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The types of principles used for instruction are called teaching methods. There are many teaching methods depending on what information or skill the teacher is trying to convey. The teacher may be flexible and willing to adjust their style according to their students. Effective teaching is the base in the success of a student. Here we are going to discuss four teaching methods: 1. Grammar Translation Method
2. Direct Method
3. Audio Lingual Method 4. Communicative Approach
Grammar Translation Method: The GTM is not new one. Language teachers have used it for many years. It was first used in the teaching of the Classical Language, Latin and Greek. So, it was called Classical Method. In the earlier centuries this method was used for the purpose of helping students in reading foreign language literature. It was also hoped that through the study of grammar, students would become more familiar with the grammar of their native language. This method came to India along with the English men. They were accustomed to this method because they had already been learning Greek and Latin language by this method.
Purpose of GTM:
Internship English Language Teaching (ENG-430) Instructor: Moazzam Ali (firstname.lastname@example.org; www.uogenglish.wordpress.com)
and words are taught through bilingual word lists. was to know everything about some thing rather than the thing itself. Internship English Language Teaching (ENG-430) Instructor: Moazzam Ali (m_linguist@yahoo. Vocabulary selection is based solely on the reading text used. as well as having an intrinsic moral value. More stress is on the sentence structure.wordpress. According to Howatt (1984:131) “The central feature was the replacement of the traditional texts by examplifactory sentence. 3. 7. dictionary study. and translation exercises are prescribed.” 6. Howatt (1984:132) “ The high priority attached to meticulous standard of accuracy which.uogenglish. Vocabulary terms are presented with their translation equivalents.” Characteristics of GTM: 1. www.M. The student’s native language is the medium of instruction. As the students are taught each and everything by translating in the mother tongue. means that language is taught trough rules rather than use. According to Stern (1983) “The first language is maintained as the reference system in the acquisition of the second language.com) . was a pre-requisite for passing the increasing number of formal written examination that grew up during the century. New items are explained by comparing and contrasting with those of native tongue and target language. 4. GTM is the deductive way of teaching a language.” 5. and memorization.The purpose of G. 2. In Grammar Translation Method the structure of the foreign language are taught by comparing and contrasting with those of the mother tongue. so the teachers raise their expectations high about the students.T.com. because the sentence is the basic unit of teaching and language practice. Reading and writing are the major focus. little or no systematic attention is paid to listening or speaking.
GTM is a very easy method. The teacher feels at ease while teaching through GTM because they need not to labor for preparing their lesson and to find out new ways for explaining the words.V.8. 4. The students become use to of thinking every thing in their native language first instead of the target language. Direct method: When GTM lost its popularity in America towards middle of the 19th century. the idiomatic expressions can not be translated exactly. aids are used in GTM to make lesson interesting so it seems very dull and boring. www. Students can easily get the exact meaning of the words. As nothing type of A.g. They also need to collect different A.com. Nothing type of conversational session is held. 10. In GTM much attention is not paid to oral activities or drill work.wordpress. 5. most of the time the teacher be the active person in the class. 11. It becomes much difficult to translation each and every thing in the native language or in the target language for e.com) . Teaching through GTM makes students passive listeners because they are not motivated to speak in the class. 2. through out the class the students are focused on reading and writing. Disadvantages of Grammar Translation Method: 1. 6.V. It proceeds from known to unknown.uogenglish. aids for the preparation of their lesson. teachers set themselves for inventing some better method exactly on the lines on which a child learns his mother tongue. GTM teaches the language by rules rather than by use. As the difficult and lengthy definitions are avoided in GTM the vocabulary is acquired economically and effectively. 9. In GTM at the early stages the teacher can easily evaluate the students by asking questions in their native language. 3. The minister of public instruction of France was the first Internship English Language Teaching (ENG-430) Instructor: Moazzam Ali (m_linguist@yahoo. As a child already known his mother tongue and now he learns the equivalents in the target language.
In DM. discussion and reading in the language itself. For this purpose a model from a native speaker of the target language may be presented in the class.to use the name the “Direct Method”.wordpress.uogenglish. (Ref. Thinking in the target language improves writing skills as well. Internship English Language Teaching (ENG-430) Instructor: Moazzam Ali (m_linguist@yahoo. without the use of the pupil’s language. 7. Direct method is a natural method as it follows the natural principle of learning. The learners are strictly motivated to speak in the target language. Teaching of English by Shabir Ahmed Jaral) Definition: “Direct Method is a method of teaching a foreign language especially a modern language through conversations.com. and learners are strictly motivated to think in the target language. If someone can express oneself in speaking he can do in writing too. 9.” (Webster’s New English Dictionary). Being a natural method DM. The target language is taught through the real life examples and different objects. 3. The sentence is the part of speech so learners are forced to answer in the full sentence form instead of yes/ no. 2. 4. Characteristics of Direct Method: 1. aims at the direct bond experience and expression. is an inductive method as it teaches the language by use rather than by rule.com) . without translation and without the study of formal grammar. DM. DM. and writing. 6. As there is much emphasis on oral training so the pronunciation of the learners improves a lot. 8. This method originated in France in 1901. speaking. The words are taught by pointing to objects or pictures or by performing actions. 5. lays emphasis on oral teaching. reading. www. teaching the learners become very active because they have to participate in all oral sessions. listening. There is no intervention of mother tongue in this method.
