The San





In orUer to bring the wandering center/of air pressure back Into coincidence with the center of gravity' the Wright brothers have devised a method of warping or bending -the outer :end of the /planes./ The same balancing effect is obtained; by hinging flat surfaces or tips to the outer ends of-the planes ;swinging them, up .or down as tJ^e .^exigencies of the: moment may require. ;/ The French ;call these , hinged tips ailerons. : In ; thevlater Glenn Curtiss- machines the ailerons "are removed entirely, from : the


while using the machines for scouting purposes. Wilbur Wright,-; however, says that there are positive advantages In seeking the high levels of the air. The difficulty of finding a landing place, case of the . motorlstopping," will be , in ; largely obviated by flying high! < Thus,, at one, mile elevation, in case of stoppage of the motor, the; operator 'would be -in a position to'^ glide for seven miles, on a slope of one in seven, before reaching the ground.. Since this glide

may be said with mucti reason fhat to the United States is due the credit for teaching men how they may fly through the air. The realization of the dream of the centuries may be traced to the efforts and discoveries of four Americans. That the problem of successful flight was not solved at lrast a decade earlier was due to the fact that two of the Investigators exhausted their funds and their courage when they were upon the veVy» eve of practical results, though by reason of man's very inexperience there \u25a0u-as no way of knowing at the. time how close they had come. Hiram Maxim, backed by several wealthy men, began his experiments at his place near London In ISS9. He was the first man to simply the principle of superposed planes, a principle used in the successful flying jiiacLines cf every type today. The late Langley, secretary 'of the Professor Sm;thsoniar» institution, began his ex-. I'eriments en a small scale almost as early as did Maxim, and In 1596 his model, weighing only 27 pounds and driven by a one horsepower engine, made three flights over the Potoinac river. Congress then appropriated $50,OCrj to cnaole the inventor to build a


full sized


than pitch from its raft into the Polomac In the light of present day knowledge there is every .reason, to believe that Uoth the Maxim and Langley were, built upon practical machines lines and that a little more money and j.eiseverance would have seen world t-tartling flights. Orville and Wilbur Wright, two bicycle makers of Dayton, 0., benefited by the experiments of Moxim and Langley in the building, and flying ot girders, and after three years' practice in the sand dunes of North Carolina they put a motor upon one of their gliders and made the first successful man flight with a heavier than air machine In the history of the world. Other inventors, both in America and Europe, were soon, in with ma-

which did little more

ods by which roan may hope to lifthimself above the earth as do the birds. The first of these is by the use of a bag or envelope filled with a gas lighter than air, equipped with propellers for sending it forward. Count Zeppelin's great airships, composed of many compartments each containing a balloon, represent the most sensational results obtained by the use of gas. A second possible method is by the employment of a machine which shall flap its wings exactly as a duck does in flight. A third method involves the^ise of revolving screws which lift straight into the air. No results worth serious consideration have been accomplished by.either of these methods^" The fourth method is that engages .the close attention of the world today the use of an aeroplane that literally skims the air. Inlying in an aeroplane. is more hazardous than skating upon the thinnest ice, for no ice is as thin as air or less supporting. An aeroplane must 'be kept going so fast that It has no' tints to fall. It must be propelled through to fall. It must be propelled through the air at such speed that the resulting pressure of air beneath; will sustain it. Thus the man flying is really safest when he seems to be taking. the

.When man had Revised aw aeroplane that could fly, he had yet to learn how to fly it. He had to go. through many bitter experiences in gaining a working knowledge of that invisible thing, the air. :-. Plying has already had many martyrs. The wind is a factor, which must constantly be reckoned with. But even with no perceptible wind the air is full of surprises. So far. man has usually flown close to the ground, -and,
only at a height is the air ever really The aircurrents fitfed and stationary. follow the contours of the earth's surface. The aviator often rises upon an ascending current of air, sails across a hilltop and comes to the ground rather unexpectedly." irfs machine was reg-

' •, ;v The Wright '.biplanes -have :frequently carried a paseenger^in addition to tha aviator, and In France several of/ the machines have made extended !and successful flights while carrying three persons. The weights, of machines differ, .and the/. question of which builder's. machine is actually, the faster has hardly been settled. •• In.contests * the Wright machines have several handicapped and placed at times ;been great: disadvantages by the fact; that their - drivers used 'none' of the skill with ;which the. inventors handle: them. The Wright machine of ;30 horsepower
tween them."

ends of the main

planes and hung, be-




the country from Toury to and back, a distance of 17.4

miles. The year 1303, was to see all previous records utterly eclipsed. On July 80 Orville Wright successfully completed the government's test at Fort -

