Umm Salama Hind=1oo camel bint Abi Umayya Her Name Hind bint Abu Umayya bin

Al-Mugheerah bin Abdllah bin Umar bin Makhzum Al-Qurashiyyah also called as Umm Salamah (Mother of Salamah) (Arabic: ‫)أم سلمة هند بنت أبي أمية‬ because she had a son named Salamah. Salamah=means nothing bad from the body or behavior Zad ar-Rakib=Umayya=very generous to travelers he was well known for his generosity particularly to travelers.

Abdullah ibn Abdulasad=cousin from father side, died from battle of Uhud Abdullah= servant of Allah

83+12 women

jafar=cousin of prophet killed in battle of musa

umm salamah/abbu salamah= went back to makkah coz it was safe but went and live to Medina whr she was separated from husband and son so she traveled to the desert and find his husband and met Uthman=non believer decent

can distinguish between right and wrong= Aeta=mourning, period of waiting= 4 months & 10 days Abu bakr & Umar came to offer marriage but didn’t accept

29her age 56prophet =she was old, w/ young child and very jealouse woman =he said he will pray to Allah to let her jealousy go away, same age, her family is his family beautiful woman=Aisha felt very unhappy when she heard the marriage and jealouse and upset bcoz she is very beautiful ====she memorize Qur’an, and recites it as the prophet does, ===knowledgeable, intelligent ===met angel Jibril== ===she wore a necklace & the prophet is avoiding her so she destyoyed it === give good advise, care for children education Hafsa, Aisha & Umm Salamah==3 wives who memorized the Qur’an

Kuthbah=Friday speech 378hadiths>>salamah 2210>>aisha

Hind, the daughter of Abu Umayya who was famous for his generosity, and her husband Abdullah bin Abdul-Asad were among the first Muslims. When these persecutions became intolerable, Prophet Muhammad sent those Muslims who had to suffer most from it to Abyssinia. In that country there was a Christian emperor who would grant them protection. Hind(UmmSalama) and her husband were among the eighty-three men and women who left Mecca. Uthman(3rd Caliph) and his wife Ruqayyah, the daughter of the Prophet (s), were responsible for the welfare of the Muslims during their journey, and Ali's brother Ja'far bin Abu Talib was their speaker. On foot or with camels and donkeys, the emigrants went along the caravan route to Yemen. From there they crossed the sea by boat to Africa. Hind reported later on: 4 children salama umar saynab ?? hamza=uncle of prophet Treaty of Hudaibiyah=6AH 1400 ppl, 70 camels Suhail bin Amr=from Qurayish side, disbeliever like an ambassador entered a treaty w/ d prophet="This is a treaty between
Muhammad, Allah's messenger, and Suhail bin Amr ..." "Stop!" Suhail

interrupted again, "If I were convinced that you are Allah's messenger, I would not have participated in any war against you. Write your name and your father's name." At this point, the Muslims would have liked to shout out in protest but Allah's messenger (s) quietly said to Ali, "Write, This is a treaty between Muhammad bin Abdullah and Suhail bin Amr." Ali had tears in his eyes because he felt ashamed at the humiliation for the beloved Prophet, but he controlled himself and went on writing as dictated,

"... they agree not to make war against each other for ten years. During that time people should feel safe and keep their distance. Muhammad is obliged to return to the Quraish anyone who comes to him without his patron's permission, while the Quraish are not obliged to send back anyone coming to them from Muhammad's side. There should not be any hostility, secret theft or cheating between us. Anyone is free to make agreements with Muhammad or the Quraish."

The prophet dreamed he entered Kabba w/ companions and do the Ummhra The treaty conditions: 1- The Muslim will perform Umrah next year instead of this year. While entering Makkah they will carry no arms except their swords, and that too being sheathed. Moreover ,they will nto stay in Makkah for more than 30 days. 2- The treaty will remain valid for a period of 10 years. And nobody from any side would lift their hand against the other for the duration. 3- Every tribe or clan of Arabia will enjoy the right to enter into agreement with any party of its choice; but the allies will have to observe the terms and conditions of the Treaty in letter and spirit. 4- If anyone from Quraish comes over to the Prophet (pbuh) without obtaining the permission of his guardian, he will be

