command

and

Service 797 North

Module Master End NASA Contract NAS American Aviation,

Item Specification 9-150 (Space and Inc., April 18,

SID 64-1237, Block I, CCA Information Systems Division 1966), pp. 1-3.

61

shipment. item in

This greater of the

Part detail MEI

Ii

specification than illustrated

will by it

define the

the

couch also to

portions reflect the Part

specification approved and

above; implemented

will

officially I

changes

specification.

S/C

Configuration In developing

Control the S/C and crew station, it Such flight is important is and the configuration to the and and items

be

adequately

defined

controlled. between the to

control crew

essential S/C hardware

complex systems. other which

interrelationship Integration related more is to

important crew any

habitability. and operations, in

Stowage are

items, hardware stored only

hardware have

support other. of

varied

than

Changes greatly

the affect

items not

onboard, ancillary changes, mentation discusses defining

or additions/deletions hardware, even and how and minor cause but ones, other have

items,

control

documents, effect" This and

drawings, on hardware

etc. and

Such docuand in

a "domino expenses. are

accelerating

section the key

describes tools used

configuration controlling S/C

changes

made

configuration

and

hardware.

Configuration I. The under Apollo board changes

Control

Board

and

Panels _

Definition/Description Apollo Configuration of the Apollo

Control Program Manual,

Board

(CCB) as

at

MSC

was

established in the This all and

authority

Director,

set

forth

Confiquration consists to the of key

Manaqement management Command

NHB8040.2, who have

January

1970. over

personnel and Service

authority Lunar

Apollo

Modules,

Modules_

62

other

Apollo

Program

hardware. by is

Certain the CCB

subsidiary chairman. in Figure

boards The

or

panels of CCB

are the

delegated CCB and

responsibilities subsidiary panels the or

structure 17 . The

illustrated

basically

functions i.

to implement Issues cause Panels, contractor vehicle, a revision test item approval

following: disapproval between two of changes which: (a) affect Control increase each (f) or flight or

an interface (b) affect cost (e) to in

or more mass

Configuration (c)

spacecraft excess end of item or test or

properties, (d) dates,

$300,000, delivery agreed plans

affect and

affect

involve

contractual and

to in-plant which also

KSC/MSC an end-

requirements, delivery

affect

schedule on all

launch

date. level Apollo CCB changes and

2.

Takes

a position

NASA

Headquarters to the

forwards through Configuration designated for control for of CCB

a recommemded channels. Control Panels

disposition

Program

Director

have action.

authority These

for panels

all

changes

not

or high-level hardware control

have

responsibility equipment,

flight and

configuration documentation,

ground and

support 18

related

software

revisions.

18Apollo

Spacecraft

Program

Configuration

Mana@ement

Manual,

op.

cit.

Figure

17.

CONFIGURATICN

CONTROL

BOARD

STRUCTURE

Board

Level

I

ApDIIo

Program

Office NASA Control Board/ Headquarters
i

I

Configuration

I
II Apollo Spacecraft /MSC Configuration Control Board

J
Crew Flight Configuration C_erations Control Panel

----III Command and , Lunar Module , Configuration Service Module Change Panel Change Panel llllC°nfigurati°n

I
,Experiments and , Flight Control Panel GFE Configuration DirectOrate Operations Configuration Control Panel

Sources: Apollo Spacecraft MSC, December 15, 1967), p.

Program Configuration 5-2, _ified.!

Management

Manual,

SB07-C-001

(Houston,

Texas:

NASA-

S__lab Proqram Configuration MSC, October i, 1970), pp.

Manaqement 4-6, Figure

Plan, MSC-01160A i, modified.

(Houston,

Texas:

NASA,

Skylab

Program

Office_

64

II. From the

Function/Utilization the crew station standpoint, for S/C this board stowage to the role crew to and the panels and are

sanctioning

authority

stowage, and changes an

list,

individual configuthese in

equipment ration. changes, determining Since

configuration Crew in station

changes, personnel of their or

baseline in

play effect other

active on the

presenting and

a critique stowage the crew

station, be with

location station

provisions interface

implemented. hardware to be

involvescrew

operated changes effective spacecraft Prior

or used to this in by to

in

flight, is

support

of the

appropriate support in

panel has also

affecting proved the

equipment

required. of or change other

This

identifying impacting when S/C

areas stowage additions between

which, crew

turn,

affect

interfaces. to and the NASA board, crew a good station deal

are the

presented

of coordination

occurs

contractor

personnel. appropriate and

If

the

item

added for of

is

GFE, use

the

contractor

is

provided Where to the

with possible CCB with only is

information stowage

its the

and is

stowage resolved

onboard. prior the and

advantageous, and

item the

meeting, the the S/C,

presented

as part involves

of

change.

If

item

mates

or otherwise of its

further

development is presented.

definition, If the for NASA change the

feasibility the to

S/C accommodation direction stowage and

approved, tractor station

resulting

includes other

a requirement with his

con-

coordinate

details

crew

counterpart. important is changes the to the crew crew station be aware occur of immediately and be before in

When flight, it

essential

flight

these

65

basic

concurrence affect have cases,

with the

their

implementation. and psychological spacecraft that NASA

These

changes of for

can

signi-

ficantly crew In who

training with

readiness

a flight months. crew mutual board

been

a given

configuration and the

such

it is

important the

contractor's to crew. the

station

personnel before

resolve final

technical

implementation to the flight with be

their The

satisfaction normally that flight or the

presentation of such the

dispositions

approval

change_ shall on

qualification pending in NASA

physical crew

incorporation review and

into

S/C based

withheld review

concurrence,

their

a mockup

spacecraft. design for changes study by which a S/C involve panel as major crew station for implications

Proposed may be approved

a Request the

Engineering sufficient of the

Change time,

Proposal. manpower, change,

This and

authorization to

allows

contractor

funds

accomplish of

a comprehensive its This Proposal should be impact study and on is

study cost, then

proposed

including and delivery

assessment schedules. Change change panel
?

hardware,

documentation, sent to NASA as

officially the The for as a contractor's proposal dispoit change

an

Engineering the

includes

recommendations is then reviewed This for

on whether by the

approved. if required permits,

change is

and

board if

sition. provides prior to

technique a thorough

a p_eferred

one, of the

time

investigation

implications

to

approval.

Spacecraft/Mission I. The the stowed

Stowage

Lists

Definition/Description stowage and list in the Apollo Spacecraft and Program documents equipment, all crew

installed

operational

experimental

66

apparel, working and each basic

and

crew-worn which

equipment reflects

carried the A

onboard. stowage list

It

is

the

only

document stowage

approved separate loose,

requirements provided stowage for items,

configuration_ It or includes

is

Apollo

mission.

all

removable with support oxygen category, or normal during on

stowage prior to

containers installation with

lockers in the

which S/C,

are and

prepackaged crew

equipment equipment

other

installed masks, included susceptible operations. the crew

minimal and

technician hoses). are In

effort this

(i.e., latter

hoses items are

and generally otherwise

water are

guns those to

which or

fragile,

sensitive, during moved are

which ground the

damage

contamination are to physically another

checkout by A

Items from one

which location

mission list.

included

this

sample list is

portion provided

of

the in

Apollo

9, Mission A. is assigned

AS

504,

CM

104/LM-3

stowage

Appendix item number

Each nomenclature title numbers signify For items were and and

stowage and number.

list part The

an

item to is

number the also part like Apollo

and item's

contains drawing Part which number items. as numbers -205,

which of

correspond each item of

quantity dash

defined. number, part

include minor

applicable configuration

numbers

the

differences were and listed

between on the

example, number the -206

utility B0105,

towels BI06,

9 mission part

BI07,

respectively. their and dash blue behind

Their

same,

SEB42100079, to denotes items.

except red,

numbers coded

were towels.

-204, The

corresponding listed the

white,

nomenclature to distinguish

these

colors

"Utility

Towel _ Assy.CM"

67

The List List

list

is CM

subdivided earth

by

pertinent stowage;

mission List B,

phase. LM earth

For

example, stowage; E, LM-CM repreand

A defines C, CM-LM list; major

launch List F, CM and

launch List

transfer; and S/C List

D, LM Entry

Lunar

launch

stowage; These

transfer sent the

Stowage. transfer

subdivisions

stowage

stowage

configurations

reconfigurations. Equipment follows: apparel, stowed for the The items the it stowed stowed on each of these lists is subdivided Furnished Furnished into sections (GFE), (CFE) as crew and

operational operational GFE. and list the also

Government Contractor These apparel defines as

Equipment Equipment hardware during of

experimental equipment stowage

subdivisions worn the noted by the

denote crew

suppliers

launch. each of the note which It may is, items is in are denoted

stowage above. is where a In then

location Stowage stowed, it is

listed locker or

by mission compartments or the the in item

phases, where

locations item to

equipment location within

the

is

attached, indicate stowed

specific is stowed

installed. which like

also turn, stowed by

specific some the

bag

a defined than one

compartment. location, and

cases, quantity

in more

stowed

location. For each best piece of equipment, data Weight on of a unit the the weight is specified, at the is which time repreof

sents stowage where

the

available

equipment's actual flight

weight

list known.

release.

hardware

included,

Characteristics COMAT system is one

of Material which

(COMAT)

approval

status approval.

is

included. The status

The is

categorizes

materials

68

noted M-metal

as A-approval, (no COMAT

P-pending required) List

approval,

O-open

(no

COMAT

submitted),

or W-waived. Revision the list B is Notice (SLRN) edition. the reason is attached All for List changes the to each are

Usually, list, noted and

a Stowage changes

summarizing in the

from

previous format, a sample

standard date.

stowage Appendix

change

effective

Stowage

Revision

Notice. In Modules used Roving for of for addition (including the Modular (LRV) to using ascent stowage and lists for stage the Command and lists and Lunar have the been Lunar

descent

stowage), System

Equipment used on

Transporter Apollo Lunar they

(METS) Lists

Vehicle

Missions. carry

are

required quantity

these stowed

hardware equipment of these

ltransporters onboard--enough lists fit and is to

since

a sufficient

to merit the

an individual and their

list.

The

function during and ment

control

hardware not

interfaces handling and arrange-

prelaunch

function

tests

only,

equipment handling

arrangement during

during

lunar

traverse. are handled

Equipment by the

lunar for

traverse surface only In the

appropriate

operational

procedures Up has been to

lunar point,

operations. the stowage list used in the Apollo to Program basic

this

described. been are made

Skylab

Program, the

modifications launches, and other

this

format modules

have

to accommodate in the overall

numerous

various Program

which

used

mission,

management Appendix C.

decisions.

A

sample

of

the

Skylab

list

is

provided

in

69

II.

Function/Utilization I. General: The figuration officially mission stowage is and Apollo stowage list serves to define to be as the and stowed top level the con-

control approved the

document equipment

control for

a given basic It only It

stowage of

location these

and, items

therefore, within

configuration used and

a S/C. and is the

a widely

distributed summary of

document the stowage

effective, is widely stowage control The they It is GFE

official used by

provisions. the S/C's and etc. equipment etc. GFE. item,

the

contractor

to verify check part

provision internal suppliers to

correctness, stowage use it its

numbers,

documentation, as a baseline part of

drawings, for what

have even

provide, for

approved

number,

used

identification number,

shipped of the

(Stowage number, 2.

list etc.,

item are

nomenclature on the

part

recorded lists: stages prepared various contractors for and of

shipping

package.)

Preliminary In stowage the

stowage early are the to

S/C in

development,

preliminary with the These officer's in of serves it

lists and sent

coordination

contractor lists are

NASA/GFE over

suppliers. contracting They,

signature effect, the as S/C a key

to be coincide and its

used with

S/C

development. the

reflect

development Each list i.e.,

stowage of

provisions.

source

interface

requirements,

7O

defines

the

GFE

which

interfaces

with

the

spacecraft.

Equipment defined In hardware figuration a camera until and it other

requirements, as well some item as can the is

both be at

GFE this

and

CFE

are,

therefore,

time. may exist has for no a conto hold

cases, that

requirement a concept example, listed

only For it and is

which if by

definition. is is required, designed

a bracket

general numbers,

nomenclature_ etc. Food of

assigned the

part best to

expendables and types

reflect

approximation the

quantities definition, this stage,

as required and items to When other to stow

satisfy

mission At poorly them are

duration, since the

defined be stowed or is

requirements. are rather with to

defined, also it

the

provisions defined. a

them

to mate added or

poorly

a bracket stowage

stowage, retention stowage and S/C

may

require etc., it

special may as

cushion, be on the As

bag,

straps, list if

which

need

to

official the S/C

classifies

a list

item.

equipment deletions, list. basic

design/development or corrections lists are are a means

evolves, made for to

appropriate this

additions,

preliminary the

These overall Appendix

establishing

stowage

capability portions sample on for

requirements. of two and internal content NASA during

D includes denote such

memoranda development Program

which of

format a Lunar S/C LM-10

lists

Module and

Modification subsequent S/C.

(LMMP)

effective

71

This lunar in for 3.

program

was

a redesign by the LM,

effort increased stages and of

to

accommodate stowage

longer

stay-time ascent

provisions basic modifications payloads.

the

and Roving

descent Vehicle, lists: formal S/C 19

the

LM,

a Lunar

increased

scientific

Official The reflects CFE time and of

stowage initial, the GFE best

stowage

list and

for NASA

each

spacecraft of

contractor loose

understanding

stowage

and The

equipment through

requirement which it the a good all

at the pre-

release. stowage It This

iterations has as and

liminary baseline. are made.

list

progressed document changes

make to are

serves list

the any

which

changes and

approved

maintained system, After

through

the

Program's required CCB, the

Configuration the list Apollo is

Control CCB,s approval. to the

which approval as

in Apollo by an the

transmitted Contract

contractor Authorization The appropriate GFE in

official

document,

under

Change

(CCA). list is also simultaneously to provide initial form, or issued to

stowage NASA of

suppliers that S/C.

of GFE After

appropriate release fit, a of the

support list,

stowage

additions impact approved be added,

which S/C by

affect

function defined item for

or interfaces, cost, must be to If

schedules, the it is it Apollo

exceed If to item

CCB.

a new CCB be

is proposed approval. by the

presented is a new to

the to

approved

and is

provided to

contractor,

a CCA

issued

the

contractor

19Op. Cit., NASA Dale M. Meyers,

letter PM5/L696-67, May i0, 1967.

from

Kenneth

S.

Kleinknecht

to

72

design, and this

develop, effort, The this

qualify

and

provide to

flight support

hardware flight use for

items, of

other item. of

as necessary, contractor item and to to is

directed and

to provide appropriate its

stowage stowage The

change

drawings, CCB

etc.,

accommodate

addition. of a CCA to the

paperwork directs and to

authorizing the

issuance NASA list

contractor which list the the

also

appropriate the stowage the new

organization to modify the If

maintains as required

issues

accommodate authorizes

requirement, of a GFE item,

approved CCB

change

addition the

paperwork flight to

will

authorize

item's

design, to support

development, its by addition CCA to

hardware mission. for

provisions The the

as required is it

the

contractor item, stow

directed on the control In made,

provide S/C,

stowage and The to

appropriate documentation. a number of

prepare list

appropriate is changed of or GFE

interface accordingly, or CFE is

stowage when the for

cases, is needed

addition stowage the

authorization provisions items list are under Items their basic S/C

implied to

other

interface When to such the

accommodate identified CCB

addition. are added

required the to

and

they

initial be deleted

authorization, the S/C, or modified to change

from are The

configuration, additions. or changes in list

handled actions and

by CCB

disposition additions, in an are

as with

CCB

authorize are reflected of

deletions, appropriate

hardware change.

stowage

A number

changes

73

accumulated, definition documented are weekly by by

until

they

are list

significant revision, issues. program.)

enough or they

to are

merit

a stowage the usual later may

revision in be the

(Usually Changes by a

there to the

updates list, which alone, and to

baseline list

accomplished the

stowage minor

revision

reflect in

following:

discrepancies etc.; changes

errors correct design

nomenclature, errors;

part

numbers, of to

drawing

alleviation changes scope which

difficulties CFE

during

or manufacturing_ and within in the the

configuration and fit, list

necessary other or

of NASA do not

authorization_ change The to form,

changes of not

details end-item or

function does

hardware. define authority

stowage change

itself part

provide weights,

equipment

numbers,

or

stowage

locations. The dictated necessity by any of to the change the stowage type Crew lists may be mission and and and crew

following tests, sizing

situations: Reviews, material changes;

requirements training weight

variation;

Station

experience_ changes_

crew

changes_ and

interface

definitions

preferences. When stowage list, for the contractor of has a proposed as defined processing proposed change in the to the

location the proper

hardware, for

official change via is an

procedure to submit

this change

the

contractor

the

Engineering

Change

Proposal

(ECP)

to NASA.

The

CCB

or

74

designated the change The are made An

CCB and above and

authority direct the

will

then

approve list how be

or disapprove changed as required. changes are

stowage describe basic of

procedures some

stowage why

list changes is the Such

indicate

reasons

made.

implicit of

intent

these stowage

procedures locations. and

maintenance is essential

control

over an

control

for

ensuring provides crew

efficient for NASA

orderly of

stowage an crew

configuration, area which

and

management

affects and

training, stowage

training

hardware,

proficiency, 4. Time of The later (CDR) similar the CDR

in-flight

management.

issuance: initial four baseline weeks prior S/C stowage to or the list should be Design issued Review which are effort, 103 and no

than that to

Critical

affects that

that

series 1967

of vehicles Apollo of

S/C. the

During basic

the

redesign S/C i01,

affected

configuration

subsequent initially for was S/C then

spacecraft. identical,

For a list

these was

vehicles, issued which This S/C to

which was

were effective list

I01

and

subsequent for list

vehicles. separate only

baseline by

superseded of a new

each

appropriate spacecraft. and stowage

issuance As

applying

this

specific

missions became Since each S/C

became known, the was

defined, and the

spacecraft lists Stowage

differences accordingly. (CCSR) of the for

stowage

changed Review review and

Crew the

Compartment first the

mission-oriented significant

stowage

configuration,

stowage

75

list

disturbances time of at the

begin for

after

this

review.

To and S/C

allow stowage list should

sufficient hardware be to issued the

preparations

of mockups the to the

proper four

configuration, weeks cycles, times: prior

stowage In

least

CCSR.

addition

normal at least

revision specific three

revisions

are

specifically

required i. At and 2. At

weeks test. weeks

before

the

Crew

Compartment

Fit

Function least

three altitude prior

before

stowage of

for the

simulated flight at S/C. the

and

manned 3. Two site 4.

chamber to final

testing stowage

weeks (KSC).

exercise

launch

Concurrent launch.

with

the

Flight

Readiness

Test

prior

to

Stowage I. A flight tion are

Drawings Definition/Description stowage S/C. It drawing depicts and is in the S/C contractor's dimensions the views stowed the control g_n_i where to key drawing for each _±_changes of

three

_u_w_= stowage the

for made.

prelaunch

throughout isometric item and of

mission, are used

"Exploded" These list

clarify per how the to

stowage NASA-

items.

each list

equipment in are detail, stowage of items

approved stow these

contractor during

stowage

describe, There

items major the

various S/C

mission area

phases.

drawings are

for

each e.g., crew

functional CM

where

a large LM

number ascent

stowed,

intravehicular and LM

crew descent

station, stage,

stage

intravehicular Stowage

station, (MESA).

Modularized

Equipment

Assembly

76

Appendix portions II. The S/C of

E provides a LM stowage

an entire drawing

CM for

Stowage the ascent

drawing. and

Appendix

F

includes

descent

stages.

Function/Utilization stowage It drawing also is a vital the document which key details the (i) over actual provides stowage_ tests

stowage.

serves

following

functions: control the S/C for

a single, (2) and serves flight_

extremely as the (3) is and

handy technical the

tool

for

configuration for stowing reference (4) Review

basis

ground

accepted of

basic stowage_ Stowage (5) is

for

quality as

control item

inspection at at the other

verification Compartment

serves (CCSR)

a review for for serves

S/C's crew

Crew

and

reference the to flight familiarize

station

reviews_ and

a training and

device (6)

crew, other A the

crew

station, with

procedures and the

personnel_ stowage

personnel general

prepacking of and can

procedures. drawings is so they any that must define

requirement installation inspector drawing. of

stowage

specific and

stowage the

requirements vehicle

qualified stowage is

engineer correct

stow

or verify

as per

Other

requirements I. Identifies volumes the not

the

stowage

drawings the full

are: complement and is of stowage in location, simplify

and (e.g., S/C_

locates

compartments, each stowage Stowage and stowed and stowage

lockers volume volumes

containers) by to

flight by item

defined coded about part

stowed.

are

stowage 2. Lists

designations all equipment

communications onboard defines list by

them.

number, location. including

nomenclature, Reflects all

quantity, approved

stowage changes,

77

those those by 3.

items

brought

into

the

S/C

during items

mission on the

and drawing

"off-loaded." to ensure

Depicts

these

"leaders" by for

identity. stowage changes where differences

Depicts exist

illustration_ successive illustrates

mission

phases. handling_ cautions folding_ as required or to

4.

Defines other satisfy or

and

specific or

installation pertinent

procedures Interface

Control

Document for each

requirements item. require-

stowage/installation stowage are clearly

requirements and

Depicts ments 5. Defines

orientation understood.

routing

so these

and

illustrates in their

location

of prepackaged Provides

stowage appro-

containers

installed

position.

priate

installation torque

information values, method

in etc. and

referenced

specifications_

instructions, 6. Defines contents tainers, 7. Includes life 8. and

illustrates

procedures within each to

for

stowing con-

of these showing caution

prepackaged the on

containers between relative

the item.

relationship use of items

shelf-

limitations. stowage stowage related decals and to be installed on the

Denotes various and

containers

compartmentS. pertinent location to of

Defines stowage lithium-

locates

decals such as

particularly the stowage

operations, hydroxide

canisters.

78

9.

Defines prime or use

fit launch

check

requirements and in

for

mating

items S/C

in stowage

location,

alternative

locations. differentiation reference such are to between CFE part stowed numbers item where and installed stowage

i0.

Provides item, shown

with

the

requires drawings

definition. used by the contractor (OCP's) station for number, used. writing for as the baseline

The for

S/C

stowage

preparing and

Operational removal and

Checkout inventory step-by-step

Procedures of the crew

prepackaging, equipment. and and stowage

stowage, These stowage contractor drawings procedures.

stowage

documents of each

include item,

procedures of the serial

prepacking and NASA The

documentation "buyoffs" sufficient of

inspection must provide

procedures for

information

installation

In May, drawings detail cises to by

1969, NASA-KSC

a review

of LM

ascent

and these

descent

stages

stowage enough exerthe

personnel

indicated for the

drawings of

lacked crew

provide The

instructions inspectors oriented in

performance difficulty

stowage

at KSC. was in

experienced and

in

assuring There was

hardware difficulty

properly verifying,

adequately that

secured. was

effect,

stowage

"per

print.

''20

20NASA-MSC by R. C. H.

_X

PD8/T852-PPG-69-1441

written

by

J.

R.

Goodman,

revised

H. Bolender to Grurmman Aircraft Engineering Corporation, Attn. Tripp, LM Program Director, from NASA-MSC LM Project Office, Spacecraft Program Office, Subject: NASA Contract NAS Installation Drawings, LM6 and Subs, June ii, 1969. 9-1100,

Apollo Stowage

79

As

a result, drawings by was

the to

LM

contractor the

spent above

considerable criteria

resources format

revising recom-

these

satisfy

andother

mendations NASA were not

NASA. also concerned documented The a at this to LM time that the by LM stowage procedures

adequately and

allow S/C

stowage

"any

qualified in was this too

engineer area great

inspector." heavily The on

contractor's

capability at KSC--which

relied

single

representative to these

a risk.

revisions to effect

made S/C

drawings without

permitted a good deal

other of

qualified knowledge

personnel and

stowage

experience. management with each aboard mission. will the In no Apollo long S/C has become the more complex drawing "reala

Stowage and or involved some

flights, be in

stowage for

reasonable

facsimile and Stowage effects become

doubt

a necessity the Skylab and CM has the

time" Skylab Design Should drawing

stowage Rescue Review such or

management Mission on the a mission

housekeeping, List of is in

Program,

preparation, on the

a Preliminary been held.

this

mission

a sanctioned will be probably

contingency, reflect

stowage stowage

special and

addition also

resulting

alterations

might

carried

onboard.

Spacecraft An S/C and it is

Configuration essential

Baseline of the many design reviews for is held hardware described and its on the items later), disposition

byproduct of

establishment

a baseline the review

configuration cycles (which

systems. should be

Throughout clear what

specifically

is under

review

8O

recorded reviews and and helps cost ments the any

in and

review

minutes.

This

policy

should In of

exist this

for way,

all

formal NASA

semiformal have

C:rew Station a clear for

Reviews.

both

contractor items

definition

configuration This

approvals also and the

considered proposed The

subsequent vs.

approval. "out-of-scope" initially layouts, and with

policy

resolve of these.

"in-scope" reviewed and later

changes of design mockups, flight

items

consist design

require-

and

specifications hardware The

nearconfigured from

complete hardware. these

drawings, is an or

released approved other in

drawings, baseline,

result the

revisions

reviews, This review

CCB,

authorizations. some in essentials of the stowage etc., list.

includes, locations, which

effect, changes

list, or The

for

stowage changes of in stowage effect_ GFE

quantities, to a part not

deletions, number

design role

reflect in

a change is

on the

lists approve up The

reviews or modify review, only

often

understood. of all S/C are and not

These

reviews_ appropriate in the

the

design

items list. not

for

a number reflects design, or

of which what the by loose design the

included are stowed

stowage and items

list

items of

onboard other

does and

control of

their a S/C

the

many

features

not

covered

list.

Serialization I. Definition/Description is the 21 of serial of numbers a contract to all engineeringby

Serialization critical and

assignment

logistic-critical

components

end

item

21Apollo Spacecraft pp. X-II.

Program

confiquration

Management

Manual_

op.

cit.,

81

drawing (a)

and

part

number. numbers

The shall

following be

guidelines

apply in

to

its

use: within

Serial the

permanently

assigned

sequence

drawing

number. shall not be assigned when the part number is

(b) A

new

sequence to

changed (c) The even Parts other

identify of

a noninterchangeable or retrofit given item a new

design. shall number. the contractor's not be changed,

number though

a reworked item ones has may

the

been be

than

critical

serialized

at

option. II. Function/Utilization is up the an important station. items tool It which for the control of crew equipment, and critical one, a shelf S/C, it and tracefit

Serialization etc., ability and that of make

crew

allows have

identification been used It wants with for for

specific checks, to be

hardware and to In records Although are times mating

function

formal specify the

flight the

crew exact of items items is not

reviews. item such were are so. one i_ms used

allows from the

therefore, full is of

able

like

items. that

integration which

essential

show

critical to be

fit

function changeable,

checks. there

comparable when items while this

supposed At for

interare

times, some part

there electrical

peculiarities connectors with

between mating

which of

account

readily, In

items the

identical

number such

mate as enough of the

difficulty. flow

addition, portable

characteristics support

of

items etc., In the on

batteries, among items

valves,

life

systems, record.

vary case the

to merit

a detailed Unit

performance Suit

Extravehicular

Mobility

(Space

Assembly)

used

lunar

82 22 surface, Serial and such numbers S/C data are are known, in published, the data and for used the during actual Readiness missions. Review

included

Flight

other Before

reviews. of the first manned Apollo of CM, crew it was station and discovered items. the Seriali-

flight had then no

contractor zation for was

plans

for by

serialization contractural and control. or

imposed

direction,

proved

essential

crew At

station times, items may be

monitoring critical are the mated only The used. also aids of

orientation and

alignment In such

calls cases,

for the

marks

to

be hard-

made ware could

when used be

aligned. where in

specific

hardware records,

such

correct,

verified the

alignment serial

duplicated. of the items

such

cases,

specify

numbers

Serialization any item. The testing,

in

evaluating is documented etc.

the

history

of

problems the

with item

history

each

and

accompanies

through

preflight

inspection,

S/C

to

GFE

Interface aboard

Configuration a spacecraft comes to and the

Control has from one or more of at of an interfaces item within Other with the the S/C,

GFE S/C. 23 or A

when

basic of the

interface the item

stowage

attachment on

spacecraft

launch. the

interfaces, r_sult etc.). GFE are

depending from There is S/C are

function (mating

requirements electrical and by

hardware, fluid to

m_y flows,

support certain

surfaces, tools

power, used

management and

controls the S/C.

assure

the

properly

matched

accommodated

These

techniques

22CSM/LM (Rev.

_erational 2; July 7,

Data 1971!,

Book, Volume passim.

IV:

EFff7Data

Book,

SNA-8-D-027(IV)

23Interfaces in the context used GFE and the S/C where matching

here applies to or accommodation

those must

junctions between the be achieved to make North American RockA to "Memorandum of and Documentation,"

operations or functions compatible and successful. well Corporation, NASA Contract NAS 9-150, Appendix Understanding, Preparation Manual Interface Control December 24, 1964.

83

applied, the flight

for

the

most

part,

prior

to GFE

and and

parallel S/C to in

with of fit

development interface. and function in

of

configuration at this with as well

of the time is

areas

Implementation incompatibilities mockup flight. manpower reviews,

required

preclude hardware used in

configured as flight

prototype hardware create

used

later

preflight redesign during

checkout time and and applisigni-

and

Incompatible efforts, and the loss

interfaces of S/C

additional support Proper

integration costs.

redesign and be of

manufacture, cation ficant of aid

additional

program

emphasis will

management

control such

techniques

described

in reducing

problems.

GFE

Performance These

and

Interface

(P&I)

Specifications the some Performance cases, the and Interface between por-

specifications appropriate spacecraft Module

establish S/C, or the in LM

the

GFE of

and a

applicable or

major the

tions and 114).

(i.e.,

scientific Instrument those

equipment, Module used and the

Command 112-

Service Their

(CSM) is to

Scientific to specify

in CSM's interface GFE
_

objective necessary

performance between ±11 u_

requirements S/C. Tree A was The are those F&±

ensure

compatibility po_±L±ull

and

the
_ AM

specification_s in Figure 16.

relative

_u±±_

__

shown kind

of requirements to etc.), natural

which and

are induced

important

in

these

specifications

relating g's,

environments to areas of

(temperatures, electrical, and fluid, general

vibrations, mechanical, design,

interfaces and

relating electrostatic standards.

electromagnetic and

compatibility,

quality,

maintenance

84

The above, For and the

original items

CM such

and as

LM

P&I

specifications and other

defined stowed

general GFE

criteria

and

spacesuits for

requirements. flows defined. the

suit,

requirements suit was

electrical drop, and

interfaces, suit mobility

oxygen were

temperatures, the suit such the

pressure GFE was

Since

a basic

requirement essential and

unchanged remained for

throughout fairly GFE

program, throughout were

information program. specified the LM time. GFE

stationary equipment and the of

Initial as

requirements be best

other by

originally at CM or

could

determined passed

NASA

contractor original deleted, added an

Unfortunately, stowage by and

as time

the

majority

and

interface

items

were

modified, the CCB with the

superseded its

a different

configuration. were P&I usually

When

item,

interface at

requirements the CCB.

discussed for

contractor internal in the

representatives crew station were

specifications susceptible to

therefore and onboard

quite

changes

stowage

configuration for

stowage items

list. are the defined value the and of CM controlled specifispeci-

Since by separate was

interfaces Interface greatly not most

Control diminished. for

Documents, As years,

such GFE the P&I of

cations fication "was for not GFE

a result, and it was

P&I

was the crew

updated optimum

agreed

specification requirements GFE items. at ''24

media to

(SIC) the

for

maintaining of the number be

equipment

due

growth

Revisions this point

to the because

Specification they would

Change only

Notices

would other

wasteful

reference

control

documents.

24NASA

letter

PD5/L392-PP5-70-453,

Contract D. F. North

AS

9-150

from

R.

C.

Hood

Project Business tion,

Officer CSM Operations 14,

Programs to Mr. Space Division,

Graham, American

Manager, Rockwell

CSM Corpora-

October

1970.

85

Such

crew

station

documents

have

maximum

value

during

the

program's

initial collate faces CSM

design basic such as

and

development,

where

there and

is

need any for

to new

define critical such

and interas as the those

interface

requirements P&I Module are stowage

cover

a spacesuit. Instrument since

specifications do not fit the GFE

items

Scientific

same

category

discussed and are

above_ not

these to

installed list GFE

scientific

instrumentation

susceptible

changes.

Interface I.

Control

Documents 25

Definition/Description Interface technical or Control Document between supplier those (ICD) is the primary control provided S/C each instruby

A GFE ment the The if of the

interface

hardware as GFE,

end-items and the of

government, ICD

a government and controls or

contractor. item or the which,

identifies can

characteristics impact 26 The mutual

changed,

physically for the

functionally system.

interfacing purpose design of

cofuncICD is

tioning to

assemblies by types i.

overall

record, Two

a formal of

engineering require

document, ICD's: by

agreements.

interfaces

Interfaces contractors

between

equipment

two

or more

NASA

MSC

(associate between which NASA

contractor Centers the

ICD's). (or other government ICD).

2.

Interfaces agencies)

impact

missions

(inter-center

25Apollo Program CSM J-Series Missions Integration (Downey, Calif.: North American Rockwell, Space Contract NAS 9-150, CCA 3355, March i, 1970).

Plan, SD Division_

69-430, NASA

26North to

American

Rockwell of

Corporation

Contract op. cit.

NAS

9-150,

Appendix

A

"Memorandum

Understanding,"

86

This total to

discussion CM and

is LM

limited GFE ICD's,

primarily

to

the

first

type

ICD. are

Of

the

Apollo

approximately 27

60 percent

related

crew

station are

configuration two types

control. and fluid functional. Physical or diagrams. 28 are:

There ICD's The cover four I.

of ICD's--physical electrical, of ICD's and (three

mechanical, types

configurations one

specific Mechanical

physical,

functional)

ICD's: ICD shows a mating A detail pertinent of is two or more from associate each side of

A mechanical contractor the

configurations. to show all

taken

interface for

information_ and sizes,

assuring attached etc.

a correct hard-

mating ware,

dimensions surface be

on hole finish_

patterns torque to assure

material must

requirements, proper fit.

Tolerances 2. Electrical An

controlled

ICD's: ICD across is symbolic only, or and usually represents diagram. applicable: and

electrical flow will

functional Drawings

a connector the following

an intercabling as

contain number, wire-type,

information,

connector-part pin they (i.e., numbers_ indicate twisted signal

reference size, and

designator,

specification, cable _,_

specification_

lengths-cable

schematically and shielded)_

the

pnW_±_d±

m,::_.,,.._-u_ uf signal signal

interface indicating contractor plane other and ICD's

functions_ flow_ physical equipment_ arrangement_ as reference.

interface locations keyway

schematics

(as reference for

only)_

supplying pin are number noted

location halves

mounting by

connector

defined

27From

Private

communication

with

Jerry

E.

Siemers, Center

Boeing

Corporation Texas,

representative at NASA December 8, 1969.

Manned

Spacecraft

at Houston,

28Op.

cir.

North

American

Rockwell

Corporatio_

Contract

NAS

9-150.

87

3.

Fluid

ICD's: A fluid ICD is basically mating a mechanical parts, system schematic fluid, or flow

diagram. flow 4. rates,

It

defines etc.

working

Functional

ICD's ICD's cover functions (steady state and transient

Functional

system etc.),

performance environments

limitations, (aero-thermal,

signal

format

and and

synchronization,

internal

external etc.), and

pressures, procedures ratios, Examples In Rockwell responsible are basic the the and

vibration, and etc.).

acceleration, of

temperature,

limitations

application

(signal-to-noise

or combinations Apollo the for LM Program, S/C

of these the CM

ICD's

are

discussed

later. North American were ICD's ICD title, for

spacecraft Grumman

contractor, Aerospace

contractor, and for

Corporation, their S/C's. by

developing documents

maintaining the S/C in

ICD's

for

contractual number S/C. and

contractor, Master End

referenced Item

revision

letter to End

the

Specification Notices, are

Approved in the

revisions Master

ICD,s, Interface Item Specification who are

Revision via

incorporated Change

Specification to the ICD also

Notices. these should

Other ICD's be

contractors into their

cosigners contract

incorporate ICD's CDR have will and

official as S/C

specificakions. before the There which

"signed-off" of related

contractual and GFE

documentation

final

release of

engineering with this

drawings. requirement,

been be

a number

implementation

problems

discussed

later.

88

II. Since hardware development been were GFE's was

Function/Utilization the stowage require the In for list depicts authorized type ICD's. of onboard As GFE, it identifies initial not Program This definition in

which of

crew-station S/C Program GFE

noted,

during had

Apollo other use and at

a number developed little

these

items the

developed. acceptable

cases,

during or no

Gemini

in Apollo other

with

modification. for interface

configuration available, in

information

required form. The

least samples Program.

preliminary of ICD In

memoranda early the an in

provided the

Appendix Module were

D provides Modification

information case, and 16mm of

used most of by

Lunar items ICD. The

this

stowage existing

already of the or

identified, sealed stowage bags

being to

used,

covered and 70mm

addition changed new ICD

contain

film

magazines requiring shape

effectively either a

configuration New weight

these

magazines,

a revision. For the

and

particularily Assembly, the

required estimates volumes, LM constowage 7.25"

documentation. indicated although tractor a 30 the was

Flight volume

Data

File

preliminary Apollo the

percent

increase was

over

baseline For

precise requested 4_

configuration to make

unknown. to in

food, an of

provisions Aim#n_inn_

accommodate _wo axes

ascent X

_,,_9% m_n_mllm

4.25"

and

a weight

of and

5.60 revised was

ibs. to

All

these the

interface applicable to

design

criteria

were For food

negotiated stowage, to and

resolve basic and

interface. allow the LM

there

enough change

information present

contractor to NASA

initiate their

a design food

a proposed

configuration

supplier. the and program the a number of group to meetings define are held with NASA,

Throughout the tion, contractors, identify

hardware

suppliers and

hardware differences

configuraamong

interface

requirements,

negotiate

89

interface reviews, Crew as

parties. and

ICD

reviews most

are

held

during reviews

major and

S/C

configuration The items CCFF's,

throughout Reviews designed

crew

station use the

meetings. GFE CEIT's, serve

Station are and for

frequently to interface vehicle

verify with

of representative S/C. tests CCSR's, also and

they

CFF's, cations fit and

other stowed

flight

integration mating

as verifihardware in

interfaces, and All have physical these proved

mechanical or as

electrical found the

function, type ICD's use. and and are

clearances reviews invaluable serve

interferences checks on

mission of the

acceptability

for

uncovering

interface

discrepancies Following American i.

problems examples and

before

flight. types of ICD's prepared for the CM by and North LM.

of various Aerospace CM ICD were This the

Rockwell Figure

Grumman a simple

Corporation for a penlight in the the in

18 is

envelope. CM in molded

Initially, rubber-type and maximum the

the

penlights

stowed

cushions. weight CM the of

ICD

defines Early station

configuration stowage and and to redesign myself pertinent stow

item. crew

CM

effort,

contractor CM ICD's

personnel information contractor or

determined constraints, hardware design The

would for the

define the S/C

as necessary but where was not

items, (except

stowage to

location the

specific

required

control

interface). stowing be the

contractor

responsible stowage Use of

for

adequately would

hardware. by ICD to the is be

Also,

the list.

location the

controlled on the has to

stowage costly drawn on

stowage since

location the

and the

time ICD

consuming, and the ICD

interface revised

continually

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90reflect the the ICD,

S/C other

changes than

affecting the and

the

ICD. would,

The in

parties effect,

signing control

contractor, design, the and

stowage

location

hamper

the

contractor's for NASA usually way, crew design stowage. This ICD It

design

autonomy. consisted in their

Also,

cosigning of or

authority

personnel not as

primarily stowage was

various

suppliers in it any

involved long as

S/C

interested

item were

adequately

protected. for of assuring all film GFE

NASA stowage and CFE

station

personnel and a LM

responsible integration

compatibility 2. Figure 19 is

total ICD

for

still-camera the CM ICD

stowage.

is basically depicts hardware in one the

different LM Stowage

from

already as

described. GFE

interface It has the

as well advantage item

critical of

dimensions. drawing several

incorporating In this

hardware

interfaces. which a NASA ICD's the

case, could

the

container saving

included preparation time.

hardware of This of and

individual shortening

sign,

several ICD,

and

sign-off example, quickly matched If, contractor are the

coordination involved stowed or in

like items require

previous Can closely be

interface

"loose" which

which no

or unstowed, mating. this ICD

critical fact, as

was

effectively where changes One

used these from

by

the

LM

a design then and the

constraint ICD kept

dimensions disturbing is the or

specified, interface of

stowage and

volumes. ICD's.

disadvantage stowage

coupling

stowage

Frequent

changes

Figure 19.

LM Stowage ICD

IIII

!

r

I_I_E,I:_E

OOL_TPCX. DOCUI._Et,rr

I_IL.L C,_X,I,.iEI_I_. CO_T_,_

93

shifting likely changes; the was LM,

of

stowage the

locations ICD,

of

the

same

equipment, time less

are

more

to impact such which

causing

costly, were much

consuming frequent volume in and

changes, had

however,

comparatively

limited

stowage

extremely This ICD

weight-sensitive. represents that a different discussed and approach to ICD's it for came

loose from by 3.

items

than

previously was

because

a different NASA

contractor personnel. the CM

originally

monitored

different 20

Figure foldable required critical Sections for

depicts crouch of to J-J the

pressure mating

garment interfaces,

assembly and Couch

(suit) adjustments

to

envelope,

suit-to-couch accommodation C-C. and Couch limb

interface. are

dimensions as shown, required D and and keeps involuntary reentry by the and suit in

suited and suit A heel

included, features in

adjustment are

various C-C. suit

sizes

noted between

Detail couch which

Section is the the

critical restraint in the

interface (See couch

the

Section foot

F-F),

crewman's which

feet

pan,

offsetting or normal removal the

movements landing. crewman restraint interface controls as the also couch

might

occur

during fit

abort allow his

It is when

essential to

the

easy

attempting

remove pad

feet and

from

couch This

during is the

emergency from

egress

landing. and

sensitive suit heel heel

a fit and design and

standpoint, its and

effectively as well 20

design

qualifications, qualificatio_ required

couch

restraint motions

Figure for

depicts

general

operations

operations.

Figure 20. PGA-CM Foldable Couch Envelope ICD

Figure 20. Continued

96

4.

Figure the CM are

21

depicts Hassleblad

the

interface with the

requirements 500mm lens in

for the

mounting right-hand and their lens con-

70mm

camera

rendezvous stowed

window. separately, as and noted in

Since three the

camera, ICD's This GFE

magazine, define figure

other figure. of the

figuration, "shimming" also and 5. An the EVA

indicates it windowpane

modification clearance

camera from the

adapter_ inner

specifies camera

requirements

alignment ICD is

requirements. depicted in Figure pin (EMU) 22. This ICD defines the

electrical detailed umbilical the CM

electrical and EVA the

connector spacesuit

assignments which 16 and use are

between connected

during

portions are

of Apollo

subsequent of bioinstrumentation,

missions.

Included

provisions

for

low 6. A

pressure

sensing,

warning ICD life on

tones the

and

communications. requirements 15 and for subs

sample

preliminary EVA

functional system ICD as

the is and and 7.

trans-earth provided specific safe in

support G. This

on Apollo

Appendix

contains needed to

performance ensure adequate

design

requirements for the the EVA

performance H depicts

system. control document which additions is serves to the

Appendix as CM. the A

interface

materials/flammability similar of its document importance of exists to

control for the the

of Velcro LM. crew

Velcro in of the its

controlled

because in-flight and

flight and

temporary, flammability installed in

stowage

equipment, This "map" and

because all on

combustibility. the S/C

controls

Velcro

within

structure

equipment,

items

stowed

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i01

compartments, suits. Specific direction, The of velcro use i. of A The

and

on

all

GFE,

including points "map,"

crew are as

apparel,

e.g.,

potential

ignition for follows: this

identified. defined in NASA

requirements were as

contractor material

shall provide for the systematic control installed in the CSM by implementing the to be called be made the for "velcro each map." and of

a special velcro map

drawing, drawing

shall

vehicle,

drawing vehicle the

numbers and the

assigned current be as

will reflect the drawing revision. follows:

applicable Contents

drawing Appropriate pictorially all velcro

shall

views of the crew compartment which and dimensionally illustrate to scale installed in the crew compartment. to the ignition velcro shall be indicated, sources such as nearby

Materials adjacent and any potential

wiring will be shown. A bill of materials on the velcro map shall indicate for each piece of velcro the station number, dimensions, type and weight of bonding agent, process specifications used, and total 2. A second weight bill of the installation. shall be included on the velcro

of materials

map and shall call out each stowed item in the crew compartment which contains velcro, the dimensions and type of velcro attached to the item, the stowage location of the item, and identification of all other items containing velcro which are stowed in the same location.

submittal of non-metallic 4.

COMAT worksheets on velcro materials installation in

as the

part of vehicle.

the

The drawing shall test flow and the to the drawing

indicate the point in manufacturing and/or manner of velcro installation applicable

revision. and processes used for velcro installation subject to the same control as the velcro

5.

The materials shall also be map.

6. -

A baseline will be defined by the initial velcro map, which will be submitted to MSC for approval. Maintenance of the drawing in a current and updated status sibility of the spacecraft contractor. will be the responSubsequent changes

102

to

the

baseline

will

be

made

normally

by updating

the

velcro

map after regularly scheduled Crew Compartment Stowage Review (CCSR), Customer Acceptance Readiness Review (CARR)_ Crew Compartment Fit and Function (CCFF), altitude chamber tests, and prior to flight. All changes will be submitted to MSC for approval. Proposals for additions of velcro to the vehicle by the Contractor at times other than those already stated shall be requested by Engineering Change Proposal (ECP) to MSC. 29

In display guidance

the

Apollo

program Control

a number Documents

of

important

functional the were CM, as

controlLM, and

Interface and

existed These Control

between ICD's and

navigation Panel

contractors. (CM/LM

follows:

MHO1-05175, MH01-01388, Nomenclature_ MH01-05176, MH01-05178, Control and

Controls

Display

Standardization); Criteria; Display MH01-05174,

Interior Markings Display

Liqhtinq_ and

Functional (CM/LM Control

Performance Control and and

Color (CM/LM

Standardization); and

Faces

Display Status

Standardization; Indicators these ICD's (CM/LM was The

Annunicators Display controls contained

and

Electromechanical The in the CM is

Standardization). and in displays these

purpose and

of

to

standardize information description:

LM Crew by the

Stations. following

documents

shown

MH01-05175-414

Panel Controls Standardization) Standardizes

(CM/LM

Control

and

Display

the

ope_atiom,

moumL±l_g,

_I_ rotary, controls, knobs in

guarding, and orientation of toggle, and pushbutton switches, continuous and circuit breakers. Standardizes the areas Establishes knobs. 30 of design, color, and design requirements

shape coding. for standard

A copy

of portions

of this

ICD

is

attached

in

Appendix

I.