Myer by making a cross country flight

ulated in accordance with ; the ascending current, and when he crossed- the
hilltop he encountered a descending air current and came down before he "could



controllings; a flying machine in the air: "The fragile mechanism \pf. plaWes,' rudders and propellers with"which "-the

Waldemar Kaempfert the chief difficulties of


>'. V thus describes

aviator rushes through the air is subjected to, two. forces the: pressure of the air and its own weight. \u25a0The. air
pressure acts
upward, and,

or less resembling the and though today the in sharp contest with those who came after them the laurels; seemed fixed for all 'time upon the brows of the two modest bicycle buildcrs from Ohio. Advanced students of aeronautics are agreed that there are but four meth-




Wright type, WrJghts are


the aeroplane in flight;,' the greatest chances when he Is travel- weight of the different -parts naturally ing at the. highest speed. If the' center of.air actts downward.pressure or upwardly acting force hapSingle All aeroplanes may be divided into pens to shift to one side. of the center two classes,' biplanes and monoplanes. of gravity "the machine will capsize and BeThe monoplanes have a single horizon- crash to the ground. ';* Why?' tal spread of canvas' wings; the ,bi-. cause the -upwardly.-acting 'pressure is planes have one plane superposed above more powerful at high speed than the downwardly acting weight of the mathe other at a height of about fl\-e feet. The Wright brothers, Glenn Curtiss and chine.- In other words,. an, aeroplane (is seesaw/subjected to ;the 'acHenri., Farman machines are blplanqs; a kind .of : the Hubert Latham, Bleriot and; Santos tion of two opposing and /unequal Dumont . machines are monoplanes.. It forces. . The only way -to maintain* the Is,claimed that each": type has certain seesaw/ in equilibrium is ;to bring the advantages over the other,, though the two;, forces together in the middle- so biplane enjoys the greater popularity that -they will act, the /one* upward among aviators at the present. The and the other downward, through 'the double decked machine,. having a larger same point. / When the aviator ihas acsupporting surface, has greater, carry- complished this feat he has brought the f ing capacity; it is as easily '\u25a0, steered', as center: of air |ressure and- the /center single decker, and on account offits of 'gravity into'colncidence. Since the the bracing can,, stand a „strain that ? the "wind.'.despite its*apparent steadiness, is other can not. The claim is made for in- reality composed of \u25a0innumerable 1 the monoplane that '\u25a0 it.Is*, naturally the piiffs and gusts, currents and faster ~ of the- two because it has; less currents," the center "of <_ air/pressure -is headon resistance to overcome. *It is constantly shifting/^ which: renders] th« apparently nnto t as safe as the biplane. feat of / balancing Jextremely^ difficult;^ sustains


arid Double Planes

weighs 800 pounds and ordinarily-' can miles '. an ; be driven .at about hour. The Curtiss machine of 60' horsepower weighs 600 pounds and has made 48 miles'* an hour. Santos-Dumont built a -little.; 30. horsepower machine and attained j speed\which was estimated at a 55 "miles an hour. If the rate of improvement continues the mile a- minute common enough. ; g^it .willsooh 'be ; i How. much- or how soon- it.will be exceeded' ' no informed prophet has to/say. . The immediate': revelations; in; store



lives to( their.. flyingrmMhiries,'vtheyVarW temptationito yielding!to the r see ;hoW/ high they' can go. {The/presint record-i s -close -to ;2,OooVf eet 'above ;. the ; ' grbuni v Several / aviators'-- have Vex-: r \u25a0ceeded' l,soo;feet..i r At^flrst;it.was 'beIleved •;the >. ohlyj,necessity for soaring height jwould ,be .f or. the purto a great pose of keeping lout(of)range /ofTguna \u25a0\u25a0'•" --'p-:-n:, :;-•

willVerhaps concern" height ratherithan' speed; :'Now;lthatyanyihumber^of experienced men are .willing"to trust their '