returned to his guardian, but if any one of those with the Prophet (pbuh) escaped to the Quraish, they are not bound to be returned to him. The Muslims were bitterly disappointed and sad. They had been looking forward to their Umra, and even though they felt relieved at the prospect of peace as agreed upon in the treaty they felt that its conditions were humiliating and unfair. The treaty was still being written when Abu Jandal, the son of Suhail himself, who was put in chains and mercilessly tortured for professing islam, came to the Prophet(pbuh) from his captivity. He showed fresh injuries on his person and expressed his profound desire to be taken to Al-Madina. Suhail cried in excitement “Abu Jandal shall be handed over to me as per the treaty.” The Prophet tried to drive the point home to Suhail but he would not agree. At least, Suhail took Abu Jandal back to Makkah beating him severly. =Why Umar later accepted the Prophet (pbuh)explaintion= its in the hand of Allah ,the prophet said he never disobey Allah Finished ISHram..slaughter shave hair Salamah=don’t be sad do it urself 1st shave urself and slaughter animal …so they follow the prophet If you want them to follow your instructions, why do you not go out yourself and do not talk to anyone until you have slaughtered your animal, and then call someone to cut your hair?" 54 age she died Surat48:1-4We have granted you an obvious victory so that Allah may protect you against your earlier and later faults, and that He may perfect His grace towards you and guide you on the straight path, and that Allah may help you with a powerful help. He is the

One who sends tranquility into the hearts of the faithful, adding faith to their faith - and to Allah belong the hosts of the heavens and the earth, and Allah is knowing, wise." The good that the treaty does/positive results 1--- 10 yr peace w/ Qurayish ppl…not to worry about war, can do work, good example to those unbelievers 2--- many tribes came to make peace w/ the prophet 3--Abu Basir= convert, Muslim… back to his family..2 security guards came to get him..he killed 1 of them & run away back the Makkah & captured the other 1 I know I cannot stay here he went back w/ d guard to makkah but he stayed away from the Qurayish ppl..he went to Eis…and all the convert came together..also Suhail’s son……but he died b4 he cud come back to medina Abu Jandal= son of Suhail…. He lead the converts back to Medinah So the Qurayish cancelled the 4th treaty Immigrants from Abysinia hear it so they want to come back King of Abysinia arranged 2 ships for the immigrants So the prophet didn’t need to worry about the war and the prophet was able to send letters to Romans & Persians to invite them to Islam King of Egypt send 2 slave girls maria and Shirin Maria=became the wife of the prophet, gave the prophet a son but died 1 yr old son named Ibrahim = the other wives were jealouse of her bcoz after khadija she is the only 1 to give a son to the prophet….by this the prophet separated from them for 1 month Shirin =married to Hasan bin thabit…the poet

Prophet, say to your wives, "If you desire the life of this world and its glitter, then come, I will give you a gift and let you go in a good manner. But if you desire Allah and His messenger and the home of the life to come, then Allah has prepared a great reward for those of you who do good." (Surah 33:28-29)

Umra, the Lesser Pilgrimage to Mecca. Then the Prophet (s) himself looked into the matter because he did not want the brave wife of his close friend was left to herself. He sent a messenger to her to propose to her for him. But Umm Salama replied, "I am not a young girl any more, and I have four children to look after. Besides, I do not know how I would get along with Aisha and Hafsa because I am a jealous person." Allah's messenger (s) answered back, "You might not be young any more, but I am older than you. Allah will help you to control your jealousy. And where your children are concerned, they will be like my own children." Finally Umm Salama agreed. They got married, and Umm Salama came to live in a little house next to the mosque like the other Mothers of the Faithful. All the Prophet's wives worked hard to control their jealousy and to work for the case of Islam together, fulfilling their tasks as Mothers of the Faithful. Umm Salama's children grew up under the loving care of the Prophet (s) as if they were his own children. Her daughter Zainab later on became one of the great scholars. 7 yrs stayed w/ the prophet 84 when she died

Hind, the daughter of Abu Umayya who was famous for his generosity, and her husband Abdullah bin Abdul-Asad were among