29NASA

Contract

NAS

9-150, NASA,

Contract MSC,

Change 19,

Authorization 1967).

No.

1752

(Houston,

Texas:

October

30SID 62-1244C, "Lunar Module Performance and Interface Specification," Block II, July 15, 1968. Prepared by North American Rockwell Corporation, Space Division, NASA Contract NAS 9-150.

103

Several their

applications

of

ICD

control

merit

discussion

because

of

uniqueness: i. NASA generated In some ICD: cases GFE in hardware shape, or are items not are of a known con-

figuration--simple because etc. when of When they

will

change in

configuration or packaging,

compression such are ICD items

differences stowed during

folding and use

onboard, flight_ This ICD

particularly of a NASAdefine the

not is

removed

initiated dimensions etc., cost, and

advantageous. hardware, weight. time, any Use and

should handling

of the maximum

critical of this

procedures, saves the

technique of In the such S/C

coordination and

manpower the the sends of ICD.

contractor the by for is Ii0,

initiating contractor NASA

coordinating redraws and

cases, provided of them

generally

information it to both

or NASA's

supplier Good

concurrence. applicable 112, 113, are and

examples

items

where

this added

approach to S/C

a High 114 and in in

Z passive an Apollo on

dosimeter Applications previous in

Program Both

film these and

cannister items are

stowed simple stowed reserved S/C

a locker envelope,

S/C.

stable

configuration,

passively 2. Crewman

during envelope 112 and

flight. requirement: where an EVA Module that excursion (SIM) the is bay to in

In CM be the made

subs,

into

a Scientific Module, there support

Instrument was concern

Service

scientific etc.)

equipment

and

its

hardware

(tubing,

bracketry,

104

would

not

leave

adequate concern of located was the

room was SIM

for

the

EVA

crewman's so during and bay. to the Accordsuch control this the hardNASA

operations.

This

particularly bay when

design/developemtn ware items were there the to the

equipment within in this the

and

relocated need, for into was the EVA

determined quantify SIM bay

sufficient required intrusions

case, in

envelope

operations envelope.

preclude CM S/C

this

ingly, an all

contractor the ICD on

directed EVA

to incorporate and to into

envelope

into

provisions, infringement the S/C

equipment/hardware Simulation this of tests envelope. the to EVA the

placement were

from

area. to is

set up 23

with

contractor results the of and

define

Figure ICD. working It

documents the

the

a portion

shows crewman.

area

where

envelope this for NASA, had the

applies via

Implementation from into each to the the S/C

envelope evaluations

ICD

brought

requests intrusions to assess

contractor

of

proposed allowed

envelope, change and if

therefore, the option to was other

was

proposed the may

grant

a detailed This S/C

waiver approach

envelope, be

proposal in

acceptable. areas are such of

considerably where

valuable positive volume, and 3. S/C

design, of can

particularly crew

assurances and where

required envelopes

a given be

functional determined

reasonably

controlled. volume Where type there in ICD's: are items weight, of GFE required for each given, mission, identified

which

vary

size,

and

number

within

...........

"

_t-

107

constraints, example vehicles. mission detailed and ICD crew the

use

of

a S/C of

volume the

ICD

may data

be

valuable. in both

A good Apollo

is the These

stowage items

flight

files to

were the

quite of

susceptible onboard

individual with data, via

requirements, operational preference. specific items

type

hardware

procedures, Initially, to be

improvements NASA attempted and have their the

in basic to

define

onboard to

configuration. control flight anything-the the and depict file the

It was document item. It

extremely all

difficult changes that to

formal in the

reflect became

which the the it

occurred ICD did

obvious

not

control Although that weight to

it merely individual total file

reflected book could

changes

hardware. was

sizes be As

changed,

determined in

sufficiently a result, for the stowage

controlled ICD of was the in

configuration. total and Also, part volume

changed flight each

available a maximum list the on the

data

included the number

weight was

allowable to

compartment. assembly books for

stowage for only of

revised data

reflect and

a top

flight

file

individual Special

reference for stowage

the

stowage for

drawing. flight was

authorization Since the approwere on

file

given. had

compartments priately modified the NASA

in which for

the

files

were

stowed the

to

be

marked

identification, NASA furnished was details

marking for in

procedures installation and

to provide

decals savings and

compartment. time for

The defining /

result the

cost

contractor/

negotiations.

108

It for rivet GFE the such

is

important be

in stable

such and

cases

that

the

stowage

configuration some cases the in

items or

adequately within (kits

defined--in

heads

protuberances unacceptable Use of

compartments have been

have torn or

made stuck

installation compartment). compartment supplier stowage applied

a contractor the

manufactured flight the

and

provided is useful fit

stowage to the

representing GFE for

compartment hardware use of

of the volume to the

ensuring

will

into ICD ICD's cantly

the was

allotted. GFE survival if

Similar kit used and

this

type

food. can siqnifiand and can cost. con-

are

an important hardware previous

tool T which and of

properl[

minimize the

chanqes description of

related the

delivery

impact

Recalling trols or

ICD--it which, if

"identifies changed, assemblies use

those

characteristics impact Some

each

item or

physically within in the

functionally system."

interfacing major as consistent follows: and late

cofunctioning problems during

total the

of ICD's

Apollo i.

Program Unresolved

are

ICD's

issuance: unresolved of the for too to long; release to occur. CDR, with

A number schedules hardware ICD's and and

of ICD's both

remained sides

pressing drawings, be of of

interface are S/C to 31 more or

incompatibilities before the

likely

should

resolved engineering

hardware proper

item's

release control

drawings changes.

ensure In

evaluation case

configuration

a specific

31NASA

letter

PD8/L799-68-PP5-591,

from

R.

C.

Hood,

Project

Officer,

C&SM Apollo Spacecraft Program Office, NASA, Manned Spacecraft Center, to Mr. Milton I. Drucker, Director Apollo CSM Program Contracts, Space Division, North American Written by J. R. Goodman Rockwell Corporation, Downey, California. (J. E. Siemers, Boeing, December 9, 1968).

109

with cribed The

one in

contractor, a CCA were

engineering released

drawings before

for

a change by area

desNASA. of the

an ICD

approval in a the

ICD

review which

revealed required

a design the

deficiency of

interface direction. the

processing from

separate procedure

contractual increase design In this to

Such of

deviations control the was

established of

difficulty and

and purpose by

approval and

configuration for the ICD. required

changes, case, the

negate

need

contractor and document

technical interface which

direction design had an

negotiate with prior each to

all

criteria effect

associated on interface, of or be (ECP) the

design drawing Control of

change release.

issued

Following

technical

approval Review could

Interface final

Documentation, the engineering the

Critical design,

Design drawings

release

accomplished, has also In equipment of the LM. in

provided NASA example,

Engineering

Change

Proposal

received another

approval. a NASA contractor with 25 was the asked mating items found of to make portion were ICD

alignment It was a certain this area

marks later way. was

compatible found In that

hardware it was sides

marked covering face GFE for to

checking, and

the the the

unsigned different marked, that

both

inter25

were

considering were

locations. the the NASA be

Since contract marked

articles the GFE

already requested An not

monitor according

hardware location. was

S/C in an

investigation technically

actual

S/C As

revealed

this

location

acceptable.

a result,

ii0

the

ICD

was

prompted the GFE

to

be

signed-off had

showing

the the

proper 25

location, incorrectly During the LM

and

supplier

to modify

marked the LM

hardware 3 CCSR

items. there were incompatibilities Life Support (PGA the or System suit). and for lack As PGA the of among

donning and the

station, pressure accepted to

the

Portable

(PLSS), a result, designs PLSS signed 2.

garment the task

assembly to change in the

NASA to

PLSS

conform

the 32

interface The problem

vehicle from

donning

station. to

stemmed

revisions

the

ICD. or inadequate flight in at ICD detail: GFE items what the

Inaccurate, In were ICD size

incomplete, of

a number

cases, different

configuration form one or function in the

substantially specified. and For

from

example, of the

point

program not the in

the

configuration with tissue the be the

towel

container As a result to be

was of

agreement CCSR, defined tainers not be the by to

existing

ICD. 33 were case

i01

dispensers ICD--in this in and no room

found the per

larger of tissue

than concould

number S/C

stowed

a locker, a tissue for it.

drawings, was

accommodated, there was

dispenser

dropped

because

32NASA

TWX

PD8/T740-4-BG-67-TII92, from William M_ Chastain, by James W. Prim, November

to

GAEC,

Attn:

E. W. Office,

Laws_ NASA,

Business MSC,

Manager, written

Contracting 7, 1969.

33Ref.

RFC

101-CSD-15,

S/C

i01

GFE

Design

Review,

September

12,

1967.

iii

In in the

the

LM

Modularized tool stowage,

Equipment

Stowage

Assembly were found

(MESA) between or

descent and the

interferences due over were check. by GFE to the not In

tools

tool-to-S/C and tools in

interface control which fit

incomplete interface. documented other

inadequate Certain found volumes realistic sentative example, item. stowage to In to

dimensions areas be or of the

were

critical dimensions

S/C

cases, were not

provided

suppliers when

and

discrepancies was account used. for

were

discovered suit of that in

reprefor

hardware did one not

Original flexibility revealed of 32"

ICD's, the the

stowed suit

exercise, require

it was a minimum set

would

one

dimension sealing was an have

preclude the

permanent ICD had

of the

suit's 34

pressure This 32"

zipperl important been

specified on the stowing original a special at KSC for late A

24". the ICD. type

constraint on

suit

and

should

documented In another (GFE) S/C camera (the

case,

flight

lunar into

surface the 35 mission). support pad) was

camera LM-5 The of

arrived LM used in

for

incorporation lunar

the May

first or

landing for

arrived 16 launch.

early

June

a July

rubber

"snubber"

(spacer

34NASA from

Memorandum PM5/MI094, subject: Block II Suit Hardware PM/Chief Mission Operations Division to EC Chief, Crew written by Jerry R. Goodman/PM5, May 18, 1966.

Volumes Systems

Division,

35NASA-NSC Program, Jerry R.

Memorandum from

PD8/MI977, PA/Manager of 25,

subject: for the and

Closeup Lunar

Stereo

Camera Spacecraft by

Installation,

Module,

Apollo written

to TA/Director Goodman, June

Science 1969.

Applications,

112

found design also of

in the and in the item, and

shipping

package

with

the on

camera. the

Incomplete was arrival con-

installation GFE supplier

information data

snubber to

package. unknown

Prior to for to the crew

this

its

existence

was

S/C

tractor

MSC

personnel

responsible attempts and

station instal-

integration lation MSC item

of ICD's.

After

clarify

requirements, (on June

definitions, I0) the LM

rushed

discussions, to install the

directed in

contractor incomplete direction of

accordance and for

with

the

then The

installation included installation

instructions authorization

procedures. further

clarification

procedures, Successful prelaunch revised

etc.,

by

a NASA was the subs, LM

representative made in time to

at KSC. support The of ICD was and

installation closeout of

descent reflect

stage. use In

for

LM

6 and

to

snubber case, not

applicable only and was this

interface the ICD too but to

requirements. late its to basic support

this

interface

definitions was

flight, late

interface stowage

definition and

almost It was and

too

support of

final failure

installation. identify interface

a prime

example

to properly necessary to

define

a critical

component

accommodation. In criteria reviews a number were of other situations, overlooked, these important and interface or S/C

inadvertently revealed

mockup

fortunately

inadequacies.

113

3.

Changes

to

hardware problem without

which was

impact that GFE for

ICD's: hardware the S/C changes interface were and had

Another at times made

regard For be

timely been

ICD

signoff. would

instance,

GFE

hardware with the GFE for

which the or

modified

found

incompatible to change

S/C, the S/C.

requiring Changes dictated Assembly in

a decision dimensions to

whether of the some LM

lunar

tools,

example, Stowage TV in LM camera the camera

changes stowage mount the camera

Modularized On the a .17

Equipment LM-6 color

interfaces. interface,

to Assembly body over

inch defined mount

increase to and the

envelope

previously in the

Contractor of its

required foam

relocation

a remake

insert. From a configuration (CCP,s), ensuring changes. appropriate GEE of or CCP's detailed significant the CCP S/C to control which the standpoint, GFE the Configuration are in

Control

Panels for these to

approve S/C

changes, are the

responsible processing be forwarded

interfaces affecting CCB, is

considered S/C should Unforchange on the etc.,

Changes CCP or

required. a basic effect

tunately, without S/C are 4. Late

these benefit

frequently analysis changes

approve of the in

interfaces, implemented changes At times, to to

dimensions,

after GFE

sanctions additions:

a "basic"

change.

or new

changes stowage on

occur a S/C

equipment, close

or to

there flight.

are

new In

additions

fairly

114

such S/C

cases, that the

ICD's ICD In

have affects

sometimes and

been

waived on

for

the

first

implemented the potential usual and and

subsequent of interface

spacecraft. incompatibility between check

such is

cases,

risk close

greater parties, are

than mockup

coordination fit

interface verifications

flight

hardware

essential.

Hardware are complex

items stowage

that items which

typically which

make

this

problem

difficult stowage S/C These to in

require

form-fitted to the

cushions, flight latter and

_nd

items

physically alignment development objective,

attach during of new which

require also

accurate require design final

use.

items

brackets

accomplish establishment

their of

generally design is

delays frozen.

ICD

inputs

until

S/C Formal program facturing tional last and formal S/C

Development held

and

Configuration the Apollo design test and

Reviews cover the foliowing manuoperais by the

reviews

during

program and

phases: and

requirements configuration readiness. design crew program and review

definition_ inspection_ Crew of

development_ and

checkout&

flight true

Compartment the Crew

Stowage

Review

Station--managed Station Reviews

both held

NASA/contractor throughout the the

station are

personnel. how the crew

Crew station

personnel cover

exercise a multitude crew of

management and

control basic

described "working

above. level"

They tool in

subjects station

are

the

effective

management.

115

Figure the reviews

24

summarizes place,

the and

review

process,

the

sequences in

in

which of

take

their purposes the

basic

purposes, than is that

discussion

reviews, involving aspects

which the of

serve crew

major

other

specifically only to those

station, to

discussion station

limited

consequence are and

crew in

personnel. crew station of development the in reviews the in reviews in

Mockups effective, Figure 24.

important

making for

are

a requirement use merits

a number and is

Such The

notice for use

given

following reviews

discussion. also deserves

necessity

of

flight

crews

design

discussion.

Mockup

Utilization Effective use of

mockups
of serve

is

one

of

the

most

useful and

and its

important GFE and

tools CFE

in

the

development mockups Design items. Aid

the in

current the

Apollo

S/C ways: for

hardware; a.

following tool

aid

and

verification

individual

hardware

designer with functional to

in

assessing human

his

particular and

design other should etc.,

for operabe

compatibility tional used as and

general

_actors,

requirements. crew requires or other such

Mock-ups design

aids if

critique item

equipment extensive operations. items are

especially with other

the

handling_ In best the

mating

equipment, of the

beginning early by

program,

reviewed and eventual

the

designer,

crew flight

station crew.

personnel, Such reviews

equipment

users--the

allow

Figure 24

Modified from: Brig. Gen. Bolender, "Management Techniques Utilized by the Apollo Program Manager," Apollo Program Management, Staff Study, Subcommittee on NASA Oversight, Committee on Science and Astronautics, U.S. House of Representatives, 91st Congress, 1969. 116

117

suggestions with the minimal hardware

on

the

design

when or

they

can

be incorporated problems. Even if

cost, mockup alone, run. when

schedule, were it used

design the

for

contractor's the cost and

internal effort depicted

assessment in by the long

is usually

worth even into the

Frequently, transformed

best

designs exhibit

a drawing,

hardware

discrepancies b. Design or major Use posite S/C aid and

previously verification

unnoticed. tool for S/C configured mockups

subsystems. of both individual mockups hardware during item the true mockups and was changes to com-

configured This was and short.

program where S/C

invaluable. were

particularly the time from

substantial, was

hardware

design

production on design

Timely saves be in

NASAcontractor time

agreement and cost, greater involve

approaches to

considerable and

allows

schedules of

maintained, subsequent

provides which

assurance many

success items. in

reviews

hardware Dreyfuss

dJs_s_ing liners, is

the

u_e

_

mnc_!ps that when

in

the

development practical of our

of form

ocean of are

indicates possible also money

"A highly mockups "we to

research built." time in

designs much

He and

noted by

that not

learned make

and

sayed

having complete large

expensive mockup planes.

changes is "36

the

final

ship...A in

interior transport

almost

standard

designing

36Henry 1967),

Dreyfuss, Desi_nin@ pp. 67-68.

for

People

(New

York:

Paragraphic

Books,

118

Fit been

problems

between Use fit

hardware fidelity

items

has

already in items,

discussed. provides

of high

hardware mating

mockups

verification electrical insert, in

between

particularly physical In fit

those into use of by a of

with

connector or

matings, mating. the CFE

stowage such

mechanical verifies GFE

addition,

items,

effect, between

acceptability as c. Use Crew defined in crew

critical

interfaces

and

ICD's. design change evaluations, and

training, Reviews. mockups,

Station These

after

basic used

design for

configuration development, and (and Gemini crew

reviews, flight Crew

are crew

subsequently training, Reviews.

procedures evaluations,

design Such in

change use

Station as

proved

invaluable Mercury and

mandatory) Programs. and support on

experienced mockup may have

previous

Untimely teams training These

support broad,

of the

flight

significant flight are support. the only

impli-

cations

and

general trainers

mockup

devices

available to our flight crews and support personnel to exercise the mission timeline procedures essential to efficient execution of the flight plan. In their absence two major problems arise: a. A number of spacecraft tests are subject inefficient planning and execution, and Our flight crew training such that early in their use their time effectively to

b.

schedules are distorted assignment crews cannot and near flight date

119

the number3_f excessive. Lack of training beyond affect

activities

to

be

completed

becomes

hardware those

or

poor

fidelity

can

cause

transgressions in that they are: During crew trol This into 2. After noted

problems

already

described, of such

the

flight

mission.

Examples

problems i.

their was on

Lunar

Mission, about the Life

the

Apollo of

ii

flight

confused their

function Support not been

a con(PLSS).

Portable had

System

control training the the S/C

apparently used

incorporated training. Aldrin in over hours the the that of S/C the

models ii

for

preflight Astronaut

Apollo

Mission, of the

visibility was

altimeter improved

actual in the

considerably Simulator, spent. was not In

Apollo were

where this

many case_

training

configuration training did it 3. not could item.

a problem, the

as was

Happily, such

reverse

situation indic=te

occl/r, but have. to noted the

circ_ush_ic_

Subsequent Armstrong

Apollo

ii

Mission,

Astronaut used

the

photographic

equipment

37NASA-MSC Command

letter PD8/L737-68, and Service Modules,

from Kenneth S. Kleinknecht, Apollo Spacecraft Program, Program Manager, Downey, Calif.,

to

Manager Dale D. North R. Goodman,

Myers, Vice President Apollo American Rockwell Corporation, February 21, 1968.

Space Division letter by J.

120

during sure Lack in

training guides, of

lacked which in was of

fidelity were

in used

decals, in

expo-

etc.,

flight. equipment, precluded

fidelity a case, use

training

or

mockup and

such

a hinderance during

effective 4. Lack of

equipment TV camera for may

flight. equipment 12 crew to tube. the

sufficient difficulties mission and

training Apollo

created during lunar 5. The

the

have due to

contributed a burned

camera's Apollo 12 did

"loss" crew not as

communications function the there

training same was as the of

equipment flight valuable

gear;

a result, time.

a loss

mission

6.

During guration because to

the

Apollo to be

14 mission, changed

the

camera flight long

confiplan enough window. to and ''38 the time, should the no

had "the the

from was in

the not

telemetry camera

cable

reach

mounted was not

the

hatch prior late

This flight

configuration because was the

checked arrived the

bracket for

bracket Similar vast the quantity overall

available have

simulator.

problems of record

occurred, changes good.

but up

considering to flight

configuration is fairly

These

examples

38Apollo 14 Mission Report, MSC-04112, prepared by Mission Evaluation Team Approved by James A. McDivitt, Manager, Apollo Spacecraft Program (Houston, Texas: NASA, Manned Spacecraft Center, May 1971), p. 9-24.

121

serve effort

as

a reminder should

that have

this

area

requires by

continuous NASA and

and

adequate

staffing

contractors. d. Use in design Another gravity via verification use of mockups tests is in in or zero the by gravity simulation. of zero

simulation flying

underwater Such use is

testing, required crew

aircraft development flight

parabolas. and

for

design and

verification,

flight

procedures

training. The for uses fidelity defined of mockups above, during the CM redesign_ the and of and

generally mockup and evolved,

parallels items

developed S/C preliminary "low completed, "high

hardware. mockups design. fidelity, hardware fidelity" functional faces 9 and could carry

Initially, were As

hardware

"conceptual" the design

representative the mockups

became nearly became

" representative designs. Finally,

of prereleased, mockup hardware

or representative in size, shape, in some

of production physical cases, or

configuration: and where interit

operation operational gas flow. ranging

perhaps

electrical consisted

current

Mockups cardboard, drawings display the

of materials models, (as in

from

crude paper the CM of

wood s or glued to

styrofoam panels

preliminary the case of

wood to

panels),

production which most

configuration would satisfy the

hardware fidelity used

cheapest

materials For the

requirements.

part,

contractor

122

marked-up Design

or

"red-lined" not

drawings for

to produce mockup

the

mockup. were possible.

features

required were costs

fidelity whenever

eliminated. In this As siderable mockup includes way,

Materials mockup

substituted minimized. for Was

were

a result NASA and

these

requirements time

mockups,

con-

contractor design

spent

defining J

fidelity the

and

requirements. American

Appendix Rockwell of

results on

of NASA/North

negotiations S/C Mockup

a "Memorandum and

of Understanding" Appendix

general

Update

Maintenance. a zero-gravity to support These

K includes

sample training sequent

requirements article, mission

for

simulation Apollo documents 15 and subbe

required EVA testing. for

should

particularly

useful

similar

efforts.

Flight

Crew

Participation personnel participation The of and _/_ in value clew S/C design/development by _ lack of

Engineering reviews flight is

unquestionly in the

accepted.

of participation _u_u±u11 accepted. ,_±uw_±_ This

crews but

development as widely the

required, acceptance with human

is not from S/C

readily the fully

comes

following: not

generic

problem the crew

associated value of as

designers' factors

organizations engineering,

accepting the

or human

and

accepting compared and

station S/C feel

an entity systems)

requiring ; the natural

special

attention of

(as

with

other to

tendency

engineers

designers

their

123

product general design

is

acceptable involved

by

virtue when

of

design not

ability an

and

effort; or

and

the

stigma

someone, reviews

engineer or

specifically product. in design/

orientated_ There are

critically of

a designers crew

engineer's

a number is

reasons

flight

participation

development I. The

reviews flight a good can they

productive: by virtue of their unique position, and or generally subsystems subsystems are

crew,

have and as

understanding insight to overall systems usually and at

of most into S/C

S/C

systems hardware

provide relate

specific

compatibility.

(They

generally 2. The flight

excellent crew is

engineers.) experienced aircraft which pilots make with them

flight

experience adept

other

qualifications designs for

especially and 3. As

evaluating and the be

handling

equipment,

operating eventual can

hardware users of

complex

systems. they may have preferences the design/

end-product, readily

which

and

should

accommodated the essential

during design

development are 4. They or or not

stage.

(Assuming

requirements

prostituted). bring to bear have they previous been add S/C flight experience underestimated, team's

frequently

technical disregarded.

points In

which short,

overlooked, to the

technical

expertise. 5. Their inclusion adds to their knowledge of S/C design and

preflight

training.

124

The crew chief the of

Soviet

space

team Shelton

apparently discusses Sergei

also the

accepts original to allow reports

and uses reluctance

similar of

flight the

participation. Soviet design S/C prior

designer, to its

Korolev, Shelton

cosmonauts on the

to review

completion.

development

the

Voskhod

spacecraft:

In a noteworthy and sensible modification to previous cosmonaut-designer relationship, Sergei Korolev now insisted that cosmonauts participate directly in all design and modification decisions. Doubtless his decision grew out of the practical Titov and other completed Vostok modifications cosmonauts after they suggested examined by the Gherman virtually

spaceship.

Both Belyayev and Leonov and other£, especially Feoktistoy, participated in the development and testing of all new systems and equipment. Says Leonov: 'We were present at all tests and introduced the changes that we thought necessary. We were happy to see that the designers did not The we leave tester tested a single suggestion important new units of ours without notice .... figure, of course. Nevertheless, ourselves. ' practice undoubtedly with which Leonov rocket reiterates on the this is an all the

the the

This new confidence top of

contributed and Belyayev of March in

enormously ascended to 18,

to

their

morning

1965. 39

Cosmonaut spacecraft

Belyayev

philosophy

his

Voskhod-2

report: of the spacecraft at th_ deslg_ As the ship was being designed, of its systems and of the ship tests. This method of learning in the tests, confidence in uffizi, we as a the

We began our study long before the flight. took part in the testing whole in complex ground ship, especially perfect mastery reliability. 40

our participation of its systems and

gave us its complete

39William Shelton, Soviet Space (New York: Washington Square

Exploration, Press, 1968)

The First p. 177.

Decade

40p.

I.

Belayayev,

"Flight

of

the

'Voskhod-2',"

trans,

by

NASA.

Paper

presented September

at the XVI International Astronautics Congress, 13-18 (Washington, D. C.: NASA, October 1965).

Athens,

125

The in the

above

discusses

why

the

flight team, role

crew despite the

should

definitely

be

included The or

design/development clarification is shown by of the

review their attitude Flight

occasional crew station who

resistance. engineer was

need

for

vs.

designer with

expressed Center's

by

Rogers, crew

involved

NASA's

Marshall

Space

flight

evaluations:

Design bility from This is not the victorys

engineers early in to imply were

are sensitized to astronaut operathe design and development cycle. that all the battles are won or that Actually, several preliminary because of vociferous human engineering aided

easy.

design reviews which 'miscarried' objections from the crew to poor

in changing the 'training' philosophy. Unfortunately, it appears that the battle for a human engineering philosophy has to be fought on each new program. But .... maybe we human e_{ineers defensive. It define methods them to and is the crew station do our homework better when we're on the

engineer set of

and

hardware

designer's

job

to the

a technically and tools

competent defined above,

design to

requirements modify their and

using or

and

establish, It is is also

enforce

with

the the

review

systems

described. what

responsibility is reliable

assure safe. If

end-product

achieves

intended,

there

is

"poor has are

human to be

engineering," _uc by

it

is

that

engineering

effort

or

approach

w_icn

such

inadequacies the

identified possible flight reliable, the

astronauts,

the

program

is

better

off

despite If, cally

engineer's the and

embarrassment. objects can be is to a design which defended The crew is techniby the

however,

crew and

acceptable

reasonably different.

designer/engineer, managers should

then ensure

situation are

station and that

conflicts

presented

to management,

41jon Human

G.

Rogers, Factors

"Simulation Societ[

in

the

Development 1

of

Space 1970),

Hardware," pp. 3 ff.

Bulletin,

XIII,

(January

126

both the

sides extent

are of If

fairly the the

represented. the

Generally, and

management and

will

consider schedule is technimay

change, matter and the

manpower "crew factors

cost,

potential and the this

problems. cally well

involves other

preference," are minimal,

acceptable, favor Another the

decision

crew. problem is They role the may designer/engineer's be in awe or attitude toward the

typical crew's can

the

flight which

status. lead to

subservient will In station such be

toward in a

crew,

reversal--the to design and design from an the

astronaut item. crew

position NASA be

where

he

is

asked

how

cases,

the should the

designer/engineer to be participate. shown

counterpart If the

engineer managed,

asked will

area the

is properly

crew crew

proposed

designs and

designer/engineer requirements. evaluation where for

and

station This is

personnel's not to imply

efforts the

established advice In some and

crew's

should flight

not

be

sought,

even of

at an

early items greater.

stage.

areas need

crew and of accommo-

operations evaluation any design

hardware be the

predominate, There are, should

the

advice

should which

however, be in

other

aspects to

design/engineer mechanism design ease, on not the doing

a position

date--design materials tend to

loads, use,

features, reliability, as

cycle etc. Roger

requirements, Such above, situations notes,

manufacturing engineers really

put they

the are

defensive, their job

because

properly.

Crew

Station

Review

Perspective

Integration The usual S/C

with crew

Spacecraft reviews

Design

Reviews here are in as conjunction a subsystem with in the

station

described the

reviews,

which

include

crew

station

127

addition personnel, material crew

to

other as

subsystems. review of

At and their

these report

S/C on

reviews, the If of

the

crew of are S/C the the

station review the

a team, the status

adequacy mockups total CM, as

and

subsystem. portion

involved, review. reviews are

station In some only

personnel Preliminary on crew

handle Design station In

this

the on

Reviews related major

held designs,

the and

are

centered by crew

such, Design station The

managed

station and

personnel. Design play by

S/C

Preliminary the crew

Reviews design review require-

(PDR's) and

Critical mockups as shown

Reviews

(CDR's), and vital

related

a prominent Figure by 24,

role. the

basic design

philosophy, ments

parallels 14.

Apollo

implementation,

defined

Figure

Crew

Station The

Review

Taxonomy are special Critical Crew Test Crew formal Design Compartment (CEIT), Station The applied reviews term to Crew Crew Station Reviews: Crew Preliminary Compartment (CCFF), (CFF) of and

following

Design Stowage Crew and crew is

Reviews Reviews

(PDR's), (CCSR's), Interface

Reviews Fit Fit

(CDR's), and and

Function Function

Equipment flight station

stowage. related generic, above

Other

Reviews Crew both

cover Statiun

a variety m_v±_w

subjects. and and is

_,_, of

therefore listed

the

specific during the

type

reviews

other

required

program.

Elements Basic i.

of

the

Crew

Station of all

Review CSR's are as follows:

elements Crew station

personnel and contractor flight crew management support personnel_ team appro-

Includes priate

NASA

designers,

representatives,

128

and is 2.

flight required. review

crews

when

available,

or when

their

participation

Other

team other

participants contractors or subcontractors involved

Includes

in

some

aspect

of

the Weber

review,

e.g.,

International couch

Latex

Inc.,

suit or

contractor; LM

Aircraft, Also, if

foldable a particular such NASA as

contractor; of a

the

contractor. design is

aspect television

subsystem stowage this 3. Review Such a. or

under

review, the

operations, and the

then

technical

monitor would

of

system

contractor's or hardware take any

counterpart

participate.

information information

could

of

the

following

forms:

Software conceptual sketches; preliminary drawings and layouts; preproduction or production drawings; red-lined drawings, system schematics; operational procedures; certification test data, plans or results, or hardware failure reports; program test, spares, or mockup hardware plans; general related program documentation; ICD's; open items or action items from prior reviews, S/C tests, meetings, etc.; and technical presentations other or discussions.

b.

Hardware

fidelity assembled hardware;

conceptual mockups; hi-fidelity mockups; mockup hardware for testing; production flight hardware inspection. c. Hardware types

and

stowage installation; GFE or CFE equipment; items and assemblies; and other miscellaneous crew in flight.

bracketry for various types of various types of crew equipment scientific experiment hardware; hardware items operated by the

129

It software helps

is

essential

the

CSR

minutes and

specify the

each

information of the

item

of This

or hardware the on

reviewed, rigor S/C of

disposition control

review. in the

maintain section

configuration

expressed

previous

configuration

reviews.

Review

Process The i. formal General

and

Organization have the following basic phases:

CSR's

pre-review review

meeting: are assembled, The and viewgraph presennormally

All tation follows a.

participants with handouts

is made this

provided.

presentation

format: of purpose of this is as of the review and Hatch its expected product.

Definition An example

frqm

a Unified

Critical

Design

Review

(CDR)

follows: of the the hatch

Purpose--to unified function

evaluate the detailed design side hatch and to demonstrate of a production unified side

system and to close out review action items from a previous PDR on the hatch. Product--NASA approval of the released design for continued manufacture and spacecraft installation. 42 b. The review organization, who have i.e., the technical and are was management identified

personnel and at

specific example, CDR:

team the

assignments, following

introduced. the above

For referenced

presented

42Abstract American

of Unified Rockwell,

Hatch CDRI Phase II (Downey, Calif.: Space Division, November 14-15, 1967).

North

130

Review Unified Hatch

Organization CDR--Phase II

Board NASA North Chairman American (NAR) D.D. Myers K.S. Kleinknecht

, Rockwell Chairman Board Members NASA NAR

-

W.M. Schirra J. Lee A.B. Kehlet N. J. Ryker

Review

Coordinators NASA NAR J° Goodman Helms

C.W. Teams NAR

Review

Task

NASA Stefan (Assigned At Meeting)

Inner

Structure Ablative Dump

A.J.

Heat Shield, Hatch Seats, Windows and

-

E.

L.

Confer

_!igh_ and Ground Support Equipment Counterbalance Latching Mechanism Boost Cover and

-

C.

H.

Lowry

-

L.

G.

Thies

h.

Presentation their degree

of of of on

specific fidelity. detailed of

review

items

and

a description

of

d.

Presentation depending

design

requirements

or

concepts

type

review.

140

e.

NASA

review or

coordinator's interest and

general

comments

on items

of

special

emphasis personnel 2. Team

identification leaders or

of NASA contacts for

technical other subjects.

acting

as team

reviews/mockup ill the review

evaluations: is a major CDR's), and one in scope and number of parti-

cipants discipline

(i.e., are for

PDR's, defined these

specific and

areas

of key

technical

NASA

contractor as

representatives team leaders. of

responsible The the specific hatch

disciplines above common

serve were team

joint to is

teams

defined more

applied breakdown

functions as

system--a crew and

follows: scientific

stowage; equipment; signs, by

equipment; suits and and

structures suit

and

mechanisms; Special are set in

hardware. review data

areas aside this

with for area

marked use as and

tables, teams,

appropriate the leaders

these

and

attempt team,

to

stay

much

as possible, data, the

organizing drawings, is is a

the

answering

questions,

reviewing If various as be the

etc. smaller feasible, one, then where a team review are of

review

subjects effective

not

individuals subjects

designated should other discussion it or is action feels team

team Any

leaders

with

certain

which or

discussed. are problem if

questions, to

comments, team team

discrepancies leaders. and its After

concerns of the

forwarded or the If

assigned with should of action the be

question subject the

leader,

determined is required.

dropped, problem be

postponed, or

initiator review

this can

question if the

it necessary,

written

made

even

141

leaders action used Their is by

do is

not either LM

concur

with

its in or

content a Request

or

necessitY. for Action

Review (RFA) (RID). armed forces, as

documented Contractor

the

Review

Item

Disposition in the

generic

designation, for Change or the

used RFC.

previously

a Request In this

portion, Where examine maintained

hardware are

add

software and

are

reviewed group

and

RFC's

generated.

mockups them, by

provided board

a large time-in

of participants the-mockup the the it Crew flight is is

a schedule NASA

for

the

review (CCSR),

coordinator. and others

For where ,

Compartment crew are that in

Stowage the the the prime NASA mockup

Review

reviewers review for is

of mockup

equipment ensure that

essential is allotted and the

coordinator crew station

time

personnel, difficult set of flight by these to

engineers_ obtain crews, when and

designers. review

Time

particularily than one

includes and suited

more

shirtsleeve personnel is, the

conditions. mandatory--they

Review are the as

technical for to the review

however_

responsible

design its

of

hardware

and

should

have

opportunity the

physical pointed

configuration, out by others.

as well

examine

discrepancies 3. Request for

Changes be

(RFC's): written on equipment design, interfaces_ stowage, which or

A RFC? 3 may design concept or The

layout RFC

drawings, to

configuration, the board

procedures.

serves

inform

dispositions

43The

term

RFC

will

be used

interchangeably

with

RFA's

or

RID's.

142

them

that

a review for the

participant specific

wishes hardware is be

action or

by

the

organization The Apollo

responsible Configuration properly to and the

procedure. to permit an to RFC close

Management changes an

System to

designed

only is a notice RFC In and many

processed board to the change is of 44

made.

Thus, action

assign

appropriate necessary is the in not to

the

process the

paperwork

effect

a change. detailed submit are

cases_ action

requirement to stud_ (RID,s

clearly and case) review RFC with defines

the

assigned Examples

problem this and the

a report. in sare

RFC's The

provided

Figure

25 . for and to

team

leaders of RFC

coordinator other the

responsible parties, recommends RFC,s, indicate to explain attendees rather unless stated and

coordination ensure the

concerned problem a number for and of example, but fail

clearly

a pertinent some are

solution. poorly

I have written;

reviewed they

very the for

might,

they

feel

design this.

reviewed Also,

is

unnacceptable is to to be a tendency a design done.

reasons to specify explain is

there solution needs

among problem Therefore,

a particular what basically

than there in

a good terms, to

objection, allowing

proposed the designer solution. design. on also

solutions and his

should NASA steps teem The

be

basic time

counterpart usually initials contractors

propose

a good better

These The NASA RFC.

produce and/or

a simpler, comments or

leaders

are

required are

each

initials

comments

required--preferably

44ibid .

143

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146

a technical NASA and the

and

managerial

position have adopted _nd

on

the a new

RFC's RFC

merit, form

etc.

contractors

which comments,

provides

room in

for contractor's Figure 26.

NASA

team

captain's

as provided 4. RFC flow: Figure point where

27 shows they are

the

processing out until

of

the they

RFC are

from part

a control of the reviews, To

logged

minutes. become ease

The

individual entity and summary Figure

RFC's which provide sheet 27 .

particularily all attendees type of

at large clamor tool before of this

a popular this pressure a RFC shown 28. in

for_ for the form all

some is An

attendees, meetings in 5. Figure

prepared example

pre-board is given

Crew

debriefing After the

and crew

RFC

review: the modifications support problems, it of in team and is the leader other if mDckup holds issues other

reviews the flight

for

several

hours,

crew

a crew are

debriefing At

where this

questions, if

covered.

time,

feasible, aspects an

good crew's

representatives attend for its to answer

concerned questions,

with

the

inspection reasons eliminates

explain This

item,

or

give

pres6nt RFC's crew review their

configuration. which station day, are often

attendance because at

usually of

writing The of each prior to

prepared coordinator, a final review

ignorance. by the of end

review calls for

least review

general provides

RFC's

submittal.

This

understanding

147

Figure

26

REVISED

RFC FORM

TYP_ OF _qI_ W'_ICL_
DATE INITL_TOR

_v_

IT_ D_0SIT_01{
SYSTEM

NUMB '_R

CO0_n_ATION
O_WG _/_I?'_ATION TE_4 _-_

_D ISCREPANC'Y/PROBLEM

TITLE

JUST IFICAT IOE :

_@COM_'ENDATION :

CONTRACTOR'S

COgeNT

:

NR SIGNATURE _A_{ C_IIEGORY ACTION REMARKS CAPTAIN REco_rDATION

sUSPENSE BOARD UA'I'PXgJH X ACTION _ : ACTION

'NASA SIGNATURE

....

SUSPENSE
,L

SIGNATU_ ACTION [---] APPROVED

OF BOARD

CHAIRMAN

SUSPENSE.

[]

DISAPPROVED

TEMP

FORM

AAP

0124, 1-69

?igure

27.

REQUEST FOR CHANGE

(RFC) PROCESSING

AND RESULTS

Originator Control Point

I Task Team

Team Chairman

Review Coordinator

Control Point

i Pre-Board Meeting

Board Meeting

Review Follow-up By Coordinators

1

i
RFC intent _erialize & Lssue RFC i

i

l
RFC other teams, & as required originator sign RFC I RFC i ream leaders review, initial indicate' and Dleted &

I _
final RFC number, classify team, and type

I ' iReview ' II _J_Independent _---]

.

I

I

I Master RFC Book

Join_ Board _

Board disposition typed RFC's _ _ on IFinal minutes |issued I

& cosigned,l

[

I

I

_ then transmitted |with appropriate

I

I
I

I

I Unused _C's I __

c_arity
L reconsider, I S I or rediscuss , Support and Flight Srew Review

Typed
copy plus summaries RFC NASA Independent Review

I
I

Idi recti°ni

_j

I
I

['-- --(if

originator -_

i

,

i c°_'I

,.

i

i

i

$ ........

h%.

i

Figure

28

SAMPLE OF RFC SUMMARY FORM DF_TA CDR - Unified H&tch - LI-14/15-67
#

SYST_/SUBSYST_ PJ.D SUBMITTED NO. D3DI-OO_-UH-1 J. l_r-[s

Umified Hatch

'

_

'

PAGE

!

SUBJECT & CO_2vr Coluqterbalance GSE Counterba]J_ics System not demonstrated

EXPLOitATIoN

BOARD

REMARKS

STATUS

Demonstrate GSE Counterbalance System ASAP

DEMONSTRATE

20 DECEMBER

-2 J. I_ls

BPC I_teh Operation Of the BPC hatch by the side hatch not demonstrated

Schedule review to evsluate side hatch operation of the BPC hatch

D_ONSTRATE

20 DECEMBER

-3 J. Lewis

CharKiug Handle, Counterbalance Nomenclature missing

Sys Add nomenclature NAR }g!LL DO. SHU_/_ O.K. NG{ENCLATURE

-4, Selector J. Lindemar_1

Control NOTE: Same as temporary markings on CM 00_ hatch _AR WILL DO. USE "BPC JETT" Needs Words

Nomenclature-Put arrow on BPC Jettison selector knob and add words "BPC Jeff" on housing for proper positioning ofknob for launch.

-$ E. Hoskins

Lock Pin Release Knob Provide markings to indicate lock &_Llock positions of the lock pin release knob. Markings should be v_sible to center crewman

see Comment

NAR WILL DO. USE MARKLNGS SHO_ ON OOh.

-6 Handle Pawl Control James Shannon!The handle Pawl Control, when i plaeed in the latch position provents opening of the hatch from the outside. This is only switch position which pre_-ents hatch openLug (from outside). This would

_ A safety pin shm_Id be WITHDRAWN-GSE PIN NOW EXISTS added to the s_Titak If a FOR NEUTRAL POSITION-GSE ONLY safety pin cannot be added, holes drilled in the housing for safety _@re would satisfy the reqmt. _ Ships) _ _ ,_ _o

prevent inside to perfo_mt from pos__ gstt_k_, the recovery crew the _}_udiug procedu_'al C/O (Aboard Reco_ery

150

of

each

RID on

by the

all RFC.

participants If the may

and

all is

participants because until

can of

informally time

comment

review have shown to in

large,

limitations, board, 6.

this

facet

be

postponed 27.

the

pre-

independent review pre-board day hold are

reviews meeting: review

Figure

Pre-board The on the

meeting morning meeting_

and and

board

meeting NASA

are and

generally the managehave both not

same

usually separate

afternoon. NASA and

contractor ment who

and

contractor usually of

board

representatives in each for the RFC the

attend. The

They

previously meetings the intent and near is

participated to and review reasons

review. to RFC ensure and,

purpose

management to The can some NASA be of

understands the is by

extent, meeting

degree held

implications the mockups

of the

change. items

so hardware they have

inspected the

management configuration contractor's this 7. Board

to ensure and

a conception

hardware or the at

problem

discussed. to the

Usually, RFC's is

NASA's

position

relative

formulated

meeting. meeting: At this meeting the NASA review of coordinator it. The reads each RFC

and

makes

a technical with his

explaination and may

contractor on the TV show hardware RFC.

responds

technical etc. has the

management ensue.

position

Discussions, camera the in the

debates, mockup at

A closed

circuit to

been

frequently meeting. At

effective other

design

area

board

times,

151

which into

can the

be

readily for

removed

from

the The

mockup board

has

been

brought then reach act

meeting on the at are

examination. The review

members

a decision as

RFC. the

coordinators notes on

generally RFC

secretaries notes

meeting, used for

keeping

dispositions. minutes.

These

later

preparation

of meeting

Implementation The information or results

of

Results of the CSR are and written pertinent are into minutes which include the

defined

earlier These

discussions, typed at by

issues, the the

agreements

disagreements. almost all

minutes

generally and are

contractor's crew station to

(where manager the

CSR, s take his

place)

cosigned They the

of NASA

and as

contractor enclosure direction,

counterpart. either the in

are of

then

sent

contractor or

a letter

form by

technical contracting provided its officially In

direction officer. is

contractual

latter

signed the

the

Contractual as

direction

is

required the

where

direction or

classified

"out-of-scope" In at this way, would
=

from the not

original are with

contract binding a design _=_ _=_ and

accepted some wanted the

changes. NASA

minutes concur _,,=

official. or

cases, an

a CSR u_±g_ of

approach ................

e xi sting

appropriate the

portion contractor. of

the In

minutes cases,

or

the it at is

hardware usually CSR,

reviewed the and

and to agree

redirect discuss on the

such

practice

implications available or

this

redirection design

the

hopefully

feasible

alternatives.

Preliminary The review

Design Preliminary design

Reviews Design approach Review of the (PDR) Contract is a End S/C review prior held to to or formally early in

the

Item

152

the for Item

detail the PDR

design is to

phase, review

as and

shown

in Figures Part I of

14

and

24.

Another Contract the

purpose End Item

approve

the

detailed I of the

Specification.