-of 10 miles with a passenger aboard at an average of speed of 42.58 miles per hour. The machine was accepted .the government and the Wrights were paid $30,000 for it. The most .•sensational event of the year was JBleriot's incrossing of the channel on July 25 his monoplane. -' The great aviation meet at Rhelma began on August 22," and Immediately were removed the Kngllsh might rea- the world was shown how great an sonably expect to see the greater part advance had been made inhuman flight. of the Invading army drowned In th» Thirty-eight aeroplanes were entered. and 35 of: them made successful flights. channel. Biplanes ;and monoplanes were about The first big achievement of the equally^livided. Curtiss represented Wright brothers was' made over afield America in his light, swift biplane. As many as five,aeroplanes were tn tha at Dayton, Ohio, on October 6, 1905. air at a time and the spectators were. Numerous short flights' bad been mads treated to a night absolutely unique in by them^with ai much secrecy as pos- the history of the world. Gusty winda sible, but on that day one of the broth- prevailed. b*ut the pilots seldom stoppedaccount, and exhibited remarkers drove the machine 24 miles in S3 on that in controlling their machines. able skill minutes, at a speed of 38 miles an hour. In the tests for high speed over short .Santos Dumont built a cellular machine courses. the Bleriot monoplane and Cur' and made some short flights- In Franca tiss biplane ,were evenly matched, Bleriot ;winning the 6.21 mile race at a i:in 1906. Bleriot* and J Esnault-Pelteris speed of 47.75 miles per hour j>nd Cursuccess had considerable with- the tlsa /securing the international cup by monoplane, and Farman and Dela- covering the 12.42 mile course at a speed ;of .47.04 miles per hour. That any direction, a choice grange with the biplane. can be made in the aeroplane had made wonderful ' strides in endurance was shown by of a /landing" place can be .made out -Progress Begins Farman'a winning the long distance of the Y total \ area \u25a0- of. 150 square ; miles /.Flying progressed by leaps and race,- with a record of 111.83 mile 3in circle ;of 14-miles ? in bounds during 1908/ ; included^ In'^a Orville/ Wright, 3 hours 4 minutes 55 2-3 seconds. Early in October Orville Wright. In / diameter. .High {flying,too, will take in the government ' tests at Fort Slyer. Berlin, rose to tha an exhibition", ;out of the belt of ' the machine /air cur- Washington, made flights of over an .unprecedented at' .height of over .1,600 rents-and 'eddies -that,follow'thescon/duration, and \u25a0: on various occa- feet. At about the same time his brothhour's tour of the 'earth's; surface. .. / er, duringI ;Hudaon-Fulton festival. sions carried an officer . as a passenger. the ; Blerlot's" flight'^ of 21 miles across Wilbur ;Wright /went to France and, by flew successfully, trom Governors island up the/Hudson, river, around one of the English> channel r from 'France to fulfilling the /certain conditions, .sold the visitingT warships, moored off Grant's English /with V fear 'French' rights'; ; Englandj filled to his patents "for.; $100,- tomb (and back to the island. -. air. ; oft. a^ possible invasion '.'• from the the .field of sport - navy "would he 000. ;In" the successful / trials he > flew /.Unquestionably.- and most successful will be the first which their peerless /\u25a0 .42,; miles in one hour and 32 minutes on sphere; of, exploitation "for the aero' to circumvent. quite London September 21, and on October 10 made plane. It Is possible today to place an of -the Germans .dropping a*flight(ot '> over an •hour, carrying : flying machine for delivery had on<f order for a i • sky. '• upon them 'f rom /the -The passenger.// On ;another /occasion he /at an early date In automobile row. San down as more than one of the wh'en- It rose, toV height of 380 feet, and on .the Francisco.:" fear seemW'riot. well1 grounded r auto manufacturing companies have ra' ? single/ flying last day 'of the, year, he" broke -all rec- gone into the .business of .making tha is remembered carried ; more'f than ords by\a.Tfl!ght of 2hours and 20 min- machines.' Before the end of the presmachine has /never I ent, year flights by local enthusiasts three* men;- and ; that ;the' transportation utes : duration^ in- which he covered 77 owning: their, machines- will be a .comrequire 'such' a* flock October, Farman in' his Voi- mon •. sight around San Francisco bay. of/an/army would miles. In' of: flyingiinachines that/fhelr~construc- sin biplane /made the first cross country It said that several ambitious sportsJs * • eager ; for the honor of ;,being tion-and -parking::COuld3never/be: kept trip, ; on record, flyingffrom Chalons' to men 'are ~ ' ' \ make- a start in Golden Gats first -to secret.* fact,^ unless many ,of /the Rheims/a*distance of;i7,. miles. In the parkland -t!y. across the city In and th» Bleriot, ?In a fmonoclane, bay . to Oakland. present fattendant J dangers -of .-flying, same i month i x ,:-'s-f..7r ..\u25a0"..,' '-..;--\u25a0\u25a0•\u25a0\u25a0\u25a0 .• .-.. : r -. »r» \u25a0'\u25a0'.\u25a0\u25a0','\u25a0':'

















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