the first Muslims. They were happy that Allah had sent His messenger to liberate them from ignorance and to guide them, and this joy gave them the strength to keep calm in spite of the idolaters scoffing at them. But the idolaters did not leave it at that. The powerful men among the Quraish had tried in vain, with promises and threats, to persuade the Prophet (s) not to continue his mission because they were afraid that his message would change the old order of Mecca and divert people from their traditions. Among the latter there was the worship of the numerous idols that had been set up inside and around the Ka'ba that originally had been built as a place to worship the One God. There were also various superstitious ideas linked with the idol worship that kept people preoccupied. When they did not achieve anything with their threats and promises, the idolaters started to persecute and torture the Muslims, most of all the slaves if they could not be liberated on time. They were not only mistreated and beaten because they had joined the Prophet (s) but they were sometimes even killed. If the Muslims were not protected by their families they were not safe any longer. Young people who had accepted Islam against their parents' wishes were locked up and beaten, and their relatives left them without food and tried everything to divert them from their faith. Many idolaters incited their children to play bad tricks on the Muslims, but also the adults put thorns into their paths, threw rubbish at them or mobbed them when they went home alone at night. When these persecutions became intolerable, Prophet Muhammad sent those Muslims who had to suffer most from it to Abyssinia. In that country there was a Christian emperor who would grant them protection. Hind and her husband were among the eighty-three men and women who left Mecca. Uthman and his wife Ruqayyah, the daughter of the Prophet (s), were responsible for the welfare of the Muslims during their journey, and Ali's brother Ja'far bin

Abu Talib was their speaker. On foot or with camels and donkeys, the emigrants went along the caravan route to Yemen. From there they crossed the sea by boat to Africa. Hind reported later on: When we arrived in Abyssinia, the Negus, the Abyssinian emperor, welcomed us in a friendly manner. We could practise our religion and worship Allah in security and without any fear of persecution. However, when the Quraish in Mecca got the news, they decided to send two men to the Negus to get us back, with gifts from the best goods available in Mecca. Among the goods from Mecca the Abyssinians appreciated most of all was leather, so they collected a large quantity for the Negus and also prepared some gifts for his military leaders. Then they entrusted them Abdullah and Amr, the chosen messengers, and told them first to give gifts to the military leaders and then to him, asking him to return the emigrants to them without talking to them first. So the two men set off and reached the Negus who had granted us protection. First they gave their gifts to his military leaders, saying to each of them, "Some foolish people from our nation have fled to your emperor's country. They have left the religion of their nation, but they have not accepted your religion. They have made up a new religion that is known neither to you nor to us. The chiefs of our nation therefore have sent us to your emperor to have them returned to us. Now, when we talk about that matter to your emperor, then advise him to return them to us without talking to them first, for we know best what bad actions they did." This was promised to them by the military leaders. After that, the two men took their gifts to the Negus himself, and he accepted them. They told him of the same accusations against the emigrants they had talked about to the military leaders who advised the Negus to grant the request by the Meccans. But there the Negus became angry and said, "No, by God, I will not return them! None of those who seek protection in

my country, preferring me to others, will be deported before I have invited them and interviewed them about the things these two men are accusing them of. If their accusations then prove to be true, I will send the refugees back to their people. But otherwise I will protect them from them and grant them my hospitality as long as they ask me for it." He then sent a messenger to invite the companions of the Prophet (s). When they got the news, they came together and discussed what they were going to say to the Negus when they got to his court. Finally they said, "Whatever happens, we are going to tell him what we know and what our Prophet has told us." Now the Negus had sent for his bishops as well, and they had assembled and opened their sacred scriptures. When the Muslims arrived, the Negus asked them, "What religions is this for which you have left your people without accepting our or any other known religion?" Ja'far bin Abi Talib replied, "We used to be an ignorant nation. We used to worship idols, to eat impure meat, to commit adultery, to neglect our family ties, to ignore the rules of hospitality, and the powerful among us exploited the weak. We lived like that until Allah raised a prophet among us whose lineage, sincerity, truthfulness and integrity was known to us. He taught us to believe in God's unity, to worship Him alone and to give up the stones and idols we and our ancestors had been worshipping before. He taught us to speak the truth, to fulfill our promises, to respect our family ties, to protect the guest and to avoid crimes and bloodshed. He forbade us to commit adultery, to appropriate the property of orphans and to backbite decent women. He commanded us to worship only Allah, not associating anything with him, to establish prayer, to give charity and to fast. And we believed him and followed his revelation. We began to worship only Allah, not associating anything with Him, to avoid what he had declared to be forbidden and to do what he permitted us. Then our people scoffed at us and tried to divert