Contractual PDR PDR or

implementation and at

of Part

End

Specification ments Baseline. the

signifies 45 The

completion is generally

establishes the completion of in

Design phase

Requireand

signifies These or

beginning are

i0 percent to and assure to

completion concurrence agreement intentions

design the on of

development. approach

reviews

intended designed, these NASA

basic

concept in

being

assure Other

the the

requirements PDR are

used

evolving in one

concepts. report:

summarized

The preliminary design reviews (PDR or conceptual reviews) are a series of reviews at system, subsystem, and component level which are intended to assure contractor management and the customer that the proposed solutions satisfy the mission requirements; that

they are within facilities are

existing available

technologies; that in timely fashion;

manufacturing and test and that contractor

personnel are technically tracts are required. On reviews, design

qualified, or, conversely, that subconthe basis of results of preliminary design (specifications) are established. cross of

requirements

These reviews require the concentrated section of personnel and may well result in

effort of a broad major redirection

of program effort. The preparatory phase of the preliminary review normally requires evaluation of major trade-off studies, as, for example, mission support equipment interfaces. Review findings may indicate the need for parallel development programs to assure the availability reviews must to satisfy requirement. of be 46 an adequate design. complete evaluations management (customer In of and any case, the preliminary existing concepts in order contractor) assurance

the

45Apollo Spacecraft pp. 4-1 and 4-3.

Program

Configuration

Manaqement

Manual,

op.

cit.,

46Elements D.C.:

of Design Review for Space Systems, NASA Office of Technology Utilization,

NASA SP-6502 (Washington, 1967) p. 15.

153

As a°

review

requirements,

PDR's

include

the

following:

Establish the compatibility of the selected design approach for the Contract End Item with Part I of the detailed Contract End Item Specification. Review pre-design drawings, sketches, envelope drawings documentation to establish approach. schematic diagrams, layouts, and any other available design system compatibility of the design

b.

c.

Review

all

materials with

and

materials

applications criteria

to

assure and guide-

compliance lines. d. Review circuit and

established

flammability

analyze etc., to

all

available packaging the

breadboard techniques, integrity

models, of the

mockups, design

logic

diagrams,

off-the-shelf

equipment, approach. e. Determine subjected f.

establish

those to

portions

of

the

design

approach

which

mustbe

further

detailed

engineering tools, of the

analysis. and facilities design approach. with other

Review requirements for special to establish the producibility Identify interfaces which contractor and government example S/C of a S/C PDR

fixtures selected

g.

must be established agencies. 47 recently the was crew in the

An

performed program

one

for

LM-10

and

subsequent included: inclusion lunar in and the

modification of

where

station the LM

changes ascent stage, a _=_ Assembly the LM-10 under and

modularization of a urine major

stowage

compartment additional

collection to

system, the

exp_u±m±_ Stowage in

stay, LM

revisions stage, and

Modularized modifications Statement section the on crew

Equipment delineated of Work, Design station mockups as

descent

other Program in the

Subsequent

Modification of Work, At on

discussed

Contract

Statement

Requirements teem of reviewed proposed

Configuration various

Control.

this

PDR,

documentation

the

above

designs,

and

47Apollo Spacecraft p. 4-3.

Program

Configuration

Manaqement

Manual,

op.

cir.,

154

changes equipment wooden, stowage the PDR,s

to

the

interior

LM

ascent

stage, in

and both

the

exterior

modularized primarily involved items, Similar for the

stowage and of

assembly. rough food, at CSM's

Mockups

locations Since and many

were the

represented additional Of held

approximations. crew this 112 equipment, review

changes

scientific areas. and

majority Were

personnel for the

came

from in

these

modifications

general,

EVA provisions. During PDR's total status, (I) were crew and redesign scheduled station had the of to the CM crew station review reviews in 1967, a series of of S/C six the redesign

progressively These

various paralleled

aspects the

redesign. following for early

advantages: evaluation of effort of the could design be concepts, at a

Provided time when

redirection

accommodated

with

minimum (2) Allowed of review

effect. a relatively participants. crew the station, technical informal and comparatively were crew and primarily other review. technical efforts subject (i.e., and the a view small NASA group and

Attendees flight

contractor representing (3) Provided permitting mockup

personnel

subject view of of

under the

a "single-minded" concentration design

resources_nd effort,

fabrication, a proper,

personnel of

support) on

providing review of the design.

unobscured ,full-up" as part

focus

attention reviews crew

subject. subject

Later matter

mockup the

allowed station

of

entire

155

(4)

Allowed mockup other and

accumulation forn%thereby areas. This

of

design

changes

to

evolve to by

into

offsetting also provided and

tendencies a means

overlook which could NASA update

contractor on for

management the redesign

S/C

designers

theirselves (5) Provided designs date. (6) Allowed earlier items Although provided partly the the for because for

progression. review of of at the some preliminary arbitrary PDR

natural,

logical

as they

evolved,

instead

"relook"

at

a number providing

of

concepts an

modified review

from of

PDR's, during

therefore their of design PDR

iterative

progression. is unique they partly in were that it

this PDR of

method

implementation

progressively the advantages to

through noted the

development, above, CM crew and

scheduled of after

because proDerly

intense S/C 012

motivation fire of

redesign

station

tragedy. the dates in of these 2 • reviews Photo review majority 12 , i0 and items ii The reviewed indicate closeout lockers 14 show at the these mockup

A summary six PDR's

is provided at

Table for

and

representation used were

PDR-2 sheet sheet for

specific the

items. of

panels were the

pointed were

metal; metal.

stowage 13, at and PDR-4. of the

wooden, mockup

a few

Photo review PDR's and and

configuration The general of by

specific of these

items was

result

a review of

the

concept as The

in

the

form

drawings, the RFC's

or mockups, disposition

approval other PDR

concepts action.

modified

board

156

Table

2.

CM

CREW

STATION

PRELIMINARY

DESIGN

REVIEWS

(PDR,S)

IN

1967.

PDR DATE TITLE ITEMS

NO.

1 EVA Provisions and Crew Couch Mockup Review

March 15-17, 1967 OF REVIEW Unified Hatch, REVIEWED (i) New unified hatch

concept.

Hatch parts.

was Dummy

wooden wooden

and

except

for and cams

hinges had illustrated (2) Revised of EVA exterior

no functional the concept.

linkages

EVA provisions. transfer from the of the CM mockup

Handrails CM to LM. and

added to the CM Handrails were LM with its

and the attached ahtenna to the

concept to and a of

a dummy

portion of the mockup (3) Contractor's

its newly added to show the EVA unitized couch

handrails crewman's with

was attached rank.

top

latest

modifications

incorporated,

e.g., new hand-controller mounts on the foot restraint design, couch positioning system. (4) Weber net couch concept developed under

couch for rapid egress, device, and short release

NASA

contract.

PDR DATE TITLE ITEMS

NO.

2 Design Review

April 19-20, 1967 OF REVIEW Crew Compartment REVIEWED (I) Wooden and (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) NASA stowage lockers bay.

(with

piano

type

hinges)

for

aft

bulkhead

upper

equipment

alternate

proposed

aft

bulkhead lockers.

stowage

configuration.

Mid-course Suit and

temporary helmet bag stowage hand holds,

stowage stowage.

Miscellaneous IVA Fire assist

provisions. panel and protection, S/C wire and tunnel foot restraint.

abatement of

closeouts

protection and

(wire

trays). relief

Relocation valve.

glycol-diverter

valve

cabin-pressure

157

Table PDR DATE TITLE ITEMS

2 continued-NO. 3 1967 Tunnel and Docking Systems Design Review

May 2-3, OF REVIEW REVIEWED (i) (2) (3) (4) (5) Combined

forward probe.

hatch.

Simplified Revised IVA IVA

docking

ring. devices for tunnel operations.

restraint tunnel

lighting.

PDR DATE TITLE ITEMS

NO.

4 Design Concept Review

June 28-29, 1967 OF REVIEW Modifications REVIEWED (I) Stowage Stowage stowage samples (2) (3) (4) Modified Alternate provisions:

coding proposal, stowage provisions, and general and layouts provided. tool set--bench layout

insert internal

concept, other updated arrangement--mixture

of

of hardware

provided.

fastener

approaches--sample items, some

provided. updating results of previous items

Miscellaneous

structural

reviews and redesign effort. A misture in the mockup and layouts were provided. (5)

of physical

hardware

_c_ _ontrols Modification. P_esentati_] of _L_±=± added ECS controls and relocation of previous ones.

location

v_A=

PDR DATE TITLE ITEMS

NO.

5 1967 Combined Forware Hatch and Docking System Review

July 12, OF REVIEW REVIEWED Redesign reflected

effort on the forward incorpation of RFC,s

hatch and docking from PDR 2.

system.

Mockup

158

Table PDR DATE TITLE ITEMS NO.

2 6

continued--

August 16-18, 1967 OF REVIEW Crew Compartment REVIEWED General Crew Station

System

Modifications

Configuration

for: ECS modifi-

Stowage cations; Specific

provisions; crew operated mechanisms; and communications and display panels items included:

review

Oxygen mask, line routing, and protection of oxygen lines for emergency breathing system; sterilization system for drinking water; post landing ventiliation system duct and valve; fire extinquisher stowage and interfaces_ TV camera mount; and miscellaneous couch redesigns.

Photo 10. CM PDR-2 Mockup Configuration for Evaluation of Closeout Panels

159

Photo 11. CM PDR-2 Mockup Configuration for Review of Stowage Locker Concept

160

Photo 12

161

Photo 13. CM PDR-4 Mockup Configuration for Evaluation of Remote Controls.

162

Photo 14. CM PDR-4 Mockup Configuration for Evaluation of Cabin Repressurization Package and other Items

163

164

contractor with certain

was

thus

given

the

go-ahead or

to

proceed

with

design

implementation_

defined

exceptions

modifications°

Critica] The pletion of end relation position is the

Desiqn Critical to items

Reviews Design review Review the _<.DRj is design End of a review a Contract held End near Item design or The 14_ 24_ com-

formally

a series CDR_s its It

representing

a Master

Item is

Specification° shown in in the at are End and Figure Figure

to review in last the basic in S/C

of design and

requirements crew station

technical _

reviews

review

held_ It is

establishing normally of the the held CDR

drawing the time

baseline of 90 to to:

to be

used

manufacture° release° the

95 percent ao

design Establish items_ as

Rec_lirements of the

specifically Item End or Item

compatibility with

Contract <nd Item

des_gned_

Master

Specification_ established at bo Assure bility c.

relate the design to the design approach PDR and updated to the point of CDR. of the design with materials flammi-

compatibility criteria and

guidelines° compatibility of the design Documents (ICDs)_ schematic by reference block dia-

Establish the system to Interface Control grams_ system should
i\_m_*w

functional block diagrams_ and all other available engineering documentation to support the ICDso ICDs De essenriaily complete at the point in time of CDRo _e_±_ ..... i a PP _<:m_ data _ at this point in time to establish

and

cllldly _±_ u_u analysis available of the

the

integrity e_

design® drawings released or ready for release

Review and approve all to manufacturingo 48 intentions Prerelease of a CDR

Other

are

summarized just

in

the to

following the release applicable

report: of to

reviews for

are

held

prior

engineering

drawings

manufacturing°

They

are

4SAm____ollo _pacecraft

Program

Confiquration

Management

Manual_

ibido_

po

4-4_

165

all

elements

of

the

system

including

science

experiments°

They

provide the greatest potential for discovery of detail problem areas° Here_ as with prepackaging reviews_ the activity usually is conducted at the component level° At this time the designers consider their design to be complete_ all development and evaluation tests have been completed_ The output data from the prior reviews_ including action items_ are available° Only qualification testing to demonstrate that the design has its specified capability remains° This prerelease review is the last chance to prevent premature submission of an immature design to @_alification testing° (Historica]iy_ the designer's confidence is seldom justified and changes will be required as a result of qualification testing° During the Gemini Launch Vehicle qualification program_ for instance_ components experienced 176 failures in 962 tests_ and the Mariner MM-64 experienced 58 failures in 805 tests . o o)o The will (i) (2) prerelease cover the review will be directed following points: to the detail hardware

and

Has the packaging altered the circuit characteristics (previously reviewed in the prepackaging review)? Has the designer considered the _lalification test as design requirement (and possibly the most severe requlrement_ Have the parts and materials application data been to include latest configuration and part-use data? Did the relative Where evaluation testing to its capability by

a

(3) (4) (5)

updated

really evaluate the hardware for passing qualification? is claimed_ are both

qualification

similarity

the hardware and the usacLe_ really similar to the cited example? (An item may have been previously qualified but may now require additional testing because of changes in mission environments_) (6) Can this tested? are design be manufactured_ inspected_ and readily

Included

reviews

of

specifications

for

manufacturing

check-

_{n_< acceptance _:_ environlnent_ quality cnnfrols_ and q1_alification test stresses_ as well as the storage_ installation_ transportation_ ground test_ and flight envirormentso Results of prototype manufacture and test are necessary inputs to this review in order to obtain a preview of the probability of success of the manufactured version° These questions are not_ of course_ intended as a check list but only to indicate the direction this particular review should takeo 49

49Elements

of De<ion _ _

Review LeW

for Ior

Space _ ace

S _

stems sLems_

__

p_

23°

166

The represent are used

crew

station

mockups design°

used

at CDR_s

are

high

fidelity production be close

and

generally drawings

production for mockup that

(Red-lined The S/Co

pre-released mockups and should CSM-II2 as

fabrication°) "block" been of

to

S/C

con-

figuration S/C_ tive ascent an for new

for

LM-10

and

their where CDR_

subsequent an the effecLM

example_ _block"

have S/C

previously At were the high

described and

a point S/C

began°

LM-10

subsequent and were for

stage

modifications S/C high is

fidelity The of CM

incorporated S/C crew 112 and

into subsemodi-

actual S/C

production also The of used CDR

test

vehicle° mockups oriented of similar

CDR

@_ent

fidelity

the

basic

station the basic

fications_ designs Delta block_ contract of the

therefore series on

towards S/C_ and

approving not which

a _block _ or may formally be held review which

a specific differ it review

S/Co from and this the

CDR_s to

specific an}' significant

contract

items

differences the CDR_ under with the one ample the The the

between mockup Crew

end CDR are

item

has to which of S/C team that

completed described follows_ not is cre_ a

aspects

similar (CCSR) block engineering

Compartment that: the of the these mockup_ the stowed are CDR

Stowage focuses S/C_ on use and an of all and

Review on the the

exceptions and time the used the to details inspect

single given (At

equal the

footing meckup_)

with The and

the crew

CCSR

crew are

dominates fully

station and

mockup's electrical

mechanisms} from important GFE physical All crew a

mechdhical_ interface review CFE item hardware amd related

interfaces

functional An representative the actual

crew CDR and

standpoint_ is TCD_s. provide frec/uently ICD's are a Hockup quality surfaces reviewed utilization evaluation mating individually° or with of fit

interfaces station

problems°

167

As the

noted crew by

earlier_ station the NASA the basic

all team team

ICD_s

should

be

signed status

off report

by

CDR is

time°

As for be

part the

of

minutes_ leader° of

a ICD

prepared may

board

Special in which

follow-up the

action

required have

to expedite redched no

signoff

ICD_s

concerned

parties

agreement_

Crew

Compartment A Crew

Stowage

Reviews Stowage specific of Review S/C all (CCSR) mission and crew also is to verify the and crew goals_ station's includes _nd do not

Compartment meeting the

adequacy the crew

in

requirements the fitting_

equipment_ of use all of

stowage and

items_

functioning_ tasks the which

operation require stowage ments. of these at and

items

other The S/C

flight CCSR satisfy

operational that

a simulator° for the for that

verifies and

approved require-

provisions It provides

mission and

operational

f_rst the

trn]y

hardware and backup

procedural crews. or

_'shakedown" The CCSR is

provisions the CFE the

prime

flight a mockup

held G<E

contractor's equipment

facility used is

utilizing

a test

article. incor-

flight

configured_ from and CDR

and

all

hardware The

porates validates as the

modifications procedures content Equipment latter

resulting for of stowage the

activities° of Fit which tasks the and will and

CCSI£ also as well Test in the

the

unstowage

S/C_

procedural or Crew S/Co for

Crew

Compartment (CEIT)

Function follow

(CCFF) Flight required

Interface procedures operations_

Test

These S/C and the

contain and

operations mission

systems phases° 106

provide

representative

requirements After CCSR_s were

S/C

CCSR_ until

the

CH

CCSR_s At

were this

discontinued° point in the CM

l,ater program

LM

also

stopped

LH-10o

168

the at

differences these reviews

between became and need

CM

106

and

107

were and

minor_ the for

Flight

crew of

attendance fairly

more

pressJng_

availability crew evaluation CSR's were

representative eliminated evaluate the these

updated for the

mockups

at MSC

and used

training to

full-fledged between S/Co

CCSR_s.

differences

CCSR

Preparation The review in is scheduled to as the so on as possible test can to be before and made S/C from the turnover of

the

S/C

manufacturing design

contractor's and rewokk

operation in

organization_

so the It is

necessary also to

changes

manufacturing° and Concoordinated

scheduled

to precede

CCPF/CEIT etco_

allow

incorporation the crew CCSR. are

fixes

discrepancies_ GFE the crew be and other for

revisions_ equipment the CCSR_

resulting and

tractor_ to set-up All CCSR month prior stowage the CCFF. The same

suppliers_

flight

date

equipment_ scheduled date

scientific for delivery

equipment_ to the

etco_

to

be

used

in

the one weeks

should before to the list

contractor's not be and will this laier per the

facility than two

the

of the All of

review--absolutely these items should review_ which list at

review° for the

current according stowage at to the

vehicle Checkout

undergoing Procedur_ stowage the

stowe_ govern time prior for also is to

Operational of

Issuance delivery

an updated to

essential° the CCSR the the review the items

of hardware time for

contractor

a month and It

allows and

adequate

receiving_ prior to and held at

processing the review_ an

checking allows pre-CCSR

identifying fit

shortages the

contractor of his own°

GFE-to-CFE_ pre-CSSR_

perform the

internal

This

contractor's

optio%

is

169

contractor's identify Even if and

internal correct

evaluation some of the

of

the

crew

station_ found correct and may

and prior

helps to

him review° the solutions

deficiencies to work

NASA's

sufficient has the

time time

is to

not do

available redesign

a deficiency_ then propose

contractor at the NASA

review°

Bench

Layout As part

Review of CCSR all crew equipment_ detachable from stowage the No The mockup flight lockers_ are couches_ on

and

other for at

_]oose '_ equipment engineering the CCSR_ and just

readily flight

removable crew

laid

tables is used

inspection. mockupso

equipment Review ful-

hi-fidelity

Bench

l_ayout

fills

several (i)

purposes: and verifies equipment inspection such readiness of each do for the CCSR individual mating

ensures_

(2) provides operations_ etc.)o (3) serves to

for' detail (where

item not

and

its

operations

involve

a S/C

familiarize by etc.

the

crew and

and

engineers by

with

the

equipment

unencumbered engineers_ (4) allows stowage (5) provides quanity trampling Photo for and 15 depicts easy fit

a mockup

supported

knowledgeable

verification details_

of

the

mating etCo

of

some

components_

and

nomenclature_ of by the allowing a number mockup of this

a useful of the into the S/C and

method items about

examination of personnel_ for a long

of

a large without

period° items and are checked drawings_ items

physical stowage for

setup list_ their

layout° to

All ICl)_s

conformance are generally

to the

adherence own

other All

exc_ined

individual

design°

Photo 15. CM Crew Compartment Stowage Review, Bench Layout

170

171

stowed locker,

within or

a given

S/C

stowage as per to the

locker stowage stowage is also

are

generally The for

laid actual that

out

next

to

the

stowed

inside

drawing. drawing checked

working The item this

stowage fit is part of not of

configuration items too the into loosely review.

is compared their or stowage

area. the from

cushions retained.

to ensure result

tightly

RFC, s frequently

General The Table for

Mockup prime

and

Engineering flight

Activity crews, follow the agenda outline which stowage piece of mockup. suits In noted is in

and backup the These same

3, using the CCFF.

Operational are

Checkout designed and

Procedure to evaluate of

(OCP) the each in

used effec-

procedures

tiveness, equipment Mission or the other CM

accessability, to the extent and

interfaces, that such task

operability is are

evaluation analyses by the

possible used--the phase

a vehicle wearing

phases, personal

detailed

crews being

gear

as required and

mission stowage are also

simulated. are

CCSR times

launch, of

orbital,

landing activity

configurations assessed, items same from type e.g., the of

verified.

Other

critical and

stowage

tunnel CM to the

hardware LM and

removal their LM

stowage, prior to LM

transfer separation, CCSR's

of

stowage and the

stowage to the

transfer major CM

from

the

CM.

The and

obviously A 17. the typical The use

simulate setup

different outside closed the the

stowage mockup TV

configuration is depicted by

activities. 16 and in

photos

of three provided Crew key the

circuit

cameras a good over read

at pertinent view of the

locations internal and

mockup activity.

participants were who trans-

with mitted would

mockup

comments

a loudspeaker the The from

headsets take offered which

were

given and ask

participants crew

0CP procedures, TV provisions a vantage point

notes, an no

explanatory of viewing

questions. activities

exceptional one inside

means really

had.

172

Table

3.

TYPICAL

CREW

COMPARTMENT Typical Agenda

STO_AGE

REVIEW

(CCSR)

AGENDA

Day

l:

AM 8:30 9:30 9:30 - 9:30 -12:30 -12:30 Contractors Introductory Briefing Crew perform bench layout review of loose equipment NASA engineering inspection of crew station (unstowed and with couches removed) and of crew couches in support stand

PM i:00 I:00 4:00 4:00 8:00 - 4:00 - 4:00 - 6:00 - 8:00 -12:00 Crew inspection couches removed) NASA engineering equipment Installation of Prepack loose (OCP) 3300 Stow crew of crew and of perform couches station (unstowed and with crew couches in support stand bench into per OCP layout review of loose

mockup Operational Checkout Procedure

equipment per

station

3300

Da_ AM

2:

8:30 9:30 11:30 PM --_2:30 3:00 4:00 4:30 6:00

- 9:30 -11:30 -12:00

Crew No. 1 suit up Crew No. 1 conduct of OCP 3366 Crew No. 1 conduct

and insertion ventilated and walk thru of

pressurized

portions procedures

emergency

egress

- 3:00 - 4:00 - 4:30 - 6:00 -

Crew No. 1 complete unsuited portions of OCP 3366 Crew No. 1 evaluate probe, drogue,.and forward hatch _towage ...... ' ......... Crew No. 1 restow and evaluate crew station in entry ration (unsuited) Crew No. 2 perform Restow crew station informal review of crew station

configu(unsuited)

ma_

3:

AM 8:30 AM 9:30 PM 4:30 - 6:00 7:00 7:00 Engineering evaluation Deadline for submittal Restow crew station of crew station of RFC,s - 9:30 PM - 4:30 Crew (Same No. as 2 suitup for Crew and No. insertion 1 on Day 2)

173

Table

3

continued--

Da__z_i:
AM ----9:00 I:00 12:00 4:00 NASA preboard meeting in mockup area and contractor meeting in different location. NASA/Contractor Board meeting in Mockup Display Area Conference Room.

NOTE:

During

this

day the

on next

a

noninterference S/C's and flight evaluated Days crew the 2 and

basis ran

with the

the

CCSR,

frequently _ited No. 1 and and

thru

mockup, that crews

unsuited, 2 performed

same 3.

items

during

Photo 16. CM Crew Compartment Stowage Review (Area Adjacent to Mockup Shown

174

Photo 17. CM Crew Compartment Stowage Review; TV Monitoring System for Review Participants

175

176

After day, team the

each crew is

major

crew

run

in

the Flight

mockup, Crew RFC,s

or

at

least team

at

the

end and

of the his

debriefed. the action

The to

Support the crew

leader

usually

take

write

defines

at this

debriefing. The review reviews stowage drawing produces on items and good stowage updates lists to are diligently documents. so the checked Drawing cause can so the and be ICD defined.

usually are

these

held

where

problems

develop

Pre-Board These changes minutes. NASA them. the to

and

Board

Meetings conform list are to and the of description action against taken a number by items GFE provided are above. Lists in the of meeting as close or This the

meetings the RFC's and

stowage which

documented

written action in

are

usually NASA

dispositioned memoranda to be the to S/C,

action_ If the

follow-up results fully a date and the

internal

review not at

of modifications a delta-CCSR NASA be and may the

mockup is is

was held

representative, negotiated CSSR

required. when

review crew

between can

contractor or other

available shown.

changes

demonstrated

modi-

fications

_/C

Bench

Layout

_eviews Review Crew is a systematic Fit and of examination Function equipment flight program drawing. laid shown or of (CCFF) stowed test equipment in is the held GFE

A Bench held flight prior S/C. to

Layout the This the

Compartment

detailed condition and and its the area, the

inspection of each

the of to

inventory flight

to determine or CFE larily

piece

equivalent

hardware, the ICD,s, clean

correspondence Stowage with CCSR list the Bench

documentation, The out in in review is

particuheld in

and

a special on tables_

room to

equipment Review

systematic 15.

matter

similar

Photo

177

Participants required pants status, crew

are

limited personnel_ to item, to the

to

the only

flight a

crew, team one

support is for

team,

and

other

station item

small each

allowed. condition, ICD's,

Particiflight and other items

move

from

and

examine

correspondence The

stowage

list,

and

drawing,

documentation.

item's

serial

numbers

are

documented.

Hardware

are

operated, mating to

or mated parts

with can

the be

corresponding evaluated on

stowage the bench.

cushion, RFC's

insert, are found. on NASA the for to close the

or

other written

which any

cover

specific (DR's) examined. are

nonflight filled A review review to

hardware out to

discrepancies

Discrepancy any and DR's flight the and

Reports hardware

define is

discrepancies, held between of

meeting ensure and NASA

contractor RFC's, to

after assign

the

understanding to prepare and the

action is

items, taken by

minutes contractor to

review. closeout the action

Appropriate the RFC,sand

action

DR's and to

process

necessary

direction

items.

Crew

Compartment A Crew

Fit

and Fit

Function/Crew and Function

Equipment (CCFF) Test at

Interface is an an

Test procedure time in

Compart at the

operational

conducted

vehicle

contractor's

facility

appropriate

the factorycheckout each S/C at KSC at the is the

sequence. whenever factory. a Crew The for

This

test

is

now

usually Test

performed (CEIT), the

on is flight

Equipment CEIT is

Interface generally flight pilots,

performed crew CCFF and at

held

without crew who for

a replacement factory. in S/C The

the

full-blown, test

participation trained astronauts

contractor's serve support

are the

extensively when the

operations cannot

as replacements the CEIT.

astronauts

178

The its stowed

purpose and for

of

the

CCFF/CEIT

is

to verify GFE

that and

the

crew

station,

and

installed./hardware crew S/C, and under

(both

CFE)

are This

operationally checkout occurs consists all loose

suitable in of the

meeting flight mission

mission

requirements. conditions. and crew

actual

clean-room

Checkout restowing and

simulated

useage, degrees of of

including operation electric

unstowing of all

equipment, equipment, mating

various and

scientific and other

the mating

connections,

bracketry,

surfaces.

CCFF/CEIT The correct CCFF, before for by if

Preparation test is scheduled before to allow delivery sufficient of the time S/C. to identify and of the than should 30 days allow

discrepancies held at the from of any

Completion no This later time

contractor's, the contractor's or

should

be made

shipment

facility.

correction the test. 50

stowage should

interface also be

deficiencies to CEIT crew

indentified incorporate should follow does not gui_eas many

The

test

scheduled The

CCSR these

changes

or modifications as well, it, ana the but

as

possible. the less

guidelines in

since is

flight

usually these

participate line are noh

test

extensive,

schedule

rigoriously GFE, choosing the CEIT be and

followed. CFE crew equipment, the CCFF the and or crew CEIT. schedules Crew All at least are

Contractor, coordinated is and optional hardware in for

the but

date

for

participation equipment days

mandatory to the

for

CCFF.

crew 30

should

delivered

contractor

50"Crew

Integration

Plan

for

Skylab,"

Revision

A,

op.

cit.,

p.

ii.

179

before S/C

the

review. reviewed,

All

items

are

checked numbers Review

against documented described

the

stowage the

list CCFF

for

the

being

their Bench closed drafted

serial Layout as by the before S/C

and above.

or CEIT from The is

preceded the Bench

by

the

S/C are

Open the

items

Review

much the

as S/C

possible contractor and

before for crew to OCP

CCFF/CEIT. in the test, reprethe

Operation given to

Checkout, NASA

use

(particularly comments the S/C.

crew final

station issue. by OCP using is

equipment the

sentatives) contractor procedures the

for

Prior the

review,

completes for that

stowage this

defining and

stowage of

After items

complete,

performance or need

CCFF/CEIT

verifies

that

were

stowed

correctly,

revision_

Performing As and CCFF,

the

CCFF/CEIT these checkouts such for consist as mating, of verification connection, of etc. the In stowage, the and the hatch flight

indicated,

miscellaneous the

operations provide and

procedures of all

mission-sequential crew station This are not

manipulation hardware includes performed. ± ........ The by side

operation crew, in

"loose" and

installed

suited In

shiftsleeve CEIT suited and in

conditions. operations i_ndi_g both and or type

operation. stowage, stowage of in of all the

the

Launch _--_

in-flight phases loose, various are stowed

stowage, simulated

........ reviews. of all

functioning interfaces evaluation and

equipment locations

mating

functional provides of equipmen_

mission

configurations accessability

stowage

effectiveness,

general

verification (for on GFE and

of hardware-to-S/C CFE). item Individual configuration

mechanical hardware or

and

electrical are

interfaces often found or not

discrepancies whether

a hardware the S/C.

operation,

it mates

with

180

After S/C ancy etc.,

completion or Any

of have other on

the

review

in

the are

S/C,

items

which as

are

clearly

deficiencies Reports). are

discrepancies discrepancies forms.

documented

DR's

(Discrep-

or requests

for

modifications,

documented

RFC

Board

Meeting The review It board meets chaired board to the immediately by the all after appropriate results, the conclusion S/C and Program of the Manager RFC's CCFF or

tests. his in a

is usually This manner

designee. similar

reviews CCSR. in not the held,

dispositions is closed-out meetings back

Follow-up CSM but the program, the formal

action CCFF

similar at for the

to CCSR's. contractors KSC

Later were CCFF's

Board brought and

results board

to

MSC

action.

retained

review

processes.

Other

Crew This

Station section The design level"

Reviews describes CSR is the as usual CSR's of which occur during the S/C of is

development. crew the to station "working direct the

used

a means control crew

exercising described managers and and

features It

and tool of

management used by

earlier. and

station

personnel toward associated

efforts

associated of of of action

personnel items, crew

resources other tasks

problem with

solutions,

closeout development

progressive The CSR's of

a S/C the and

station. forms: mockup of meeting review the only; similar CSR as changed CCSR's CM a

may

take and

any

following primarily The

mixture in a

mockup

meeting_ to from

scaled-down S/C

version

CCSR,s. the first

emphasis to the

during were

development, The

two

latter,

deleted.

discussion

which

follows

describes

primarily

181

CSR's Program crew Crew

and

the

emphasis were

given

them

during by

development. the the contractor's CM contractor were Tool and

Early name used in

Apollo for the the term had

CSR's

frequently

called

station Equipment

personnel Meetings. as

assigned, Other

e.g., CM

reviews, Lighting Bench

which Review, Layout,

fact

CSR's, Oxygen

different Mask

titles

follows: Crew

EVA

Review, In-Flight as

Location Review the CM

Review, Meeting. and LM In twice related and

Equipment station

Stowage through Station to CM

Crew

meetings

were

held of

required term "Crew

development, February, a month effort

until 1968, the

formalization CM contractor At such

the

Reviews." CSR's

was

requested Apollo

provide crew

at was

his

facility. and _s

that reviews 51

time,

station purposes

intense is

served

several i.

a typical

agenda

follows:

Purposes: a. Provide (North crew b. Serve vehicle a routine American equipment as method Rockwell, status of and crew of timely CM interchange crew of NASA/NR

Contractor)

station/

information. station support related vehicle and and

a review training

hardware

requirements

schedules. c. Provide crew for discussion and coordination and flight of crew NASA/NR related

station/crew

equipment

reviews. d. Review proposed changes or additions to the S/C.

51NASA-MSC

PD8/T763-BG-52-68-120

TWX,

from

J.

B.

Alldredge,

Contracting

Officer, Apollo Space Division, Downey, Calif.,

C&SM Procurement Section, to North American Rockwell Milton I. Drucker, Apollo CSM Program Contracts, Feb. 9, 1968, written by Jerry R. Goodman.

182

2.

Agenda: a. b. Prior meeting action items (Contractor/NASA from prior Report). reviews--CCSR, s,

RFC/Action CCFF's,

item/

Squawk

status

etc.

(Contractor/NASA

report). contractor's hardwar% zero mockup, gravity,

c.

Status MSC and

of mockup/training KSC mockup, hardware

hardware: and tunnel

mockups, EVA

training

under

development.

(Contractor

report). d. Stowage report). e. Potential report). f. Report aircraft g. h. ICD status of and discussion underwater on simulation testing, testing (Zero gravity, report). S/C crew compartment changes (Contractor/NASA status: list/drawing and problems. (Contractor

and

etc.)(NASA/Contractor

report critical

(Contractor hardware

report). problems as required (Contractor/

Review NASA

report). station key review schedules plans (Contractor/NASA (Contractor report). report).

i. j. k. i. Similar more toward At was the

Crew

General

problem/constraints tests status

definition (Contractor

Certification Summarize reviews closeout time for of

report).

meeting were of held

action with items the

items. the and LM contractor; CSR these status. NASA indicated crew there were geared

action

formal CM

deleting

formal of

CCSR's, to

a need

continuing

review

changes

baseline

station

183

configuration(s), for timely support

for of

evaluation evaluation

of of

those changes

changes to

previously

reviewed,

and

close-in To as

spacecraft, this 52 need,

particularily NASA requested i.

those

affecting

spacecraft of and specific

at KSC. actions of to

satisfy follows:

implementation updating, of to the

Immediate updating a tool changes to as and be

establishment mockup, of crew The

provisions allow it to

for be

rapid used as

contractor's evaluation problems. vary

support special to

station

configuration was required

and able

contractor stowage changes

quickly to mockup S/C.

the

mockup's design

configuration, in S/C 103

required, subsequent

proposed

2.

Joint to

NASA/Contractor the changes into also crew the

CSR's

to

be

held in

on the

an

as-required before it

basis their was

review

incorporated spacecraft. the

mockup

incorporation noted, a. would

These

meetings,

serve

following

functions: status, including crew

Review

station stowage

configuration provisions, GFE

equipment, ICD's, b. Review crew and etc. and station physical

interface

problems,

monitor changes

the by

contractor's review of

implementation requirements, of

of drawings, and

evaluations

demonstrations

hardware

interfaces. c. Monitor support crew station/crew and equipment status. hardware delivery,

requirements,

52NASA-MSC

letter

PD8/L792-68-JC221-1050

from

Jack

Fuller,

Contracting

Officer, Spacecraft Contract Apollo CSM Program Contracts Downey, Calif., October i0,

Section, to Milton I. Drucker, Director, Space Division, North American Rockwell, 1968. Written by J_rry R. Goodman.

184

d.

Ensure of

proper

and

timely affecting

identification the crew

and station.

interfacing

field

changes and of

NASA 3.

chairman

standard special or

participants CSR's when a

were specific of

specified. crew station-

Establishment related changes, the

problem, are

a significant

quantity for

configuration by NASA and

identified

as necessary

review

contractor. RFC,s (RID's to in the case of CM contractor) etc., chairman in was a would similar given the be

submitted manner

document CCSR. to

discrepancies, The NASA CSR

to the

authorization with the

disposition upon

"in-scope" of

RFC's the

informally RFC,s MSC subsequent to

contractor contractual decision

completion or were

CSR.

requiring management the The beneficial use CSR. of

direction or action

other

higher-level handled

specially

CSR's of

as

described

above

proved

very

effective

and

a

means of

supporting review

program items

goals. covered in a 1968 CSR of this

A sample type is i. 2. 3.

hardware 53 below: Waste

provided Backup Positive

Management for Oxygen

Dump

System

(S/C (S/C

I01 103

and and

subs) subs)

Locks

Umbilical

Center (CMP) Foldable Block II missions and 104, and subs)

Couch Stowage Requirements for normal S/C 104 mission (EVA provisions)(S/C i03,

530p.

cir.,

Enclosure

3.

185

4.

Contingency Provisions TV a. b. c. Camera

Lunar and CM Interface

Sample Entry

Return Container Launch Provisions (S/C 106 and

Stowage subs)

5.

Provisions

Mount Attachment/Alignment Mount Color Coding Electrical Cable Attachment Tether and Attachment Redesign - CCA

6.

EVA Thermal Sample 2355 (S/C 104) Rotational a. b. c. d. e. New and

7.

Translation

Controller

Modifications

Routing Angle Connections Covers at S/C Interfaces and at Controllers

Right J-Box

Segmented Potential Strut s

Teflon Covering Interference of Wiring/Connectors

with

Couch

Foot

8. 9.

Redesigned

Chlorination

System

Operations

(S/C

i01

and

subs)

Electrical Grounding for tainers and Other Stowage Electrical Grounding 103 and subs)

LiOM Cannisters and Cannister Stowage ConContainers (S/C 103, 104, 106, and subs) on the Foldable Crew Couch (S/C

i0.

Provisions

Ii.

Rotating Guard for Crew 2502 (S/C 103 and subs) Manual of Couch Strut

Couch

Armrest

Locking

Mechanism

per

CCA

12.

Lockout special addition S-065

Provisions CSR's and called

(S/C

103

and

subs) a specific

Examples problem Finder decision flow. same the in were on S/C to A CSR was the

effective on and the the

to resolve of on fairly the of CSR the S/C

those 103, the

integration experiment 103 came after portion other

Optical 104. in

Range A CCB the S/C The of

camera to S/C

add was

Range as the the

Finder soon S-065. Range

late CCB the

called for on

as possible A major° Finder and

decision. results is

case CSR

subsequent Appendix L,

items

provided and

as a

sample

of CSR

activity,

contents,

methods,

follow-up

action.

CREW

STATION

ASPECTS

OF MANNED

SPACECRAFT

DESIGN

!"

BY JERRY B.S.M.E RONALD GOODMAN University, 1958

, Purdue

THESIS Submitted for the degree University in partial fulfillment of the requirements Engineering 1972

of Master of Science in in the Graduate College of Illinois at

Industrial of the

Urbana-Champaign,

Urbana,

Illinois

i

1i

U>J--cl_P-7[
UNIVERSITY OF THE

_
ILLINOIS GRADUATE

_'
AT

"<
URBANA-CHAMPAIGN

"

COLLEGE

i; January, 1972 li

E

I HEREBY

RECOMMEND

THAT

THE

THESIS

PREPARED

UNDER

MY

!4

SUPERVISION

BY_

JERRY

RONALD

GOODMAN

i!':

! .

ENTITLED BE ACCEPTED

CREW IN

STATION PARTIAL

ASPECTS

OF MANNED

SPACECRAFT OF THE

DESIGN FOR

II i7 ii

1
1

FULFILLMENT

REQUIREMENTS

i

MASTER Ol SCIENCE m THE DEGREE OF /_,3 .... /Itn Charge of ,_]aesis

Ii ii

Head of Department

[i i

¢.?omI_l_on

concurred

in*

'<i
171

% \

'i
Committee ['i

on
Final Examination-_

[i
'li
i t

!,i
¢ Required for doctor's degree but not /or master's. ! t[ Id

DS_Z

i_

ii

ACKNCWLEDGMENTS

This graduate

thesis program I

was for

made

possible of

by

a NASA-Manned degree in and this thesis NASA.

Spacecraft Industrial aid in

Center

a Master

Science

Engineering. the photographs Much or

appreciate and artwork

NASA,s which included

sponsorship appear in in

obtaining

thesis. are from NASA sources repredoes not

of the and

material my years opinions NASA's to to to

this

documents my views

of experience as a result

with of

This

thesis and

sents in any

and

this

experience

way

represent thanks desire wish

official

position of to

or viewpoint. NASA, write Aaron in who The and who strongly of and this this

Special supported nature. Stanley effort. and mentor I my

Richard do

S. Johnston work and

graduate Joseph

a thesis Cohen,

also

thank

P. Loftus, their Mr.

Goldstein, I am

also

of NASA, grateful on the has

for to

support

achieving was

especially my work

Loftus, Program.

a teacher support aided

during

Apollo been

liaisc_ greatly

of Miss me in

Jeanie

Walker

of NASA

significant

assemblying I also wish

materials to

for

this and of my

thesis. express advisor, C. appreciation Dr. Bruce for A. the

acknowledge suggestions

helpful The of

advice and

and

Hertig. Department

advice Psychology

suggestions were also to

of Dr. helpful thank my the

Robert

Williges

of the

and

appreciated. Sally I was for her understanding, with this thesis.

Finally, support, and

I wish patience

wife time

during

"pregn_mt"

iii

TABLE

OF CONTENTS

Page INTRODUCTION ........................................................ 1

Crew Station Desi@n ....................................... Preview of Thesis Contents ................................. CHAPTER I CREW STATION DESIGN/DEVELOPMENT: CONTROL _qD MANAGEMENT .....

2 5

36

Crew

Station

Inte@ration Contract Effort

Organization

.......................

36 37 38 41 44 45 46 46 61 82 114 115 122 126 151 164 167 176 177 180

General

.................................

General NASA and S/C Contractor Responsibilities ....... Specific S/C Contractor Responsibilities ................ Flight Crew Support Teams ............................... S/C Design S/C S/C S/C S/C Contractor Requirements Design Support and Teams ............................. Configuration Documentation Control ..............

Requirements

...................

Configuration Control ................................ to GFE Interface Configuration Control .............. and Configuration Reviews ..................

Development

Mockup Utilization ....................................... Flight Crew Participation ................................ Crew Station Review Perspective .......................... Preliminary Design Reviews ............................... Critical Design Reviews .................................. Crew Compartment Stowage Reviews ......................... S/C Bench Layout Reviews ................................ Crew Compartment Fit and Function Equipment Interface Test ........................................ Other Crew Station Reviews ............................... II GENERAL INTERNAL CREW STATION LAYOUT/CONFIGURATION REQUIREMENTS ................................................. Total Crew Functional Volume ............................... 7 Stowage/C_npartment ................................

186 186

General EquipmentArl_n@ement La[out_ and Habitabilit[

198

iv

Page
Basic Factors .......................................... 198 201 203 205

Habitability ........................................... Equipment and Stowage Arrangement ...................... Task Analysis and Detailed Requirements ................

Crew Size/Anthropometrz_ Mobilitz_ and Visibility Requirements ........................................... Crew Size/Anthropometric Criteria for Spacecraft Design .............................................. Clothing Effects on Size ............................... Suit Crew and Suited Capabilities Closeout ........................... ......................

206

206 231 231 257 257 261 265 266 266 271 279 279 283 297 301 307

Cempartment Panels

Provisions

Closeout

or Provisions

..........................

Debris/Equipment Traps and Nets ........................ Wire/Tubing Protection ................................. Windows ................................................... S/C Use/Design and T and ................................. Requirements Protrusion ..................... Hazards ..............

Current General Sharp Edges_

Functions Corners

Basic Factors .......................................... Recommended Criteria ................................... III RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS ..............................

BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES

........................................................ ..........................................................

186

Chapter GENERAL INTERNAL CREW STATION

II REQUIREMENTS

LAYOUT/CONFIGURATION

A Table

content i. This total

outline Chapter crew

of

a Chapter the

on

this

subject

was

provided sections

in of that

contains functional

following general

completed equipment crew size/

outline:

volume_

arrangement, anthropometry, closeout As pro-

stowage/compartment mobility, visions; earlier, knowledge and

layout,

and

habitability; crew

visibility and

requirements; sharp edges of and the

compartment hazards. vary by

windows; the

protrusion sections

noted and

content

and

style

subject

level.

Total The overall shape, total mission, crew size, S/C interior

Crew size

Functional is

Volume affected and by the body

substantially aerodynamics general

the

allowable

payload, objectives, stowage an Air types in

vehicle and and

scientific

systems

mission other of factors. crew the volume

tradeoffs, North station importance and the

equipment American

arrangement, Aviation, for body in three shape

requirements, Force-sponsored space vehicles, the total that the is

study

design

criteria

discusses vehicle

of vehicle crew be as

affecting 1 They

useful must man

compartment

volume. from the The

note of

"tradeoff overall body for

decisions shapes

considered one

standpoint volume

with

subsystem.

which

available

ij. A. Moran Crew Station AFB, Air

and P. R. Tiller, "Investigation of Aerospace Vehicle Criteria," Final Report (Dayton, Ohio: Wright-Patterson Dynamics Laboratory, July 1964).

Flight

186

187

the will

crewman

has

a profound affect his the

effect

on the

system. in the

Too system,

little while and

volume excess The volume et to al________., crew per

adversely will shape

effectiveness system by

volume body

penalize chosen

increasing provide

weight

cost. useable

should, the

therefore, overall in capsule each i00 such

sufficient "2

without report volume 3 man. control expanded costly

jeopardizing a typical at 2,000

vehicle

system.

Davenport, as related volume

growth pounds in

structure cubic as the

weight

for

feet

of useable and

Weight

growth

areas, control in crew

atmospheric in other

temperature _s

systems, by in

thermal

system, volume. for

and Crew

areas_ is

an increase ways, and

volume

obviously receive con-

many

requests

specific

quantities

siderable

scrutiny. frustration of manned is voiced aircraft by those involved fit usual into in investigation particuis pilot Costly that may and This when times

Frequent and resolution for

anthropometric The is to most

problems, complaint

larly

high-performance is to designed, adjust or and

aircraft. the man

a cockpit then time have

"poured function are the

it."

The

compromise modifications for system the

effectively. usual

delaying is

hardware not unusual

alternative. At and the at time the are

situation preliminary during the then

man-machine tradeoffs apportionment crew volume

systems. are of made, S/C

spacecraft when for be

many

development

volumes be well

negotiated, only

requirement will it

functional

must

understood;

adequately

represented

and

documented.

2 b_7/.
3E. W. Davenport, S. P. Congdon, and B. F. Pierce, "The Minimum Volumetric Requirements of Man in Space," Proceedings of American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics T Summer Meeting (Los Angeles, California: June 17-20, 1961).

188

Initially, size height constraint of 133.7".

the of

Apollo

Command

Module, cone, with

for

example,

had

an

external and a crew systems.

a symmetrical These

a 154"

diameter

base

dimensions and

included

ablative and

material, external and

compartment Overall standing subsystems acceptable best of

pressure was

shell, based on

numerous

internal design for

volume of the in

preliminary

effort the

an undersystems verified wearing for the and as the volume was

space CM. early of

allocations The date Apollo was

required crew

basic was

the

anticipated in wooden

workspace with

at an

mockups

subjects value

approximation crew

spacesuits. never be of specified. provided a given

A minimum The for size of the

this

workspace workspace suited to

basic

requirement mission

that tasks

necessary by three were

would

accomplishing range. allotted volume and LM

crewmen, assess the

Continuous volume.

mockup These

reviews also Figure .for the and Table Lunar

held

adequacy

served 29

to minimize illustrates

infringements the effective of the and

on these shape of CM and

requirements. volumes. Values Module in

internal Module

volumes Spacecraft

Mercury, U.S.S.R.

