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Analog Communication

Date Of Exp:23/10/2011

Objectives:

1-Describe single side band transmission(SSB) circuits by using the AM/SSB TRANSMITTER circuit block on the ANALOG COMMUNICATIONS circuit board. 2- Objectives of Exercise 1 _ Balanced modulator and LSB filter: -Describe how the a balanced modulator produces a DSB signal. -Explain how the SSB is output from the LSB filter. -Understand why an SSB has low power consumption and a narrow band width.

Equipment Required:

F.A.C.E.T base unit. ANALOG COMMUNICATION circuit board. Virtual Instruments. Oscilloscope, dual trace. Generator, sine wave.

Theory:

Single-sideband modulation (SSB) or Single-sideband suppressed-carrier (SSBSC) is a refinement of amplitude modulation that more efficiently uses electrical power andbandwidth. Amplitude modulation produces a modulated output signal that has twice the bandwidth of the original baseband signal. Single-sideband modulation avoids this bandwidth doubling, and the power wasted on a carrier, at the cost of somewhat increased device complexity. Mathematical formulation SSB and vestigial side band (VSB) can also be regarded mathematically as special cases of analogquadrature amplitude modulation. Let be the baseband waveform to be transmitted. Its Fourier transform, axis, because ,

is real-valued. Double

to a radio transmission frequency, , moves the axis , and the two sides of each axis are called sidebands. . Then

is a useful mathematical concept, called an analytic signal. The Fourier transform of equals , for , but it has no negativefrequency components. So it can be modulated to a radio frequency and produce just a single sideband. The analytic representation of is: (the equality is Euler's formula) whose Fourier transform is .

When is modulated (i.e. multiplied) by , all frequency components are shifted by , so there are still no negative-frequency components. Therefore, the complex product is ananalytic representation of the single sideband signal:

where

The presence of two out-of-phase (quadrature) carrier waves is now evident. Lower sideband represents the baseband signal's upper sideband, . It is also possible,

and useful, to convey the baseband information using its lower sideband, , which is a mirror image about f=0 Hz. By a general property of the Fourier transform, that symmetry means it is the complex conjugate of :

Note that:

The gain of 2 is a result of defining the analytic signal (one sideband) to have the same total energy as (both sidebands).

As before, the signal is modulated by . The typical is large enough that the translated lower sideband (LSB) has no negative-frequency components. Then the result is another analytic signal, whose real part is the actual transmission.

Information on Balanced Modulator In a balanced modulator, a signal is modulated using two carriers that are 180 degrees out of phase. The resulting signals are then combined in such a way that the carrier components cancel, leaving a DSB-SC (double sideband, suppressed carrier) signal.

Results: Exercise 1:

Conclusion:

1-The balanced modulator translates a message signal to two sidebands and suppresses the carrier signal frequency to produce a DSB signal. 2-With AM ,only one of the sidebands is required to send the complete message signal. 3-To produce an SSB signal from the DSB signal ,a ceramic bandpass filter with a narrow 4kHz bandwidth is used to remove the 449kH LSB signal. 4-A SSB signal transmission uses only 16.5% of the total 100% modulated AM signal power and is less than half of the AM signals bandwidth.

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