us from our faith, wanting us to give up the worship of the One and return to idolatry and to take evil to be permissible. When they resorted to violence, oppressing us and trying to keep us away from the practice of our religion, we emigrated to your country, preferring to stay with you rather than with anybody else. We appreciate your hospitality and hope not to suffer any injustice in your presence." "Did you bring any part of the revelation sent through your prophet?" the Negus asked. "Yes," Ja'far replied. "Then read it to me," the Negus said. So Ja'far recited to him a passage from Surah Maryam, and the Negus wept until his beard got wet, and also the bishops wept until their tears dropped on their sacred scriptures. Then the Negus turned to the two Meccan messengers and said to them, "This revelation and the revelation brought by Jesus is from the same source. Go away! By God, I will not return them, and I will not let them down." When the two men had left the Negus, Amr said to Abdullah, "Tomorrow I am going to tell him something that will destroy them." Abdullah, the more pious one of them, replied, "Do not do that! Even though they might have done something against us, they remain our tribesmen." But Amr insisted, saying, "I am going to tell him that they say that Jesus, the son of Mary, is only a human being." And indeed, the next morning Amr went to the Negus and said, "Those people say something terrible about Jesus. Do send for them and ask them about ist." The Negus did what they suggested. Never befroe had anything like that happened to us. The emigrants assembled again and discussed what to say about Jesus when they were asked. Then they decided, "Whatever happens, we will say what Allah told us and revealed to His prophet."

When they had arrived at the Negus's court and he had asked them concerning their views about Jesus, Ja'far replied, "We say about him what we have been told by our prophet, namely that he is Allah's servant, His messenger, His spirit and His Word that He had sent to the virgin Mary." Thereupon the Negus picked up a stick from the ground and said, "Indeed, Jesus is no more than what you said, not even for the length of this stick." A murmur was audible among his courtiers, but he said, "Even though you might murmur." And to the Muslims he said, "Go. You are safe in my country. Whoever says something against you will be punished. Not even for a mountain of Gold would I do any injustice against you. Return the gifts to those two men. I do not need them. Allah did not take a bribe when He made me emperor, so why should I accept a bribe against Him? He never helped the rebels against me, so why should I help anyone against Him?" So the two men left the Negus, ashamed and with the gifts that had been returned to them. But we stayed there in his protection.
Soon afterwards Hind gave birth to a son. She named him Salama, and from then on, according to Arab custom, she was called Umm Salama - Mother of Salama - and his father was called Abu Salama - Father of Salama. When the Muslims had stayed in Abyssinia for three months, the news was brought that 'Umar, a man feared for his strength and anger and well known as a bitter enemy of Islam, had miraculously become a Muslim and started to pray publicly right in front of the Ka'ba. This news was greeted with great joy. Perhaps now the enemies of Islam would not dare any more to persecute the Muslims as before because they had to keep in mind that 'Umar was around to pay them back. Overjoyed, some of the Muslims

immediately set off to rturn to Mecca. When they arrived there, however, the leading men in the city council had come to an agreement to boycot the Muslims and their families, that is, nobody would buy from them or sell anything to them, and nobody would get married with anyone of them. The Muslims were isolated in a barren valley outside Mecca and could enter the city only during the sacred months when all quarrel was forbidden. The disappointed emigrants had to turn back, and others went along with them. But most of them had stayed in Abyssinia. Some time later, however, some Abyssinians who wanted to have the power to themselves revolted against the Negus. The Muslimes hoped that Allah would help him against his enemies but they were unable to interfere on his behalf because they were foreigners and had been in the country only for a short time. When the danger became too great for them they could only try to get back to Mecca hoping to find some safe place there. Umm Salama and her family were among those who set off. In the meantime, several men and women from Yathrib which is now called Medina had accepted Islam and invited the Prophet (s) to join them and to make peace between the hostile tribes of their city. In return they had promised to give a home to Allah's messenger and the Muslims and to protect him as if he were a family member. One after the other the Muslims emigrated to Medina. Gaining new hope, Abu Salama told his wife about this possibility. Again they packed up the few possessions they had, took baby Salama and set off. But they did not get far. On their way they met some men from Umm Salama's clan who stopped them and said to Abu Salama, "Do you think you can drag our daughter around in the world as you like?" They got hold of the camel that was carrying Umm Salama and her baby, chased Abu

Salama away and made for their homes. But soon they met some men from Abu Salama's clan. They got hold of the baby, saying, "This is the son of our son. Do you think we are going to leave him to you?" Umm Salama's relatives tried to hold fast to the little boy, and both parties pulled him from one side to the other until they had twisted his arm. Finally Abu Salama's relatives succeeded in taking him away from his mother. Later on, Umm Salama related:

My husband Abu Salama was able to travel to Medina while Salama and I were separated from him and from each other. I went out every day to cry until the night came, every single day, nearly for one whole year. One day I was found by one of my uncles from the clan of Mughira. He saw my misery and listened to the story of my suffering. Then he talked to the clan of Muhira and interceded for me until my clan finally did let me go so that I could join my husband. When the news got to Abu Salama's clan, the Bani Abdul Asad, they even returned my son Salama to me. Immediately I took him and left Mecca to join my husband in Medina.
Umm Salama was a brave woman. She was not afraid of the dangers of the desert where travellers can easily be misguided by a mirage or attacked by wild animals or sold into slavery by highwaymen. Even experienced men avoided to travel alone for such a long distance. But Umm Salama was more afraid that her relatives could change their minds and use violence to keep her back. She trusted in Allah and set off with her little son. Soon she met a good man who took her safely to Medina. Full of joy, Abu Salama welcomed his wife and child. Life in Medina was a new life for all Muslims. In the beginning they had to put up with poverty, and they had to learn many

things they had not known before. The Muslims helped each other like brothers and sisters and shared everything they had with each other. Umm Salama was happy about hr freedom and about the warm generosity with which she was welcomed. Some time later she gave birth to another son and then to a little daughter. Their familiy life would have been completely happy if the idolaters in Mecca had not tried again and again to make war against the Muslims. So she stayed home with her young chuldren and prayed for the success of the Muslims while Abu Salama took part in the battle of Badr where the idolaters were defeated in spite of their number. Abu Salama was a close friend of the Prophet's and enjoyed his full confidence. Once the Prophet (s) even left him in Medina as his representative while he went on an expedition. Abu Salama also took part in the battle of Uhud. Umm Salama was expecting her fourth child when the news came that Abu Salama's clan from Mecca, the Banu Abdul Asad, were about to attack the Muslims. Therefore Allah's messenger sent Abu Salama with 150 men to defend Medina. The Muslims were successful, but Abu Salama was wounded and brought back home. Umm Salama looked after him as good as she was able to, and Allah's messenger remained at his bedside praying for him, but after a couple of days he died from his wounds. So Umm Salama was left with her children. She tried to earn her livelyhood by spinning, but with young children this was very difficult. On one hand, Salama was old enough to help his mother, but on the other hand, his youngest sister was born soon afterwards and demanded much of her mother's attention. But Umm Salama did not lose her courage, not even when sometimes, after a long working day, she and the children had to go to bed hungry. When Abu Bakr and afterwards 'Umar offered to marry her and look after her, she declined politely. Then the Prophet (s) himself looked into the matter because he did not want the brave

wife of his close friend was left to herself. He sent a messenger to her to propose to her for him. But Umm Salama replied, "I am not a young girl any more, and I have four children to look after. Besides, I do not know how I would get along with Aisha and Hafsa because I am a jealous person." Allah's messenger (s) answered back, "You might not be young any more, but I am older than you. Allah will help you to control your jealousy. And where your children are concerned, they will be like my own children." Finally Umm Salama agreed. They got married, and Umm Salama came to live in a little house next to the mosque like the other Mothers of the Faithful. Umm Salama was welcomed by the other women. Like Aisha and Hafsa, she was an intelligent and beautiful woman who was not afraid to say what she thought. One day when 'Umar scolded his daughter Hafsa for her debate with the Prophet (s), she said to him, "I am surprised, Son of Khattab, that you interfere with matters that are between the Prophet and his wives." All the Prophet's wives worked hard to control their jealousy and to work for the case of Islam together, fulfilling their tasks as Mothers of the Faithful. Umm Salama's children grew up under the loving care of the Prophet (s) as if they were his own children. Her daughter Zainab later on became one of the great scholars. One day the Banul-Mustaliq, a idolatrous tribe living near Medina, started a war against the Muslims. There was heavy fighting until the Muslims defeated the aggressors and brought a group of the the Banul-Mustaliq with them as prisoners. Among them there was Burah, the daughter of the tribal chief Al-Harith. At once she went to Allah's messenger (s) to complain to him, "I am Burah, the daughter of the chief Al-Harith bin Abi Dirar. As you know, a misfortune has happened to me. I have become a part of Thabit bin Qays's share of the booty and want to buy my