Gemini,

Apollo are

Command

Spacecraft

contained

4. There are numerous The Mercury factors to be considered was in a one-man when comparing in His reach, entire these which the

S/C

volumes. was and

Spacecraft constrained equipment He

capsule

crewman displays otherwise

effectively miscellaneous

a single located suited

position. within for the

controls, or flight.

were

accessible

to him.

remained

Flight

duration The for

was Gemini the

relatively spacecraft entire

short was

compared manned crew by

with two

Gemini crewmen,

and

Apollo also

missions. were suited

who

flight

with,

position

still

basically

Figure 29

Modified from: J. P. Loftus and R. L. Bond, "Crew Tasks and Training, ' Lunar Landing Symposium (Houston, Texas: NASA-MSC, 1966).

189

190

Table

4-

RELATIONSHIP

OF CREW

SIZE

AND

SPACECRAFT

VOLUME Habitable, Vol. per ft 3 Free

Effective Number Spacecraft of Crewmen Pressurized _olume, (a) ft 3 Spacecraft Free ft 3 Vol. (b )

crewman, (c )

Mercury Vostok Gemini Voskh8d Apollo Command Lunar Soyuz Entry Module Orbital Module Skyl ab Command Orbital Module assembly Module Module

1 1 2 - 3 3 2 3 3 3

d

58 90 80 170

d

30 75 40 140

d

30 75 20 37

e f

306 195 170 220 310

e f

210 150 140 180 19 5

e f

70 75 107

modul e, tot al Multiple docking assembly Airl ock module Orbital workshop

c 0-6 0-6 0-6

12,400 1,.150 600 I0,650

11,150 1,000 4 50 9,700

g

3,700

apressurized reports ball in

volumes literature

are

derived

from

design

data

for

U.S.

spacecraft

and

from

for

U.S.S.R. estimates of volume

spacecraft. are per based on geometric analyses.

effective equal

free-volume distribution

CAssumes

crewman. Equipment," Gemini Mid-

dR. M. Machel, et al., "Crew Station _rn_r_m Conference (Houston._ Texas:

and Extravehicular NASA. 1966).

eApollo Apollo tion,

C_erations Handbook, Document SID 66-1508 October 15, 1970).

Block II Spacecraft, Vol. I: SM2a-03-Block II-i (Revised:

Spacecraft Description, North American Avia-

fLunar Module Data 027II (Revisioh2; NASA contract NAS gTotal Modified Volume. from:

Book_ Volume II: Grumman Aerospace 9-1100, 6/9/70),

Subsvstem Performance Corporation, Amendment pp. 4.31.

Data 70,

- ECS, SNA-8-DLED-540-54,

Joseph P. Loftus, Jr., "Crew Functions, United NASA, in press, 1971.

Rollin M. Patton, and Robert L. Bond, States Manned Spaceflight Program,"

191

fixed, for

but

the and

crew

had

more for

mobility

in

their

station. and placed

Requirements other EVAdemand

ingress

egress and

Extra

Vehicular duration

Activity

related on the

operations, limited of free space. space

longer An

missions,

greater the

open-hatch by EVA

condition operations. from would on been crew, their be

permitted

additional location requiremehts if the

volume was for S/C

required to in the

Equipment seats. Volume that

still the had

accessible two-man been crew,

crewmen case, The would

this

double

required and

singly for crew the

manned. example,

effect have

the

displays

controls in

design the

alone,

significantly in lieu use of and

different a one-man extension On the

overall on

station. one from hand

A two-man overlap the

crew, of the hand,

permits, area too be

of equipment primary and

accessible close

within is

workstation. life support

other would

a proximity

encumbering

supplies

increased. In Apollo, and the three crewmen in for there the CM have a primary and and other and and general critical navistowage

control mission gation items the

display In

workstation addition, sleep support

launch, are a

reentry, separate management

phases. workstation, for mission

guidance area, in noted, areas

stations, fairly The

a work

widely

distributed itself, as

outside complete has to to

primary

workstation. to

mission etc. both

requires in Apollo

autonomy support 78 g's.

relative g-forces Parallel for these

supplies, from

The water the

S/C

structure

resulting side support struts

and

l andTlandings the need

of up for of

walls during upon

inside

CM and

reflect to permit

couch trans-

side lation

struts for

impact, them

a range

during

impact.

192

In

addition, at during

the

volumes time or

listed during

are

predicated Such

on

a set

S/C may change

configuration drastically items as the are

a given mission

mission. stowage

volumes when When in is the

alternate in the crew hatch

phases

large such CM, items

temporarily drogue, in

stowed and Figure at lunar

compartment. are stowed volume

probe, as

pressure 30, the

for

example reduced. is

shown

available the

considerably roomy little to compare a LM

Likewise, crammed the crew.

launch,

previously items,

fairly leaving

normally for for of

with

additional volumes

hardware are,

volume or use number volume and

These

therefore, In

difficult the

generalizing studies

about

required volume

volume. have been

literature,

on required and stress,

summarized. in degrees poor

Restricted of psychological personal under between _able

(confinement)

immobility direct 4

can

result

physiological and and

physical In 60

distress, of

relations, terrestrial volume and

other space

factors.

studies by (see

confinement the

conditions was zones. which

reviewed plotted The would

Roth, Table

relation This

mission three volume

duration

5). 5 defines under

describes of minimum

impairment per man

upper-band be acceptable not most the

a threshold most circum-

stances, describes modifying where

even

when

modifying

factors

are for

optimum.

Th_

iuwe_-band even a zone and persQnal if

an unacceptable factors are

threshold

circumstances, two bands lies

optimum.

Between on

acceptability

depends

somewhat

optimum

habitability

4E. M. Roth, Environment

ed., Compendium (Washington, D. NASA CR-1205,

of Human Responses to the C.: National Aeronautics III, November 1968).

Aerospace and Space

Adm--_nistration,

5parts a and b are from T. M. Fraser, "An Overview of Confinement As A Factor in Manned Spaceflights, " Proceedinqs of the N_$A Symposium on the _ffects of Cn_f_ nement on Lonq Duration Manned Space Fliqh_s (Washington, D. 1966), pp. 1-7. C. : NASA, Office of Manned Space Flight, November 17,

193

Source:

Stowage Installation - Inflight, Crew Equipment, V36-781512 (North American Aviation, Inc., NASA Revision B, July 7, 1967.

Drawing Contract

Number NAS 9-150)

194 Table Impairment 5 CONFINEMENT STUDIES Resulting from Confinement
Volume per man (cu. f_.) 47 47 90" " 183-250 187 110 110 187 76 76 67 375 800 106 106 106 211 250 215 133 133 61.5 140 1368 65 52 52 52 39 117 117 125 <30 27.5 30 2:13 28 25.5, 26.5 1600" 570 57{} 570 15 15 30 12 12 7 8 7 7 4 14 17 30 14 30 30 3 ,7 7 5 152 3 3 4 14 7 14 5 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 2 2 ' 2 2 2 2 " 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 ? 3 1 I 1 1 WADD-TR-60-248, 1960 WADD-AMRL-TDR-63_}7, 1963 " Duration (days) • 7 lY= 71 3 . 2 1 2 : 1 . 1 AF-SAM-59-101, 1959 AF-SAM-60,SO, 1960 FTD-TT-62-16!9, 1962

ON HUMANS
a

a.

Extent

of

Type of S_xly

Operational Conditions

Impairment Psych Physio

References

Simulator Single

SAM or_-man SAM one-man Vostok one,man Lod<heed-Georgia OPN-360 HOPE II HOPE Ill HOPE IV & V HOPE VI & VII Naw ACEL Naw ACEL N.A.A. conical N. A, A. cylindrical N. A. A. disc SAM two<nan SAM two,nan SAM two,man Republic Douglas GE Martin Baltimore Martin Baltimore NASA Ames WADC long range U. of Maryland (Single) U, of Georgia (Multi) U. of Georgia U. of Georgia U. of Georgia U. of Georgia LISNRDL USNRDL Lockheed.Georgia (Multi) F_4 ",_1: '_ WADD capsule APC M59 APC M113 APC Ml13 • APC Ml13 A_C Ml13 Nautilus Seawolf Nautilus Triton

,"

Simulator Multi

i

:

2 2 2 2 2 2. 1 1 2 2 2 1 I 1 I 1 2 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 1

WADD-AMRL-TDR-63-87, 1963 WADD-AMRL-TDR-64_3, 1964 WADD-AMRL-TDR-64-63, 1964 NAMC-ACEL-383, 1958 NAMC_ACEL-413; 1959 IAS Meeting, Los Angeles, 1962 AIAA and ASMA Conf.. L A., AIAA and ASMA Con_i L.:A.; Aerospace Mad., 30:752 1959 Aerospace Mad, 3__2:6Q3, 1961 SAM.TDR-63-27. 1963 RAC-393_ 1, 1962 . ASME Conf., Los Angejes,. 1965 GE Doc_ 64-SD_79, 1964 MAR-ER-12693. 1962 : IAS_3-18, 1963 NASA-TN-D-2065/ 1964 Aerospace Mad,, 30:599, i959. Univ. of Maryland_ 1963 GEOU 226-FR, 1963 GEOU 226;FR, GEOU 22_FR, GEOU 226-FR, GEOU 226-FR] USNRDL-TR-418, USNRDL'TR-5O', WADD-TR-60-248, .

1963 1963

i , : '!_' '[i !

i-

i ]i ' ,' i= : : b '

Confined Chamber

= • ii l .:i

1963 , " 1963 _ : 1963 1963 1960 : i i. 1961 _ 1960 "" .....

:
Coc&cplt

p:/:,: "Co.i."(Single)

2S

7
2 1/3 2 1/6 1/3 :' 1/2 1 1 11 60 4 83

3
2

3

Scion=, 1.0:306i 1_83. ,
WADD-TR-55-39_ ! 1955':i : WADD-ASD-TR-61:577.,..t96;I, ,=_.... . AHEL-TM_3_O, i960 :,,:'i _ " AHEL-TM-17-60, 1950' ,_-t_i.: • AHEL-TM-1-61 ]961 : :'i , , AHEL-TM-23-61 ";'_961"" : _,;_?._ AHEL-TM-7-62 f9_2'i' ::?_:::i :.. USN Mad. Res!_:_b:.i Rapt. 281, 1957 USN Mad. Re_:Lab Rapt. _ 1961 USAF Mad. J., 10:45'_, 1959. ........ "Unusual EnvirOnments and "Human Behavior". 1963

=

I

I; !, ' ': ' '[ ', '_:[':1[:; , I ,_ i}:i

"

2 I . 2 2 3 3 1 1 1 1

Subrnarine:;i'_;£_" i i:' • : ;_!_ ""

,_ ''_::_ :!

"

t

Chair II Bed, ii:i!i;; ::: Spacecraft _" :', .... • . "

SAM Lankermu SAM SAM MA-6 MA-7, 8 MA-9 Vost_k I Vostok II Gemini III • •,

<:.25 <25 <25 <25 47 47 47 90 90 "40 .: j .:t:: _4_:::i 40 40 "'i

4 45 28 14 1/3 1/2 1 1/2 1/2 " >1 .... ' .3:1/5:_:.:., 8"_:: 1 .:1 14

I 1 1 1 1 1 1 '1 1 1 : 1 i

3 3 3 3 1 2 2 1 2 ,,;. 1

Aerospace Mad., 35: 646,

1964

i

WADD-AM RL-TDR-63-37, i963 Aero_ace Mad., 12:1194, 1964 Aerospace Mad., 351:931, 1964 NASA Doc= 398, 1962 NASA =SP-6, 1962 NASA.SP45, 1963 FTD-TT-62-1619 1962 -::q_:: FTD.'Cr-62-1619 1962 _/ I'_': ,_,` ",.... . i !:':" "'i :

:;]'

;;:_,.

• "

. : :i "::::".

:::!_!::;:

Gemlni.:l_/:Gemlnj "V " ' Gemini Vl Gemini VII

_': _';-:_' : _:{Prol:_=ed_Po_artT: : J 29_ >" :1'_:" : [:1 :" _.M_SC, Ho " ; . , "2 " ., : :_r.,

a - Impairment classification grades impairment, detective impairment_ respectively. b - Gemini should Midprogram be 20 cubic Conference_ feet per

I, 2, and 3 indicate no and marked impairment,

1966, crewman.

indicates

this

volume

195

Table

5

-

continued

Free

Volume-Duration

Tolerance

Factors

in

Confinement

"'

CONFINEMENT AND =TABLE'SPACE CABIN REQUIREMEN_'$

. . "

.,

1600cu ft

"

.

.

1368cu ft 152 days

.

®
(_

,

:. ® ®-

Impairment
I Impairment (one-man) i_ator (multi) chamber

'

"

(_ (_) No Impairment ,_

,


(_) rammed environment

®
)etectabe mpairment _

:
,,., ,

®

®

_

_

i

Marked Impairment

t _i.t.

.

'4

5

10

20

40

50

IO0

- Days

..............

-..-

c.

Threshold

Volume •

Requirements :.

According

to

Duration . .

of

Mission Feet . ? :;.t:_;_}::':,_: ""_'>_C: '_ . . %_,,_.,._ . _}_,..:• <_ ' _ ": "

'

I

, ,,- _.::.-:£'.. :_-_::._, 6fac'6,_ - Cubic 50 25 _5_'_L'}< Feet: ;[: [':"<..... volume-

• •Duration (days) 1

Thre'_hold volume

Ti_reshold

of unacceptable Cub{£ Z5 2.5 Z5 30 35

:'

l I

:

I , , }

'3 :4 "

. ' "

90 105 1.I 5

6
• _I:)....: •

lzo
1Z5 _" .

3s
40 .

_6/
....

.
/'

_35
" " " "

" ''
" "I_':_

" ..
"" " "

s°_
70

" " _0, >60

_5o
? 150

Source:

T.

M.

Fraser_ Space June,

"Intangibles Missions," 1968).

of

Habitability

During (Washington_

Long D° C. :

Duration NASA_

NASA-CR-1084

196

factors. motivation, affected

Key

factors

that and

Roth

reports

which These in Table

may

alter

the

curve

are

discipline, the Gemini

experience. reported

factors 5 as

undoubtedly having a "detectable

missions

impairment" For current days) 250 the

rating. missions extending and volume beyond suggests per-man would 60 days, for in be Fraser provides a summary (400 200and of

recommendations the minimum feet_ free the

long-mission a multi-man about NASA 350-400 in as one

durations crew be

about feet,

cubic optimum

acceptable cubic of

cubic report

about living

600-700 volume" with

feet. 6 cubic 9 and

7 recommences for an earthand

a "minimum orbit crew This space

350

feet 15

a criterion with of

station,

between and

crewmen,

resupply 3 or

rotation volume

capabilities, excludes galley, and working group

revisitation but

intervals includes and

6 months. personal In this

quarters, dining space is

bedrooms, area. in the

storage case, volume,

space r equipment and

area, volume

recreation included of

storage volume

are

free volume. by persitu-

specified are

only

a Portion of the

required

crew

There Fraser formed ations. environment confinement. flexibility and

questionable Some of

features the may

studies and to

summarized the work

Roth.

facilities not be

used

tasks

during These

confinement studies for

comparable part on assume

space

flight

the

most

that

weightlessness volume and

has

a negligible assumption is available

effect is

the

minimum in

crew view of

This which

questionable

orientation is not

during

weightlessness.

It

6T. M. Fraser, Life Sciences,

"Confinement and Free 1 (1968), 428-66.

Volume

Requirements,"

Space

and

7National Vol. II:

Aeronautics Preliminary D. C.:

and

Space

Administration, Data for 7, 1966).

Standards Space

and

Criteria,

Technical

Earth-Orbit

Station

(Washington,

NASA 9 November

p

197

clear the the

whether of

some

of the

free

volumes or

used

to

comprise within only

the the

data

include of

volume enclosed of of

occupants, environment. enclosure, free

furniture, It is

equipment that

confines internal volume,

suspected etc., was

total as

volume instead

the

chamber, volume.

reported

free

actual

In intent crew for

Davenport, to clarify or

et this

al_.___._., definition area: "By way refer This volume and

of of to is

volume

is

significant the terms

in

its

definition the not volume the for

volum..___e, by total personal the crew

volume their

functional

volume

required as the sleep, is

essential interior

activities. The

same work,

vehicle grooming, but and the

volume.

required other crew

exercise, volume

locomotion, by and life the

functions

included, furnishings, narrow

required

support

consummables, volume lost in

crew

other

equipments, etc.,

unfilled

corners,

spaces,

is not. ''8 re alis_icaily With noted in this would the describes the what CM the crewneeds crew _or volume many that may truly

This "useable" of of 210 the

definition volume. feet

definition, be further

functional as would also systems

cubic volumes mission

reduced, Davenport

perhaps out

used

literature. equipment,

points

unique impose

operations, volumetric

and

other such as

constraints interconnecting volumes "are

specific

reql/irements, They

long such

passageways chargeable

between to man's

compartments. volume

indicate ''9

not

requirement.

8Davenport,

et

al.,

op.

cir.,

pp.

4

and

5.

9Ibid.,

p.

6.

198

In

this

case,

the

arrangement

of

the

S/C

interior

or

general

com-

partment passageway to for

layout volume the

required is

passageways. to,

Regardless the crew

which

system designer

the has required

accountable

station

determine the We

appropriate in that

volume vehicle.

or vehicle

configuration

passageway have type so far and

discussed and of

functional which is

crew

volume,

which

may to

vary

for

S/C

missions, estimates have

generally if

difficult to

specify. design The goal those in are in the

Gross function, station

this

volume,

intended limited defined will

serve

some

serious on

shortcomings a given and sum S/C,

and with

application. overall have to mission incorporate requirement which critical adequate the and con-

crew and

designer crew

activities,

size_ which

subsystems, to an overall

volumetric design.

elements It not is

volumetric requirements shapes will are

these

individual Their work and

volumetric values livimg and

important, assuring to the

their

total. in his

crewman

areas

have

room

function ones

effectively. may be required of this

Additional to satisfy

requirements the

beyond

functional physiological trolled

psychological by Roth.

factors in

confinement area is

mentioned to

Further,

research

required

define

applicable

criteria.

General

Equipment

A[ran_emen_ T Stowaqe/Cempart_ent and Habitability

Layout_

Basic

Factors The major been configuration by factor in the crew station of the current

S/C high

has

created These

requirements imposed

for on

crewmen the crew

orientation by launch,

during abort,

g-forces.

forces,

199

reentry acceptable vector body. forced in" of

and

landing

phases,

are

directed In to impacts what is

in

the

most

physiologically the acceleration of the the crewman

direction--transverse. in a plane perpendicular the highest in

this the

direction, longitudinal are

is As

axis by an

a result, into his This critical crewmen. varying and

loads

taken termed

down

couch, basic

frequently

"eyeballs location

condition. attendant the and

crewman and

orientation displays to

also

dictates

controls This

a proximal will change

position with larger

around S/C's

configuration requirements equipment

trend and

mission specific by

capabilities. and crew These in Table compartment factors 6 . stowage alone eating work/ can

General layout be are

arrangement factors. as shown

dictated into of

many basic

interrelated categories, have

grouped Some

seven

these weight,

factors and affect

significant

effect

on required Mission

volume, will

S/C

crew the

functional amount and and

volume. weight crew volume mission

duration water,

significantly crew suit

of

food,

facilities, rest cycles,

equipment use,

quantity

command required, is

structure, and the

overall listed.

stowage If the

numerous a ferrying dominates. modes for

other

factors

essentially factors and

that

of

vehicle,

a different to will designs as their and

mixture

of interrelated in the vented required

pre-

A requirement contingencies passageways, as well

wear

spacesuits affect

pressurized of tunnels, to

greatly of

size

hatches, be gas

individual

equipment and general control will be

and

controls

operated, and

arrangement environmental

access. provisions, required.

Special

electrical and other

outlets

stowage,

capabilities

or provisions

2OO Table 6. FACTORS IN GENERAL AND SPECIFIC EOUIPMENT AND CREW COMPARTMENT LAYOUT

i.

Mission

Related:

3.

Shirtsleeves

and

Suited

Modes:

6.

S/C Areas Stowage Systems

by Functional

Unit

Breakdown: etc.

Mission requirements/goals Abort requirements Contingency requirements Mission duration Operational requirements/tasks Scientific requirements/tasks Operations/task criticality and priority Operational sequences/timeline integration Resupply provisions Offloading capabilities General Environments_ imposed controlled: Structural loads Gravity loads Vibration Temperature Noise Illumination Humidity Ventilation 2. Crew Affected: Crew quantity Crew command structure/division of responsibility Size/anthropometry of crew Work-duty/rest cycles General communication Crew-to-crew Air-to-ground Control/operation manning requirements Information monitoring, visual and auditory Physical movements required Communications, visual or auditory 5. 4.

Shirtsleeves Partially suited

(helmets/gloves

off)

area for equipment, expendables, and subsystem installation

Fully suited, ventilated Suited, pressurized Suit and suit support equipment donn-doff volume Equipment interfaces for suited operations EVA requirements equipment of related support

Work/duty station, vehicle management, hardware or subsystems operation Rest/leisure Recreation Exercise Sleep station S/C records and data management Personal area Water and food preparation Dining area Waste management area Personal hygiene accommodations Donning/doffing stations Equipment checkout/repair/maintenance 7. Equipment/Equipment Layout:

Intravehicular ActivityT Mobility_ Visibilit_T and Accessabilit[ Requirements: Shirtsleeves/suited modes Detailed task requirements Working volume/room required--with and without free orientation Visual eccessability--with and without free orientation Support information or communication Translation/restraint aids Illumination available Ingress/Egress and Cargo Transfer Requirements and Hardware: Requirements: On-the-pad

area

Overall spacecraft configuration constraints Command controls and displays Spacecraft subsystem equipment, controls, wiring, etc. Crew compartment closeout provisions Emergency equipment/controls Stowed and installed crew support provisions: Crew apparel/suits equipment and

ingress

and egress between

Food, water, and life support Pilot operational equipment

expendables

Landing egress Crew and/or equipment S/C--IVA or EVA

transfer

Crew equipment Operational and support equipment Hygienical and waste management provisions Docking hardware Temporary stowage configurations Stowage configuration at various mission Couches and seating provisions: Couch/seat articulation envelope Couch stroking envelope (landing) Couch/seat stowage Maintenance/sparing equipment Flammability and materials control Worktables

Specific EVA in-flight Hardware: Hatches Tunnels Passageways Transfer devices/remote Cargo transferred Transfer alds/restraints Lighting

phases

handing

201

Habitability Another and the flight key objective should in be the integration for of good of the for S/C design and layout ''I0 blending with Kubis as as man four the For

crew

provision

"habitability. successful well-being

spacecraft, of man's

habitability living,

becomes and and

a measure requirements hardware if man

operating, hardware

overall a system

S/C, is

it's

configurations. can function

indicates its

considered confines.

habitable II He

within

environmental physical, in the Kubis "very

describes

habitability and and flights social is social.

components: emphasis For crews, demand

physiological, has been we the

psychological, on the have physical longer and point

Current

spaceflight future,

physiological and larger

areas. space will

where

will

emphasizes serious One

psychological His problem term and

cemponents well taken. is of

consideration." inherent of the

obviously qualities

of habitability the difficulty on this

the

lack

of

objective

establishing has been mainly

measurements. related to

Unfortunately, assuring adequate

emphasis S/C

subject volume. the

functional has shown

crew that crew

U.S. onboard

spaceflight stowage, the

experience adequacy of

amount

and

type

of

functional affect the

volume

, and

general efficiency of

housekeeping and the

requirements

greatly Cooper

crew's this

operating after

habitability. Fourth Manned

Astronaut Orbital

emphasized S/C flight:

completion

Mercury

10Webster's Third International Dictionar_ defines habitability as "the state of being habitable." Habitable, in turn, is defined as "the capability of being inhabited," and specifically, for a dwelling is denoted as "reasonably fit for occupation by a tenant of the class for which it was let, or of the class ordinarily occupying such a dwelling."

lljoseph F. Kubis, 'YH_bitability: G_eral Principles and Applications to Space Vehicles," in Proceedings of Second International S_mposium on Basic Environmental Problems of Man in Space (Paris: June 14-18, 1965).

202

On

all

our

flights

the

cockpits

have

been

cluttered

to the point where the space and the equipment with which and inefficiently arranged. the equipment than did the located special r _ in the or

remaining for the astronaut he must work is very limited In most cases getting some of provided device. too often more exercise Stowage of is not given

and moved about onboard exercise 1 problem that

equipment is a very enough consideration. On items the Apollo onboard of this stowed CM or 12 Mission, were

CM

alone, by

from the

i, i00 flight to

to 1,200 crew. These lockers, operating it, important comand discontent in this Total

stowed

handled are

operated at

operations items etc., time were in and

equipment in

estimated 40 the

5,000

7,000.

approximately to

stowage CM from

compartments, the LM.

the

transferred spent in

Valuable unstowing is crew

effort it up,

were and

locating it. Thus, Poor

the

equipment,

setting in S/C

restowing

stowage stowage

management design and

operation

and

efficiency. result in

partment perhaps among area

arrangement critical

inefficiency, create of

loss

of valuable and breed training

mission Additional

time,

irritability, preflight

the is

crew.

amount

ground

required. factors sleep which influence general habitability work areas, are: etc.; and the comfort cabin reasonable equipment easy and design goal offered

Other by couches,

stations, of

nominal noise; of

environmental work/rest and general

control and

temperatures, of operation

humidity, and

cycles; systems to in S/C

ease

handling for

_ther

management. operate, a S/C and will as

Hardware enhance examples

simple

design,

straightforward features of making found the

habitability. of detraction

Negative from the

serve

its

operations

habitable.

12Mercury Project Summary including Results of the Fourth Manned Orbital Flight May 15 and 161 1963, NASA SP-45, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Manned Spacecraft Center Project Mercury, Part 20: "Astronaut's Summary Flight Report," by L. Gordon Cooper, Jr., Astronaut (Houston, Texas: NASA Manned Spacecraft Center) p. 349-58.

203

Equipment

and

Stowage

Arrangement 13 of arrangement," location as of as per McCormick, and specific which

"Guiding should be

principles to

applied of

general are

equipment

arrangement I.

components,

follows.

Importance

principle: much performance of or system is vital of system's objeclisting should be

The operational importance, or how the activity with the hardware component or of relative importance to achievement tives, mission, or scientific goals. made of such objectives by priorities. 2. Frequency-of-use This used. refers principle: to how much the system A

or

components

are

3.

Functional

_rinciple: or arrangement according to the function of the

Grouping components 4. or

system. principle: or patterns of relationship use of components also be dictated that typically

Sequence-of-use Sequences

or frequently occur during flight, such sequences may and operational timelines. 5. Location-of-use principle:

or system. In by mission phases

McCormick. It involves the used or assembled for use. important primarily mity To that begin

location where This principle

components are is particularly

in stowage management, i.e., items which are used in one area should be stowed in close proxi-

if possible. with general equipment be crew, arrangement/layout, defined basic in S/C areas it such is necessary

sufficient and

basic

requirements size of

as mission concept

objectives

duration,

subsystem

_rnest J. McCormick, McGraw-Hill, 1970),

Human Factors pp. 415-48.

Enqineering_

(3rd

ed.;

New

York:

204

definition, Apollo listed The

and

overall

constraints. Effort the in

During 1967,

the

initial

phase such as

of

the

Spacecraft below were

Redesign sent to

requirements for

that 14

Apollo size

contractor and subsystems was

implementation. basically an Apollo and a S/C

crew

compartment at this stage,

interior and the

were

defined

contractor

designing

configuration Block II

for

a Block

I earth-orbiting concept.

mission

concept

lunar-landing

mission

Crew i.

Compartment

Modifications: in the lower equipment bay

Maintain clear crew and center aisle.

accessability

2.

Equipment location and use location.

shall

reflect

sequence,

frequency-of-use,

3.

Equipment accessible Standard hydroxide

required for emergency return to pressurized crewman. mission duration and from reflected other baseline in

or

entry

shall

be

4.

stowage

of

lithiumbe ii days.

cannisters stowage

consumables list

shall

5.

Design for direction). Use all

(provided

with

the

6.

available subassembly

volume

for

stowage--all full all

containers or not.

to

be

standard 7. 8. Use

of S/C--whether possible to be for

prepackaging

where stowage

containers. based on lunar

Configuration of mission concepts. Design Stowage stroked for use

primarily

9. i0.

of current

unitized

couch. attenuation envelope of

to be outside couch/crewman

of maximum assembly.

ii.

Stowage to be added or deleted per basic crew compartment configuration as agreed to and documented by NASA and contractor. (Provided in a referenced set of meeting minutes.

)

14Letter PM5_L693-67-BG52-267, to and Information System Division, Spacecraft Subject: March 20,

North American Aviation, Inc., Downey, California, from NASA

Space Manned

Center Contracting Officer, Apollo C&SM Procurement Section Contract NAS 9-150, Block II Crew Compartment ModificatiOns, 1967, written by Jerry R. Goodman.

_05

Task

Analysis Given

and

Detailed

Requirements of requirements application and of Conover S/C. 15 and general application analyses by

some

basic

definitions

of the

the

guiding

principles' described space of

arrangement, by Woodson

of task should This based be

link

approach for

considered, pro-

especially vides for

large

station

types

approach on of the the

arrangement and control

components between

(man-machine) them and an

visual, task to

auditory, be

links

analysis

performed. Additional detailed Marshall task Space the analyses, Flight such as 16 that should recommended be by the

NASA

George to

C.

Center,

sufficiently

thorough i. 2.

determine

following: where body the operation is carried assumed out. to perform the

Specific

points

The approximate operation. The the The

positions

usually

3.

space and clearance body positions and requirements for

reqruiements necessary to accommodate movements required by the operation. or passage other to the work point, will

4. 5.

access tools point.

The size and weight of be carried to the work Environmental ana devices. conditions

and

equipment

which

6.

which

require

protective

garments

7.

Space requirements in the operation, test instruments.

for the manipulation of the items involved e.g., fasteners, tools, modules, covers, and

15Wesley E. Woodson and Donald W. Conover, Equipment Designers (3rd ed. ; Berkeley: Press, 1970), pp. 2-158-60.

Human Enqineering Guide University of California

for

16Standard Alabama: and Space "Decision

Human Enqineerin_ Design Criteria, MSFC-STD-267A George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Administration, Factors," pp. September 213-14. 23, 1966), para.

(Huntsville, Aeronautics

5.5.2.1.1

206

8.

Light and space requirements control manipulations. Electrical, require chemical, thermal,

to

enable

crewman

to

see

and

9.

or mechanical for safety.

hazards

which

additional

clearances

i0.

Passage through the space of other personnel, equipment, vehicles, or loads not involved in the specific operation that work point. Reductions of useable space by doors, shelves, covers, and

of

ii.

other

protuberances opening into the workspace, as from test equipment, tool boxes, workstands, temporarily stowed or brought into the area.

well as reductions or other hardware

Crew

Size/Anthropemetry

I Mobility7

and

Visibility

Requirements

Crew

Size/Anthropometric It is S/C essential development of In a given the Apollo

Criteria basic and

for

Spacecraft criteria checked usual

Design be established the defining for early program. such

anthropometric be updated is and the

in

the

throughout for

Percentiles criteria. design for used

population Program,

method

initial 17 The

specifications csM technical

£pacecraft

Air

Force

dimensions. read as

specifications

crew

size

and

number

follows: three crew defined in _-

The CSM design members between the

parameters shall accommodate 10th and 90th percentile, as of Fiyi_ standing

wAuc-i_ _z-_z±, Anthropomet_ following dimensions: weight,

Personnel, f_ height, sitting

height - erect, buttock-to-knee length, Wee height (sitting), hip breadth (sitting) shoulder breadth (bideltoid), and arm reach from wall. All other body dimensions shall fall within the 5th and 95th percentiles as defined by WADC-TR 52-321. Percentiles for body dimensions undefined by applicable documents will be estimated by appropriate statistical and anthropometric methods. 18

17H.

T.

E.

Hertzberg,

G. S.

Daniels,

and

E.

Churchill,

Anthropometr[ 1954).

of Flying Personnel-1950, WADC Wright Air Development Center,

Technical Report Wright-Patterson

52-321 (Ohio: AFB, September,

18CSM Technical Specification Block Calif.: North American Aviation, NAS 9-150, paragraph 3.4.1.2.3.1.

I, SID 63-313 (Rev. February 22, 1965),

ed.; NASA

Downey, Contract

207

These but issue had

criteria

were

appropriate and later by

at the created

start design

of

the

Apollo

Program, This

inherent

fallacies

problems. and

merits

careful

attention

human is to

factor look to

engineers for

S/C values are

designers--whose on anthropometric below:

natural data.

tendency Nine

textbook-type on this

major

points

emphasize

discussed

I.

Anthropometric using Morgan for a the et

data

must

be

representative astronauts a minimum enough from Program one only to

of in of

the this

population case. persons

equipment_ al. (1963),

i.e. 7 the recommends "large

50-100

statistical that start the are of

sample

yield to

reliable 19 another".

results At the in

reproducible the Apollo thus

sample a few

astronauts of astronaut-

were

program,

precluding

establishment

tailored Use appropriate military which trated new job

anthropometric of the

standards. of Fiyinq were the Personnel Air Force of or a data other spacecraft frusLater or seemed

Anthropometr_ the

since service

astronauts However, would

pilots.

design later

unknown

astronauts of

fly

years

further

establishment were revised made for

astronaut-tailored into the

criteria. and

astronauts changes was

brought the

program,

death the

astronaut

population. small, unknown

Thus and

design group.

a relatively

changing

19C. T. Morgan, et al., Human Engineering (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company,

Guide to Equipment 1963), p. 491.

Design

2O8

In were

reviewing less

the than

population 50 percent other 2O

from of flying

which

the Air

Force

data

drawn,

the

sample

represented i.e., flight

pilots--the engineers,

balance gunners, need other also

were etc. to

personnel,

Astronauts group than of

be

more

representative Navy cases

of pilots, are

this

pilot the

flying draws

personnel. on, Air in Force pilots' 74.1 in., some

which

astronaut different example, standing flight of

corps from U. S.

significantly For

comparable Navy

pilot 5th

measurements. and 95th

aircraft and of

percentile Air the ranks_ representative difficult. Force data Force flux

heights pilot

are 66.3

compare_ 21 in.

with With

dimensions pilots and

65.2

and to

72.6 the for

civilian

scientists

astronaut a truly and Air

establishing astronaut Further to the

anthropometric population become as to the

criteria even more

suspect of the below.

discussion astronaut

relevancy will be

population

made

2.

Population and

from

which

dimensional must

data be

are

established checked

will and

chanqe

anthropometric

criteria

continuously

revised. Bennett, lation whole provide of army et al., who discuss in the growth in poputhat to "the to

flying

personnel of

1961,

indicate is going for

defense more

establishment space in all

tomorrow

have

man-machine

systems

taller

20Anthropometry

of Flyinq

Personnel-1950,

op.

cir.,

p.

105.

21Morgan

et

al___.____., op. cit.

p.

509.

209

and

larger with

operators. recent dimension population. dimensions standing and 10.2 and

''22 1967

A comparison Air Force

of

the

1950

Air

Force

data,

data, the the

reveals 1950

some and 1967 95th as by .9 in. 23

significant Air Force

changes For exceed by

between

example,

1967 1950

5th

and

percentile follows: 7.5 and 3. Ibs.

comparable .7 in. and

dimensions weight by

height ibs._

.8 in._

shoulder

breath by

(bideltoid) .9 in. over and time. which

.7 in.;

sitting

height-erect will

.8 in.

Individual Changes occur for

astronaut in weight

dimensions or muscle astronauts,

vary

development, necessitate

normally of

individual

a program

ongoing such as

measurements hip to breadth, aging

at

least

every height,

two are

years.

Dimensions

sitting and general

particularly condition. these data are

sensitive

physical with

Difficulties discussed in

experienced point

obtaining below.

another

listed

4.

Do not

design

for men." of the

the

"average not

man"

or

for

only only

specific the smallest of these. problem as of

"percentile and larqest Many using design an

Also T do ranges and in

accommodate but

adopted_ books systems

combinations the inherent

documents average the man 5th

discussed design.

Criteria are often

such

for

to

95th

percentile

misleading

22Edward Bennett, Technology (New 23

James York:

Degan, and Joseph McGraw-Hill Book

Spiegel, Company,

Human Factors in 1963), p. 157.

Personnel Subsystems Handbook, AFSC DH-I-3 (Rev. ed. _ Ohio: Air Force Systems Command, Wright-Patterson AFB_ January i, 1970!, pp.

1-7.

210

for

those

unfamiliar

with

anthropometry.

Small,

medium,

large,

or

5th,

50th

and

95th people is

percentile are that usually

manikins small, varies example, range NASA

perpetuate medium, in body or

the large.

assumption The critical

that

point over

a person For wide in

dimensions, below on

frequently Astronaut critical

a wide Young

range.

the the

data

John

revealsa specified

for CSM

eight para-

dimensions

the

design

meters

quoted

earlier.

Measured Dimensions Weight Standing Sitting height height--erect length (sitting) (sitting) (bideltoid) wall per

equivalent]percentile 52-321 _

WADC-TR 65 48 65 60 50 87 98 15

Buttock-to-knee Knee Hip height breadth

Shoulder Arm reach

breadth from

Thus,

the

95th as the

percentile averaqe for

man T or man_

any

percentile

man T is man must

as be

illusor_ 95th

a 95th

percentile

percentile

everydimension.

24 Measurements, Dec. 7, 1962. taken by Air Force specialists and NASA-MSC personnel,

211

Such and

a man body

would

be

huge,

and

resemble

a gorilla

in

bulk

proportions. that body a person dimensions, usually has a variety combinations may of percentile of be For the and of as example, side 95th reach view perand

Given values specific critical changing of Figure centile visual for

various

high-and-low as using the 31 values field only

percentile the extreme B,

dimensions dimensions, C, D, and of

dimensions for

of A,

E in 5th

different produce

combinations many and

would

combinations probably or body

capabilities, for surfaces i,

most

require and for was value, bending

seat 4, A, moved

adjustment upward B, or

forward the

backward, dimensions the body

downward. E were If the

Suppose 95th

D and

percentile C was a 5th

and

backwards. surface and

dimension be

percentile without reach.

7 would

difficult more had

to reach to

forward,

surface If the E,

6 even same had

difficult 5th

man

percentile

dimensions C, a

for

A,

B,

D,

and

but would the

a 95th

percentile When

dimension of the

different breadth man are

situation is added,

exist. motion and

consideration range of

body seated

vision

more

complex Consider,

(see for F

view

looking the to

downward, following 5th to

Figure

31). of F C equal and C

example, G equal

combinations and

and to

G, and 5th

C:

and

percentile, 95th to

percentile; to 5th

F and

G equal F and

percentile, the 5th

equal

percentile;

G equal

percentile

Figure 31 SEATED CREWMAN Surface 7

.--Surface l

D

Surface l

Surface 6 C

G" "orward

A B D

Forward Backward

Control Console _w Gonsol Knobs e (typ.) Control Stick Surface 6 Console Surface 2 Surface 3 View Looking Dowr_ard Side View Surface 4 E

Surface 5

213

and 95th

C equal

to

the and and vary

95th C

percentile; to 95th

and

F

and

G equal Access on

to

the to

percentile knobs 7 would

equal

percentile. and areas

console 6 and further sions from body of

lever,

control Such

stick,

surfaces

greatly. when segments one

capabilities the range to

are in the

even dimenelbow, and

complicated the to arm the

considers the

from

shoulder the is

elbow

fingertips. breadths,

Thus, etc.,

combination a complex

of varying matter

lengths,

widths,

meriting 5. Care is

consideration. needed in workinq the anthroeometric These exceed _ustified Criteria limits by criteria should where it be can and a be in

selectinq "quid_i!' readily The body the

percentile with

ranqes. to is

flexibility T or NASA (as per accommodate comparing astronauts,

accommodated original

circumstances. for the eight that

anthropometric the 1950 Air the

criteria Force 10th with eight 7

dimensions CSM shall when the

data) and

state

between these six

90th

percentiles. dimensions are these data,

However, taken the

criteria of the Table and the

actual dimensions

from

10th

and

90th

percentiles. astronaut and or "high"

summarizes

gives Air

equivalent

"low" amount it

percentiles one is not limit known

per was how

Force

criteria, in pounds

indicates

exceeded many This of

inchesl were course,

However, beyond the

these

astronauts is, of

specified in

ranges. the

information of

important the basic

assessing

"degree"

incompatibility

with

criteria.

,
AZR FORCE

..
DATA AND ASTRONAUT

'z'_ ze

7
MEASUREMENT COMPARZSON

=. : ........................

ANTHROPOMETRZC

Anthropometric Values per Air No. Dimension I 5%
r

Data Force *

Astronaut Data I ..... 95% Mean 163.66 69.11 35.94 23.62 21.67 13.97 17.88 34.59 No. of Observetions 31 36 28 23 21 27 / 28 9

Data 2' 3 Range Mean 163.94 69.71 36.38 23.78 21.87 14.35 18.72 33.60
t

* 10% 138_3 66.0 34.3 22.3 20.4 12.9 16.8 32.5 90% 192.6 72.2 37.6 25.0 23.0

Measurement Low i40.00 66.42 34.53 22.64 20.39 13.39 14.09 32.20 High 199.00 72.21 38.54 24.92 22.83 15.71 20.75 36.50

Equivalent W (Approximate) i Per Air Force Data Low 12.0% 13.5% 13.8% 15.0% 10.0Y_25.0% <I.0°_ 7.5% High 94.0% 90._&+ 97._'_ 88.6% 87._ 97.0% >99.0% 87.5%

RESULT

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Weight, Standing sitting inches

Ibs. height, height inches - erect, length, I _

132.5 65.2 33.8 21.9 20.1 12.7 I 16.5 wall, 31.9

200.8 73.1 38.0 25.4 23.3 15.4 19.4 37.3

.94">

90%

Buttock-to-knee inches Knee

height-(sitting), (sitting),

_ip breadth inche_ inches Shoulder Arm Reach inches

15.1 19.1 36.7

breadth from

1

.60">90%

1,65"> l- 7 • .,, 90_,

Bidoltoid es nc
Limits. Range to be accomodated to lie within

I
I_ to 90% dimensions

1

* NASA

Specified

SOURCES: I. H.ToE. Hertzberg, G.S. Daniels, Asro M_dical Laboratory and E. Churchill, Anthropome_ry of Flying Personnel-1950 (Wright Air Develol_tent Center, Wri£;ht-Patterson AF Base, Ohio, September 1954), WADC Technical _eport

52-32_
2. Din_ensions 1 through 7 only: E. M. Roth, ed. Compendium of Human Responses to the Ae_'o_ace Environment (Washington, D.C.: Nationil Aeronautic_ SFace Administration, NASA CR-!205, _3[, November 1968), pp. 16-7 through 16-15, using data by W.E. Fedderson, J Reed, National A_rcnautics and S_ace _a:,_n_st_tzon," _ _= Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston, Texas. Unpublishe_ dat_L, 1967. Dimension Spacecraft 8 only: Center, National Houston, Aeronautics and Space Administratlon, Manned _xas. Unpublished data, December 1962.

3.

215

It the 16

is

known,

however, astronauts out of of the the

from in

data

previously that ten of

taken these

on

original were one

1962, to

astronauts for of

10th

90th

percentiles Eight for the

at least the 16

eight

defined the 90th 25

dimensions. percentile In

astronauts breadth and Air mean

exceeded

shoulder astronaut the Air range

(bideltoid), Force value It means

alone. on these

comparing

eight

dimensions, of the

astronaut Force

generally is obvious

exceeds that

that the and

population.

specified needs

on these

dimensions

is restrictive

expansion. In body Air the assessing those between similar NASA 5th criteria, and 95th which establish as per For

dimensions Force data,

percentile are

inconsistencies dimensions, dimension (sitting); breadth;

found.

following the

critical

astronaut limit:

measurements thigh clearance breadth; and

exceed

95th

percentile height

(sitting); hip waist is not breadth depth.

popliteal (standing); The

elbow-elbow chest depth;

chest of

number

astronauts

exceeding

limits
%

known. Air Force data indicate based that on is the general survey trend of to

Recent in Air

anthropometric Force officer

dimensions, flying

a 1967 for

personnel,

dimensions

Measurements

taken

December

7,

1962,

op.

cit.

216

increase, assessment the 1967

as might of Air these Force

be

expected should

from be is

point made

2. 26

A full whether of the

data

to verify

population It may

representative to be with

astronaut limitations. The is 90 the

population.

prove

specific

generally through for and

accepted 95th

range

of

design or to The Air

percentiles accommodate Force's Cre__._w

5th

percentiles, 27

percent

given

dimensions.

Stations that more

Passenger 90

Accommodations of the flying 28

Handbook

recommends be

than

percent

personnel et that

accommodated, accommodation strive for These following the any 98

whenever of at

possible. 90 percent,

Morgan and

al._._______ recommend designers

least if

percent, also

possible. that afford percentiles a basis or serve for the

authors purposes: of

state

(i) they a group

estimating by

proportion specific

accommodated permit

inconvenienced and

design;

(2) they

selection

accurate

26D=_I Section

N11h_,,_e=m_ 2B, pp. 1-7.

M_h_

_n_

c_..

Subnote

3.1(1):

Chapter

2.

27Military Specification, MIL-STD-1472, "Human Engineering Requirements for Military Systems, Equipment and Facilities," March 29, 1968, p. Ernest J. McCormick, Human Factors Engineering, op. cir., p. 390; Wesley E. Woodson and Donald W. Conover, Human Engineering Guide for

74;

Equipment Designers, op. cit., pp. 5-15; Factors in Technolocfy, op. cir., p. 250; Handbook, op. cit., p. i.

E. Bennett, et al., Human and Personnel Subsystems

28Crew Stations and (Rev. ed.; Ohio: May I, 1971),

Passengers Air Force 2,

Accommodations Systems Command, 2A, p. i.