To the behaviorist.V. aids are used in DM. All the teachers can teach through this method. phonology. which make the lesson interesting. are as under: 1. the human being is an organism capable of a wide repertoire of behaviors.10.com. It a fact the things learnt through images are remembered for a long time. Language was viewed as a system of structurally-related elements for encoding of meanings. speaking) so the other activities (reading. writing) are left behind. Different types of A. the structural analysis was promoted rather than the grammatical ones. A view that came to be known as Structural Linguistics (a reaction to Traditional Grammar) As linguistics discovered new sound-types and new patterns of linguistic inventions and organization. morphology and syntax developed. aids are used in this method. Draw backs of Direct Method: Some drawbacks of DM. 4. empirically based approach to the study of human behavior. By 1930s. morphemes. and mostly are expensive so every teacher or institution can not afford the expenditures. the elements being phonemes. www. 2. Audio lingual method: The term ALM was coined by Nelson Brookes. only the teachers who are competent in conversational skills can adopt this method. The occurrence of these behaviors is Internship English Language Teaching (ENG-430) Instructor: Moazzam Ali (m_linguist@yahoo. Individual attention is very important for this method so the classes having the small number of students are required for this method. The ALM was developed in the United States during 2nd world war. words. Theory of Learning: Behaviorism like structural linguistics is another anti-mentalist.com) . At the time there was a need for people to learn foreign language rapidly for military purposes. Learning speaking precedes learning reading and writing. structures and sentence type. 3. a new interest in phonetic. Theory of Language: The theory of Audio-lingualism was derived by American linguists in the 1950s. mostly emphasizes on oral training (listening.V. Primary medium of language is oral. As different A.uogenglish. DM.wordpress.
2. and intonation are emphasizedthe use of drills and pattern practice is a distinctive feature of the Audio-Lingual Method. rhythm. 3. 9.uogenglish. Salient Features of Audio-Lingual Method: 1. 10.dependent on three crucial steps in learning. Various kinds of drills such as repetition.com. inflection. are used in this method. The learners are motivated to set a habit of answering in the target language with out any interference of the mother tongue.com) . mimicry. replacement. Correct pronunciation. Audio-lingual method emphasis on certain practice techniques. restatement. Correction of mistakes of pronunciation or grammar is direct and immediate. completion etc. Internship English Language Teaching (ENG-430) Instructor: Moazzam Ali (m_linguist@yahoo. 6. because it increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur again and again and eventually become a habit. 5. 7. 8. Through dialogue exchange the learners can easily memorize the sentence structure. According to Audio-Lingual Method it becomes more effective for the learner if the items to be learned in the target language are presented in form before they are presented in spoken form before they are seen in written form.wordpress. Language mastery is represented as acquiring a set of appropriate language stimulus response chain. www. Stimulus_ Response_ Reinforcement Re-inforcement is a vital element in the learning process. stress. The use of dialogues as the chief means of presenting the language. To seek out the native like pronunciation the native speaker as a model is represented in the class and the learners learn the native pronunciation by mimicry. memorization and pattern drills. The purpose of the language learning is to learn how to use the language to communicate. 4. Explanations of rules are therefore not given until students have practiced a pattern in a variety of context.
com) . Noam Chomsky rejected the structuralist approach to language description as well as the behaviorist theory of language learning. Audio-Lingual Method is based on the techniques of memorization and drilling can be tedious and boring. the focus of Linguistic Theory was to characterize the abstract abilities speakers possess that enable them to produce grammatically correct sentences in a language. Stressed syntactical progression 3.” Communicative Approach: The origins of this approach are to be found in the changes in the British language teaching. Simple techniques 4. (Hymes’. For Chomsky. www. 1972) Hymes’ theory of communicative approach was a definition of what a speaker needs to know in order to be communicatively competent in a speech community. Auditory and oral practice Criticism on Audio-Lingual Method: Albert Valdman (1964) has questioned the excessive emphasis on oral drilling in Audio-Lingual teaching.uogenglish. According to Chomsky sentences are not learned by imitation and repetition but “generated” from the learner’s underlying “competence. Internship English Language Teaching (ENG-430) Instructor: Moazzam Ali (m_linguist@yahoo. It was a contrast view of Chomsky’s theory of competence. The students were often found to be unable to transfer skills acquired through to Audio-Lingualism to real communication out side the classroom.com.Major Contributions of Audio-Lingual Method: H. The practitioners found that the practical result fell short of expectations. The primary goal of this approach is to enable the students to communicate using the target language. Drills are inherently unnatural and contrived examples of the use of language. Theory of Language: The goal of language teaching is communicative competence. Stern (1983) has summed up the major contribution of Audio-Lingualism to language teaching thus: 1.wordpress. Theory based on linguistic and psychological principles 2. H.
2.com) . Language acquisition is desired rather than to learn the language and interaction is encouraged.Theory of Learning: In this theory. Note: For more understanding of Language Methods read Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching by Diane Larsen-Freeman or consult your teacher to have the notes on Teaching Methods. www. 5. 8. the focus was on what the learner needed to understand and express through the target language and not on the accumulation of grammatical items or functions.com. 6. Internship English Language Teaching (ENG-430) Instructor: Moazzam Ali (m_linguist@yahoo. 7. This approach pays systematic attention to functional as well as structural aspects of language. Salient Features of Communicative Approach: 1.wordpress. The students become active because they are engaged to different activities. Mostly the learning is through the games. A speaker is given the choice not only about what to say. Noting type of books is used to teach the language. Translation may be used where students need or benefit from it. 3.uogenglish. All the four skills are given due importance to raise the confidence of the learner. 4. The major purpose of communicative approach is to make the learner effective speakers. but how to say.
com) . www.wordpress.uogenglish.com.Internship English Language Teaching (ENG-430) Instructor: Moazzam Ali (m_linguist@yahoo.
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