Handbook, AFSC Wright-Patterson

DH-2-2 AFB,

Chapter

Section

217

use users our

of

test or

subjects; 29

and

(3)

they

aid

in are

selection generally requires basis or

of

equipment for study

operators.

These although

purposes first

correct more

applications, of the the

the

perhaps the

because mating when

issues

discussed; of a group

namely,

for

esti-

proportion

accommodated only

inconvenienced to the

considering dimension example, is our

percentiles under assume

being

applicable

specific For percentile height use The it key we

question. the standard If we of also how range use the this of 5th and 95th for If we 90 perce_t. is

criterion. 90

criterion

accommodate shoulder

percent we be two out

population.

for

breadth, not these

accommodate of the but

question

should by

much

population how many

being

accommodated are

dimensions, of the

individuals both is and for

accommodated In know the how

population with these not

T considerin_ criteria, accommodated critical of the it

dimensions. to

larger many

sense, _ndividuals This

important by what crew

are is

specific

dimensions. purposes, or have

particularly because

station crewmen

design who fly

especially to be

limited crews able or to

accommodated the i00 S/C

(future should of be the user

backup

crews). all

Theoretically, astronauts, or

accommodate

percent

population.

_Morgan,

et

al________., op. cit.,

p.

492.

218

Fortunately, Air Force survey, dimensions others or oxygen to head who

not are may be

all

dimensions to

taken,

such

as

the

1950 While

critical be

crew to

station a couch of

design. design,

certain example, headset as

critical to

for

may

critical mask

design on

a lightweight body dimensions or facea

face

(emphasis The for

gross

opposed

dimensions). is looking the

couch,

headset, dimensions of body

mask

designer, should

critical

for

design, and

comprehend and should

variability access

dimensions anthro-

capacities,

have

to pertinent

pometric In item range full

criteria. some cases, the the and physical full range difference and 90 or between 98 a hardware of the

accommodating is slight, without and so

percent

the

design

may

readily or

accommodate in

the weight,

range

much forth. to

difficulty In

compromises situations,

complexity, hardware

certain

special may be

tailoring

accommodate if 5th this

a "freak" dimension value the

dimension is or

advantageous, lower 95th data, Figure (in than or the

especially ist or

considerably higher than the

percentile Plotting

99th

percentile. form is of

critical as

anthropometric shown in

in the 32,

"adjustability way to to

curves" the

a good

understand

adjustability percentiles. reached by the These

inches) allow

required

accommodate of the If

various

curves various

assessment

accommodation we can

percentile population_ population such

ranges.

reasonably

define

astronaut the made full

or population is certainly

criteria recommended.

T then

accommodatinq can be

Exceptions to the

where

compliance

is unduly

compromising

design,

219

Figure

32

PERCENTILE CURVE FOR SITTING HEIGHT (A USAF pOPULATION SHOWING ADJUSTABILITY REQUIREMENTS OR PERCENTILE RANGES)

FLYING FOR

PERSONNEL PERCENTILES

41

Top

of

range

37 "_ ' m O H f ist H H 0 20 40

_

ml /

_-

_

--95th

percentile 14.2"

/
33

_._i 98 _ I •

.0"

--5th

percentile

I I 3.9"

}ercentJ le Bottom n_ r_nn_

60

80 (N = 4061)

i00 ',

PERCENTILES

Source:

Paul Webb (ed.), Bioastronautics Data D.C.: NASA Scientific and Technical p. 242. Applied (Ohio:

Book, NASA Information

SP-3006 (Washington, Division, 1964), of 60-19

Adapted from H. T. E. Hertzberg, "Some Contributions Physical Anthropology to Human Engineering," WADD TR Wright Air Development Center, Wright-Patterson AFB, 1954).

September,

220

function may fall

or use in such

of

the

hardware

or

systems. such

Freak exceptions

dimensions should be

a category_

however,

individually A capacity the ment item for

reviewed. estimate for apparel dimensional compromised then be may increase range. by the If, however, adjustof crewman awkward solutions of use, and the

conservative to

accommodate is

a wider basically of

designed the full and to be

providing number

range its

dimensions, must There Factors

the

inconvenienced or annoying, should

severity 3O

estimated: be

from

intolerable. reviewed. of or as the

may

alternative frequency impaired, be

which the

such whose

as the use is

criticalness on system

hardware

effects Special native.

subsystems noted

operations may be

should an

considered. alter-

tailoring,

above,

acceptable

6.

Since? tion

the for

body

criteria apparel

refer and of the in

to

nude

dimensions_ has to be

consideraincluded. attached be made. used, and be may affect care7

wearing

space

suits of

Further or

T determination to crewmen

effects

hardware should suits are

strapped These

working

positions if nude suits

considerations, far

especially the space

require specific ful and not

dimensions

exceeding When suited anyway or

criteria are motion used

designdetails. to assume are that in

dimensions? related to 31

capabilities body anthro-

visibility

normal

pometric

measurements

capabilities.

30Morgan,

et

al.,

ibid.,

p.

499.

31Suited

dimensions

and

use

will

be

discussed

later.

221

7.

Dynamic

as well we

as

static

dimensions only with

should static the

be body in

considered. dimensions. various

So far, Dynamic working

have

discussed are those

measurements positions: arm limb the in should or reach

body prone reach

kneeling, _ncluding

crawling, range overhead of

position, capability 32 others. are no

functional in various that

positions), body this be can

reach,

and

Forces also

apply

in

various In this

positions application, and

included

category. assumed

correlation body 8. Check

between

suited

normal

dimensions the body

capabilities. data used. exist reflecting human factors the

dimension

A wide different personnel, automobile, differences go unnoticed. personnel using should

variety of

of measurements the

needs and

anthropometrists, designers

various suits,

(aircraft,

spacecraft, Subtle may by different

space in what

architectural, to be of the similar same

etc.).

appear

dimensions taken

Dimensions vary

body

may

considerably. and documented

Well-trained measurement measurements. of own

personnel, techniques In the each past,

established make all have

anthropometric endured

astronauts seeking

a multitude data for his

designers use.

anthropometric

32Morgan,

op.

Ci%.,

pp.

543-50.

222 Furthermore, brought the need A years for an of experience in number of S/C of body needs development different dimension of various design other there method to estabshould of incorcriteria have

increasing definition the If to

measurements. is needed which in are

compiled will

satisfy

basic

designers criteria lished be

the to

program. be related

these the

anthropometric Force, surveys, taken, the or

Air

_ agencies on and

doing the

anthropometric to be

agreement

dimensions for

definition, porate such

provisions

structuring

surveys

measurements. of the astronauts in rigor a should formal may be documented and design data_ and

Measurements with anthropometric

criteria Such with

document that and

periodically personnel would 9. Use are

updated. supplied astronaut

ensure criteria

improved now to

minimize

time

spent verify

on measurements. accessibility Use of the subiects user various of repre-

three

dimensional displays? of and the

mockups and other of

controls? sentative Use limb small sizes.

hardware.

variety

dimensions and people and

population. body and

large Have

subjects wear

with suits

them

apparel

representative the capability and other

of nominal to reach,

and see,

emergency or operate

conditions. all controls

Verify and

displays

223

hardware, conditions.

as 33

required,

during

such

nominal

and

emergency

Examples The during I.

of

Problems are examples which space Borman helmet could wrist not of led anthropometric to the helmet of made problems encountered above.

following Apollo normal

the

Program Apollo Frank enlarged

guidelines would his for not

outlined

The

suit because was fit

accommodate large head;

Astronaut special, 2. Some the for 3. There the

relatively him.

astronauts Apollo a larger was suit

their

hand causing

comfortably

through

disconnects,

a modification

size

ring. which 12 for was served and in the LM as rest/sleep Its for

a hammock

Commander was and

on Apollo

subsequent 12 and for

missions.

length Conrad

satisfactory Shepard, Astronaut but

Apollo too

14 Astronauts the is Apollo about for 13 70.8 LM-7 larger

short

Commander, inches. (LM for

Lovell, hammock

whose was

height

The the 34

flight
'!

modified to

at KSC

Apollo

13 mission)

accommodate

this

crewman.

33The

references

used

in

this

portion

of the use

the

thesis

should

be

read

by

those in spacecraft design. Until be updated and compiled, judicious

NASA anthropometric of these references

data can is recom-

mended, heeding the cautions already mentioned. highly recommended for designing adjustability of dimensional criteria for design decisions.

The following are and the functional use Morgan, et al___..___., Ibid__.____.,

Chap. ii, pp. 485-570. Richard G. Domey and Rosse A. McFarland, "The Operator and Vehicle Design," in E. Bennett, et al., Huma_____n Factors in Technology, op. cir., Chap. 14, pp. 247-67; and H_ _, E, Hertzberg, "Dynamic Anthropometry of Working Positions," in Human Factors, 2, 4 (August, 1960) 147-55.

34Confi_r_tion Control Hammock Modification"

Board Meeting CCBD Number OLOO54A, (Houston, Texas: NASA-MSC, January

"Commander's i, 1970).

224

4.

There

were

problems missions:

with

the

couch of

design

on

Apollo had

8

and

subsequent reaching ditions. item 4.

a number

astronauts

difficulty launch conas not

the

translational 9, page problem allow

handcontroller 22, shows the the

during subject

Figure The enough basic to

controller support the did

was

controller to grip armrest in the

shorten An

adequate

room that

controller. designed grip or to

investigation the Since in 5th this the to

revealed 95th

the

was

accommodate length." documented polated and At 95th least 13.4

percentile was not

"forearm

dimension Air Force in of had With

specifically the data

taken were

1950

survey, report. and

intera 5th

from

related

data values

that 13.4

This

brought

percentile five inch the

15.4

inches, to or

respectively. less than

astronauts length.

dimensions a suit on

equal during the

this

normal elbow inches

launch precluded (at 5

conditions, use of the

additional by

thickness crewmen

under

controller

measuring

13.4

percent). Fortunately, the couch armrest adjustment was provided by a

by

extending to be

the

slot

an

additional to a forearm value.

. 75

inch. length

This

allowed than

the the

armrest

shortened zero

grip

less

interpolated This the nine was

percentile illustrates

example points that

a number For may

of problems example, exist data in one what

related point appear to this

to emphato be

discussed subtle

above.

sized similar

differences Some

dimensions. were

dimensional 1962 by Air

related

illustration

taken

in

Force

anthropometrists

225 and NASA representatives. the dimensions discussed above were showed The figure used to illustrate grip length" Military what

the same "forearm "D" in Figure

as dimension MIL-STD-1472

33(a).

Specification, Subsystems

and the Air Force's

Personnel as defined where

Handbook,

both use an "elbow-grip 33(b). Note

length"

by dimension the dimension

"V", Figure begins

the subtle

difference

near the elbow.

Figure

33.

ARM DIMENSIONS

(a) Forearm grip length Source: Unpublished data of measurements, o_. cit.

(b) Elbow-grip length (V) and undesignated dimension (W). Source: Military Specification, MIL-STD-1472, op. cir., pp. 76 and Personnel Systems Handbook, op. cit., p. 2J

To add another the NASA astronaut forearm to grip". 35 similar

confusing data

factor

in anthropemetric 7 uses "length

semantics, of the this and to that

cited in Table

No sketch is available dimension consider with those

to compare

undoubtedly (b).

in Figure

33(a)

In addition,

this

dimension

to be closer

denoted distance

by '"W", since it is more between the hand

representative

of the actual area

grip and the back

of the elbow

35E. M. Roth

(ed.), op.

cir., pp. 16-12.

226

or upper the

arm,

as

the

arm such

rests

on

a flat it

surface. is best to

In view leave

of this

confusion

about

a dimension,

undefined. 5. A cabin a side dump panel of the valve was CM. located supposedly However, Review, this to the left of the commender early I01 Crew design Comon

reachable during the 4-8, in the

during S/C

phases partment could

Stowage reach

December when

1967, suit,

the in

commander a ventilated

not

valve

mode, type as

and

restrained

in Photo toward

the 18

couch shows

by

the

harness crewman of to

(launch reaching this the incomold the

condition). as possible a

a suited

far

the

valve. knob This

Because was added

patibility, valve suited knob

dog-leg in

extension Photo 19. and in

shown to

extension the valve.

allowed

crewman was

reach

operate

What in the

acceptable configuration earlier during for flight if

shirtsleeves, space suit.

proved This had

unacceptable might

latest

problem

have

surfaced

the

contractor

flight

repre-

sentative the time, late suits and in

suits used the

the

S/C,s were

development. developed not

Unfortunately, during this until

Apollo

being

configuration

was

available

S/C

development.

Photo 18. Suited Crewman (Pressurized) Reaching for CM Cabin Repressurization Knob

227

Photo 19. CM Cabin Repressurization Control

228

229

6.

Anthropometric the from Apollo

problems as

in

S/C

design in

started the

earlier

than

Program, Gemini

indicated Report: was

following

excerpt

a Project

Gemini 75 percentile then learned

originally man that

designed

to

accommodate

a

in the sitting position. It was some second generation astronauts, greater than 75 peraddition, some of these when torso length was simulating a weightless was determined that more

although six ft. or under, were centile in sitting height. In individuals grew up to two in. measured lying on their backs, condition. For this reason it

height in the crew area was required. However, since external geometry as well as seat configuration was fixed, the obvious solution was outruled. The egress kit containing oxygen was cut 1.75 in. by making the part a machining rather than containing bottles. In addition the hatch was internally 'bumped' in the region of additional the helmet area to give room above their heads. this from mann_ EVA. _ factors: man the in 1950 four Thus, to the Air sitting Force the astronauts An additional and proved to be a

.75 in. was gained in great aid for ingress This (a) information The dimension is Of reveals of 36.8 a

several 75th

percentile to

position data. this design sixteen .75 in.

in.

according 16

the

original and to one have

astronauts, it. four

exceeded the of original the of

dimension appears

matched ignored

five

astronauts--quite to the 36.8 sitting in.

a number. value for of the

The

addition

75th which

percentile is equi-

gives valent

a total to

height

37.55,

a 90th

percentile

sitting

height.

These

36p. W. Malik and G. A. NASA CR 1106, Contract 1968), p. 173.

Souris, ProDect Gemini T A Technical NAS 9-170, (Houston, Texas: NASA,

Summary, June

230

percentiles discussed (b) The

are

much

less

than

those

recommended

and

already. stated due do to of not suited a account for the additional it is

criteria

height possible is

required the

conditions,

although man as

meaning 75th as

75 percentile suited during

stated, A presadd appre-

a suited, suit, to the even

percentile required

crewman. will

surized ciably creating used (c) It is

an EVA, height

effective more of

sitting

dimension, The criteria

a dimensional clarification. measurement applicable prelaunch, in to

problem.

therefore obvious erect was the

require that was the not for vector suited

of

sitting S/C

height,

while

sitting which with basic with backs. crewmen it is

the

configuration and impact The taken their the

designed g-force and

launch,

entry direction. have lying have

a transverse should crewmen may

nude the

dimensions of the

been on held

use Since

orientation the in

restraint their

harness during

tightly entirely under than I

seats that an

these

conditions, suited have a larger

possible zero the

unrestrained could sitting up

crewman dimension In

gravity normal

conditions restrained a sitting

crewman. in help own probably a

addition,

suspect at

that

crewman may to It

pressurized hold weight down the

suit

one-gravity height

conditions due

sitting in

dimension the suit

his is

holding,

effect,

down.

231

the

combination suit a large

of

these in

two the

effetts buttocks

plus

perhaps which the

addicreated two been

tional such

ballooning dimensional In such in

area

difference dimensions to

between should ensure

positions. taken

cases, both

have S/C

initially

positions

com-

parability. The dimensions sions will anthropometric for reclining differ are should measurements personnel from now since taken these in should body include dimen-

normally If suits taken

values in

taken these

an upright then

position. measurements

also

used

positions,

also

include

suited

measurements.

Clothing Most cover

Effects of the

on

Size
#

previously of

cited

literature design.

and

other

information

adequately

this

aspect

anthropometric

Suit

and As

Suited noted,

Capabilities it is and important not are in to assume way that suited to dimensions, normal are nude motion body on

capabilities, measurements. the following i. T[pe

visibility

any

correlated visibility

Suited factors; and The

dimensions

mobility

and

dependent

design Apollo

of

suit. comes in intravehicular on these suits and are extradifferent has

spacesuit

vehicular in location

configurations. and amount. bulky

Fittings Also, layers the of

extravehicular insulation and

garment other

a number

of

extra

materials

232

required the than and and

for

lunar and

surface

operations. were

The

suits

used

for

Mercury the

Gemini suit in

Programs

substantially basic design

different features, programs

Apollo

components, configuration varied to

capabilities. for Apollo by

Suit frequently

within incorporate

these

provisions changes, capability. the suit

required and

different

mission to

requirements, enhance and on for suited

necessary crewmen of and

improvements The physical

developed

construction depending Apollo,

configuration the type suit has

may

vary

considerably The

mission in and

to be some crotch Others, have suit,

performed. joint areas, and as

example, in the

bearings hand,

special is

cabling

shoulder, to fit the

areas, such

generally Air Force's

tailored A/P22S-2

astronauts. suit, to the

the

full-pressure attached and for mobility/ Air

entirely mobility

different joints,

construction--fittings physical These come in dimensions, suits eight are

visibility flight can for 2. Suit be

capabilities. and for

the

Force Suits Designs of each.

population, designed

standard

sizes.

both tend

seated to

or upright the

positions. capabilities

both use If a

positions modes suit

compromise

(pressurization) is worn in a "vented" inside cooling visor is condition and outside oxygen (negligible of the suit),

pressure with (if the the

difference suit helmet are

between body the

providing is on or

and

for then

breathing the to suit 3.7 or

closed), when

dimensions

entirely

different

than

a slight

233

5.0 psig its

pressure and

differential capability varies in

exists. vary for with

The

suit

size This The

and size

mobility with used

pressure. suits. and than 21

change volume

pressure by

different

a crewman suit, is

an unpressurized, more 20,

especially of 22 hard a nude

a pressurized or normally

substantially Photos the

that and Fixed

cloth the

individual. taken by

illustrate points, bearings internal to the

room

Apollo

suit.

such etc., suit suit,

as helmet vary

rings,

wrist

disconnects, with the

joint in relative wrist

a negligible The

amount of joint

increase ring, and

pressure. and may the vary

angle of

helmet

positions

bearings

disconnects, Without smaller and

significantly. a suit in used and in about a vented than condition it is is

exception, easier to 3.7 to

to move to 5.0

when all

pressurized sections and other

psig.

Generally, when

"soft '_ suit Arm sections Some

tend

become may

rounded extend in

pressurized. when and

sections

length

pressurized.

joints than

elongate others.

more

circumferentially

longitudinally

3.

Suit

mobility The amount and of mobility offered by suit the vented, slightly

pressurized In some

fully a slight easier space

pressurized internal than suit

varies will is

considerably. make some

suits,

pressure suit

joint A good

movements deal of

whenthe

not

pressurized. on

development

effort

centered

Photo 20. Suited CM Crewmen in Launch Position (Ventilated suit Pressure)

234

Photo 21. Suited CM Crewmen in Launch Position (Sui Pressure 3.7 PSIG)

235

Photo 22. Suited CM Crewman in Lower Equipment Bay, View Between Couch Foot Struts

236

237

design Some

of

improved when

joints

for

the

various

moving

body

joints,

joints,

pressurized, will to tend which

exhibit to return they

a natural to. set,

neutral tend when to

position remain near in the The suit joint. material bending of motion plane those may

which the full man

they

Others except

position range in of

are

joint

movement. suit has to and their up exert bend forces of the the the its joint's range in range to in bend bending. one than on suit the

a pressurized on the joints joint The joint's are area

depending When in

design, bent to

the the

fullest, and limit and

may of

bunch a

range. depend be

mobility

suit

joint Some

on it's

basic

design. and joints

motions in

substantially in another. because and of man's

easier Some the

different are easier

applied

at earth 4. Suited

gravity

crewman's in

weight the suit when

aids

position The size

location suit parts

certain The

vary

the

crewman the

is

seated will

or

standing. vary the

crewman's

position these produce

within two a

garment

usually of

considerably will the

between normally

positions. variation in

Movement some

joints of suit, ease and

size

related over

parts the will

suit.

A tightly one load

"cinched-up" before by and the its

harness

particularly some may of the

tightened induced shape

pressurized, internal

pressure

affect

the

suit

"ballooning." At the one g or greater, the man will In sink into the the suit in

downward

g-force

direction.

zero

gravity,

crewman

238

in

a pressurized condition enlarged in some

suit

may

be

able

to

take

advantage within fit is

of the not too the at one-

this now

to maintain Suit. areas) He may

a fixed be able his also

position (if the

tight

to move He may but to

body be

somewhat to do

within this

pressurized gravity

vessel.

able

conditions,

a lesser

extent.

Suited

Dimensions Unfortunately, there is of little the published information and on the size

and

mobility space

capabilities suits. Figure

latest

ventilated the

pressurized dimensions of a

Apollo

34 summarizes Apollo

general to

pressurized foot (in crewman. inches)

extravehicular-type The approximate to 3.75

suit of

sized large

fit

a EVA

5 1/2type glove

dimensions psi is

size 37

pressurized

provided

below:

EVA Circumference

GLOVES

(95

percentile) 11.2 1.0 ea. 4.5 4.2 3.25 2.0 4.0 17.0 10.5

Finger diameter Width-including thumb Width-fingers only Finger length Depth through palm Wrist disconnect diameter Length-Length-overall to wrist

disconnect

37North

American

Rockwell

Letter

69MAI0112;

from

E.

E.

Lane,

Manager, Apollo CSM Associate Contractor Administration, Space Division, Downey, California to ITEK Corporation, Lexington, Mass., October 16, 1969, Figure 2 of which documents information verbally received for International Latex Corporation, March 7, 1969.

Source:

CSM/LM OPERATION DATA BOOK, July 7, 1971), p. 2.2-2;

Vol.

IV:

EMA Data Book,

SNA-8-D-027

(IV) (Revision

2;

24O

This Since worn size Forceo Well the in

information Apollo suit

is

but

a portion most

of

that

needed

by

S/C

designers. will be

is probably a complete be and made

representative

of what survey

future

missions, should

anthropometric to that suit

of various by the Air as be

Apollo 38 as

suits

similar

performed

Intravehicular kneeling, in such a

extravehicular and other

configurations, should

crawling, survey.

possible

positions

included

Suited

Mobility The most Since basic goal data. suits data. Figures

Values recent then, published the suit to the data evolved suit on Apollo to have a suit mobility are from and

1966. 39 several design 1966 Apollo sional

flight made.

configuration The

revisions

been

preliminary of actual dimenthese

information These in data

presented too should survey

below be

constitutes with

an update those of for

replaced as that

a mobility

such

discussed

35 through performance data must and

37 provide data be not useQ

terminology in Tables

and 8

definitions through _Li_y _

for Ii . _=_

the

mobility these

provided w±zn

Again, goal" 38

cautluzl

si_ce

information,

actual

data.

Milton Alexander, Dimensions of Air

J. W. Force

Garrett, and M. Pressure-Suited

P. Flannery, Anthropometric Personnel for Workspace and

Desiqn Criteria (Ohio: Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Aerospace Medical Division, Air Force Systems Command, WrightPatterson AFB, August, 1969), report AMRL-TR-69-6. 39 Roth, op. cir., Chapter 16.

241

Figure

35

TERMINOLOGY ]uND DEFINITIONS FOR OF THE PRESSURE GARMENT ASSEMBLY

DESCRIBING

THE

MOBILITY

_t

_=_

/

Plane a. b. c.

Definitions: (y - Z Plane) (X Z Plane) - Frontal Sagittal - Transverse Plane Plane Plane

Direction a. b. c. d. Forward

of Limb -- +X = -X

Movement Direction Direction

Terms: ;

Backward Upward Downward Right

(X - Y Plane)

= -Z Direction
[

: +Z Direction Direction

T_r_e of a.

Limb

Movement

Terms: or decreasing parts of the

e.

_ +Y

Flexion - Bending the angle between body.

f. _
go

Left T_ p±_

: -Y

Direction _'_ pl ..... (X-Z) plane (_-_]

!ii

= Away ':-_ Y-Z

b.

Extension

- Straightening

or h.

< [

increasing the angle parts of %he body. c. d. Stretch Rotation axis e. f. - Lengthening - Revolution part.

between Medial = Toward (in Y-Z plane) Abduction plane ]. = Away

of body about

part. i. from (X-Z) (in X-Y plane) (X-Z)

the

of a body M.

Adduction plane

: Toward plane)

Pronation Supination E.

face

down. or Face up. of

(in X-Y

On back (ed.),

Source:

Roth

Compendium

Human

Responses

to the

Aerospace

En_ironmeht, op. cir., pp. 16-14, W. J. VanDyke, "Performance/Design

Figure 16-18; Adapted from: and Product Configuration II

Requirements, Extravehicular Mobility Unit for Apollo Block Missions, Master End Item Specification, " NASA-EHU-CSD-A-096 (Houston, Texas: NASA-MSC, January_ 1966).

242

Figure

36

ELEMENTARY

BODY

MOVEMENTS

.

-

.-

;' " " ....

'

"

_'-_/V/_Dla/-- "

Source:

"Performance

and

Inzerface

Specification

for

LEM

Excursion Module, Government LSP-340-8 (Bethpage, N. Y.: May 5, 1966), pp. 19-22.

Furnished Crew Equipment," Grumman Aircraft Engineering_

243

Figure

36, continued

- 2

244

Figure

36,

continued

-

3

G

KAI_E

FZE_ISJLITY

_

A _KL___ ,MOBILITY

_/v'KLE

FL-_,RZON

.

.

.

AAIK/..E

,_DOUC;Z"iON

REZ,4 TED DEFIAIITIONS:
,---J.,,,S',--" AIC'/_"rZ_AJ D,'_Cf-rlI) " AI_ PD._,ITI,PN OF'_
IIL

-,--uZ" ._'_7"/,,_/ .......

Z_

C.___AIT_L.

JL_J/'IT.

• 2._S-017" JOINT

E@UILI_/_/U/A PO,_IT/DAI-TIIE511/7 JOl,,/7"
5U/T WILl"SPI_/N_ 70" O_ O_ PA_-SSMI_/ZE_ W/,'_',_I A,'_ _-7"lla*_ _,_E_,'M,_I IN

P_S/71DN 7"0 W/I/C/-/ THE "5_'_1¢* W/l-_-_I VE_ITIL,4TED ._FO,_C_" ,/5 BE/_I_ EXERT_=D

Fiol/re

37

BASIC

H_D-FINGER

TASKS

._-TYPE5

0I- HJA/D .

_/o_ B - 7"7P

FIAI_ER

PREIIEN$IOA/: D- Ca R,4,_P

A - PA"MAR

C -Z.AT_-,_,_Z.

R[LA;"gD TA3A'$
/. WR/T/N[_

l.

_Z_Tg_
I* P/C_'I/V_

7,_$K$ "
_,[ :

R_';AT[_
L _l_l;Jq

7A.,SK$
SP,/,'7"C.#

,,_ELAT£D
]. U31P/_ P/.

7A_._:_
ICR.R

_OZARY

.

.

.......... ..- ...................... : . ..... " .... • .-. ': .

.

O_;v_ _z, _S/_§ H_i._c_

Source:

"Performance

and

interface

Specification

for

LEM

Excursion Moduie: Government LSP-340-8 (Bethpage_ N. Y.: May 5_ 1966)_ pp. 19-22.

Furnished Crew E_3ipment_ _ Gcdmman Aircraft Engineerinq_

246

Table MAXIMUM PERFORMANCE AND REQUIREMENTS EXTRAVEHICULAR FOR

8 THE ELEMENTARY OR..... AT BODY 3.75 MOVEMENTS, + 0.25 PSIG

INTRAVEHICULAR

MODE,

VENTED

RANGE MOVEMENTS a. Neck i. 2. 3. b. Mobility Flexion Flexion Rotation (forward-backward) (left-right) (left-right)

OF

MOVEMENTS )

MAXIMUM TORQUE GOALS (In-pounds )

(Degrees

135 30 140

12 12 12

Shoulder i. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Mobility 60 95 155 150 35 140 35 i00 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12

Adduction Abducti on Shoulder Movement Later al -Medial Flexion Extension Rotation (X-Z Plane) Down-up Rotation (y-z Plane) Lateral Medial Rotation Rotation

7. 8. c.

Elbow i.

Mobility - Extension 115 12

Flexion

i. 2. e. Wrist I. 2. 3. 4. Source:

Supination Pronation Mobility

(Palms up) (Palms down)

145 25

2.5 2.5

Extension (forward) Flexion (backward) Flexion (adduction) Extension "Contract (abduction) End Item Detail Specification

56 57 42 30 (Prime Equipment),

2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 Per-

formance/Design and Product Configuration Requirements, CEI No. 3001B, Specification No. CP 3001, A7LB Pressure Garment Assembly with Integrated Thermal Meteroid Garment for Apollo Extravehicular Mobility Unit," NASA Contract NAS 9-6100 (Rev. A.; pp. Dover, Del.: ILC 1-49 thru 1-54. Industries, Inc., Jan. 30, 1970),

247

Table MAXIMUM PERFORMANCE AND REQUIREMENTS EXTRAVEHICULAR

8

continued-THE ELEMENTARY OR AT BODY 3.75 MOVEMENTS • 0.25 PSIG

FOR MODE,

INTRAVEHICULAR

VENTED

MOVEMENTS

RANGE

OF

MOVEMENTS

MAXIMUM TORQUE GOALS (in-pounds)

(Degrees) f. I. 2. 3. 4. g. i. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Trunk-Torso Trunk Torso Torso Torso Hip Mobility (left-right) (left-right) (forward) (backward) 5 35 130 25

Rotation Flexion Flexion Flexion

24 24 24 24

Mobility (leg (hip (hip Straight) bent) bend) 20 5 15 30 30 90 20 24 24 24 24 24 24 24

Abduction Abduction Abduction

Rotation (sitting): Lateral Rotation Medial Flexion Extension (sitting):

h. I. 2. 3. 4. j. i. 2. 3. 4.

Knee

Mobility (standing) (medial) (lateral) (kneeling) ii0 15 15 140 12 12 12 12

Flexion Rotation Rotation Flexion Ankle

Mobility 45 45 25 25 36 36 36 36

Extension Flexion Abduction Adduction

248

Table PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FINGER, HAND, FOR COMPLEX WRIST

9 BODY (CREW MOVEMENTS, DUTY INTRAVEHICULAR_

AND

RELATED) Intravehicular Wear Test Conditions °

Movements Operations a. Palmar

or Performance i. 2. 3. Write legibly Operate .375" Utilize small Criteria with pencil dia rotary knob screwdriver such as:

0.18 x x x

psig

3.5-4.0 x x x

psig

b.

Tip Prehension Lateral Prehension i. 2.

Pick up small objects Small Screws Operate 2 and spacecraft Vertically Horizontally Use Use Use Use Use

x

x

c.

3 position toggle switches: x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

d.

Grasp

i. 2. 3. 4. 5.

a screwdriver pliers crescent wrench socket wrench hand-controller

e.

Finger: Pushbutton Ops. Finger: Pulling Ops Thumb i. 2. 3. i. 2.

Operate Pushbutton within panel of pushbuttons

x

x

f.

operate operate Operate

T-handle control D-handle control ring handle control

x x x x

x x x x x

g.

Operate thumbwheel Operate button on handle Operate discrete rotary switch

control x position x x

h.

Hand Rotation Wrist Movements 2. I.

i.

Move

wrist

side

to

side

while fingers while fingers x x i x x x

opening Move wrist opening

and closing up and down and closing any desired

].

Whole hand Movement

Hold hand at position

x

Intravehicular x - Required

wear

= CWG

and

PGA

or LCG

and

pGA

249

Table PERFORMANCE INTRAVEHICULAR, REQUIREMENTS FINGER,

i0 COMPLEX AND ARM BODY (PGA WEAR MOVEMENTS RELATED) * TEST CONDITIONS

FOR HAND

INTRAVEHICULAR 0.18 psig (suit tion only) CM CM Couch Pos. Reach and satisfactorily operate the following: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. Helmet Ring Disconnect EV Visor EV Visor Medical (Positioning) Attachment Injection x and N/A x x x x x N/A x x x N/A x x x x x x x x x Vert. Pos.

ventilaLM Vert. Pos. @ 3.5 CM* * Couch Pos. to 4.0 CM psig LM Vert. POSo

PERFORMANCE CRITERIA

Vert. Pos.

x N/A N/A

x N/A N/A

x x x

N/A N/A N/A x N/A x x x N/A x

N/A N/A N/A x N/A x x x N/A x

N/A x x x x x x x x x

Fitting PLSS Controls Attachments OPS Controls Gas WMS Disconnects Disconnects

Multiple Water Di s connect Electrical Disconnect

* Intravehicular

Wear

- CWG

+ PGA

or LCG

+ PGA

Legend: NOTE: The 4.0 performance psig. required in this table shall apply

X - Required at pressures up to

/ 25O

Table TOTAL BODY MOBILITY i INTRAVEHICULAR AND Performance Criteria

ii REQUIREMENTS EXTRAVEHICULAR Extravehicular Intravehicul ar

a.

At 1/6 "9" 0.25 psig Climb rungs ladder spaced

pressurized

to

3.75

±

i.

at

slopes i0

up

to

27 ° with x LM at x x N/A

every

inches, LM with

2.

Remove equipment 27 ° position. , Crouching minutes, in

from

3.

a deep

knee

bend

for

three x x

4.

Kneeling on and working Crawling backward

one knee for five minutes in kneeling position, then

x

x

5.

forward five feet, to starting point,

x

x

6.

Getting to, and up and prone positions Within 30 seconds, Pickup and carry

from, the supine (unassisted) x astronaut, x x N/A

7. 8. i

2nd

Walking erect on 3° inclined plane at 3 mph for i0 minutes; jumping over small crevices; taking long strides,

x

N/A

_ i0. ii. Operate

......... PLSS and

A ,,__,,_ OPS

_l

__

_ x

.hT,l A x

controls, erect to sitting (suit adjustments

Moving from standing position unassisted are permissible), Lift without

x x

x x

12. 13.

squatting

Donning extravehicular wear while pressurized, with assistance as necessary. This equipment includes: (a) EV Gloves (b) PLSS (c) SLSS (d) Slip-on (e) LEVA Lunar Boots N/A x

251

Table

Ii

continued-Criteria in at kneeling distance x LM access x in LM and shut and lock N/A hatch N/A N/A x x x x x Extravehicular Intravehicular

Performance 14.

Reach forward while position and torque obtained, Crawl face hatch, Bend down LM hatch. Operate Change down

15.

through

16.

17. 18. 19.

overhead LiOH

canisters.

Handle equipment in torso-bent position in restricted area. At zero "@" 1 0.25 psig pressurized to 3.75 ±

N/A

x

b.

1. 2.

Operate Handle tunnel Handle Work at station Handle

EV

transfer and

equipment carry out

x

N/A

equipment transfer OPS in CM.

N/A N/A and G & N N/A N/A

x x

3. 4.

AOT in LM in CM PLSS in LM.

x x

5. 6.

Access to CM lower equipment bay and capability to handle equipment Capability operations Capability transfer, to carry in CM. to carry out couch

N/A

x

7.

N/A out free space x body x x

x

8.

N/A

9.

Perform manual locomotion and positioning using handrails, Operate Open and LEVA. close LM and CM

N/A N/A x

i0. ii.

hatches.

N/A

252

Examples The on suited i.

of

Problems are examples mobility PGA-CM 8 provide of anthropometric during the Couch to Apollo problems Program: ICD, notes a 10th heel encountered

following dimensions In Figure

and 20,

Foldable for

Envelope

numbers to 90th restraint (Section References design

6 and

design in the F-F); couch

accommodate areas:

percentile interface E-E); to and such

crewman (Section in

following suit PGA

helmet

headrest,

general

operations. in to other these

percentiles but there are

appear several

frequently drawbacks

documents,

criteria: (a) There suit uses is size one not and necessarily body any relationship In in fact, between the suit

dimensions. sizes helmet

or more

standard The for to The

as many the

hardware exception abovel), of neck

designs of the comes head ring, suit mate couch as (b)

as possible. large in one helmet size

(with

Frank

Borman

noted

accommodate helmet

a wide

variety and

dimensions. and heel with its suit

shape, are

size, fixed.

counterpart, is and also are

The suit heels The tolerances,

restraint the couch

fixed

so all

interchangeable. are fixed, with

restraint in

dimensions 20. basically

noted

Figure are suit

These didn't 90th the

criteria request percentiles

in

error related body

because to 10th

they to and

dimensions the eight

for to

dimensions, for all other

general

5th

95th

percentile

dimensions.

253

(c)

A

10th

or and Such on 21 CM the

90th as

percentile inane as are the

suit 10th

is or

as

difficult

to

define man. based 2. Photos deal 20, of the of

90th

percentile when they are

requests from 22

only

effectual suits. Apollo the

data and free

representative that the

show

suits CM

use

a

good

volume.

Initially, for the

contractor, and Interface

as part

requirements defined Assembly a crewman the

Performance size as of the

Specifications, Pressure Garment With

maximum

Apollo

(suit) in

size

follows: and venti-

a pressurized

lated pressure in the Command sustained following (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) The tance crewmen between Photo across across across

garment Module

assembly, fully restrained couch under the effect of a of 5 g eyeballs shall not in, be the exceeded:

acceleration exterior

dimensions

shoulders - 24 inches elbows - 24 inches knees - to be determined length - 39 inches length - 25.3 inches 40 were of of the predicated each _.5 of the _ -_-on the existing adjacent ___ .... shown in dis-

crown-rump buttock-knee above criteria

between in the 22 is Figure the

centerline crew couch of

three m__

centerline also 34 the 24.5

vertical

,,X-X"

struts

inches. how these dimensions For the same were generally noted the

shows Apollo

exceeded by the CM

in

suit. the suit

conditions now specifies

contractor, dimensions:

contractor

following

40"GFE

Crew

Equipment

Performance

and

Interace

Specification,"

SID 17.

64-1345, American

NASA Contract NAS 9-150 (Rev. A; Downey, Calif.: North Rockwell Corporation, Space Division, Jan. i, 1968), p.

254 (a) (b) (c) Across Across Across shoulder--26 elbows--28 knees--18 between suit inches inches inches 41 the S/C contractor's dimensions of view taken early are by Early the undereach in S/C

Inconsistencies requirements standable contractor the Apollo when and and the

contractor's at the point

one at

looks the

overall the

program suit

objectives. was as under S/C given

development, requirements the Apollo in

contract

contractor's ments. and Since

for space design,

interfaces suit and was the

design

require-

development configawas approand con-

fairly had to

flexible some impose on the size

design it

ration priate straints

and

dimensional S/C

limits,

reasonable suit

dimensional

limits

development. suit mockup evaluations revealed ones,

During something were effort CM by too

1964-1965, shocking--the

suits,

especially in

pressurized the CM.

large put

for into

optimal reducing

operation shoulder the

Extensive widths to

was

and

elbow

requirements. other CM

Unfortunately, (i.e., various

requirements docking by LM

imposed tunnel operations_ requirethat

operations and reaching

pressurized controls)_ suit

operations and ments 41 lunar which

surface

operations shoulder

created and

mobility width

dictated

elbow

joint

"Contract End Item Detail Specification (Prime Equipment), mance/Design and Product Configuration Requirements," CEI Specification No. CP 3001, A7LB Pressure Garment Assembly

Perfor3001B_ with

Integrated Thermal Meteroid Garment for Apollo Extravehicular Mobility Unit_ NASA Contract NAS 9-6100_ (Rev. A_ Dover, Del.: ILC Industries_ Inc., January 30, 1970) pp. 1-27.

255

still that

exceeded the suit

CM being

criteria. developed served, With

It

was

not

recognized piece the being

enough of lunar vehicle of that, system inteon "let's

was in the

the

prime as

surface in get the

hardware; Apollo and the and

it

effect, emphasis was

third one

Mission.

flying

operational"--it was was used

understandable as a backup vehicle

although the CH

suit it

primarily to

LM,

developed

satisfy

gration

goals. the was If bulkiness accepted the Apollo the been as and inconvenience during for suited vehicle depresmission

Later, operations operation. surized goals

a livable had required crew

condition any long

term

operations, would have and ICD (3.75

overall

effectiveness by these

and

severely

compromised An Interface 20 in reads: the CM

suited notice three there suited, is

discomforts to the Couch

constraints. shown psig) in

Revision "with couches, elbows

Figure

pressurized a maximum adj acent 3. Dimensions nude should peculiar

crewmen of 3 1/2

interference 42 cre%_en". of suits

inches

at the

between

vary data,

with

each

custommade understood of

suit.

As

with

anthropometric be made. to suit

common important

and

measurements two features

This

is

because

measurement:

42Interface "F_idable American

Revision

Notice

No.

9315

to

ICD

MH01-21020-I16, A; Downey,

PGA-CM North

Couch Envelope," Aviation, March

NR/ILCI/NASA(Rev. 13, 1970).

Calif.:

256

(a)

The

suit

shape

when

unpressurized, when

or

at vented Previously

pressure, used point

changes

considerably e.g., or

pressurized. at be

benchmarks, in (b) For the

those elbow

established areas can may be

the

widest

shoulder

inapplicable. with in. the The subject shoulder on the straining

example, or

measurements straining

made

relaxed, width and

to hold width time the data

elbows vary

elbow-to-elbow The mission

depending for

condition. may 4. The Netermine value

available are as for

such

whether discussed and elbow

germane. CM contractor's is stringent for in and a 95th

24-inch

above, width

the the

maximum in view

shoulder of the nude suit

suit,

elbow-to-elbow crewman. for This

width leaves in the

of

19.8 4.2

inches

percentile crewman's sides

inches area, has

each on both inch

ballooning Even nude

chest

of the

elbow. the

winter

flying 43

gear

a 4.4

increment This Apollo would

over

dimensions. the need for a survey of

discussion sizes, alleviate on

reiterates capabilities, the the problem S/C

suit help

etc. of

Such

information suit size and

imposing whose

mobility be better

judgments spent in

designers, known

time

would and

accommodating

capabilities

criteria.

4_Morgan, et al_______., cir., p. 507; op. data from Flying Clothing on Body Measurements of Army Rept. ENG-49-695-32 (Ohio: USAF Aero Medical AFB, 1943).

A. Damon, "Effect of Air Force Flyers, " Lab, Wright-Patterson

257

Crew Within large runs items sions by in is or the amount of the of interior

Compartment crew

Closeout

Provisions shell, there wiring, items. is a

compartment miles

pressure of

equipment, miscellaneous to

literally

electrical

various These

tubing_

fittings, unless

and

numerous and damage

other

are or

susceptible snagging

damage to flight the

protected, Such

present could or the

protrube caused crew

hazards the

crewman. during or

ground

crew, Provision Where

crew

checkout,

flight

flight. required. covers,

for

covering these

otherwise be

guarding metallic below.

these closeout

hazards panels

possible,

should

acdeptable

substitutes

are

discussed

Closeout Use implemented and other

Panels of

or

Provisions panels or other protective provisions wiring, shall be

closeout to cover

miscellaneous in areas the

equipment, crew

tubbing, within by the

fittings, funcor

items

distributed or in

compartment, to contact

tional flight

crew crews Closeout i.

volume, during panels

accessible

ground

checkout. or cover design shall to serve isolate the following burning functions: equip-

Provide ment,

a tire etc.,

aDatement internal

panel crew

the 44

from

compartment. wire runs, tubing step

2.

Protect fittings, or kick

equipment, etc., loads or

subsystem damage by

components, due to or

from

inadvertent flight crews

abrasion, during

caused flight.

ground

ground

operations

44Apollo North April

Crew Compartment American Aviation, 19-20, 1967),

Design Space

Concept Review and Information

No. 2 (Downey, Calif.: Systems Division,

mimeographed.

258

3,

Protect shocks,

crewmen sharp debris

from edges or

potential

ignition and which

sources, snag may

electrical

or protrusions, equipment compartment loss of

points. behind the

4.

Retain

loose crew

exist

panels--protecting 5. Provide areas barrier behind

from

such. in impact inaccessible of floating

to prevent

equipment from

panel such

or prevent areas or

damage

equipment Additional i. Where items panels with 2. Metal of

into

equipment.

design wide are

criteria of and

are: such in equipment where or other specified closeout faired-in

expanses located, be

areas to

feasible, a smooth

shall the or

designed crew

provide

surface,

adjacent other

compartment capable used. In

structure. of absorbing where kick earth during the loads gravity manned closeout

materials, shall be

50 pounds, provide checkout, be

areas

would S/C

a standing or other of where

or working ground crew 225

surface operations, pounds

shall In

capable areas

absorbing deflection

without
.2

deflection.
.... /..... U_LLd_

other

could

cause

equ±pme_u

=

9

the

protections Area shoe of

shall loading

be

capable be

of

absorbing to

a 250

pound

load. size 3. In

shall

equivalent

a standard

heel. inaccessible or other may be to the crew, where as it is not feasible material,

areas

to use fabric

metal

strong

material

closeout

material

substituted.

259

4.

Attachment installation easy ground

of panels and

shall

be

by

captive needed.

fasteners Design and rework

for

quick allow

removal, for

where

shall

accessibility operations. normally

troubleshooting

during

5.

Panels by

requiring

inflight Design

removal allow

shall

be

removable for

one-hand

operation. fire

shall and

accessibility assessment

fire

detection,

fighting, flight gaps

damage shall than be

during

flight. 6. Panels

Appropriate shall not

tools greater

provided. with etc., surrounding are

allow where

1/4"

structure required. In equivalent be provided were The provided extinguisher the Apollo of

except

ventilation

flowthru,

CM,

by

blocking compartment

off

the not in

areas to

behind two 1/2"

the

panels, feet

the could

an enclosed fire the

exceed panels fire into of S/C

cubic in

for in

fighting. panels inject the if only the it in to

Holes fit

the

diameter nozzle. volume,

a special material

extinguisher the enclosed

would

a foam fire. is An

hopefully should This be system Photo the CM with were

extinguishing made was to see

assessment to the

this under

requirement design.

applicable CM. side this and

used

the

23 shows panels

left-hand In and

the

lower

equipment of the

bay panels

of

installed. designed crew

case,

a portion as a

shown bearing marked behind

originally for rings, the

installed The fire

secondary

structure-holes were

plates by the red

couch.

extinguisher in the

some

of which

are visible about half of

photo. is shown

Areas in the

main

display

console,

which

Photo 23 CM Left Equipment Bay

260

261

upper fire port shows LM

left-hand extinguisher. clearly, a plastic station. would due to

portion

of

the 24 is

photo,

also

had of

holes 23 the

for

use

with

the

Photo captive

a closeup used at to the

Photo

_ showing panel. of

a fire Photo the which not 25

the

fastners panel LM, used

remove overhead wiring

closeout In be the the

portion

crew

inaccessible of damage of

areas,

etc., were

normally covered to damage

covered severe

because weight

potentiality the LM. Areas

margin

susceptible

were

appropriately not are to visible, covered the in by

covered. Photo the If 24 , several after by lengths the panel of waterwas the contubing and damage

Although glycol tubings

panel, not

veniently should to it be is

added either

area.

covered so that

a panel,

hidden or LM

sufficiently, it should be

accessibility by a special package the

impossible, the

protected Control

cover. with its S/C

Photo own use as

26 shows protective a "porolon"

Environmental Photo's which 5

System show that

cover. material

thru

9

Russian of

performs

the

same

function

a closeout

discussed

here.

UeDris/Equipment For get lost

Traps

and areas

Nets of the LM, where was equipment used. for could float, was

inaccessible or to cause the

damage, with netting

debris snaps

netting and

This access

netting to

attached Photo of the 3

S/C the

removable in the

equipment. section

shows

installed

left-hand,

aft

LM. built no into the S/C and stowage gap or lockers hole into shall be

Compartments designed to permit

more

than

an 1/8"

inaccessible

Photo 24. CM Close-up View Closeout Panel, Left hand Equipment Bay

262

Photo 25. View of Overhead LM Ceiling

263

Photo 26. LM Environmental Control System, Showing Cover

264

265

areas. be stowed In became debris the

This in one loose guards

requirement the Apollo and

will

prevent

loss

of

small

items

which

might

compartments. CM spaceflight_: a loose cabin piece of Velcro that areas. apparently flight, As a result, which

floated

into
were

the

fan. over the

After the fan

(screens) Standard in

installed states

NASA be

Design

Bulletin manned

following

requirement

should

implemented Crew tected by of debris zero-gravity

spacecraft: ventilating other damage 45 tool access flight, to if parts through the requiredevices or jam fans shall be pro-

compartment screens or that could

to prevent entrance the fan blades during

conditions. to the allow guard for

Care guard, ments

should

be

taken Of

or removal dictate such

during

maintenance

access.

Wire/Tubing As tect

Protection where and items or shall Without Area feasible, wiring. are not closeout Where buried these so panels may be used not inaccesto pro-

indicated, tubing or the

exposed

provisions are

are

available, sible,

they _

completely

special Main wire 225

guards runs Ibs.

_u±u_u_ be

_,_±

_v_=_. in cable trays the to designed structure

completely deflection

enclosed andbe be

to

absorb

faired-into equivalent accessibility fire

asmuch size

as possible. leather and shoe rework

of

load

shall

a standard for troublefire

heel. during

Wiring ground

shall

allow

shooting

operations,

detection,

45Design Standard June 6, 1969).

Bulletin,

Serial

DS-79

(Washington,

D.

C.:

NASA,

266

fighting, shall shall with be

and

damage

assessment Consideration inspection of from CM

during of the the

flight. damage damaged

Appropriate

flight

tools

provided. visual

assessment area by

accessibility crew assessment

allow

or without Photo 27 Photo

assistance shows 28. shall of be

ground. 46 tray run; a S/C wire tray is

a typical

wire

shown

in Chafe

protection any likelihood shall

be

provided or

for

wiring abrading

and

tubing

where

there chafe

is

doors used

panels wire

them. might

Nonmetallic occur.

protection

where

chafing

Windows

Windows illuminators such as

may (in

be

used

interchangeably translations, and

with

viewports, Other like

portholes, optical

or devices

some

Russian

etc.). may,

periscopes, views from

sextants within a

telescopes

a window,

allow

outside

spacecraft.

Current In Gemini

S/C the

Use/Design United States, two, the have in the Mercury CM Spacecraft five as and the had LM one three. three window, The windows in the the Russian in

Spacecraft

Apollo had

spacecrafts Vostok orbital S/C;

reportedly three

windows

follows: four

windows of the

Voskhod 47

2; and The

portholes CM windows

compartment

Soyuz.

Apollo

46North Rev.

American 4, June

Aviation, 26, 1967.

Space

and

Information

Division,

MCR

A3834,

47William York:

Shelton, Washington

Soviet Square

Space Exploration, Press Inc., 1968),

the First Decade (New pp. 125-26; D. Viktozov, translation Aviatsiya of "V Otkrytom i Kosmonavtika, NASA Krasnaia

In Open Space--Voskhod-2 Spacecraft Design Kosmose--Ustroystvo Korablya, "Voskhod-2,"

Vol. 48 (1965), pp. 17-19, NAS_ TT F-10, 216 (Washington, D. C.: June 1966); and Tass Report: "On the Road to Orbital Stations," Zvezda, No. 269 (13708), Nov. 17, 1968.

Photo 27. Wire Trays Shown in CM Mockup

267

Photo 28. S/C Wire Tray Shown in Lower Part of Photo

268

269

are

illustrated

in Five

Figure windows

6: are provided through the inner structure

and and

heat shield of the Apollo CM: two forward viewing two side observation windows and a hatch windcm ..... glass with inch of of 2000°F. silicon contains

The inner windows are made of tempered silica 0.25-inch-thick double panes, separated by 0.i space, and have a softening temperature point The outer windows are made of amorphous-fused with a single 0.7-inch-thick pane. Each pane

an antireflecting coating on the external surface, and has a blue-red reflective coating on the inner surface for filtering out most infrared and all ultraviolet rays. The glass has a softeninq temperature of 2800°F, and melting point of 3110°F. 48 The Figure are Ii location and of the 2. Figures three Their 3Ba Lunar Module windows are shown in

Photo in

specific and 38b .

shape These

and cross:section windows are further

illustrated

described:

Two triangular provide visibility and docking phases approximately

windows during of the

in the descent, mission.

front face assembly ascent, and rendezvous Both windows have area; they are

2 square

feet

of viewing

canted down to the side to permit adequate peripheral and downward visibility. A third (docking) window is in the curved overhead portion of the crew compartment shell, directly above the Commander's flight station. This window provides visibility for docking maneuvers. All three windows consist of two separated panes, vented to space environment. The outer pane is made of Vycor glass with a thermal (multilayer blue-red) coating on the outboard surface and an antireflective coating on the inboard surface. The inner pane is made of structural glass. It is sealed with a Raco _eal (the docking window inner pane has a dual seal)

48Apollo _erations Handbook, Description, SM2A-03-Block Rockwell Corporation, 10.3, 10-15-70), pp.

Block II-(1)

II Spacecraft, Vol. i, Spacecraft (Downey, Calif.: North American NAS 9-150, Exhibit I, Paragraph

NASA Contract 1-38.

270 Figure 38 DETAILS OF LM WINDCWS

a.

FRONT WINDC_J

f

®

®

®

®

f
/INNER PANE

/

A
A -

_/

//:COATINO
/ IDEFOGGING "

L_ NDING POINT DESIGNATOR, (LOOKING OUTBOARD]

SECTION , A-A ...... -_--_

• BLUE-RED ............

COATING 30OLM6.!S

b.

DOCKING

WINDOW

:_.._
A'. ';' :_ *1 tllll o

_..:,.,_.__:-,._.._.:_.:._, ___%.%,
Iltlll o II * _k_ll! DOCV,,,G

.
_ 'h___ /

-...........................
MULTILAYER

_ .'_t'_{_t\JX_-_
.__--_-

-+--. ))A/,?._ _-_ =-_J't._-V/i /.F
r._ -_-_"-"J'='_ "

....

D=_,_, =

.
_ _

..........
ANTIIEFLECTIVE

,_<'____

_-_:'--_

-

___ __,.,

_

.tiJ

.A

...... ... ..... ._

"

COAT,NG


Source:

-

:E<TO"'-A

ANTIREFLECTIVE COATING &-300LM4"120

Apollo Operations Handbook, Lunar Module, Vol. I: Spacecraft Description. Apollo Document LMA790-3-LM (Bethpage, N. Y. : Grumman Aerospace Corporation, NASA Contract NAS 9-II00, December 15, 1968)_ p. l-ll.

271

and panes General

has

a defog bolted

coating coating to the

on on

the the

outboard inboard frame

surface surface.

and Both

an 49

antireflective are

window

through

retainers.

F ujcti]6ns

and

Requirements can serve and any of the following for taking use functions: in manned

Windows i. As

in spacecraft general

observation and

viewing

ports, and and and for

surveillance or 2. For technical viewing

reconnaissance, motion rendezvous

documentary pictures. sequences which

photographs, during S/C

television docking use and of LM

require alignment cedures 3. When they and in can also

or provide devices as shown

visual (i.e., in Fig. with aid as the

alignment the 39). alignment crew in Apollo

and CM

optical docking pro-

combination serve to

marks

on

the

windows, maneuver,

monitoring for

entry

function

a visual

reference 50 entry.

orientation

during 4. For such (CSM

a manually

controlled and

visually as those

examining experienced the

photographing during iX-A the

mission

anomalies,

Apollo

13 Mission "angry

dar_Lage) and ).

Gemini

Mission

(the

alligator"

49Apollo Operations Handbook, Lunar Module, Vol. I: Subsystems Data, Apollo Document sequent Contract 5O (Bethpage, N. Y. : Grumman NAS 9-1100 9-15-70), pp.

LM-6 and Subsequent, LMA 790-3-LM6 and SubCorporation, NASA

Aerospace i-i0.

Skylab Operations Handbook, Volume i; Command and Service Description (Downey, Calif. : North American Rockwell Corporation, March 15, 1971), SM 2A-03-Skylab-(1), SD 69-248-1, Contract NAS 9-150, S/A 500.

Figure

39

LM/CMS

DOCKING

ORIENTATION

AND SIGHTING

LM
_V

STAND-OFF

CROSS-ICSM ACTIVE DOCKING [ALIGNMENT TARGET

1 } CLUSTER2

LM ACQUISITION AND ORIENTATION LIGHT

" (CSM) _y %. \

CREWMAN OPTICAL ALIGNMENT SIGHT (CSM) -Z

:LUSTER LM

(C'SM) -y

(CSh'_)

-Z

u_

QUAD A

LM u_ CREWMAN A-tlGNMENT +Y LM CLUSTER4 C SM,,"LM INTERFACE STAND-OFF CROSS ELM ACTIVE DOCKING] J AUGNMENT STR,PS-IAL,GNMENT XA = 1110.25 TARGET QUAD B +Y (CSM) CSM-ACQUISITION AND ORIENTATION LIGHT (TYP) = 312.5 X E

/

/

SIGHT

XA = T422.75 - XE

IX) --3 °

Source:

CSM/LM Operational Data Book, Vol. II, LM Data Book, SNA-8-D-027 Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation, Revision 2, July 1971)

(IT) (Bethpage, p. 2-13.

N. Y. :

273

5.

For or

use for

in

performing visual Visual and

special

experiments, (i.e., Astronaut area of

either the

photographic Experi51

testing

capabilities Acuity and the

Gemini

ment 6. For

S-8/D-13, observing and

Visibility). the vehicle rate, in landing LM is

monitoring

on which the

descending and the

allowing aiding lunar of in

assessment choice

descent as a LM

otherwise LM on the

landing Figure 40

site, shows

surface. vision

simulated triangular

Commander's window. 7. For and 8. For performing Russian use

field

through

left-hand

manual

S/C

navigation,

as in

the

Gemini

Program

Voskhod

flights. monitoring with are crew activities during hazardous or visual observing

in visually tests, either Windows and

ground

closed-circuit

television aid S/C in

observers. evaluations mockups. 9. For use,

also

of considerable in S/C or

testing

performed

configured

after support
.....

spacecraft crews

landing,

of visual rescue

signals

between and

ground
xzl _" _1-/-

or postflight

swimmers,

i0.

For

use

in verifying during mirrors

S/C

altitude Depending be required

aborts on to

and the

deployment

of connecessary

parachutes figuration, field

entry. may

spacecraft's the

accommodate

of view.

51Seibert Q. Duntley, et al., Experiment S-8/D-13, "Visual Acuity and Astronaut Visibility, " Gemini Midprogram Conference Report, Part II Experiments. Oceanography, 3-43. NASA-MSC (Visibility Laboratory, Scripps Institute of University of California, February 23-25, 1966), pp. 3-1,

'7

"
/ _.i_

CDR'5
"

WIlNDO%_

VOEW.FOR..APO-LLO
,.

1_.
LPD, DEG

(ALTITUDE 6000 FT) ..

/
"-

_

_o
LA

t j-....... i l -t"
NG"I

/

+

HOR,Zo_
" "

. . . .

. •

'.

--J.,-S ITE, 44°: " " .... " " " :" "-i--/ ,]-....

t_

,,
t

. . . ....:_ j... ...._,,:.._5_:._ ---_l:l..)p_,, ._,


• .

, "•
--.

_' .=> __
_

":,,
_ ,

:,..._.,
/

.....:....
+ .

......

:..-

..' ..

. . +.

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...:!_

TRIPLET -- .

-soi _.m+- E+ B,;L.,..O.C.._A.;G " I
" ' I

BO'DY :!

"

..._y --

""

,._T.+. :" . " " . .. :.. " ' ..' . ..":'":.'i-_ :...
-Apollo
• .

i:; --:.
Texas:
. . , + . • . + ..

"" ' " "
NASA.MSC,
•. .

" -- -L'_-November
. .

i

"
12, 1970.),
, -

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+

_">"

Source:

14
.

and

!_i +Kiselan
" .-. .

.ReVlew,..(Houston_

.

+

+ .

.

.

.

.

" .

, -+

-

+

275

Ii.

As

a general

comfort

and

psychological

aid

to

crewmen

by

allowing 12. Should current shields visual

outside the

viewing. allow takeoff and then landing windows the similar (or to

spacecraft performance

high if

aircraft, have to

wind-

feasible)

would In

satisfy such of

attendant

requirements. entail direct

aircraft, vision much

requirements the time and fire for taking

typically off, ground

navigating, objects, of

judging landing this type field

altitude, and, should than the to

detecting extent, much

identifying 52 control. and

some offer

Spacecraft unobstructed It available space would be

greater available.

visual to

currently amount of

valuable window

compare of but in

visual with

field total viewing

through these for

areas

known such

spacecraft, data the of 53 are pilot the The

within

spacecraft, that less

lacking. of

Chapanis

indicates, Constellation the pilot by

example, can see DC-7 is

aircraft one-eighth one-tenth.

a Superaround him&

than

space window measure h_ht.

of

the

scarcely

or windshield of (2) the distance

area,

itself,

not

necessarily _

a significant _ (I] _v_

..........

_ ..... _I_.T

of (4) and

the

eye

from

the

window

or windshield, of 54 the

(3)

obstruction and (5)

to crew

vision, position

light

transmission within

qualities the S/C.

windows,

orientation

52j. W. Wulfeck, et al___.__%., Vision in Military Aviation, WADC Technical Report 58-399, Astia Document No. AD 207780 (Ohio: Wright Air Development Center, Air Research and Development Command_ WrightPatterson AFB, November, 1958), p. 165.

53Alphonse Wadsworth

Chapanis, Man-Machine Publishing Company,

Enqineerin@ July 1969),

(Belmont, p. 4.

Calif.

r

54Bennett,

Degan,

and

Spiegel,

_.,

p.

258.

276

Since type be

there

are

so many

spacecraft

configurations, for

and

possible must The

missions

and usages, to meet the

specifications design protection criteria or

window/windshields by these

developed

dictated viewing

factors. may, for

degree example,

of micrometeroid influence the

crew

position

window

design is

significantly. an excellent for of and source of general 55 Other crew as affected visual

Vision criteria, requirements position, by these

in Military and windshield to be restraint

Aviation design

requirements are: fields mode,

aircraft. including position

considered and optical area suit

view, eye and

wearing

factors_ relative area on

clarity

requirements

characteristics contact_ effect of

desired_ window

susceptible factors,

to micrometeroid weight of

structural

implications,

etc. _ sealing heat leak when

of windows or possible or

to prevent

contamination

outgassing on

sealants_

condensation/defogging by shades_

problems eye

window

structure from

open direct and

covered sunlight_ potential

physiological

protection and window

intense

light for

occlusion internal

requirements damage to the

hardware areas

implications_ through

the

inadvertent During were : i.

crew_Lan

uu_lu_u

uu_±_

o_uxv_=_. several problems found with windows

the Apollo

Program,

Throughout became

a number

of and

the

Apollo

flights,

the

S/C

windows An

contaminated

coated

to varying

extents.

_ulfeck_ op. cir., Military Standard MIL-STD-850A, "Aircrew Station Vision Requirements for Military Aircraft," June 8, 1967, and Military Standard Standard MIL-STD-1472A, "Human Engineering Design Criteria for Military Systems, Equipment and Facilities," May 15, 1970.

277

analysis gassing After to the

of from

the the

Apollo RTV

8 contaminants sealant compound similar oils

confirmed was the

that major

out_56 cause.

the

Apollo

12 mission, of of

problems higher

were than

attributed on

a concentration inside surface products near in the

silicone the hatch

expected oils were thermal

window.

These used to

outgassed blankets clouded 2. In

from window. during window the

the 57

materials Photo

seal

29 shows 13

the

hatch

window

flight to the

the

Apollo

Mission. caused by these comIn

addition

contamination windows was blanket areas were to

pounds, later windows 3. The and CM

moisture missions, and

on

a frequent was added

problem. to cover

an insulation wall windows The

surrounding viewing

prevent

condensation. during area rendezvous immediwith

forward

critical spacecraft to be and

docking

sequences. these

internal tended

ately

surrounding

windows brackets, use of

cluttered other

mirrors, which ensure field during

miscellaneous clear

cameras, window. preserve which

items should

obstructed access of view

the and

Designs the

to window from the

areas

available results

"erosion"

generally

development.

4.

The was

optical less

quality desired

of

the for

CM

window

material, high quality

AI-Si02, photographs

than

obtaining

56Apollo 8 Mission Report, MSC-PA-R-69-1, prepared by Mission Evaluation Team approved by George _ Low, Manager, Apollo Spacecraft Program (Houston, Texas: NASA, MSC, February, 1969), pp. 6-4.

57Apollo 12 Mission Report, Team approved by James A. Program (Houston, Texas:

MSC-01855, McDivitt, NASA, MSC,

prepared Manager, May,

by Mission Evaluation Apollo Spacecraft pp. 14-20 - 14-21.

1971),

Photo 29. CM Hatch Window Contaminated During Apollo 9 Mission

278

279

with

resolution to

camera change

experiments. the hatch window the

As

a result,

there

was

a proposal on later

material

to quartz and coatings of

spacecraft In to

to some

improve

optical certain

quality window

camera have

focus. been found

instances, with

interfere

particular

types

photographic 5. Provisions undesired There were

experiments. should solar be and made other for sealing windows from sources. in used

external on on CM

illumination Apollo

continual

problems seal Even

Missions shades through glare

maintaining to occlude shades

a leak-proof the light.

the

aluminum leaks

small create

light

these

are

a nuisance, as visual

excessive

on

instruments,

as well

discomfort.

Sharp

Edges_

Corners_

and

Protrusion

Hazards

Basic

Factors Sharp corners and on or the edges, inside potential involved burrs, and and excessive of to protrusions where on crewmen The

equipment, may venture,

outside

spacecraft and

present hazards

hazards are

crewmen abrasions, and

garments.

physiological splintering, Snagging and cause may

cuts,

bruises,

punctures, infections.

concussions, cause

lacerations, damage, or from

etc., throw

potential off

physiological garments,

a person In

balance,

falls,

tear

impede

movement. area,

time-critical of

cases, movement

such

as when have

evacuating serious

a hazardous

impediment may be

could

repercussions.

Garment

tears

28O

particularly ineffectiveness other edges and

hazardous in the

for

personnel thermal

in

space

suits,

or

could or

create damage Sharp wiring,

suits,

insulative to

barrier, the

functional and other Such corners

equipment can also

mounted damage

or attached unprotected

garment. cables,

spacecraft

equipment. hazards as these should obviously be avoided by good design--

proper and in

precaution the general or

should crew

be

included

in

the

basic

design should

of be

equipment readily human

station. as

Design

criteria for

available engineers,

identifiable others

standards with for

structural design

designers, and

and

dealing

spacecraft

equipment.

One powerful architects, Mechanical the American is and

precedent engineers) the on

designers found in

(industrial the Standard on Surface

designers, Handbook Texture, 58 Manual. etc., of or are the for and This edges

was

Engineers, Standard one only which where

American American for

Standard Drafting smoothing, to affect Such the

Standards deburring, the

precedent _nd corners

calls

"essential" of the item.

appearance processes on

mechanical expensive

performance and may cause

smoothing proper

lessening

of

emphasis

58Theodore Baumeister (ed.), neers (7th Ed._ New York: Surfa--------ce Texture, ASA Mechanical Engineers, in Places of B 46.1 1962)_

Standard Handbook for Mechanical EngiMcGraw-Hill, 1967); American Standard_ (New USA York: The American Society Standard, Requirements for 1968. of Sanitation

Emplo_ments_

USAS

Z 4.1,

281

machining nation of

of the

surfaces

which

truly for

require

such

processes. is left to

Determithe

requirements

such

operations

designer. Specific corners are design not requirements in the for eliminating sharp edges and and for criteria these are

available

industrial, some

architectural, provide specific

engineering minimization available hazards or

literature. or elimination

Although

references no for

of protrusions, to follow

on design for making do for

guidelines them for

eliminating

acceptable. many and of the items used by industry little by in means the and

Standards consumers, information of way an of and

exist

aircraft hazards.

spacecraft, There what is

but

contain to

on these

a need

determine is required

extensive radii for

research edges and vary the

study and

specifically minimally shapes

corners,

acceptable for

surface Such to what etc.).

roughness requirements area of

values, may body

maximum depending hazard by the is

allowable on the

protrusions. and, perhaps, head,

application (i.e., is

the

presented

feet,

waist,

Physiological factors properties was hit. such of The

damage as: the the

hazards at which and

mentioned the object

affected is

_'_yu_H_ the object engineering skin

angle

_on_acted, the and

object

hit; should

the

force the and

with

which

research

include textures

physiological shapes on

effects pressures

of mechanical and loads,

surface in

allowable mentioned.

addition

to the

other

factors

282

Examples The in the

of Problems existence crew of unacceptable plagued hazards efforts is as the sharp CM edges, LM corners, S/C and protrusions as into typical a

S/C

station Such

and also avoid

development to list slip of

"generic" flight problems

problem.

have to

been

found A

spacecraft, found in S/C

despite this area

them.

follows:

S/C Review or Where Found Flight to CM S/C

Problem/Result Stowage Compartment R-8 where medical i09 a

Solution None kit ,

Implemented

S/C prior S/C 108, and S/C

known

108,

stowed had sharp edges. Kit torn during flight missions.

CM

S/C

i04 a

Stowage Compartment B-2 Protruding spring wire. prior Rough protrusions in stowage compartment R-4 (survival kit stowage): (i) Originally, screw heads were protruding into compartment, and kits were torn during removal. (2) Sharp edges on latching block of compartment R-4. Kits torn upon removal,

RTV compound applied to spring area.

A number of S/C to CM S/C I08 a

(i)

Screws sunk

counter

(2) Asbestos and flourel compound ........ to ^;-to smouhh it uut --Applied on S/C 108 thru II5A.

S/C i01 CARR

Delta

Phase

III

Sharp edges documented on three separate DR's-"Potential damage PGA gloves

Sharp nated

edges elimior caused

aLetter from E.

PD8/L837-PP5-69-266 R. Hood, NASA-MSC, Goodman.

to North NASA Contract

American NAS

Rockwell

Corporation, by PD8,

9-150.

Written

Rangel/J.

cont.

283 S/C Where S/C EVA Review Found 112 PDR and Subsequent or S/C Problem/Result Numerous in Service Bay where man works sharp edges Solution Round edges, to act Implemented and

corners

Module EVA crew-

add plate as a recess

into which protruding sharp ends of bolts would be buried_ and add cover over hinge fairing to preclude crewman or cable snagpoint.

Recommended

Criteria

The can be

criteria

recommended used until

below the

provide

a preliminary above

standard can provide

which an

temporarily and

study for

discussed a new for

engineering Human Corners, i.

physiological Design in

basis

standard. Quality, Edges,

Engineering and Protrusions This serve

Criteria Equipment is to

Surface

or

Hardware: minimum requirements and is used applies well as and

Scope: and to

criterion as of or

establish to

a general spacecraft to which

guide

design,

fabrication, which It as

installation by crewmen,

equipment exposure handled which human

or hardware is by likely. crewmen,

crew items

to individual "composite" arrangements 2. Referenced

hardware

configuration(s) present documents: to the

hardware user.

installation

a.

Human Drawing C.

Engineering Number

Design IOM32447, Flight

Requirements (Rev. Center, Number May A_

for

AAP

Experiments, Ala.: 1969), George p. 19.

Huntsville, February 58-27a, 13, 1970 28,

Marshall

Space

b.

Specification Change Proposal

Change Number

Notice 13332,

Engineering to SD69-315,

284

Apollo

Lunar

Exploration and Interface

Missions

Experiment Block American

Instruments II-CSM, Rockwell

Performance December Space c. USA 22,

Specification by North

1969. NASA Safety

Prepared Contract

Division,

NAS

9-150. for A Floor 12.1 Design and Wall

Standard,

Requirements and Human Toe Boards,

Openings, d. Military for

Railings, Standard,

1967. Criteria MIL-STD-

Engineering and

Military May

Systems, 15, 1970. and

Equipment

Facilities,

1472A, e. Wesley Guide

E. Woodson, for Equipment of

Donald

W.

Conover, (ist ed._

Human

Enqineering

Desiqners Press,

Berkeley:

University f. American The 3.

California Surface

1964.) ASA B 46.1 (New 1967). York:

Standard, Society

Textur_e

American

of Mechanical

Engineers,

Definitions: a. For used the the purposes may of this criterion potential the following if commonly they meet

terms

constitute for edges corners points edges

hazards as

requirements Sharp Sharp Sharp Jagged Snags

"unacceptability"

defined

herein:

Projections Projecting Projecting corners edges

290

Protrusions Rough Burrs Fins Slivers Splinters Metal Metal filings chips Imperfections 59 b. Edges and Corners meeting meeting plane. used end for of Hazards this and Means to Preclude listing of them. of two surfaces than not two of the same not plane; of the surface

Material

Edge--the Corner--the

of more

surfaces

same c. Nomenclature See

Table 12 at

discussion

for

frequently 4. General a.

used

nomenclature.

requirements: to be physically or as handSed, by here. operated, crewmen or shall

Hardware--All otherwise conform to used the

directly criteria

indirectly specified

b.

Equipment/hardware installations, which crewmen

confiqurations--Equipment layouts, and general exposed, conform

and

hardware to

configurations or to can be

are

directly to,

reasonably as

indirectly specified

exposed here.

shall

criteria

5_Definition ment_____s, op.

from cit..

Human

Enqineerin

q Design

Requirements

for

AAp

Experi-

291

c.

Use

environments--Environments

to

be

considered

as

the

following: (i) One-gravity orientation (2) (3) Zero-gravity Other could mission docking landing). (4) Maximum crewmen acceleration of mission to be considered be six during feet per gravity ground test conditions and spacecraft

configurations. conditions conditions be (g's imposed on by by the mission crewmen or which

reasonably phases and

imposed imposed

during

booster firings,

separation, launch and

undocking,

thruster

zero-gravity second.

phases

shall

d.

Edges? and

corners?

surface meeting

quality, the

and

protrusions--All provided so there rough can also by are

hardware a and no b

equipment shall edges points, to of be or

description installed fins,

above sharp snag injury tearing able e.

designed corners, other

and

burrs, properties

surfaces, cause not physical induce reason-

or

which shall excessive

crewmen. crewman

Properties apparel or

wear

during

use

and

activity. protrusions7 conforming shall be and to snagging as points--All in no hardware a

Projections, and and equipment b above

that so

noted are other

paragraphs protruding/ which

designed edges,

there or

projecting

corners,

knobs,

items

couId

292

create physical objects (i)

snagging, injury during

bumping, to persons

tripping, using use and face

or

otherwise by

cause these

or passing activity. sheets, to

reasonable ends of be

Exposed etc.,

hardware beveled

metal preclude

plates, snagging

shall

or rounded

or tripping (2) Ends of

hazards. and handbars shall where not such overhang overhang as are identified required, structure a projection the

rails posts

terminal would above. they

or uprights a projection to rails in

constitute If shall ends be

hazard, handbars

and to

turned arranged point.

the to

supporting

or otherwise hazard f. Alternate able cannot the (i) or

not

constitute

snag of

methods the to

alleviating

hazards--If d

for and

justifie above

reasons, be met

provisions protect

of paragraphs the shall hazards be

against means or is

identified,

following Recess area so or

alternative (inset), human cover guards, and metal

used: surround the

shield, contact the

otherwise possible. area with

not

(2)

Guard

hazardous

protective

shields, g. Sheet bent, Sheet metal rolled, metal to

padding, trim--Sheet or beaded shall sharp be

etc. metal to edges shall sharp be

bulbed corners preclude

eliminate

edges. and

welded,

soldered,

etc.,

smoothed trusions.

corners

or unacceptable

pro-

29 3

h.

Frangible will as

materials--Avoid or break in an

use

of

fragile

materials hazards

which such

shatter

accident,

leaving

those

described

above. 60

5.

Specific a. Edge

requirements: and corner radii Radius in inches inne_____r Remarks outer of

Application Exposed edges sheet metal, flanges, and other hardware

.06

--

Exposed corners of metal, boxes, equipment, etc. cut-(TBD) a .50 -Will vary with material thickness

Access holes, outs, etc.

b.

Protrusions Small protrusions: less than 3/16 inch long, wide (TBD) a inches .06 -Absolute minimum unless protruding corner is greater than 120 degrees

Large

protrusions: 3/16 (TBD) a (TBD) _

greater than inches long, inches wide

aTo

Be

Determined continued--

6QPreliminary version writer's subjective

requires values,

study and verification. and data from References

Includes 2b and 2d above.

294

Application Screw heads, bolts, nuts, nut plates, excess threads and rivets which can be contacted by crewmen,

Remarks All screw and bolt heads shall face outside of hardware, if possible. Where nuts, nut plates and threads are exposed, they shall be securely covered. Recessed heads or use of recessed washers are recommended. Overall height of heads shall be within .125 or covered unless over 7 head diameters center. or oval limited. over .25 recessed them. apart from center to Height of round head head screws is not Screw or bolt heads deep must be or have fairing over

Rivet heads shall face on all areas accessible

out to

crewmen and shall protrude no more than .06 unless spaces more than 3.5 head diameters from center to center. In all exposed areas where upset ends of rivets extend more than, .12, or .5 of upset end diameter if over .12, a fairing shall be installed over them. This applies to explosive, blind or pull rivets, etc. Upset ends have edges degrees or mum radius of rivets chamfered ground to of .06. must 45 a mini-

A maximum gap of .02 will be allowed only between one side of a fastener head and its mating surface. be prevented or Use of Allen

Burrs must eliminated.

heads is preferred. Torqueset, slotted or Phillips head screws must be covered with tape or other protective materials or be individually deburred prior to flight.

295

Application

Remarks Where bolts, etc., are torgued and inspection performed, the material used to signify that torgue has been applied or that inspection has occurred, shall not itself constitute a sharp edge. shall be ihat does

Latching

devices

All latching devices covered in a manner

not allow gaps or overhangs that can catch fabrics, or pressure suit appendages, or shall be designed to prelude catching of fabrics andpressure suit appendages. All surfaces and rounded edges and shall burr

be smooth, free. Lap joints in of sheet metal All surfaces

shall

be

mated

mismatching surfaces

adjacent

within .03 of flat surface at edges, or shall be butted or recessed. All exposed edges must be smoothed and radiused .06 minimum (as above), chamfered 45 degrees, or covered with an appropriate material to protect the crewman, his PGA gloves, or apparel.

Sheet metal and cabinet intersecting

structure, three-plane corners

box

Spherical welded or formed radii are required unless corners are protected with covers.

c.

Surface inches)

quality--the of materials

surface shall

roughness not exceed

height a maximum

(in microof 125

micro-inches.

Table Types of hazards and nomenclature used for them

12.

NO_SNCLATURE Machining finishing preclude

USED

FOR

HAZARDS

AND

MEANS

TO

PRECLUDE

THEM Methods of protection or guarding for protrusions, sharp edges and corners Inset items Set flush with

or manual used to hazards

Round edges/corners finishing callouts

Sharp Sharp

edges corners

Lapping Burnishing Polishing Grinding Chamfer Filing Sheet metal Turning Milling Buffing Superfinishing Hand Chase Sandblast

Break 'not

sharp edges to -radius

surface

Sharp points Jagged edges Snags Projecting corners Projecting edges Protrusions Protruding edges Sharp projections Rough surface Burrs Fins Slivers Splinters Metal filings Injurious imperfections

rolling

Finish al_-over Rough finish File finish Deburr Remove burrs Scrape Grind Lapped smooth or lapped

Cover with insulation Pad edges or corners Guard the area Wear protective clothing Ends turned into the supporting structure so as to not constitute projection hazard

flush None Polish Buff Burnish Hand chase Superfinish No sharp edges No pointed corners Fillets (inside radius) Rounds (outside radius) Round all edges

Bevel edges Wire brush Corners welded and ground smooth Dress smooth Grind Grind smooth perfect

297

CHAPTER RECOMMENDATIONS

IIl AND CONCLUSIONS

This includes The the I

thesis samples

presents of the

a framework broader areas thesis

for which

a crew such as

station

handbook should

and cover. of

a handbook

completed topics

sections

of The my

this content

serve

extensive

treatments of

covered. with

of the and

individual knowledge. and

sections

Chapters

and

II varied Chapter

experience the New these basic

I presented and control. contain

tools

concepts

for

crew

station a Crew of control definitive lists, maintenance for _

management Station Work

contracts essentials contract the and

for in

programs the

involving

should

Contract

Statement and as

i.e.: and

specified

general by

effort_

a management specifications

function in

organization as possible and

contractor_ desireable_ of

requirements drawings,

provisions

for

stowage and

stowage

serialization

equipment_ and

generation ICD's_ and

of performance use of mockups,

and

interface crew

specifications par_lclpamlon,

provisions _=v±_w=,

fiignt

a_lu _w

_uau±_

as those The as

described. experiences in the be be gained text_ and serve to problems to encountered poor the in areas such or as ICD's,

described

emphasize using similar and

tendencies

shortICD

comings, approaches of and the

thereby should should given

of use

those for

handbook.

Effective The management of the

considered be maintained, crew

circumstances. program

essentials attention S/C.

CSR's

specific as a major

support

to

the

station,

subsystem

298

In

Chapter

II

several were

aspects discussed.

of

the The

crew crew

station's station

general engineer

internal should for the be the

layout/configuration certain individual data sleep defined that the crew and

functional

volume operations. volumes station

requirements It is

are

satisfied that

task

subsystem

recommended for suit by

available stations, in the

on crew and

functional crew These

required be

donning, NASA, the and

other

areas

compiled include

handbook.

definitions

should

mission

or

operational of crew

constraints, the size data. and for

etc., Such

which

may data

influence may of be

the better

degree than

of no data.

generality For data NASA gather clature Air Force and as

qualified

anthropometry, S/C design is

a review needed with is and the

the

anthropometric be undertaken forces, the who nomenby

criteria soon

should U.S.

as possible. anthropometric

Agreement data

armed to

and and

use

recommended taken. of its be If design set up

clarify chooses

specific's data of should

of measurements in the makeup

NASA

to use then exchange criteria by in

or Navy lines NASA

criteria, for routine

definitive of data.

communication establish of

should a set of

formal

anthropometric of updating with the

a special The and content others

document of who this use

instead formal the should

the

current should

procedure be made

letter.

document

contractors

data. be taken on a range be of Apollo flight suits;

Measurements the tests in number and

type

measurements Apollo suits

should mobility also

studied ranges,

before reach and

beginning envelopes, etc.,

of the

actual

various of

suited the

conditions should

should be

be

made,

the as

data

documented. in the

Results handbook.

above

published,

and

updated

required,

299

For be used

crew as

compartment

close

out in

provisions, design. or tests

the

data

provided

should

design

requirements completion protrusions, and

S/C

I recommend of sharp edges, are

of research etc.,

on

the

physiological in this be

effects

so the

preliminary It

criteria then

thesis

substantiated_ into the

otherwise and used

completed. as a design

should for

incorporated S/C

handbook

requirement

all

contractors. In later chapters and and of the handbook outline, can and are I as shown be in Table i, more In

detailed human because that we

experience hard

requirements fast

should

documented. to establish

factors, it is

requirements field.

difficult strongly etc., into for on which

a generally document even if

subjective our

believe, in as

however, many areas By in

should

experiences, cannot and be

problems,

as possible, documenting the area can

these

assimilated insight the

requirements. those working

such be

experiences offered.

problems of generic

Completion of

chapter

lessons have in

learned occurred

should ih crew

offer

valuable reviews

examples and

problems

station

other

experiences. of industrial systems and badly or

Chapanis and

Psychology ____. _

discusses _r_;_= Consultants

the _lv to

reluctance _4gn_ industrial

government

organi-

failures: organizations from a human factors

government designed

often

see

systems

that

were

standpoint. However, government and industrial security usually discourages disclosure of such cases, Although the motivations are understandable enough, such policies are unfortunate, because one can learn a great deal from failures.

have

Nevertheless, it been constructed this is

is sometimes possible to study systems that and put into operation--and have failed. evidence, it at least provides We need

Although

after-the-fact

the human factors scientist with some basis for ar_ment. a systematic collection of instances of this kind. iAlph0nse Psycholoc_, pp. 73. Chapanis Kenyon , "Human B. Factors in ed. Systems (New York: Engineering," McGraw-Hill, in

Systems 1970),

DeGreene,

3OO

I recommend as outlined deal be in of

the Table applied

compilation i. This crew to

of task

the should

crew be

station

handbook by

be

completed with thesis for to or

undertaken and

personnel This

a good should

station

experience NASA

expertise. and

distributed

appropriate

personnel It in should

contractors, be sent

additions, the Air

clarification, Navy, and

or modification. others involved

also

Force,

crew

station

criteria

handbook

preparation. I recommend so its this thesis may be be sent to NASA,s for Office of

Furthermore_ Technology from a

Utilization of

contents industrial

reviewed and

applicability

standpoint

general

technology

useage.

301

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Gordon,

Jr.

"Astronauts

Summary

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Report,"

in Mer__

Pro)ect Summary Including Results of the Fourth Manned Orbital Fliqht May 15 and 16_ 1963. NASA SP-45, Project Mercury. Houston, Texas: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Manned Spacecraft Center, Part 20, October, 1963. "Crew Integration Plan for Skylab." Flight Crew Support Division. National Aeronautics and Space Center, Crew Stations Revised Patterson Damon A. October, 1970. Accommodations Handbook. AFSC DH-2-2. Air Force Systems Command, WrightMay i, 1971. on Body Measurements of Army Air Prepared by Crew Station Branch, Revision A. Houston, Texas: Administration, Manned Spacecraft

and Passengers edition. Ohio: Air Force of

Base,

"Effect

Flying

Clothing

Force Flyers." Report ENG-49-695-32. Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson

Ohio: Aerospace Medical Air Force Base, 1943. B.F. "The Minimum Proceedings of American Summer Meeting. Los Angeles,

Davenport, E. W. ; Congdon_ S. P. ; and Pierce, Volumetric Requirements of Man in Space," Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics_ Calif. : June 17-20, 1961. Design Standard Aeronautics Bulletin. and Space Serial DS-79. Administration, the 'Vostok'." Royal Aircraft

Washington, D. June 6, 1969. Translated by Establishment,

C. :

National

"Details of the Flight of from Pravda. London: Domey,

J.

W. Palmer May, 1961. and Vehicle Technology.

Richard D., and McFarland, Rosse A. "The Operator Design," in Edward Bennett, et al_.__.___., Factors Human in New York: McGraw-Hill, 1963. Designing for People. New York:

Dreyfuss, Henry. 1967.

Paragraphic

Books,

Duntley, Seibert A., et al. "Experiment S-8/D-13, Visual Acuity and Astronaut Visibility," Gemini Midprogram Conference Report. Part II: Experiments. Houston, Texas: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Manned Spacecraft Center, February 23-25, 1966. Elements of Design Review for Space Systems. Washington, D. C. : National Aeronautics tration, Office of Technology Utilization, NASA SP-6502. and Space Adminis1967. Manned the Effects Washington, Office

Fraser, T.M. "An Overview of Confinement as a Factor in Spaceflights, " Proceedinqs of the NASA Symposium on of Confinement on Long Duration Manned Spaceflights. D. C. : National Aeronautics and Space Administration, ¥ of Manned Space Flight, November 17, 1966.

304

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"Confinement 1 (1968),

and pp.

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Effects

as

a Factor

in

Manned

Space and

Flight,

"

NASA-CR-511. Administration,

Washington, D. July, 1966.

National

Aeronautics

Space

Garland, Kenneth. Manned Spacecraft. The Pocket Encyclopedia flight in Color. New York: Macmillan, 1967. Hertzberg, Human H. T. E. Factors, "Some ,,Dynamic Anthropometry of Working 2, 4 (August 1960), 147-55. of Applied Physical

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Anthropology Air Development 1954.

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Human

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G.

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Human

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Human

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Human

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30 5

Lunar

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"

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Van

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307

APPENDIX

A 504,

PORTIONS OF APOLLO 9 MISSION AS CM I04/LM 3 STOWAGE LIST

: ° 0,00°,

,:_°, ,0,°

._,_

....

• _

-..b:.5:.:°:°:+bb:. :.p:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:°: °0°°°0.%,,,°,000°,.,,, :::::::::::::::::::::::
°°,° °°,0,°.°0%°°0°%00 .... °°00,,, "0°0°°°°'°°°°0°o°.°0%°

o

:':°:':°:':':':':':':':

IN_OBM_%'I_0NSRF-_T FOR COMPOSITE APOLLO STOWAGE •LIST

The attached oomposi'_e Apoilo Stowage List is a complete CM/LM Crew E_uipnent Stowage Lie_ compiled for _he • appropriate Apollo M_eeion identified on the document. To provide understanding of the complete document, the following explanation •List i_ broken down as follows: LIST A - CM LAUNCH STOWAGE LIST Sec See Sac See _ 2 3 4 Stowed Operational GI_', Crew Apparel Stowed Operational C_: Stowed E×periment81 G_ is offered. The Apollo Stowage

.

LIST B -.LM EtuRTH LAUNCH STOWAGE LIST . .. Sec See See See I 2.5 4 Stowed Operational GFE Not Applicable Stowed Operational CFE Stowed Experimental GFE " " " . ."

LIST C - CM-LM TRANSFER LIST Sec See See See I 2 3 _ Stowed Operational G.w"2 Crew Apparel Stowed Operational CFE. Stowed Experimental GFE

LIST D - LM LUNAR LAUNCH STOWAGE LIST See I See. 2 Sec 3 See 4 Stowed Operational GFE Crew Apparel StoQed Operational 01_,] Stowed Experimental O]_ •

LIST E - L_I-CM TRAR_FER LIST ' See Sac See See I"2 3 4 Stowed Operational O_ Crew Apparel Stowed' Operational CFE Stowed _xperimental GFE " .... "

LIST F - CM ENTRY STOWAGE LIST

Seo See See See

l 2 5 4

-

Stowed Operational GFE Crew Apparel Stowed Operational CFE Stowed Experimental GI_E

Stowage List item number identifiers are assigned using appropriate I_C division or Contracto_ code "SUPPLYING DIVISION CODE A - Flight Grew Support Division B - Crew Systems Division C - Biomedical Research Office : ITEM'NUMBER CODE

numerical numbers preceeded by a responsible

COMAT STATUS CODE A - Approved P - Pending Approvel 0 - Open (no COMAT st%bmit%e_l) M -Metal (no CON_&T required) " " %/ - Waived.

D - Space Physics Division . E -Instr & Elect Sys Div F - Structures& Mechanics Div G - Luna_ Surface Project Office H - Guidance & Control Division" "r - Not used • J - Earth Resources Div 0 - Other (Cqntraetors ) ],T0q_: If unit weight •stated is estlm_ted, * will appear, ahead of weight entry,

[.. See I ,' O100 to 0199 0M Stowed Operational GFE :/ I000 to 1999 LM Stowed Operational GFE ": ' "' Z. See II " 0200 to 0299 0few Aplmrel See Ill _' ' 0_00 to "039_)_, " "." 6300 "co 6399) _ Stowed Operational CFE "" 3000_o 3999 LM Stowed Operstlonsl CFE . See IV 0_00 to 0499 CM Stowed Experimental GFE _000 to 4999 LM Stowed Experimental GFE.

'

.

"

"

. . _ ....

-

Oao _o

RPT V!9-3O-911D

_ MISSION

APOLLO STOWAGE LIST AS 504 CM 104 AND LM-3

PAGE DATE 03-04-69

I

LIsT SEC

A I

CM LAUNCH STOWED PART

STOWAGE L_IST GFE NOMENCLATURE STOWAGE LOCATION " UNIT WEIGHT l.TO QTY/ SC 2 GFE/ CFE COMAT

OPERATIONAL NUMBER

ITEM NUMBER A 0100.

SEB33100100-203

CAMERA_I6MN AQUISITION

•DATA

1-B811-B3

0

A 0101.

SEB33100125-205

MAGAZINE,16MM ACQUISITION

DATA

5-AT/I-B3/S-BB 3-16MM FILM BAGS{AT)

,97

14

A

A 0102.

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LENS,18MM

BB

.56

I

A

A 0103o

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A

A 0104o

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CABLE,OAC

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2

A

A 0105.

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LENS,SMM

WITH COVER

B3

°68

2

A

A 0106.

SEB33100051-204

MIRROR,RIGHT CAMERA

ANGLE

16MM

B3

.16

I

A

A 0107,

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CAMERA,TOMM W/8OMM LENS

HASSELBLAD

B3

1.90

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A

A 0!08.

SEB33100068-203

MAGtTOMM TYPE

FILM

CASSETTE

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I 59

5

A ©

J

RPT VI?-30-911D YMISSION LIST SEC A 2 ITEM NUMBER A 0200. CM LAUNCH CREW STOWAGE LISI

APOLLO

STOW'AGE CM

LIST AND LM-3

PAGE DATE

17

AS 504

104

03-04-69

APPAREL NUMBER NOMENCLATURE STOWAGE LOCATION UNIT WEIGHT ,06 OTY/ SC 3 GFE/ CFE C OMAT

PART

SEB12100033-201

SUNGLASSES

SUNGLASS

POUCH

A

A 0201.

SEB12100034-203

POUCH, SUNGLASSES

ON

_GA

,05

3

A

0202.

SEB12100039-002

CHRONOGRAPH

ON

WATCHBAND

.13

3

A

"

A 0203°-

SEB12100030-202

WATCH

BAND

ON

PGA

0.02

3

A

A 0204°

SEBL2100051-204

PENS,DATA

RECORDING

ON CREW

.05

3

A

A 0205.

SEBI2].'OOOB2-30[

PEN,MARKER

ON

CREW

3

A 0206.

SEB12100081-301

PENCIL

ON CREW

r

A 0207,

SEB3310004T-302

SLIDERULE

ON

CREW

I

A 0208.

SEB12100085-301

BAG,MOTION

SICKNESS

PGA

POCKEI

3

_,PT Vl_-30-9.'.,.ID MISSION LIST S_C A _ CM LAUNCH STOWAGE L!_T CFE NO,.".IENCLATURE

APOLLO AS

STOWAGE 504

LIST LM-3

PAGE DATE

23 03-;0G--69

Cr,_ 106. AND

STO_'_ED OPERATIONAL _ART NUMBER

:_TE;-I I'_U B E ?, _"_ 0 0307.

STOWAGE

LOCATION

UNIT WE _GHT

QTY/ SC [

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COHA7

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APOLLO AS

STOWAGE 504 CM

LIST 104 AND LM-3

PAGE • DATE

3Q

03"04-69

LIST SEC

B i ITEM NUMBER

LM

LAUNCH

STOWAGE

LIST GFE NOMENCLATURE STOWAGE LOCATION UNIT _EIGHT 4.40 _TY/ SC 2 GFE/ CFE COMA

STOWED PART

OPERATIONAL NUMBER

B

1013.

A6L-201CO0-09

EV

VISOR

ASSY.

IN HELMET BAG
J

STOWAGE

0

B

I0_4.

ATL-203025-01

GLOVES,EV

IN HELMET BAG

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2.69

2

A

B

1015o

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GLOVE

S_EV

IN HELMET BAG

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_

A

B

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MAINTENANCE

IN CDRS STOWAGE

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FITTING,PURGE

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DATA

FILE

i

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RPT

vlg-30-911D MISSION

APOLLC AS

STCwAGE 504 CM

LIST 104 AND LM-3

PAGE DATE

_g 03-_04-6g

LIST SEC

C 2 ITEM NUMBER

CM

TO

LM

TRANSFER

LIST

CREW

APPAREL PART NUMBER NOMENCLATURE STOWAGE LOCATION UNIT WE IGHT _TY/ SC GFE/ CFE CC]MAT

B 0204.

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SHB42100121-201

OF_

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OR

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POWER CONV.

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2

A

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SCISSORS

ON

PGA

.53

l

B 0206.

14-0108-02

UCTA

ON

CREW

.43

2

A

B 0207.

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PENLIGHTS

ON

PGA

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2

A

B 0208.

SEB13100084-202

ASSY,BIO

BELT

ON

CREW

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2

A_

C

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,'_':_._i-:-.;._;:_;:'_:_._, - _A_-_;:, LM-,3" DATE 03",_04-69

-? _,-- . .

LIST SEC
".!

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TO

CM

TRANSF'ER

LIST" GFE " . -, STOWAGE LOCATION :" ...-. .QTYI SC 1 " GFE-I CFE , " COMAT

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STOWED PART

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NOMENCLATURE

-

UNITWE I.GHT

"

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AS

504

CM 1.04 AND LM-3'

DATE' 03;04-69

--.-.

STOWED PART

OPERATIONAL NUMBER

NOMENCLATURE

STOWAGE

LOCATION

UNIT WEIGHT 1"70

"

QTYI r SC 3

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SEB33100100--203

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APPENDIX SAMPLE STOWAGE

B NOTICE

LIST REVISION

• "i

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3-04-69

GO 0

321

APPENDIX PORTIONS OF SKYLAB

C STOWAGE LIST

MANNED

SPACECRAFT

CENTER

\

_b" N
HOUSTON TEXAS

National

Aeronautics

and

Space

Administration

"

__"_" '_

TheData

Format of this Document is Intended to,Highlight: @ Weight Data Status and CompariSons by Presenting Both Specification Weights and Estimated or Actual Weights ® Quantities Launched and Stowage Locations - ByModule e Inflight Transfer Quantities and Stowage Locations - By Module

.

_ Deactivation Stowage Locations and Quantities - By Module as well as Command Module Return Stowage Configuration o Cumulatlve Quantity Totals - By Module - For all Stowed Items during Launch, Active.Orbit, Inactive Orbit, and Return

CO FO LD

iii

i SKYLAB PROGRAM SL-1/2 SL--1/3 PAGE DATE

SL--1 OPERATIONAL
NOMENCLATURE ITI:'M ITEM NO. .CAT. S L UNIT SPEC WEIGHT (LB_

SL--1/4

I-SL-002

AND EXPE,RIMENTAL
UNIT EST/ACT WEIGHT/CODE (LB)

GFE fCFE STOWAGE-E-L_T..______
STOWAGE LOCATION REMARKS SL 112 SL 113 SL i/4

I TOTAL I FLIGHT , n_ i .....

t

PART

NUMBER

(DIMENSIONS-INCHES)

i LAUNCH RETURN

L

I

O

R

L

O

R

[ I

/

O

R

NOTES SEC1 ION REFER TO

Q Q

PRELIMINARY LOCKER LOCATIONS ARE INDICATED FOR CM STOWEDITEMS. CHANGEWITHOUT CCB APPROVAL; HOWEVER. SCG APPROVAL IS REQUIRED,

LOCATIONS ARE SUBJECT TO

"NOT ON BOARD" (NOB) ITEM MISSION REQUIREMENTFOR WHICH STOWAGE PROVISIONS HAVE NOT BEEN ESTABLISHED.

i
NOI ES: xc,_;'2 U]

SAtPL FOt; AI
:I.x

E]AD05-RO0 _0

SKYLAB PROGRAM SL-1 SL-1/2 SL-1/3 $L-1/4 OPERATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL GFE/CFE STOWAGE LIST
UNIT I NOMENCLATURE ITI_M .. SUPPL PART NUMBER BY SPEC WEIGI4T (LEt) (DIMENSiONS-INCHES) UNIT " EST/ACT WEIGHT/CODE {Lt_) TOTAL FLIGHT SL 112 1 I R SL 1/3 " SL I/4 STOWAGE LOCATION '

PAGE '1 DATE Gt*OECTO

REMARKS

iTEM

NO.

CAT.

t I

I

L I
___

O

L

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REFER

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(\') O,

SKYLAB _AOOS-RO040 OPERATIONAL • • " ITEM NO. CAT, NOMENCLATURE " • ITEM' SUPPL BY \ " PART f_UMBER (OIMENSIONS-INCHES) UNIT SPEC WEIGHT (LB) SL-1 AND " SL--1/2

PROGRAM SL:-1/3 GFE/CFE TOTAL FLIGHT QTY ..... LAUNCH _ETURN I_ \

" SL--1/4 STOW_A=GE LIST STOWA G E_O SL 1/3 SL 112". C _'_ION , St. 1/4 " '

' PAGE DATE"

_'a 040EC70

EXPERIMENTAL UNIT EST/ACT

" REMARKS

WEIGHT/CODE (LBI

' O R L O R L O ,. R . " " " 0208.C0.93 S015 ZERO SINGLE GRAVITY HUI_AN MRr.O CELLS L J_=--_, ' "

REFER NOTES

TO

.....

t

SECTION I ;4ENT

EXPER

0208•CL.00

C-ES

L EXPERIRENT PACKAGE DCHD 3605

MR60 I 6•50XtSQSOg •

22.000 9•06)

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i ['0 LISTING,, ,-..1 ._

,:" -: .:

328

APPENDIX

D

PORTIONS OF NASA MEMORANDA CONTAINING PRELIMINARY STOWAGE LIST INFORMATION

__!,:_.._._,._.._i_. .. i_ _'-

..

- •_ ._

y.•.- .•:._ ::

:_ .. _"_.;i"..'.; • .:.;.•:,-:_._L'_'.'.. _:-_';• -'_/'. =_ ,_4..:.." -..._:_•.'_...'-_:_.>_,:-'.:_-._-n'_::.•_: .

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329

71L'" l _ I =-.., f&C_ C,_. .,_.6,,',/_ _v _,f_. o _,_. z &
._'o : Distribution DAT_:Mey 29, 1969. In reply referto: PD8/H]974 ..

._:v.o_,c PDB/LM, Crew Compartment Project Engineering :

_U._sJ_CT:Prel imi nary

!.t.i stowage .• I i st

for

Apollo

lunar

extended

mi ssions

(ALEM) . °

Reference is made to GAEC final report LRP 39"-I,"LM Modification Study for Extended Lunar Staytime," dated April l_, 196_. A Pre|i-ninaryR.equlrementsReview meet.ing for LM-10 and subsequent modifications was held at MSC on l.iay0, 1965. In response to action 2 assignments at thls review, ASPO and FCSD prepared a preliminary..., crew equipment stowage list to be used by GAEC in the redesign of the LM-IO _Jrewstai-ionand descen;"stage.stowage fore 78-hour lunar s,rfdce staytlme. l'hlswas prepared using the above reference and current LM stowage lists as guidelines, l'hepreliminary list is enclosed to this memorandum for your review and concurrence. Certain categories of stowage items require prompt MSC decisions "n order to finalize requirement.s so that GAEC may proceed wlth stowage provisions design_ Specifically_ concurrence is required in the following areas: o, Calr, e!'a.E._q_._ip_m:_nt: of 16ramand 7Omm cameras required and Number usage planned, Acceptability or unacceptability of ascent stage versus descent stage stowage of cameras end film, Decision as to magazine versus cassette film systems. Feasibi3:ity of individual GFE thermal and vac-um pro_zect Ira,for filrnif stowed in descent stage, b. .V!aste M__a_LLa/,__erjzen_t_: Requirement for nt;mberof urine bags, deface-. tlon collection devices, and emesis bags in light of new urine receptacle system .... Fecal collection receptacle assembly. --_ ' -.
r C" ir" . ' c. P_.S-L/C.'_FS_: Statement defin,ng v:eight growth of these units. An assumption o_..-,-modification program is that the volumetric and "dimen= "_ for PLSS anu--' 0,._ will not change. o_. sior, al sto;vage i n_..r,:,ces "_ _'_

....

e. d.

Crev, #_,qEa__re_]:Requi rements t eeL!t'.ej_J._j_c:' -Definition ' of

the fo;"

rL,r!lL_..r ie g:'ov,,th of

constant size and _,_,.'o:o'n_ wear ga:'rnents,

liquid

cooled

9errraents:and

flight

coveralls.

330 2

It is requested that your Office review this list and submit recommended changes to ASPO, PD8/Jerry R. Goodman, wlthin one week. Preliminary design review of the LM-IO configuration is schedu]ed for July l, ]969. Prompt decisions and inputs to the items requested in this'memo will ensure a successful _odification program.
!

_

_

/

._

:

f;'Jerr_ R Enclosu/'e •

Goodman

PDS: JRGoodman: (FWParker) :jgw

5-29-69

George W. Abbey concur.

and C. H. Bolcnder

have

rev{ewed

this memorandum

and

i

|

Basic

Assurn2._.orls for

Extended

Hi ss'ons

331

1. 2.

Retain

TV camera system

in

the

descent

stage.

.

.:.

The IGmm camera can operationa]iy recoi sequences of geological _d expeditions on the lunar surface for engineering purposes.

3.

The first installed primary ECS cannister will suffice throughthe • the first EVA. One spare in the ascent stage, remaining spares ]n . . the descent stage. " " Standard geological tools stowed in the MESA have been retaln_d. Additional scientific payioad is not presently defined. Certain GFE contingency items are required to enhance total mission
success. . _ . . . . : • :

4. 5. 6.
."

.

. ....

:7. The secondary LiOH cannister in the LM ECS will not be considered in support of planned EVA. 8. EVA Sequence - on a day involving LM flight maneuvers,, only a single EVA excursion of three hours maximum duratiori will be planned. Two short EVA, i.e._ three hours, excursions or one long, i.e., five hours excursion, will be considered for •days not involving I_Mflight maneuvers. All EVA's will be planqed with both crewmen descencling to the surface. The life support unit to be considered by GAEC will be the pres.entPLSS/ OPS combination with _odifications to PLSS which will extend usable 1ifetime. The [M must be capable of supporting a maximum of l] individual PLSS recharges, which is consister, with six two--man EVA excursions and finalt recharge of-one PLSS for orbital contincdency transfer where an 0FS was used on the final e_-ct, rslon.

9.

10.

-ll . The LH must be capable of supporting a maximum of seven cabin re.pressur'zations which is consistent With six EVAns and an equip_lent jettison. 12', The L_Imost be capable of sto_.,,ing the Constant Volume Suit in the ascent stage at earth launch.

-. STO_./AGE CATEoO,,IES
. . . . .

- • 3"32 : :
' -.

- Stowage

items in the ALEI,_ basic 1ist are identified in one of three

categories as fol]ows:

A:

Items wlth known requTr'ementand known configuration.

B:. Items wTth known requirement and unknown configuration.
• • • . -., ,. ...

C:

Requirement still in coordination.

-

.- !i'i "" " I :. i
in

i

All items aFe to be stowed at earth launch unless otherwise indicated
. . .

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57

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10

UNITED

STATES

GOVERNMENT

335

TO _o_

Memorandum
: See list attached : PA/Mafiager for Lunar Landing Apgllo SUBJECT: LMMP
I

NASA

Manned DATE:

Spacecraft _I_ _ 1 _[!_ to:

Center

In reply refer Operations PD8/$_988

Spacecraft stowage list

Program and GFE interfaces

Enclosed for your information, review_ and action_ as noted_ is a copy of the LMMP s_owage list for LM-10 and subs (enclosure 1). This list represents the best available definition of crew compartment provisions and LM ascent and descent stage stowage requirements. GAC is currently utilizing this list as the baseline for the design of LM-10 and subs which willbe presented to NASA at the LMMP CDR scheduled for approximately September i, 1969 . GAC has been directed to utilize the GFE design interface criteria provided by enclosure 2. A list of specific subsystem interface criteria or information for which verification or confirmation of validity is. required is provided in enclosure 3. You are requested to review this list and the design criteria, as soon as possible, and submit any comments_ corrections_ or proposed changes to PD6/Crew Compartment Project Engineering Group (X512!). Coordination of GFE to CFE interfaees_ S/C crew compartment requirement% and direction onthese interfaces and requirements to the.contractor for LMMP shall be coordinated through the ASP0 Crew Compartment Project Engineering Group (PD8).. Subsequent to the CDR this list will be published and maintained by the ASPO GFE Office (PF3) in a manher similar to the current Apollo stowage lists. You are also requested to supply (for use in the CDR mockup) the best available representative GFE for each Of the items listed_ as per your ..... _._on _ ............. responsibi! ity . Hardware should be delivered to _AC hy Aug. 15 or earlier: if possible. Hardware support shall be coordinated .through the GFE Office (PF3/J. Thompson, X6237).

=

Enclosures

(3) 7/30/69

es A. McDivitt

PD8:JRGoo_lan:jw

-._. _

Buy

U.S.

Savings

Bonds

P, Nularl, y on _he Payroll

Savi_Ns

Plan

-

Enclosure

1

List B (LM Earth Launch) UNIl" ITEI.IQTY' L"F --1"-:-' i TOTAL WT PART NUNBER

STOWED OPERATIONAL GFE

".

D.

1

NO!.II't;CLAT"URI"

LOCATIO,_[

P,MAP, E KS -................. -

'

......... I"_'7"7-SE'B""3'3"f6"6"I'O(_L_26"5 ".7 ............ I"I ....................... 0r-206 "

I GmmataX qols ti;;; D
' l(SmmMagazines

i...................................
i {A/S { Magaz:nes will be in sealed bags.

--: ..................... _ ....................................... _................... 2 i 2 . "1.0 I 2.0 .SEB 33100125-203 0r-205 i (140 ft)

3

l _ _'.'2.0 2.0 i!TBD

IGmm Magazines (/400ft)

/ iA/S i !

iMagazines wilt be in sealed baas

/_

I

0.6

0.6 !SEB 33100010

70mm Lens (for IGmm camera)

A/S

5 _,2, ,.

4.9 i l

9.8 :SEB 33100040

Camera, Luna- Surface Electric Hesselblad ' with 6Omm Lens ! Protective Cover, Reseau

I A/S 1 D/S

-

"'----G-'i_"-2- ......... SEB 3310004.6-301 ............. 0"_"2 ()".4
{
I

On Item _............................

I i 2

i 0.5

1.0 iSEB 33100293-30! i

Handle, Electr'c Hasselblad Camera

I A/S 1 D/S 1 A/S 1'D/S
[

i ,
. _ LO

8.

2

!: 0.2 i

0.4 ISEB 33100254-301 : L

Trlgger, Electric Hasselblad Camera

............... : ..................................................................... ,i -................................................................................................................ ', .10 : I 10 _ _ ' I.l_ I/_.O}SEB 331000825207 :} ; " Magazines, Lunar Surface Hasselblad 0 D/S 2A/S A/S _ ...........

o_ Magazines wil] be ':' n a seated ha_. _

-,9.3 :
;

9.3 i SKB 32100}-i"6 ........................................... Fii, e Assembly ' Flight Data

............................................................ low For 30_o :........... ( ..................... ?A] _VolUme growth

:i

LTst

8 (LM Earth

Launch)

STOWED EXPERIMENTAL (see note

GFE P"

1 on Scientlfi_Equ'ipment)

UNiT TEH 127 QTY ] WT .... 33.0

TOTAL W'i" ...... _ PART NUMBER -°__ Pallet " NOMENCLATURE ..... ,Assembly No, ] LOCATION _' REMARKS

!

133.0

]
'

TBD

l
Pal]et Assembly No. 2 D/S

. .......

_-'_ .......................

128_ ]

b133.01133.0

_i TBD

291

]

hi5.0 ....

15.0

!. TBD

Stereo

Camera

Assembly
i

D/S

(MESA)

Includes 2 casse_ conta i ners.

129.

2 ._'<1.4

2.8

TBD

Cassette Cassettes

Container

with

Z

D/S (MESA)

Part of

item

129

'J"

':

i

20.0

TBD

Cosmic

Ray Detector

Package

I0/S

'i

|
131 ] *]4.0
i

]4.6

TBD •

Mounting Cask

Assembly

RTG Fuel

ID/S

.....

: ..........................................

132

1

{ I,_25.5 }

25.5[ TSD

'--

,
!
i

I

i

I
]

Fuel

Cask

D/S

'

I

133

1

I"14,8

i I

14.8 I TBD I.

ule

As_ emb I y

O/S

; ...
UJ

'
-NOTE: .....

-T-- ......

.--.I-

f
"

SCI ENII"I ,m,,; EQU) PMENT IC

"_

,hq_e )iovs ons reflect the Ilwo-st case _' MESA desinn c_<o M=__._i .... u ,....... j.,. I ' ' ; ' i " a ....... ,,_A llll.]IIll _[Cll laUnch wel nt ror so en 11"ic e " wnc'h d-_g--_Ef-E--i-rrHe_-f-aces--_@r--s.a .... L^_ - • I • g _ qul proem:, ..... I "_ .... I --'_'_+_r-r-pcr_'nus'r--J-'ndi-v-i-d-_ra-l--S "C-.......... . _ • limit:. ;_e follriwin n _round "/IJIl_::) ...... ^-;"/ h__d,_'rr'_eCwilt'_--EcTj'Ug'f.G_i"%:6--{-_f.T_-f-v_t_-T'_--I I _l _ _1 _p --_ rot I bhh we • ,. .' i i:ablle, thrlee (3)[SRC's, ' [necessa,y i:o stow_,nterface and mouritin 9 _rY other scientific a loaded h:ngdtt:oPP°:at;r°nmenl'ler. ea,,inm_nt ,,,111 k^ ._¢g_]., be designed tO abcomodate • a SRC' An MESA,,sha]i additio • . _-Y , .nal. CFE brackety o f- prov,slons

ENCLOSURE 2

33B

INTERFACE

DESIGN

CRITERIA

THIS

ENCLOSURE PROVIDES IN DEFINING

(1)REFERENCES GFE INTERFACE

FOR UTILIZATION CRITERIA TION

AND CONFIGURATION CRITERIA SIDE

AND (2)

DEFINI-

OF SPECIFIC

TO BE UTILIZED OF INTERFACE, DICTATE SUCH

FOR DESIGN OF THE S/C WHERE THE SPECIFI[_ DEFINITION.

INTERFACE'S

Enclosure ITEM '1. :2. 3. 4. _FE DEFINITION See Note See Note -'r-,:--,','-'r Sketch ] ] (LID (LID REFERENCE 340-25114) 3L'0-25148) duri n 9 PDR 340-25114)

339 2

provided (LID

##
(MH0]-

See Note, i 03312-136) See Note Same -. Same as as

56. 78. 9.

I (LID 340-25146)See Item 9. Item 9. Item 9. See Appendix See Appendix See Appendix

Appendix "D 'K. "D r'. "D _.

"D E, .

Sanie as

NH0i-03248-136 Rev. A IRN 8461 (provided during PDR). See Appendix 30_ increase over existing volume Design for ]7lbs. maximum weight. See Note 1 (LID 340-25147) See See See Note Note Note | ] ] (LID 340-25114) ,.,
u

"D'!.

:lO. -I1. 12. 13, 14. |5•

";¢"<';r..... . , _..,., _,

MH01-03334-136 l.i) I'ltlU I --u,_l&u --

16,
17. 18. |920. 21.

See Note See Note

] 1 ] ) ] (LID (LID 3=,_-.'-_125) 3[.'-0--251 "°'2o)

See Note See See Note /'!ote

50}__Growth in Vo]un'e i.5 max design ;,:eight See N%te ] (LID
j-iIO- "Z Z ,.hj _' .... 5 r_,"]

-"

22.

1
i _

Appe.ndi

;,: _lBI]

340

$CI EN.'II F C EQUI PML--NTRE,U! REHEI..iIS

MESA stov_'age list items reflect the "worst, Max:imum earth launch weight for scientific ing CFE interfaces for same, is 400 pounds. hardware carried will be adjusted to satisfy following ground rules apply for CFE weight MESA shall be desTgned to accon:odate a SEC SRCIs, and mounting for a leaded hand tool tional CFE bracketryor provisions necessary other scientifi.c equipment will be charged payload.

case '_ design case. equipment, includIndividual S/C this limit. The apportionment: table, three (3) carrier. Any addi.to stow/interface to the scientific

Scientific For Designing

Equipment

Requirements Analysis

Appendix and for Mod }[i% Desigr,

"B"

I_V, St_ueJ:u:cal Snpport;

for Dynamic

IT_

QTY,. '.PER VEH[[CLE

UNIT WTo (EA_,±_,-_ _) 25-155 25-155

EARTH lAUNCH

LU_,_AR DESCE-N_T :'50-266

LUNAR ASCE}_ NA

PRIOR REF. CONTROL DRAWING #

!) SEQ Contslners' _" " a ) SEQ Compartment b ) ,_.u,Q Compartment 2) Sample Return

_/I -_II

2

50-266

LID-360__287_ -(Ii_[-4and Sub )

Con'tainers

(SRC's) .

:_ J

0-80( Lunar Launch) 0-29(Earth Launch

0-87

0-87

(0-175 )

LID- 360-22802

0-80(Each

Location )

3; Lunar Geological h _o'___.. _<._ Tool Carrier ..::;.bools as follows: T Carrier
.....C_

i

0-_25.4

0-25.4

0-25.4

N/A

LID-360-22807

;];coop.Small Scoop: Large Extens ;i.on Handle Tongs ' S%af-f'wi-T:;hamera C Scribe/Brush/Hand
_D.O_Oi'I

Mount Lens

4) Si'ereo Camera Assembly 9h_o ]_ilm Casse'[;'ts

0-i7.3 0- 3.2

0-17.3 0- 3.2

0-17.3

N/A 0- 3.2(Cassetts

onl_)

to

ADDe,

,,x .1_C}l .342

FOOD RE_"_I<u REt'IE!'_TS

A/S

STO._;IAG E l_r6vide for sto,vage of a volume of480 rein'mum dimensions 'n two axes of 4..g" 5.(;0 pounds. Stowage shall be n a CFE beta container by NASA. cubic inches of food, x 7.2.5 _ arid a weight v,h c_ can wiLh of

:

be prepacl,,ed

D/SS

TO;,IAG E

Provide for stov,,age of containers separate]y packaged in beta containers on the 14ESA pal lets which serve as replenishment to the A/S - CFE containers shall be sudk that • they can be prepacked Provide by NASA. four (4) (1) Volume in two containers sized as folÂows: minimum dimensions

of 480 cubic inches with axes of 4.5" x 7.25' zero

(2)

Design for weighl: of from GFE in each container.

(0) to 5.6

pounds

of

(3)

Design of pallet should be such can beempty or full for an A/S

that the container transfer.

FOOD EHVIRONNENT CRITERIA Maintain temperature max i mum. of food between +35°F Ninimun" to +90°F

:

i_:

343 _PENDI_ D

.

Thermal

Desi[<n C__.___.a _,o_, Ooerat!onal

Cameras

amd F±]m]

Or! uDo L:':.l-OCameras Film +30°F _30°F to +].20°F to +!] 0°F

!nbo tuo. Film - No low limit Max :i_.r;it of 70°F

(95°F for 15 re±n)

iii::/i!<_i_>_:_i<iiii_,_/• i!ii _¸_

345

L[_._:•_I'}_!=I_!:_ 3.2.2.1

LiOH

C,'._rtridge;

Functional

Eequ.i-r'emen_s __nc]_udir, g ].5._m_ N_ CC!2

Of..erating Fl.ui__ - inlet cond.-_tic.'.:s, and con-cani_.-;ants net Table l!.

3.3.!

Pressure Drop - 3,5 inches HpO at .7 ibs/min_ 90°F and 50")'$ relative humidi_y. Odor }]emo-¢al- Activated of the amount of LiO}{. Charces! shsi! 50 minutes. demonstrate ehaz'coej_not less

5.0 psia..

3.. 3.2

than

1.0% by weight

a min_'.,!L_n breakthrou@h

time of

'3¢3.3

Filtration in size. _ Endurance Reliability

- Ca_able

of reteining

all particles

28p, or greater

3.3-4 '< 3.4

- Per- table. .- _._ " .,._antime between failo.res 5 x lO6 hours. _

aJ--,_

,_-

.....

_

,ZM-O /[_',i ...... -'- o_L1 V_Y]

a

b_, O F.,

S" rs

Levi

_m",_tio n=l halves of PGA connectors; i2acfm of 02

3.1

Fq'essl;_-,-e l:;ro]p PGA; not greater at 3,5 psia iCgA maximDm figure !.

inc].nding both

that_ 4-.7 inches and 50°F, allowable

16;)_0 _,zitha f!o_._of

AP as function

of

in!st

flow

rate per

3.2 l

Leakage

~ MaxJmt_

allowable

PGA leakage

in a vacu_m

environ-

men_ saa!i be 0.0315 above cabmn pressure 3.3 "

ib/i_ _of 02 at 3.75 at 75_F ,..._,_:_ tested

psia or 0.18 psi _,.or 1.5 minutes.

Pressure Relief - PG]" PRV shall or, en and resea_ between 4.5 and 5,5 psig. PRV flow 3.6 _-'0.2 !bs/!_' of 02 at a PGA pressure o_ 5.5 psia _ . and a dovm,_,-.ear_ pressu.re _ " of less _" _ ,-_ U _._ O. 2 psia.. Carbon Dioxide - i!e.mina! limit of car]:,o._o dioxide partial. pressure at the PGA inlet shal] be 7.6_mn Hg, _ergeney limits per figure 2/ Partic_Aate Matter - A ma-<i,mtaof O, _5{: of the total =.;'low enter_rig the ru--.._ ..................... _s u_f_ _ t_,_.:'d '_=_=.__'e__s-,":d---<-.._. _:;_e,s_.,-_as,:•e_ of' . through a 28 micron absolute filter before en';erii,'gthe PGA.

3.4

:_

3.5

346

APPENDIX CM STOWAGE

E DRAWING

361

APPENDIX PORTIONS

F DRAWING

OF LM STOWAGE

VZB-b-tSZOZ(REF)

ME331-OOIB-OOZS('REFi"'

SEE DETAIL A
BRKT

"lr"POS. NO.3

II

I_
STA °}--A 3

(REZST

INSTL.

J

LEFT HAND SIDE
STOWAGE CONSOLE

DOCKING DROGUE ABANDONLM
CONFIGURATION

COAS MANNED LM POSITION
NOTE 9) (BH EARTH 7.00}

COA._
LAUNCH (SH

16MM CAMERA
7.00)

H LAUNCH(POS
(BH |O.OO)

_r )(SH_._) _

Fi

F2

F3

1:'4

F5

F6

p-Zill

-

_

/
CDR_ HELMET STOW " \ ' "

FIO

SEE DETAIL S (Slit

VIEW COCKPIT AREA LOOKINGFORWARD

(SH

I_¢lZNONE [

T

:

-_

Im

SL816100920-31_ S-331 (lEA)

_

LM UTILITY "rOW[L ASSY SEB421000BO-202 (3)

F[,_

"rR_,_L_rrEus

FIB

FII

.

I

._65

LDW340-60002-1

INSTI_

I

GRUMMAN A;RCRAFT Et_GRG CORP.BE'[HPAGE, I., NEW YORK L

LUNAR MODULE io[_T LDW34-0-60002-111NSTL I sit[ COD[ NO.LDW_)40"60002 B 26512
PRE-STOWAGE l, i tSCALE NONE 1 ISHEET 6.00

1B
'

I

RESEAUPROTECTIVEC_r_ER SE833[OOO46-50f SEB_3100294 -302 Et..ECDATAHA.._S_t.BLAD HANDLE SEB_3FO0295- 302A POLARIZINGFILTER ELEC DATAHASS_L_, '_:_": TRfGGER ECS LiOH STRAP MIB LOW540-t124s*_5 MIC .. SEB35100T_:_fOI L,_ -s=-_3_ooz_._oe

_" __

,

MICC

AssY

_"

G_JkltW(AJt_L_TEIr._ CO_,_AGE.

L L N_

1

367

APPENDIX PORTIONS OF EVA LIFE

G SYSTEM ICD

SUPPORT

P

r':':"# [_S?::_ 'SJfZ_T_?"_'/::-/
! ..... , . ...... •................................

I
368

1.0 l.l

SCOPE Sc_ This ' oocumen_establishes control of the interface functions for exb'a vehicular activity (EVA) of the oxygen umbilical: suit control unit (SCU), warning tone signal, intercom, the pressure control valve (PCV), the oxygen purge system (0PS), the purge valve, and the EVApressure suit. System requirements are specified.

2.0 2.1

APPL CABLE I DOCU),ID'TS _ApplcaSilit_ C i The follGwing documents of the most recent issue contribute to the definition of the EVAoxygen umbilical system interface and forr..la part of thls document to the extent specified herein.

2.1.1

Non-Governmer, Documents t Interface Control Docu_n_ Biolnstrumentation Systems Electr_cal Functional Personal

N_01-03325-435 MH01-21005-216 MH01-21041-136 V,01-21043-236 H I_H01-21044-136 MH01-21045-134 Specifications

Communications - Systems Compatibility Mechanical- J Series EVA Umbilical Electrical J Series EVA Umbilical PGA and MechanicalInterface EVA Previsions CM, SM and SIM Bay -

2.2

SD70-220 _ _ ^_ (SM 2A-O3-BLOCK 2-J-(2), ?pe' a'1_''a' _ Proce_ures for O-Se_es Missions Precedence When the requirements f this documentand the r_quiremen_s_-the documents o of referenced of govern. herein are in conflict,the requirements this documentshall

!_

%

I ,T_,_r,-,_,,. CONTROL DOCUt.v,_._,_t
THIS D,.,,.U,,,_.NT_T_t= "_'""" _-_ _'_ SPACE DIVISION "
"

TECHNICAL,_.. _S, :,, ,,_-_QU_'_':V'_'N ,:_ NORTH AI_CERICAN ROCKWZLL CORPORATION AN_ _v|Hli_ _,_._%_, CON_ 12214LA_._/_D OOULEVARO C,O',;'NEY, CALIFORNIA 90241 TAINED _,'_ " n: _-'_:_ = ............. _-...... " .... TO _,_ " ' "_"'_ THE :'_'"" OF ,_-_,,,S . . ANY Cu,'_ I R,,_,, OR _-_L'R. CHASE'_"- ' _"_ORu:R BETWEEN."" 03_3 1 A I /_101"21042-436 ALL PARTIES AFFECTED t t ,=_-_;'_ =

"

.I J ' ._ ..!, ;

°

3.0 3.1

REQU IR[ti[NTS
t

Performance The pressurega_ent assembly(PGA)in conjunction with the oxygen umbilical and SCU, and the PCV shall be the primaryF_de of sustainingthe life of a cre_menduringEVA. The 0PS in conjunction ith the purgevalvesha::ll w providee_rgency backupoxygen purge flow to the EVA crewmanin the eventof a primarysystemfailure. See Figure1 for an illustration the primaryand of backupoxygen purgefloss systems:

3.2 3.2.1

DesiqnCriteria EVA VA_p=__Egen U=blllca.l, Suit ControlUnit and WarningTone The EVA oxygen u_billcal F_dule (CII) oxygenpurge flow from the EVA stashallcarrythe the SCU which, in turn,is connected tion (TP72)in the Conznand to to the inletsuit connector the PGA. Communication nd instrumentation of a transmlssionhall also be providedby the oxygenumbilical. The SCU shall s consistof a filter,a shutoffvalve,an orificepressureswitch(low flow), an orifice,a suit pressureswitch,and a suit connector, The functionof the SCU shallbe to meter the purge flow from the oxygen umbilical the to PGA and to alarmthe EVA crevn_anhen the PGA pressureIs decreasing the w or purgeflowIs decreasing. The purge flow to the PGA shallbe withinthe following flow and pressureconditions kdth 100 plusor minus5 psla at the umbilicalinlet. FLOW I0 to iZ Ib/hour oxygen (corrected to 45°F) Tone _Jornin.q Input DuringEVA, normalCSM audiowarningtonesto the EVA crewmanare deleted. The suit pressureswitchshall activatean alarmtone audibleto the EVA
f}l"'If'ic(_ crewmanwhen his PGA pressuredropsbelow 3.25 plus or_1=t,,¢.,, +An,_ ,,,_,,-, _,_ nY'p_;m=l',,p _w'ifeh /'InI_ ,Flnb,_ chn11 =_+,l_=.l-a +h_ minus0.!5 psig.

TEHPERATURE 0 to 75°F

SUIT PRESSURE 3.70 to 4.00 psia (controlled the by PCV)

The

. --

orificeinletpressuredropsbelow60.0 plus 5.0 minus0.0 psig (indicating a purgeflowof less than 6.0 Ib/hour). While PGA pressureis below 3.25 plus or minus0.15 psig or purge flow is less than 6.0 Ib/hour,the warning tone continue._ unlessshut off by the alarmswitchon Panel 604. The warning tone signal shall be a 1.1 volt P-P minuszero pek'centlus 20 percent p squat.'e at 750 Hz plus or minus 15 percent. Automaticresetshallbe wave providedto shutoffthe alarm tone when the EVA PGA pressureor the orifice inletpressurehas been restoredaboveboth respective switchactivation pressures.

INTERFACE CONTROL DOCUMENT
THIS DOCUMENT SPECIFIES SPACE DIVISION TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS NORTH AMERICAN ROCKWELL CORPORATION AND NOTHING I',=R.zlN CON12214AXEWOOD L BOULEVARD "COWNEY, CALIF(.'&N,A 90241 . TAINED SHAU B,F.DEEMED CODE|D_N'f NO. TO ALTER THF. TERMS OF . ANY CONTRACT OR PUR03953 _IH01-21042-436 _" =t CHASE ORDER B_.T_.EEN ALL PARTIES AFFECTED SHEET 6

370

REVISIOHSA
OPeratig Mode n DuringEVA, VOX intercomcapabilities are provided when the controlhead Is pluggedinto Panel603. BOTE: Continuous intercomarid transmitcapabilities xist when the e controlhead is removedand the crewmanco_unicati0ns umbilJ ical is pluggeddirectlyinto Panel603 (thereby Jumperingthe Intercom/transmi t switchwlres). 3.2.Z PressureGarmentAssembly JThePGA shallcontaina habitable envlron_mnt for the astronautthroughout the EVA operation. A nominalpressureof 3.70 to 4.00 psla shallbe maintainedwithinthe PGA when operating the primarysystemand 3.7 plus or on minus0.3 pslawhen operating the backupsystem. A pressuredrop not on , (including 4.7 inchesof water shal]exist from PGA inletto outlet suit hose connections) when 12 cfm oxygenis flowingthroughthe greaterthan at 3.5 psia and 50°F. The allowablesuit leakage(including suit hose connections} hen pressurized 4.0 psla shall, e 0.0315]b/hourmaximum. w to b Suit ReliefValve The suit reliefvalve shallpreventover-pressurlzation the ."GA. Relief, of valvecrackingpressureshall be 4.6 to 5.4 psiawith reseatpressu@e4.5 psiaminimum(leakageless than 4 scc/min). The reliefvalveshallaccomPGA internalpressurefrom exceeding5.5 psiawhen operating a vacuum in environment. modate the maximumflow as specifiedin paragraph 3.2.1and preventthe T The PCV shallconsistof a suit connector, pressurecontrolvalve, and a a Pressure ControlValve manualoverrideshutoffvalve. The functionof the PCV shallbe to control the pressurein the PGA duringnormal operation with the primaryEVA system. The PGA pressureand flow rate shallbe as follows: PGA PressureControl- 3.85 pius or minus 0.i5 psig Flow (Normal) - 10 to 12 Ib/hour oxygenat 4SOF
mJ.nJ3n{II_[um'D_licB

3.2.2.1

!!_ I i
r_ :

_'

pressureshallnot fall below3.0 psla at the PGA Inl'etltli w a flowof I0 Ib/hour.

!,i]

The PCV shallbe designedso that, in the eventthe PCV fails open the PGA

)

.........

INTERFACE CO_4TROL DOOUME:'4T

m.. l
I _, I
:[

! •I__E_:IENT$ TAINED SH_,LL BE DEEMED

..-

'oRTAME IoRocKw L,. oR 'o,oN coR
12214 LAKEWOOD BOULEVARD ° DOWNEY, CALIFORNIA 90241.

SPACE DIVISION

_0_6E-T6_%_'_Z-_'_

........................................ -_ :

! I CHASE ISETWEEN IS o3o53 m: T° ORDZR TER THE IAJ m I ALTER OF i
ALL PARTIES AFFECTED

..o1- 1o4 -43 " " " "

-

.... • .......................

3 71

3.2-.4

'.O_!/flen Purge .Cystem The OPSshall consist of high pressure oxygen storage bottles, a pressure gage, a fill fitting, a shutoff valve, a pressure regulator, and a suit hose and connector. The function of the OPSshall.be to provide the backup oxygen purge flow and PGApressure control in the event of a primary system failu,_,e. The OPSshall maintain a PGApressure of 3.7 plus or minus 0.3 psia while providing a nominal oxygen purge flow of 8.1 Ib/hour. The OPSshall be capable of providing an 8.1 Ib/hour oxygen purge fle,_ for a mlnimum of 30 minutes.

3.2.5

Purq_ Valve l The purge valve shall consist of a suit connector orifices, and a two position selector and override shutoff valve. The function of the purge valve shall be to meter the OPSbackup system PGAoxygen purge flow rate to 8oi ]b/hour or 4 0 Ib/hour nominal at a PGApressure of 4.0 psia. The purge valve shall have the following flow perfonmemce with an inlet pressure of 4.0 plus orminus 0.05 psia_ and oxygen inlet temperature of 90 F and dis_ chargingto a vacuum. High flowposition Low flc;_ position 8.1 plus or minus 0.3 lb/hour 4.0 plus or minus 0.2 Ib/hour

3.3

Interface

Criteria

The electrical interface of the J-series EVAumbilical shall be as defined in iCD "'_" _" ,,,_i-z_0_3-236. Co;_unications compatibility shall be as specified in ICD VhOI-21O05-216. Bioinstrumentation functional requirements shall be as specified in ICD MH01-03325-436. The mechanical requirements for mounting and installation shall be as specified in ICD MH01-21041-136and V_HOl-21044-135. The r.ecn,,nlc_I interface during the EVAIs as specified in ....

THIS DOCU[Y:7_._'_'Y SF-.T.CIF{ES i!

-

SPACE DIVIS;[OI'C

I I
1

TECHN!CAL REQ, UiRE:.:ENTS! NORTi-I A_,,fERICANP.OCI!WZLL CORPOP, ATION A_'4D _'O_h'{;',,.qHc._4:.',;'_ CO,'4- ,._ ........................ 12214 LAKEWOOD BOULEVARD°. OWNEY, ALIFO,-qNIA D C 9024_. ..... , _"_,: _.,,,.,,_ O,'-" " _.L_,,,....,-,_.,OR FUR.
ALL m_._'u-_ _cc_-," :h

_,

MH03-2i043-435

"" ...

1

372

APPENDIX CMVELCRO

H ICD

373

374

375

376

377

378

379

380

381

382

APPENDIX

I

PORTIONS OF ICD ON PANEL CONTROLS(CM/LM CONTROL AND DISPLAY STANDARDIZATION)

.

_- =

3.o
This doc_ent is intended to achieve standardizationof C_ Control and Display _absyst_ Panel Controls. The objective Of , standard/z_tioni_ improved cre=_efficiency. This is accC_-p!ishcd through the elimination of conflicti_ design feature_, thereby reducing the possibi3_ty of ambiguity arioing f_cm the operation of
-

two vehicl&s by a cermet,cr_.

All controls shall be operahl_ by

the crew while -_arLng a pressurized Apollo _lovo. _.2 _.2°I CoJeer!yes Controls includi_ tog_lee, rot_cies, pu_hbuttons, continuou_ cont_l_ and circuit-briskets_hall be _t_dardized to the extent indicated herein. Standardizationof controls to include, but not necessari3_v be limited to, th_ follow_ (i) (2) O) _.2.2 Control eperaticm Controlmo_ir_ a_d _Z ¢_'o_1 ..

Control o.ien_t_e_

Enobs _hall be _r_-_da_'dized the a_._nt indicated h_zoLu. to Standardi_ationof )mobs shall include, but not necossari3_ _ limited

3-3

..-----_ ............

................

INTERFACE CONTROL
T..SDOCUMENT_',"'_': _" ! ...... m-a ,,nTr,_c_,T¢ • [ SPACE TECHNICAL .,zWu',- ""-_"' o AND NOTHING HEREiN CON" | _4 TAINED 5h,",,-L B," Dc.,.-M.D TO .,,L_ cR THE ",-,':r,.'-" AN" .... CONTRACT OR FUR,#..;-,,.,5 OF ! l 03953 • "_^¢= ORDER r.,,-T'_,_._-c_._ _ ............ "' '"_'['_--7 ALL PARTIES AFFECTED ? _ _

DOCUMENT
_ ,_-.-, SYSTET_S , ._.DZV!S]_OD_ CAU_FORN_,_

_ _.. ., _nd INFOP_7_IATION LAKeWOOD

-,,,

-

,O-:NT No.

_-Vb..DOWN_¥.

• _ , _ i_ffOl-OS&75_:_'_ " . -.- ........... -_=='='_-._r -_ ................... _ . ._ , _- SHE_,T _.__

-

l

_"_'_"_'_
TaC " .' _- -,...,

INTERFACE CONTROL DOCUMENT
_ ........ _;oOD l_U'_ o., DO " "

AND ,NU_c,;_,= r,_.,_,,, --,_,, ,_r _SHALL _Z DEE_o _'__ _ ANY CO_TRt,CT OR FUR_ _ "°_" [ _ ,_ . . . ....

_ _-:, _ .,,,,.,,.._L:

_:;x_,-,_,-,,., .----." .....

CHASE 0,,'_-,- .... .:'-'
ALL PARTIES AFFZC','ED

_
j.... ................

_S,,.._ 6

....._ "

+,

___....

. ..........

_:_ .::.- _:e,-.._.=_,'_;

I

!:]cj_

...........

i ,'=:_ .... r'-',_._ _ _ _', ........ • L-_/'-_g"_7;_ .................. ;_ _ '_ ;:_ - _ "/i:"]"_"''_ '_"

• " 386 _ ==-'- .........._ .......... "_'_........................

_balt'£onpMtys by f_uu0tlon _ha3.Zb_ am fo_o_;;_; _._. do_m. on ._ow_en act__w,.tc ir, crease_E-_-x'--_l-de_]-°_' off _Ioso de..c,_.,_;._-, decre_omC im _,:ddcd fez "off", the _ff" auto

_2nore a t._}_yd p_tior,

mb.ot_d bm _u

th_ center posSetS.on _ ec_coZ.h_,:_,horo ti_c _.,_u_deor_mo_.m_ eq_.p_,;_t p_i, o_'_co, f _ _.&£ch c-_o, "off" shot-&d bs _ $ho bottom .mooit.!on,

Rota_

_,._tchen it.',-_ot_.-,'c-l-w p_=].t.4-on_) to _, _

b._maid,

Rotor2

s_;Itch_s sha__lbc equipped ",ritb la_obc co_oz_X_ of thlc ZCD,

to p._agyaph 3.3,_

_e

torqu_ r_ _alm_lto tu_m the _.-ritc'n f_

on,_ d,_tont position t_ at "._r_ut and n_

another oh_A

b_ no les._ tk_- _2 eunc_-luchoz

The oZd_r of po_it_.onm sh_,

ba such th,_t o_oC)m_me _.:ycmcn_ _s _om_, Otto

';ascendin_ ozdcr _, Lucrca_cd perfc;_ueo,

_r,Z,::c.)_A

_

_'2_!'_

_..,___,._.. ,., ." _.il _'>''''"_|

-, .... _-,_

,'-":"F._

.-_r_._ 1i

1_'i._

L:_t <Z%^/O_Z_

'DLV_,,

_O_V,",_',%", C.:_,Z,)."C:7_'_d >,

_,,_.#

..-,,_.-.!-,.---.,'. ;.;?

_ ,,_

::.. ,.'::.

._

_

_

.

C_'"',k;:- _..:",i.--:.;, _;,'.,...'-:..!:,_

!'.._ ........................ ............. '":........... ......... 2 -..= :....... U-6:.;:}.:{, 7,................. I ......

REVISIONS-A -_-

3.3.1.3 3.3.1.3.1

Pushbubtons Operation Pushbutton switches shall have a total d/splacement of .125 to .6 of an _nch. Mechanical resistance to actuation of pushbutton switches the-tamEs, t'-_ _.':-nje.

shall be I0 tO 85 ounces 3.3,1.3.2 Mounting and Guarding

throuEhout

_u_hbutton switches may be i inch centers.

stacked verticall_

or horizontally on

Stacked pusbuttons

shall incorporate barrier guards simultaneous actuation of

between button to prevent inadvertent, adjacent buttons. Pushbuttons whose

inadvertent

activation _ld

create a hazardous situation for the crew or mission shall be provld@d with a lockin& mechanism, semi-recessed or otherwise suitably guarded.

_.3.1.3.3

Colo_
C_lor shall conform to the requirements of ICD _1-0517_-41_,

3.3-!.3.4

_o=e_elatur_
"_.e nomcn=latur_ for all pushbutton • switches shall be visible at all of ICD _01-0517_-_. times and shall conform to the requiremcnts

3._.I._ 3_.3.1._.I

Continuous Controls (Rotary Knob_ Operation Rotation of the }mob to "'_n_ rl_ht _,,_ ..... _alt ftmction being controlled. _n'- n _uc_ea_e _'-_he a the

The torque required to reposltien

knob shaft shall be 2 to 36 inch ounces.

INTERFACE CONTROL DOCU_._'_ENT
THIS _UMENT SPECIFIES NORTH AMERICAN AVIATION, INC. TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS sP_c_ and I,'_O_.ATZON 8_ST_,_8 DIV_S=O_ ANDNOTHIMG HEREINCON1_,_ LA,<,'WOOO _LV_,., OOWN'V.CAL'_'OaN_A TAINEO S,UL_LL DEE_ED COD£_D-_NT BE NO. TO ALTER THE TERMS OF

ANY CONTRACT OR FUR. CHASE ORDER BETWEEN
ALL PARTIES#EFECT'ED

_53

I_":°l"OP"7"_-t'_/_
SHEET

INTERFACE CONTROLDOCUMENT
THIS DOCU_v_.Itl _iLu,rl_.S
,,_c _o-_,'_ " TECHN_uAL R_QU,r, ui,,-N,S
14pi U ._t..,ll, lH_ i,,_,,_-,h ,,.,'_.,

_
" _
_.__.

NORFH
.
____

"-." " - F _v!ATION SPAC_.nnf_ _N O.
......... _ ......

AM=RICAN

AVlA_

IO_,

1_,_.

SYSTEI%!S DiY_i02q _ ............. " I

_..--_=-_=_=-=,=._,--.=-_:,_--,=_-,-':'.----=,--'_-----_=-.--=_---,=---_-'_

:I:ANED SFAU BF DEE;_,_ED _coo_ IDEl<i_ " N0.i SIZE ! I ANY COr4_r,_C' u,-, ,u,,i C.I.,d.,_ _ _i-iw¢.ri _._

_

_ ,

_

t

..... __.-....... _=,_o_=====_.... -==................... . _ i'-X;;'g;-g-----.'_" .................. I

:!"1 1_ _

390

APPENDIX RESULTS

J ROCKWELL

OF NASA/NORTH AMERICAN MOCKUP MEETING

. ..

-

,

- ......

: ..

"

- ....

396

<,i"

.

A data package •also includes copies Of the mockup orders used to autliorlzerelease of •noted prints and a list of noted prints relating" each to its specific collecto_ MCR and task n_nber._ ...... . . . . : . ,' .',_ :.._.: .Ground Bules 1. " -

Each CCA issued by NASA will• include effectivity for mockups and trainers, as applicable, . ' . _' .... " , .... • • • _ and NR shall make a "technical determination as to the effect on n__gedmockups and trainers resulting from future spacecraft changes and_ at joint coordination meetings held-on an as-reqttiredbasis, identify the necessary hardware and/o_ data •as required. Meetings are to be held on an alternating lOcation'basis - between NASA/_iSC, Houston_ and NR, Do_,rney, - , _. ,._:. :- . " " .... !, ./ A collector Ma-_ter Control Record (MCR)will be established for each _ckup: with respect to each spacecraft configuration update as depicted 11ithe matrix under Scope - item #3i :' collector MCR will A_ Be maintained for CMS-I,,P_ and 3.

2. .... . :- "

..

_. .... .... 3.

_ ._,

'4; The Master MCR _rIS/a&cum_i_te mockup:and trainer changes ty reference to other MCR' s including appropriate task descriptions; " Hardware changes not associated _ith MCR's, but tecDnqicallyidentified by ER ._ as required for the specific mockups and trainers, Will •alsobe identified on the Master MCR_ • ._, -:_. ._.,_._:.......... 5-. Data packages shall be supplied to the NASA for.all haa'dware _elivered . fo_. maintenance or update"of MBC-I, MB.C-2_ KSC-Ej 27A, and 27B_ For configuration changes which do not require the fabrication of parts . by NRj a data package will be _eu_nishedo Th.edata package Will contain all the information required for the fabrication and installation of parts by NASA. A single data package shall be supplied'for _ISC-1 and _C-2 for tho_e changes eolmmon to both vehicles. Separate:data packages shall be supplied for KSC-E. Data packages will not be . supplied for CMS,I, 2, or 3, Zero G3 WIF_ or miscellaneous training hardware3 unless specifically directed_by the NASA. 6. I_Rshall fabricate and f_rnish'hardware pahets-toMSC in accordance With the follo_ng criteria: .... ,

..

"-

'..

a. Machined, moldedj or specifically fatricatedparts b.. Formed*sheet metal parts
c. Plumbing lines, fittings, and fixtures ' -

_

_-.

d. Electrical connectors_s_itches, circuit breakers, lighting fixtures other thaz_ the Main Display Console (MDC)
-. - " -

e.

Containers and insertsfor

retention of stowed items

"

'

• ."

.

.... ..

L

:.._.i:>

..:..._ ..:..'

-...

l

• .

..... :

•39.7

_q shall maintainj as reqvdred _ Plannip_ and schedule stat_ hardwsre being fabricated, :_. 8, Allhardv_are execution of DD Form_.250. evidenced by 8_nd/ordata packages _Sh_i;be " acce

for all

.,

ed at NR's p antIas

9-: ThelNR •cost proposals in response tO CCA's •which approve spacecraft _ changes havi_ _odkup and trainer effectivitywill incl_de that effQrt resultant from the mock_lp and trainer update and maintenance .. . r_qui_ements. • "! • :"" '" _i;_."-:_<_...

'

1.O. _R Will accumulate moc]_p and,t1_a!ner Changes that .are not identlfied ' to,a specific CCA approving a spacecraft Change. An Engineering Change Proposal (ECP)_ will _be submitted on a monthly basis defining _._ the.design .andS fabrication efforts re_uire_ to incorporate _these _ ,. c_anges into _ne affected mochups and trainer s. The ECP, including • a_Budgetary .an_Planning es%imate_ and a request for CCA coverage ............ will be.submittedby the 15th day of e_ch.-month_o .cover the iden.tified " " _ _changes beginning on the ist and ending on.the last day of the prece_sh_nitted innnedi_beiy_in the fo_unl Of, an Emergency _slgnificance will•be Contractual ,/.. Ing month.i Individually proposed 'changes of major ECP. " ! coverage wil_ be provided under the _proVisions. of Paragraph 1.1.7.2, " . Part II of.the Contract Statement of Work. ll. Where feasible_ hR shall make-maximum Utilization of.multiple-.release -effectivity for the fabrication of mockup and trainer hardware.
- . _ _ - _'//.i_. •' -

12.

The NASA will issuea CCA for those approved chaoges referenced in paragraph •i0 in accordznce _ith the Contract Change Authorization Proce_ure_ NAS 9-150-001. Action to provide hardware and/or data packages w_ll be initiated only after .receipt of a CCA. . ' " ' " " •_; _ _ _ _-_: • '_ i_!,,..".:'_ !: _ "

-_

.

¢:.!,._ "

._ , • :_":_'"_

.. _

"'_"-:- American Rockwell Corporation .... _ " " North " _ _ ...."

"_ National Aeronautics and Space . Administration

..

.

.,-.

:...:_i_i-

_-

_ ,:_• ..,..: --_._ _ .,.

398

APPENDIX SAMPLE

K

OF REQUIREMENTS FOR ZERO-GRAVITY SIMULATION TRAINING ARTICLE

L 399

_Ec_ N:_._E_, OJOOl5
[NATING ORGA;_I ZATION

REQUEST

FOR PROPOSAL
ACTIOn<

DATE " Z/2"_2/';]d;

I" 'l

ENG I P.,cEKIN_ _" CHA,HGE - _
REQUE$'fED

399
[] ccA
,,_EZO

Experiments
TRACT NUL!BER

s.nd G_._. Office
CONTRACTOR

[-]
DATZ

ECP
1

NAS 9.110457

Fairchild

Camera

Eqttipment Co:mpa_uy

ASAP

i

O-O Simulation
CHANGE TITLE

Training

_,oc_,,up Hard_,._sre

Provide Camera
FTIO_;

EVA

Simu]_ation Mock.up of 3" Mapping

Camera/Laser

Altimeter

and Two

Cassettes
OF CHANGF.

_ L........................... O._G simuTe.tio;-, ....... _.ests' o!_e 3" ma]?l_ing

_........................ .J_ .......................... ]!
I

1
1

Provide

for

Use in

cs_ie_ra/laser

__l-'-'_mr,_"°'-_-"_,-

mockup compatible with O-G aircraft e.nd underwater testing facility require:,sents I. (attached). l_:ovide one mass representative and one neutrally bou4rant record [ container (cassette) which meet the attached require!lents The interface requ_irc+_ 'ments o£ the ove-,-allca_era/e7 t_meter T_ocl_upwith r,,_SC Z,,_ockt!_ No. 8 shall be I coordinated_ as requix'ed# with _._C. Required delivery date of mockup to I%ASA-MSC
SPECIF'!CATION
SFECIFICATIO.N NUMB-oR PAG{ NU#,FSER

CHA_"GE
pARAGRAPH .

JUST

[ F ; CATI

0;;

Mocl.m:os rF::CUeS;_ed are reqtT, ired to verify eapsbility of EV/" crewman x,eeor'd eout_ine :_ and ve-r_f-v tl_e acdeptabJ].ii, y of S/C EVA provisions such reo_.zev_]_. }._oekvn:s will svbseca_ent]v be u.tJ.lize(t fox" fla.gr:L, of the EVA p_." OC e C.LI"r'C-S . -o _. .

to retrieve to allow
cret' ura___.._ L_

[ EFF[CTiV,TY

Apollo___ ].6 snd

]-7 supx, ort,._.

_'.ISC F'OR;.I 6_'.5A

(REV

YES

6S)

ALL

FP._;'!OUS

ED!TIOrC9

;,._E O_L:-OLET2.

P,_,C_E

I

C}_

........................... '! l,

OJOO!5

1

ENGINEERING EFFECT ox' excesszve

CHANGE PROPOSAL OF CHANGE ON 8

400
........

"__#_g_-o
lowers
REI IABILITY

_rooasz±m_y

_.___.ation t._.i_,

"me_s.oolzejinto }45C Mockt!_ No.
165£

i'_A''-'-R_ A,D T_,,.,,:,._O _0beinoor_ateO. I
INTERFACE

N,/A
N,/A

_/A
I SPAPJES ;J/A .L
CONTROL Z)OCU)4ENTS

_ORU*_CE Zz_Dzxbvedflight merfozm__ance due to .S/C design of potential _esign deficiencies in GFE or early identification
_A|N"TENANC£

_PERATioNsSi]nplified due to early design .... 4 verzfzcao_on & acem_ate training,
WEIGHT, BALANCE AND STABILITY

OELIVERYSCHEDULE A_-,_ili; 1970 ................
CTN/CTR

I_
GFE/GFP ....

Pa_,_ of EVA _rovisions
OTHE i_ RECP'S/ECP' S

N or 3...,.. c a b ._o-_ 1

.....

"

"-'

I_,/A
REQUIRES INSTALLATION AT KSC

£]

YES
ON

[]
PROGRAI,I

NO
F TFII_ CH&NGE 15 DISAPPF:OVZD

........................................
• "fl J-

IE'_pACT

Inadequate retrieval

provisions provisions

available

for EVA

smL.cLlaued verification which accom__odate this

of

cassette

and S/C provisions

retrieval.

RE,lARKS

.................... ........... IF_' I;;-:T_ _

COST
$1G,,AiURE

ESTIM',YED

].
I
O'IG'" ,TOR

' J

I '_E_ '• i "
APPROVAI.S 2/2-I'#/70
ilI£1_:,=.'I'URE OF

I _ °'
J
7

i TOTA_
l
_1

I
DIRE-C'IOR Oq LM/C$'4 DATE

_O/j_-,_z_y h./Ooo____an

O"

I DATE

-

.

I

r,: I' -

'_

t

I<1 ,,/,:y<.->,U-<l / I I .<,:.<--<> ........
|{SO Form 645A-1 (_sv. Jul 68) ""

._,--,_ + ,X.,>...,., --. ,_,'_._..'-,..i <), t l
< I _'s,, ,." , ° "'_./ ...J.
" (t.'r'evious ....................

r._] .APP_.O,,E_ [ii o, APPRO,'EO S
a:e obsulefe.) PAGE 2 OF 2 k ! _____L .................................

editions

_i%PPING CAI_,'_RA M'OCK_JPREQUIRE,_,g_NTS

401

A Mapping evaluations=

Cs.mera Mockup

is required

in support

of engineering exercises l_.m_.ersion Mapping

procedures

development, zero-g

and flight aircraft

crew training

to be p$rformed Facility Camera (W!F).

in the KC-135 The mockup

and the Water article

shall reflect flight

the fli_ht

in all areas affecting should

crew _nterfaee

or perform_ance. herein. __he

The mockup mockup sha].l

be operp.ble only -co "the e_ffc.ent pecified s -one of _uich

. . i,a,r__ t_.zo _'-i" "_ .L_.G,_cassettes for KC-135 zero-g

.... sha.L1 be mass shall be _._ith

representative neutrally the MSC-8

,_imulations, and the other The mockuL', shall

buoyant zero-g

for use in-the WII,% Si_'/ mockup in both

inverface

the retracted

ar'.,d deployed

positions.

Those portions ext ent :

of the ea_mera must

_ _ be o,o_rai,Te±_ t_e.._c'l..-C ll.,-, ,=_ ._ to . _ ,'-"

The fi__:n, cutter/removal , tolerance_ fiight form_

ha.....leust m

.,

the

S ._-',i,.e _.1_ ]. d _iN U.%_,.,

.!u_ ftuletion_ travel_ _'_

and _e_uatlon " ± """

iorces "

as the

article. The fi_; cassette handles must have th,-"s_:._ dir:ensicns, forces as the tel-

eranc'e_ foz_,i;fit_ _ article.

fua_c-uJ.on_rs.vei_ and actuating t moekup fi]_n cassette must

flight

The zero-g

be of actual

f]ighL must be center

" " _.-]m weiglrt ano cer.ter of grav-,_ty. The _[IF r.,,.ockup • cassette _4 neutra].ly buoyant of g/'avity, of _..,/th the c,_no,_.c buoyancy _-..... areas shall

ccineid:ent ..riththe

l_rge _'ental

be pcrfc,rE_.tedto facilitate

move.,_e;_u through

the ;.rater and to allc.-,.." &rainage. se is net required_ however, in the two

A dep!o}u:_ent _,,:_n_.<.s.,, -_.__, i _- per ca_mbi!ity _

_.,u,:,,, be incorporatect for ic,_._omngthe .mockup ...... + " " " _-" d_ploye_).

-e._si'e:,_e ,Tus:o,__.-..=_. _ it may be hand . .e

1 - I

[

2
The non-crew_operated portions of the mockup shall reflect the - 402 flight
• ° . .

i i li
i,

{,,:: I![

article
,

with regard
f •

to geometric

form_

fit_ These

and function items shall

in be

all areas

affecting

flight

crew perfo_nance.

j:
,,i! f! {i !.i

voltLmes only "and nonfunctional. Materials " shall be used-in

" _ -.. buoyant cassette

the c_mera moo}rap and neutrally

capable

of _,rithst_u_gdng prolonged

" _ .... " su_.,,er_lon in fresh-_}ater


wi%_

-

-.
.minJm'_m: corrosion.

.
(Wood coatings

....
or styrofoam sha.ll,provide

':: .. "
may ade_f_lateprotection with

:
for

:

"

}i
il

components

not be used. )-

:".'_i.nishes and protective underwatcr usage.

ii
:_ i'_

Painting

shall be

in accordamce

"'.q Specification ...... C mechanism

_SLB_ 43101016. shall
.

(Bearing

surfaces

in the IUi3/n"cassette release " "
:" L

not be paznted.)
- ....

".

"

"

:[

-" :

The Mapping
-/. , ° .

Cs/nera Mockup imposed

must be

c_a'.ol.__f-vri_%/nstandingacceleration in the KC-!35 zero-g a{_cra_.

•:force requiremeuts These g-loads are:

by operation " -

-o

For_ard

16-g _

-

Lateral

2-g

Up
. .

2_'g load requzrzng

_
. ,,

.

::
<:

"

*

The lo-g body

forward remain

load is a erashlanding

that
7.

{i :

.... e_mera the: • ._rovisions,
1

in..t_ct and not break tma_

out ofth_

mom-_ting with t_.e " and " "

it is not required mounted

this load be

sustained

i :mockup

fi33n cassette by cargo

in the cs.mera. floor

Tile -..cassette _:;i11._ be for takeoff

ii _

restrained

straps to the

.of the aircraft

landing. position. _ne Xs _o3.0

_e

!6-g

].o_ also

assm,_es tnat

the ce_:era is in the retracted

i!

I. i
orientaticn (04 end) . of . t'he
-

S!M bay

in

- _a , - .... .. tn_ a_rcr__.._ will be

with

i
I

forward
.

and the SI2_ bay Side o_ the SM u'o.
.

_
{ •

/

403

404

APPENDIX PORTION OF CREW STATION

L REVIEW MINUTES

. --.
•. _ ."

::: .... . " _

?¸-7 "

_'-""-: . '

" ¸:¸¸ -. './.

........... _L L

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION
MANNED HOUSTON, TEXAS

"

SPACECRAFT

CENTER 77058

!
; >. DEC 3 0 1_

,°5
i :." ;'

:"

• REPLYEFERO: PD8/L814-68-JC22-13P' I" R T Contract WAS 9-150

.....

.

Mr.

Milton

I. Drucker

Director, Apollo CSM Program-Contracts Space Dzvlszon North American Rockwell Corporation Downey, California 9024 ! Dear Mr. Drucker: are the minutes at NR on December := additional ) o ..... the criterion of _ = . 17 - .... :

EnclOsed for your information and impteme.ntat_on of the Crew Compartment Review Meeting held ,and i8, 1968. .....

The Contractor specific actions q.

is requested tO implement the following relative to the attached minutes:

ORF (Optical Range Finder) Integration. _(PartII of the minutes) ORF alignment, in theminutes. NR'shall utilize

. ... a. 'For as recommended

b; NR will provide procedures to NR Launch Operations to accomplish ORF by '.'Bubble" or other" leveling type provisions, eliminating the need for the use of special GSE provisions, If this align•ment proves to be impractical, NR slaall provide such rationale and define the required alignment techniques and GSE provisions tO NASA by.January 2, 1968, prior to their implementation. bracket procedures • screws slippage
. .. •

c, NR will expedite delivery dates of the ORF mounting and alignment procedures to KSC. The bracket and alignment are required by no later than January 31, 1969. d. NR will provide GFE dovetails to Kollman as soon as possible to preclude of the OR-_/to KSC. and related attachment ahy delivery.schedule
. . , .. ..

-

i+

2 4o6
.

e. Subsequent to the December 17, 1968, mating on the ORF, NR, W. Anderson, requested that definftion of the location of dovetail on the ORF via establishment of dimension "X" be deferred until December 27, 1968, instead of the December 19, 1968, date agreed to at the meeting. NR will insure that such definition is made by no later than December 27, 1968. 2. General Crew Compartment Review Meeting.

(PartII of the minutes) a. NR demonstration is requested to confirm the availabilityof open mockup items from the October 23-25, 1968, Crew Station of the following Review Item Disposi-

Review. Specifically, review tions (RID's) is requested:

DI07-028-STW-001, STW-002, STW-009, and STW-010.

STW-007,

STW-008,

In addizion, demonstration of the Optical Range Finder installation as per CCA direction is requested. A schedule for the review with NASA of the items listed as enclosure 7 of the minutes is also requested b. prototype provisions. by January 2, 1968. of the SO-65 lowering

NR is requested into the mockup,

to expedite the incorporation as well as the couch turnbuckle

"

With regard to the timely resolution and closure of open items from previous crew• compartment meetings, NR is delinquent in providing the biweekly submittal of status and documentation for previous Crew Compartment meetings. NR is requested to take immediate steps to provide follow-up documentation and status on all prior crew compartment meetings and as defined in the enclosed minutes. Prompt submittal of design implementation data will a_low early NASA review and acceptance of NR's design approach. It should also be noted that the timely availability of required mockup modifications for review and submittal of design implementation data will improve the effectiver, ess of the Crew Corr, partment Reviews and not require a crew compartment stowage review for each spacecraft. Sincerely yours,

Jack

Fuller Officer _ontract Branch

Contracting Enclosure co: NR-Houston Spacecraft NR-KSC/B. Hello

40 7

MINUTES OF CREW COMPARTMENT REVIEW MEETING DECEMBER 17 & 18, ]9<68

HELD AT NORTH AMERICAN ROCKWELLCORPORATION DOWNEY, CALIFORNIA -.

PART I

OPTICAL RANGE FINDER INTEGRATION CSM 104 '

PART II

GENERAL CREW -COMPARTMENT REVIEW ITEMS

APPROVAL

NR

// ASPO ' NR 7-

_" ff_SA _'&m _ "OFFt'CE _


_1

A;'1)i-E-STgAN INSI'RUMII>y C-OI/.j_-.i.

-

- . 408

•....... OPTICAL RANGE FINDER HEETING.. ' NR DOWNEY 17 DECEMBER 1968 . PART I

Enclosure Page I ofl

l
-

-.':-,
t !,;

NAME Arnold Walter Fl.s:hler Chin

ORGANIZATION Kollsman Kollsman <

RESPONS 1131LIT,Y. ProJect Sys. Engrg.

PHOebE_O._.. 516-WAI4 _ X336 516-WA143C X336 X 3251 X HU3-3991 HU3-3991 X3153 X3584 HU3-2703 X1262 X4ITI . HU3 o2954 1517 1517 2937 1838 HU3'3586 48-3--257t_ X3153 X3061

Engineer

W" R. Anderson J, H. Brown M. D. Holley T. W. Humphreys C. M. Willis J. W. Montgomery R. W_ Nygren W. Musser .C.D. Perner J. R, "Goodman E. K.M.cMulIin M. H. Zelon D. J. Becker R. A. Montgomery E, Rangel D. Sedlak S. B. Nahin A. Bialecki .

_

NR NASA-G&C Div. NASA-G&C NASA/MSC/R&QA NR NR NASA/FCSD Kollsman NASA-FCSD NASA-MSC NR-Proj. Office NR-Proj. Off4ce AC Electronics AC Electron'cs General Electric General Electric NR NR-Proj. Office

Mtg. -Reqmts. Div ...... @..Downey Rep. G&N DIv. MSC/R&QA Telecommunications Project Office FCDR Field Engr. Crew Station Prog. Office Project Engr. Project Engr. "Subcontract Field Engr. Program office Program Office Telecommunications Stowage Mgmt.

4O9 CREW COMPAR_MENT REVI_ MEETING

DECEMBER 17-18, 1968 NR-DOkrNEY,CALIFORNIA

PART I 1.0 Optical Range Finder Meeting A Crew Compartment Meeting was held at NE on December !7, 1968, in the Mockup Display Area with the personnel listed on the Sign-in Sheet (Enclosure i) participating. The purpose of the

meeting was to evaluate and resolve the Kollsman Optical Range Finder (0_)* installation and stowage on CSM 104.

1.1

In

order to establish a workable arrangement_ the following

outline was presented and discussed in detail.

1._.l

Optical Range Finder (ORF) Interfaces and Mounting: a) b) c) d) Basic Use Requirements Configuration Drawlngs/Mockups Stowage Alignment/Line-of-Sight Mequiremen_s Readout Provisions Mounting Requirements Mounting Interface Provisions

_

e) f) g) h)

1.2

As a result, the following received general approval:

*The title "Diastimeter" does not correctly identify the function of this equipment. NASA stowage lists should reflect the nomenclature of the "Optical Range Finder/' not "Diastimeter."

.

.

- 4_0

._ _/i •

.

.

_l.2.1

Baslc Use Requirements - •a) Essentially required for ranging verification during CM/I_M

• "....: :_. _-

"_/;docking•between fottr (4)miles __:

and 1000 _eet.

(Below i000

i_!

_._i _/'. _. _feet COAS is used). b)

Check out rendezvous equation for CMP.

c.) Used as a backup to provide ranging during LM rescue (CSM -l Actlve Docking). - --

. d)_ Single crewman on CM must carry out entire operation.

e) .IoRF

and COAS will not be used at the same time =. " . . _-

.. -;. " _-

f)_ ORF may_be used_.twiceduring normal lunar mission. i. .

g) "6RF will not be rotated on its_TSCmount.-"The SC will be oriented to line up the two lenses with the LM running lights.

........ - _)_j

I.2.2

" Confi6uration

_/!_

....

_......

Changes to the ORF configuration as a result of this meeting " _ -are defined by Kollsman InstrtnnentCompany Drawing Number

;!0!237206330A, Sheets i and 2, dated December 3, 1968,"and
are recorded in Enclosure 2). " ......:..... :

-_

........ •

,.a .......................................

# ...........

I ---" . • . .

......

sanctioned

configuration

definition.

z..3

sto age
a) ORF will be stowed in the right-hand side of Compartment AG (see photographs, Enclosure 3). b) Addition of stowage cushions will change A6 configuration, resulting in P/N
reidentification, qr "

....

-_
= _= _ _ _ _: :

• •.,

.

. .... • . •..-

.

-_.

!

"

. .

_

.

)-.

_

c) _ The stowage

of the CFE mounting A-8. NR will

bracket notif_

for the 0RF shall NASAj _ J. Goodman_ .-

be in Compartment

of any .problems with

use of A-8.

i.2.4 :• "

Ali6nment/Line a) Each

of Si6ht Requirements

.

!

,

.-..

of the two lenses

of OF_ has a field ,of view of
z

• seven degrees. b) A lighted reticle for nighttime bore

. sighting with this

....nstrument i

is not a mandatory

but rather

a highly

desirable

requirement .... q) .... _. _ The CM x-axiS alignment of. the_ COAS mount may be utilized

for referencing alignment

of the 0RF alignment. Level"

Preferablyj the techniques will be

t

of the 0RF via "Bubble

utilized, if feasible, to preclude and attendant _" d) ITEMj NASA S/C serial time

eXtensive

GSE design/use SEE ACTION
[ ,

installation.

PART I_ NO. 'i. requested that NR use the same approximate for alignment _ 103 -

accuracies

as those developed is feasible

the 70 mm camera in_S/C vehicle impact. NR

_f sueD_ alignment "took exception early to define obtained. e)

without

to this request, indicating the accuracies _ feasible operation to align which

that it is too

can be •"reasonably"

It does not appear required to clear for COAS

DRF with accuracy

(+½0)--- The 0RF should be mounted . in the window afterthe area, with

any structural

obstructions defined

the final alignment provisions

accuracy

S/C mounting "

and GSE alignment

techniques

are resolved.

.-__ ._ ....... . .......

_._.i._..i_..,._.._ ._.-: ......._.ii._:__, _ ._ ..........

412 Final type aligtmment accuracy and difficulty will depend a great deal on the

of the GSE techniques by the mounting

and does not now approaches defined.

appear

to be constrained

i. 2.5

Readout a)

Provisions mirror will be used on the ORF to provide (Enclosure 2);this has negligible

Right-angle adequate

display

orientation

effect on NR stowage. b) N_erals mockup will be provided in possession 1.9 times larger than thcse now on

of M. Holleyj on the drum

NASA-EG44. for direct

The numerals viewing when

will b-@ reverse utilizing

scribed

mirror.

i. 2.6

Mounting a)

Requirements that the existing type TV camera dovetail

It was determined interface

-

provisions

of the 0RF./mounting bracket These provisions allow are already

interface defined and type

shall be utilized.

tested, and. they would of bracket. "_ The dovetail

use of current

TV mounting

" +_ _...... m .......g to the OP_ _I] who in turn will

be built drill

and pro-

vided by NR to Kollsman_

and tap holes by Kollsman.

into the ORF for attachment NR will also proxide

of the NR dovetail the screws of Screw Enclosure

to Kollsman Limitation

for the attacbnent into the

Of the NR dovetail. 0RF is defined c) Attachment considered

excursion 2.

in the drawing_

bonding
I

of a dovetail

to the side of the 0RF was attachment was determined

impractical.

Mechanical

the most feasible

approach.
¢

d.) Kol!sman be tapped

advised

__-q that t#_-ee (3) or fouS assembly. as defined

(4) holes Holes

_:_t

in the 0___ ease during and tapped by Kollsman Ko!!sman drawing

shall

be drilled "sanctioned" e) Four

on the

Enclosure" 2.

(4) design

concepts approach

of the CFE bracket__g were discussed (EnclosL_'e 4).

in a trade-off

2.0

Astronaut

Office

_ _np_. _,_s to Design NASA provided

Reguirements from Astronaut It was stressed A rigidized an

C. Perner/CFl31 D. Scott that

the comments

concerning

the 0_R_ installation. _ was a prime

a mounting

bracket

requirement.

mounting order

not requiring

crew adjustment

was preferred,with

of accuracy

of +2 ° .

3.0

Su_±mary

3.3.

Kollsman within

advised

that the optics

of the OHF are aligned

to

15 minutes

(¼o) with any s'_rface of the mai=nncase of are not so constrained,

the 0-_'. (The

appurtenances

3.2

NASA

strongly

advised

the use of a bubble case

level

a!igmnent

approach

utilizing

the 0I__F main sufficient

surface

(optic reference)

which _i!i permit Correction leveling

accuracy on launch

for a + 2° requirement. pad may be dete!nnined by

for S/C attitude

by means

now available.

3_3

A reference for design •approach No. 3 or No. 2 was stated (Enclosure 4)for the CN_Imounting bracket• However, as a

.

result of further mock_p york was to _'roceed ._o_age approach _ith design

in Mockup 28, the consensus No• 2 (Enclosure 4).

approach

of the -currenttype of mounting bracket as per No.. 2 in C6_tainer 2 A8 was found ,..i feasible.

•"

NR advised that utilization of the rigidized TV support bracket could feasibly be used to locate a new mount in the spacecraft.

A review Qf the spacecraft by NR revealed that locating the new • TV type "socket" presented no apparent problems at this time.

3.4 3.•4.1

Schedule for the ORF installation was provided as follows: Kolls_an Instrument Com_an_ a) Training unit at KSC (K.I.•C. ) - "January 2, _1969 January 31_ 1969 February i0_ 1969 February ll, 1969 • • _ -

b ) FligNt Test Unit #i at KBC c) Flight Test Unit _2 at KSC .

d) Qual

Test CompletiOn Schedule _

•4.2

,

North American Rocku_ell a) b) ._ Number of dovetails required4.

Date dovetails and hardware required at Kollsman Instrument Company (_IC) •topreclude schedul_ impact: i i • i i set set set set January January January January 2_ 1969 14, 1969 21, 1969 30, 1969 .....

NR to send dovetails and hardware to KIC for installation -_ on the ORF. " " " " ....

c)

NR to supply drawing of dovetail to KIC by Yanuary 3, 1969. KIC shipping address:

Kollsman Instrument Company 575 Underhill Blvd. Syossettj New York 11791 Attention: d) NRbracket Arnold L. Fishler

and related attachment screw requirements:

Total of two (2) sets of brackets plus related parts. l) Flight bracketry and spacecraft mods (if any) at KSC no later than January 31, 1969. January 18, 1969. e) f) Spacecraft cushions to KSC no later than January 31, 1969. AMS modification kit bracketry and related provisions including stowage provisions by Janua_g 31, 1969. NOTE l: provided. No special backup flight mounting bracket will be It was determined that the AMS prototype could NE estimates

satisfy such requirements if they existed.

NOTE 2:

NR dates subject to NR Change Schedule Board Review.

3_5 •

No_n_l_tN_a

of the diastimeter will be changed to "Optical NR and NASA to reflect the change in the

Range Finder."

Apollo Stowage Lists.

3.6

NR will add the dovetail to their ORF mockup.

3.7

M. Holey/NASA/EG44 advised the Optical Range Finder spares (i.e., batteries, etc) will be supplied by the G&NProject Office.

416 3.8 Contractual coverage to NR is by CCA 3001 dated December 6, 1968, A6. for

which provides Revised

only for stowage

in CSM 104 in container necessary

CCA is required

to cover:

CFE hardware

alignment

and support/attachmen_ Window;

of the GFE ORF for use through of the CFE bracketry; bracketry. It is

the CSM LH Rendezvous fabrication understood

stowage

of prototype/AMS/MSC that CCBD 8C1968 13, 1968.

mockup

was signed by Mr. The CCBD has been when incorporated

K. Kleinknecht, approved and will CCA.

NASA, on December reflect

the necessary

changes

into revised

(CCB of December going changes. )

l_, 1968,

has discussed

and approved

the fore-

3.9

NR will provide definition

to NASA

and KIC by December "X" to locate

19, 1968,

the on the in

of the dimension

the dovetail drawing

side of the ORF as noted on the referenced Enclosure 2.

provided

4.0

Transmittal

of Equipment/Drawings One (1) mockup of optical range Sheets finder. 1 and

To NR fr°m NASA/Kollsman: To NR from Kollsman:

KIC Drawing No. 10123720-0330A 2 dated December 3, 1968. (Enclosure 2 of these minutes)

To Kollsman

and NASA from

NR:

Series of Polaroid photographs of 0RF mockup; of 0RF in A6 container; of 0RF mounted in M/U 28.

r t.

417 _" Part II GENERAL CREW COMPARTMENT REVIEW MEETING

2.0 •

After basic completion of the Optical Range _inderportion

of

this meeting_ Part II, the Crew Compartment meeting was continued at NR on December 18, 196_ in the mockup display area, with attendees as per Enclosure 5.

2.1

The meeting commenced iwith a review of the action items assigned at the Crew Station Review Meeting and Mockup Review held at NR 6n October 23-25, 1968. follows: The status of those open items is as

Action Item 1 " _ _

ICD approved by NASA on November l5, 1968. Drawings were transmitted to NR (K] Shaw). Closed. ICD _pproved by NASA. Drawings were transmitted to NR (K. Shaw). Closed. Drawings were "transmitted to NR (K. Shaw). Closed. No change required. No requirement. Closed.

Action Item 2

Action Item 3

Action Item 4 Aat_on Item 6 Action Item 7

Closed.

CCBD 8E37_ changed method of attaching BioBelt from stitching to heat seal. Dated September 29; 1968. Closed. Open 1. S_C 103 - TV requirement. 2. S/C 104- No TV requirement. TV mounting bracket modified for sequence camera. 3. S/C 106 and sub - TV requirement. Ref. CCBD 8C1894, approved December 26, 1968. Closed. CCB approved November 8, 1968 (Item 3i) Closed.

Action Item 8 Action Item 9 -_

Action Item l0

418 Action Item 12 Use of Velcro authorized. Closed. ICD approved.

Action Item 13 Action Item 14

Reference CCA 2636, MCR 7887.

Closed.

New J Box is at KSC installed in,S/C. Closed. Crewmen will wear life vests during launch_ reentry. No stowage requirement for vests during launch/reentry. Closed. NASA (E. Rangel) will submit an EECP. Closed. St6wageresolved by joint NASA/NE CCB on November 27, 1968. Closed. G_N Dust Covers have identification markings. Closed. Acceptable by Ng_Awith No NASA requirement. Open No reported problems. Closed. markings. Closed. Cldsed.

Action Item 15

Action Item 16

Action Item 17

'

Action Item 18

Action Item 19 Action Item 20 Action Item 21 Action Item 22 Action Item 23

Food containers are interchangeable. Eel. CCBD 8C1845 on December 33 1968. Closed. Close via normal KSC procedures. 1. Changed out for 103 and subs. 2. Pending NASk direction to change out in 8/C 104 and subs. _a_ NASA direction to change out in j. ........ _ -. S/C 104 and subs. &. FlOOrCPad modification eliminates problem on S/ 104. 5. Ref. MCR 6791. Change in line.

Action Item 24 Action Item 25

Normal ECP follow-up procedures will close out action. Closed. Action Item 26 Open

419 Action Item 27 No requirement. Closed. Open CFE bracket to be flown.

Action Item 28

2.2

S/C 104 follow-up items as listed in the matrix (Enclosure 2) were reviewed. The status of those items is as follows:

EVA Thermal Samples - Ref. MCR 11134, item 5. reviewed in mockup.

NASA briefly

Since MSC/I_Rwill have completed evalua-

tion of both the prototype and flight hardware provisions at KSC by December 19, 1968, NASA comments on the acceptability will await'_NASA/_Rinputs from KBC.

STW OO1

S/C 104 and subs. Ref. MCR 7940 and 7435, NR engineering due December 20, 1968. Release as mod kit to KSC. Installation schedule in mock_p_ by January 13, 1969. NR to confirm date available for NASA review. Ref. MCR 7435. NR engineering due ,December20. Installation scheduled in mockup by January 16_ 1969. NR to confirm date available for NASA review. NR to add _'caution"note to Apollo Operations Handbook (AOH). No NASA follow-up CCB action proposed. Closed. Back-up overboard WMS. NR proposed change to November27 Joint CCB was approved for S/C lO7 and subs. NR advised they were updating mockup_ Closed. Reference E0 683078 and 683079. NR Engineering Release December 13, 1968. S/C 106 and subs. Closed. Mockup discrepancy only S/C is OK. NE corrected and _[_SAreview in mock-up completed. Closed.

SKW 002

S_W 003

STW 004

SKW 005

S_W 006

420 007 Reference MCR 7435 and 7940, NR Engineering due December 203 1968. Installation scheduled in mockup by January 13, 1969. NR to confirm date available for NASA re_-±e Same as STW 007 above. Same as STW 007 above. Reference MCR 7707, E0 720643 dated November 22, 1968. Installation scheduled in mockup by January !0, 1969. NR to confirm date available for NASA review. Reference MCR 7301, E0 698690 and 698691, dated October 31, 1968. NASA review in mockup completed. Closed. Same as S_ 011 above.

STW 008 S_ 009

STW 010

S_

01!

S_

012

STW 013

NR proposed no action required. Clips do function O.K. NASA concurs. Closed. CCBD 8C1787 approved November 8, 1968. Reference MCR 7817, E0 711855 dated November 21, 1968. Not to be installed in mockup (S/C 104 only). NR's approach acceptable based upon NASA's review of EO's (paperwork) in mockup. ICD signed on routing. Closed. i. Too expensive to install in mockup. NASA concurs. 2. 107 and subs. Change in work. Closed. 3. NR using engineering prototype. NASA _ill exchange for flight,configuration. 5. Following S/C 103 flight. NR will supply date to NASA for review couch grounding and rotating arm zest. 6. Closed. 7. Engineering release of new item due January 10, 1969. Closed. 8. Ref. MCR lll31. Closed. No mockup required. Action Item 1 - NASA (E. Rangel, J. Thompson) will provide filter for use in NR mockup 028.

STW 014

STW 015

•. " L y..

621 016 " Reference MCR

S_

7957. NASA review in mockup -

_.... '

;_"i:!

i.ii.!. _:(".dti0.n_f_e_., L 'NASA (C. Perner to supply :,-!: A 2 :i_:IDWC_. of timer .to RR. 31ASAto review E0's .)_]!:. DWGS;-forS/C 106, lOT, Volume A5 and .and:

'

-,
iile_3

.-/::: :::7:
PLSS LiOH Canister Stowa6e for S/C 104 -,..

.
.

.-

-:

:Stowage of Li0H cartridge in Vol_uneA1 is considered feasible and acceptable by NASA for S_C104. Requires off-loading of three tissue dispensers from Vol;A1 prior to Canister stowage. (R&ference Enclosuve _). Stowage Lists should be updated to show this location. Closed. " ' Action Item 3 NASA (R. Ny_ren) to work out in-flight

• _ 2.4

Stowage pro'_dures in accordance with schedule requirements. Review of operation of camera power cable with,flange connectors (flight test t_ Panels lSj 16 and iO0_. " : " . '

• The operation of connecting the COAS flanged type electrical connect0rto Panels 15, 16 and lO0 proved to be "caB y " and acceptable as compared to use of the other two types of flight connectors evaluated. i(Theother type of connectors were "very difficult" to connect.) NASA will take the necessary action to - implement change board approval of the "flange type" connector.. • .'forS/C lO_ .and subs. . - . . • _ Action Item 4.- NASA (C_ Pern@r) to 4efine requirements for connectors, P/N ME 414-0465-001, 7 pin normal dlocking_ £0r S/C 106 and subs. Total number required_need dates_ and lOcation will be supplied to'J, Go0dman/E. RangeI,'.

-. .

..<... . .

•?,IT_

Action Item 5 - _N__SA (E, _angel) will follow through on CCBD for _ ..... ,_,,'_m _t'_T%_'_? _ ?*f:_'(111_'_ht_ fO_ s/c lO6 and subs. CSM i04 Remote Cable Routing in Clips NASA reviewed NR routing proposal as defined by ICD MH01-03275 . -136, Revision A, Dated•October 21, 1968, and already released EO's and found acceptable.. ICD approved. Closed. _-:

-_ 2.5

2.6

New items

• • • . .

.

.

[: j ,

-• .

,.

" _

""

." "-_' ::':' ' 5 _,.,.. f _:._::_._-.:i&_f_-_ - .-,_ -:-'-_:.-

• :. •_J

.-

:

I_•

• " "" ......
2.°6.1 "

I

3 :ii:: .

'"

"422".

Fli6ht Dat.aCards for S/C i04_ 106.and subs.. • -:/_ISA reviewed NR proposed stowage in adding flight data cards :_ .to.S/C 1.04, 106 and subs. As defined by ICD MH01-03290,136 (NC). ICD approved.by NASA. Closed. . '. "

.__ z

2.6,

2

LM.Return Film Stowage.

.

_':_ /ii_!

RevieW.indicated that there was no defined •stowage for LM return_film stowage, S/C l04 only. Provisions were to be aoC0mp_.iishedy PrOposal for "stow fiLm.in one cofitainerfor b _eentry, S/C 10_." Discussed at November 27, 1968CCB.

_.i _

To accomplish stowage proposal on a "No impact"basis, the followi_ St0_age was reviewed and approved by NASA:
. .

' " "

After removal of unsuited,reentry provisions from -" ½ of AS_ container, two 16 mm and two70 mm fiLm ,•magazines,a DBEA tape recorder and two tissue dis."._pensers (if available at that time) will be stowed _ inthe A5 container prior to reentry.. S/C 104.0nly.. (See photo - enclosure 6_. ActiOn Item 6 - NASA (R. Nygren)to work out in-flight stowage Of f_im packages. LM return film sto_age for S/C 106 and subs, will be in container R-I3 as per currently provided .provisions . as,approved by NASA/NR CCB. New Items - Fut_e
1 ° o

:

"

_

2.7 2.7.1 2.T.2

Crew Compartment Meeting (See Enclosure 7)-

Lunar Misslon Photo. Couch Groundin6 and Rotatin6 ArmGuard

-

FolloL__ng8/C i03 Flight, NR to sdpply date for NASA review.

2.7.3

.,

__ Camera Ba6s NR Engine_eringRelease due JanUary lOj 1969. S/C 107 and subs.....

2.7..4 • . -. "

SO 65 .Stowale Box 8__aCouch Lowerin6 (Turnbuckle) Flight hardware fi_ check approved by NASA (A. Granville ). Installation scheduled in mockup by January 17, 1969. NR to confirm date available for NASA review. NASA requested NR to expedite the " availability _o the previously defined date of January lO, 1969.

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8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBERS

Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center Houston, Texas 77058
9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES)

S-982

10. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Washington, DC 20546-0001
11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES

TP-2006-213725

12a. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT

12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE

Available from the NASA Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI) 7121 Standard Hanover, MD 21076-1320 Category: 15
13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words)

This thesis presents a frame work for a crew station handbook and includes samples of the broader areas which such a handbook should cover. The completed sections of this thesis serve as extensive treatments of the topics covered. The content of the individual sections of Chapters I and II varied with my experience and knowledge. Chapter 1=Vol 1-198 pgs Chapter 2=Vol 2-262 pgs

14. SUBJECT TERMS

15. NUMBER OF PAGES

16. PRICE CODE

Manned Spacecraft, Apollo Spacecraft, Vostok spacecraft, Voskhod manned spacecraft, crew workstations
17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE

434
20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF ABSTRACT

Unclassified
Standard Form 298 (Rev Feb 89) (MS Word Mar 97) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239-18 298-102

Unclassified

Unclassified
NSN 7540-01-280-5500

Unlimited

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