freedom. Please help me with that." Allah's messenger (s) felt sorry that such a noble and courageous woman had ended up in this unworthy position. But he did not want to liberate only her but also her tribespeople who, according to the unwritten laws of that time, had become slaves of the Muslims for the time being until they were able to buy their freedom. In order to set them free, Allah's messenger (s) had to use a trick. Therefore he asked Burah, "Would you like something better than that?" "What could that be?" she replied. He said, "I buy your freedom and marry you." Burah understood at once what this would mean for all of them. A smile of hope flashed across her face. Not only did she agree fully with the Prophet's suggestion but realized that it was the expression of the wish of a great human being to make peace. This could only be the wish of a person close to God, of a prophet. Even before they got married, she accepted Islam and was given the name Juwairiyah. Of course it was now a matter of honour for the Muslims not to keep the tribespeople of the Prophet's wife prisoner any longer, and they set them free without taking anything in exchange. From then on the BanulMustaliq not only lived inpeace with the Muslims but accepted Islam in the course of time, and Juwayriya was their teacher of religion. She explained, first to her father and then to her relatives and later on to all other members of the tribe what the meaning of Islam is for humankind, taught them to do good actions and warned them to keep away from evil. Later on, Aisha said about her, " I do not know any woman who was a greater blessing for her tribe." After several wars and an unsuccessful siege of Medina, the Quraish finally came to the insight that they could not achieve anything against the Muslims. At that point, Allah's messenger assembled the Muslims to perform the Umra, the Lesser Pilgrimage to Mecca. More than 700 people followed his call and

set off full of expectations. They left their weapons at home except for the small knives and swords that you need to defend yourself against wild animals and highwaymen. They also took sacrificial animals with them. Umm Salama went along with Allah's messenger. When the pilgrims had arrived near Mecca, they were met by representatives of the Quraish and told to go back because they would not be permitted to enter the city. Allah's messenger wanted to prevent an armed conflict. He asked the Muslims to set up a camp and negotiated with the Quraish. Later on, he sent Uthman into the city to negotiate with the city council. The council members suggested to Uthman to perform the rituals of the Umra himself before going back to Allah's messenger (s) and his companions because they hoped to win his sympathy. But he refused. In the meantime, the Muslims had already been worrying because he had stayed away for a long time. They thought that the Quraish had treacherously killed him. All of them, men and women, went to Allah's messenger and vowed to stand by his side in case of a war - which would have been a war between unequal parties because the Muslims had not taken their weapons along while the idolaters had access to their full armour. But finally Uthman came back unharmed, accompanied ba a messenger called Suhail who was supposed to make a treaty with the Muslims. The Quraish had vowed not to let the Muslims enter Mecca this year, and they did not want to lose their faces by breaking this vow. The Muslims were very disappointed when Allah's messenger (s) suggested to return and come back next year. At the same time, the Quraish were ready to make a peace treaty. Allah's messenger (s) called Ali to set up the text, and he dictated, "In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful." "Stop!" Suhail interrupted, "I do not know of any Beneficent and

Merciful. Write instead, In Your Name, o Allah." Then Allah's messenger (s) went on, "This is a treaty between Muhammad, Allah's messenger, and Suhail bin Amr ..." "Stop!" Suhail interrupted again, "If I were convinced that you are Allah's messenger, I would not have participated in any war against you. Write your name and your father's name."

At this point, the Muslims would have liked to shout out in protest but Allah's messenger (s) quietly said to Ali, "Write, This is a treaty between Muhammad bin Abdullah and Suhail bin Amr." Ali had tears in his eyes because he felt ashamed at the humiliation for the beloved Prophet, but he controlled himself and went on writing as dictated,

"... they agree not to make war against each other for ten years. During that time people should feel safe and keep their distance. Muhammad is obliged to return to the Quraish anyone who comes to him without his patron's permission, while the Quraish are not obliged to send back anyone coming to them from Muhammad's side. There should not be any hostility, secret theft or cheating between us. Anyone is free to make agreements with Muhammad or the Quraish."
The Muslims were bitterly disappointed and sad. They had been looking forward to their Umra, and even though they felt relieved at the prospect of peace as agreed upon in the treaty they felt that its conditions were humiliating and unfair. Therefore they hesitated to follow the Prophet's instruction to slaughter their sacrificial animals and to cut their hair as if they had performed the Umra. Allah's messenger was exhausted and went into his

tent. "What is the matter with you?" Umm Salama asked. "Well," he said, "they are too disappointed to listen to me." Umm Salama thought for a while. She was very sad herself, and she knew that the Prophet (s) was disappointed and sad. But then she thought that Allah would certainly turn it into something good for the Muslims and that he probably had thought about that because he was an experienced man who would not let himself be persuaded to make a treaty that gave away all the advantages to the others. And certainly a long peace was better than a short pilgrimage. Finally she said, "If you want them to follow your instructions, why do you not go out yourself and do not talk to anyone until you have slaughtered your animal, and then call someone to cut your hair?" So Allah's messenger followed this advice, and then the Muslims followed his example by slaughtering their sacrificial animals and having their hair cut. Then they set off for Medina. At that time, the following verses were revealed:

We have granted you an obvious victory so that Allah may protect you against your earlier and later faults, and that He may perfect His grace towards you and guide you on the straight path, and that Allah may help you with a powerful help. He is the One who sends tranquility into the hearts of the faithful, adding faith to their faith - and to Allah belong the hosts of the heavens and the earth, and Allah is knowing, wise." (Surah 48:1-4)
It did take some time until the Muslims understood why this peace treaty, even though it looked unfair, was a greater and more important success for them than a visit to Mecca could have been. For now they could feel safe from the constant fear of war, and they were able to do their work, to bring up their children, to learn many things that sould be useful to them later, and to give

people and example for what Islam really means. Thus many people were attracted to Islam. During the following months, Allah's messenger wrote many letters to the rulers of the neighbouring empires, especially to the emperors of Rome and Persia, asking them not to oppress their peoples and not to be proud but to remember that in the end they will be called to account by Allah, and to serve Him alone. Those emperors were very powerful. They had conquered many countries and subjugated many nations. Chosroes, the emperor of Persia, got angry at the Prophet's letter and ripped it to bits. Then he ordered his general Bazan to attack the Muslims and to bring him the head of the man who had dared to ask him, the most powerful man in the empire if not in the world, to remember his responsibility towards Allah. However, when Bazan came to know the Muslims, he was deeply impressed by their faith and finally accepted Islam himself, while Chosroes' empire crupled. Heraclisu, the Roman emperor, read the Prophet's letter and answered it in a nice way but did not take Islam serious. However, he kept one of his minor kings to wage war against the Muslims. And the letter was preserved in his files and is now in a museum in Istanbul. The Abyssinian emperor in whose country some of the emigrated Muslims were still living was glad at the Prophet's success and got two ships ready to take the Muslims home. Some of the Arab chiefs who received the Prophet's letter accepted Islam, but some others were annoyed and wrote challenging and disrespectful replies. Mukaukis, the Coptic archbishop in Egypt, wrote in reply that he was convinced that a Propet was coming, and he sent some gifts, among them two young Egyptian slave girls, Maria and Shirin. While travelling to Medina, the two young girls heard a lot about the faith and practice of the Muslims where they were to find a new home. When they arrived at Medina, Maria accepted Islam. Allah's messenger set

her free and married her, and he married Shirin to the poet Hasan bin Thabit who had written many beautiful poems about Islam and the Prophet (s). At this solution, Maria was very happy. She had already been afraid that she was going to spend her life as a slave without a family in a strange country. But Allah's messenger (s) and the Muslims made her forget the pain of separation and became brothers and sisters for her. Some time later she gave birth to a son and called him Ibrahim. The other wives of Allah's messenger became jealous. They were so excited that they forgot about their important task in the community and conspired against Maria. Even Umm Salama and Aisha who otherwise were too jealous at each other to be good friends got together. After all, they were human beings, and each of them would have loved to bear a child for Allah's messenger. He talked to them and tried to comfort them and to remind them of their position as Mothers of the Faithful, but without success. Finally he could not see any way out but to separate from all of them for one month. He moved into a room in the attic and did not talk to any of them. By this the Mothers of the Faithful were shocked. They did not know if Allah's messenger (s) was going to return to them after this month or if he was going to separate from them for good. Their parents and brothers and sisters came and scolded them, and all Muslims were sad about this unlucky situation. Would it not have been much easier if the Mothers of the Faithful just had accepted Maria as their new sister, celebrated the birth of the new baby, and helped each other? It was not Maria's fault that the archbishop had given her and her sister away and would have been insulted if the Prophet had not accepted his gift. And in those days men and women who did not have the security of a

family could easily end up in loneliness and misery. During this month, the Mothers of the Faithful had many things to think about. They would have liked to have babies of their own, and this wish is only natural and human. But being a mother does not only mean to have babies. For the Prophet's wives it meant, first of all, to be mothers of the community, to teach the Muslims and to educate them. Allah's messenger (s) was not like any other man whose main purpose in life was to care for his family. In his task as a prophet, especially as the last messenger for all mankind, he needed wives who could be real partners, keeping their own personal interests in the background. This is not easy, and in those days it was quite uncommon. Nevertheless, the Mothers of the Faithful knew that they liked their task and did not want to change with anyone. By the end of the month, the following verses were revealed:

Prophet, say to your wives, "If you desire the life of this world and its glitter, then come, I will give you a gift and let you go in a good manner. But if you desire Allah and His messenger and the home of the life to come, then Allah has prepared a great reward for those of you who do good." (Surah 33:28-29)
So Allah's messenger (s) gave his wife this choice. They could have separated from him and married someone else who was able to offer them a more quiet and comfortable life with less duties outside the family. Like any other woman of their time, they would have been able to concentrate on their family life. But the Mothers of the Faithful did not have to think for long. They loved Allah's messenger and their task, and they knew that he loved them and that they all together were working for Allah's cause. None of them would have wanted to separate from him, and they were all very sad when baby Ibrahim died one year later.

Still one year later, Allah's messenger (s) got ill and died. Umm Salama was one of those Mothers of the Faithful whose main task was to teach and to spread the knowledge that they had been taught by Allah's messenger. Many male and female students attended her study circles, and many of the things we know today of Allah's messenger were transmitted to us by her. Like Aisha and Hafsa, she also led the women's prayers. She lived through the time of the caliphs Abu Bakr, 'Umar, Uthman and Ali and saw how Islam spread in three continents, how the Persian empire crumbled, and how the Muslims helped many Jews and Christians who were oppressed because of their religion. She was there when 'Umar succeeded in opening schools for all boys and girls in Medina where they could learn reading and writing, and when he personally made arrangements that widows and orphans were properly looked after. But she was also a witness for the disagreement among Muslims. Jealous people started to spread envy and bad feeling until finally, in the time of the caliph Uthman, rebels conspired against him, laid siege to his house and demanded his resignation. Umm Salama had certainly not always agreed with everything he had done, and she had been at his side with advice and criticism just as she had been at Abu Bakr's and 'Umar's side. But she disliked injustice and violence and was shocked when she heard that the rebels had entered Uthman's house and killed him and wounded his wife who had tried to defend the old man. Unrest had broken out everywhere in Medina, and when Ali took over the resposibility of government, it was difficult to restore peace and order. Some of the old pre-Islamic Arab pride and tribalism had surfaced again, and there were influential men for whom revenge for Uthman's murder seemed more important than peace and unity among the Muslims. They severely criticised Ali and refused to see that it was necessary to restore public order before thinking of looking for the

murderer. Mu'awiya who had been made governor of Syria by Uthman even refused to acknowledge Ali as the caliph of the Muslims and went to war against him. In those days, Umm Salama as well as Ali and other companions of the Prophet (s) admonished people to use their common sense and to overcome their disagreements. Even though she had become a very old woman, she did not stop teaching Islamic values and principles and to advise people how to put them into practice. Not personal interests, pride, greed or the desire for power were to be followed as determining factors of one's life but the responsibility towards our Creator and brotherly love among people. Umm Salama had taken part in many expeditions with the Prophet (s). Now she was too old to go along with Ali on the tragic expedition against Mu'awiya's attacking troops. She gained new hope when she heard that representatives from both sides had met for negotiations. But the harder she was hit, later on, by the news that Ali had been assassinated. Thus the time of the Rightly Guided Caliphs was over. The Muslims now wanted to elect a new caliph, and many of them hoped that Ali's son Hasan who had become an important teacher and imam in the meantime would be able to take over this responsibility. However, in Syria, Mu'awiya had proclaimed himself caliph and named his son Yazid as his succesor, not by the vote of the Muslims but following the example of the rulers of the neighbouring empires. Following theit examplee, he already had built a castle for himself and employed bodyguards so that it was not easy for ordinary people to come to him with a request or a complaint as it had been the practice with the first four caliphs and even the Prophet (s) himself. His wife never liked this lifestyle at all. She loved the simple life as it had been normal for the Prophet (s) and his companions. Like in a golden cage, she felt imprisoned in that palace with all those servants and bodyguards,

and she mourned about her fate in sorrowful poems until Mu'awiya divorced her and sent her back to her clan in the desert. Yazid had grown up like a prince without any contact with ordinary people. He had studied the arts and sciences of his time, but he knew the strugge of the early Muslims only from stories that had been told to him. Besides, he was more interested in gambling and hunting than in prayer, and when he was with his friends he sometimes even drank wine. This was not the character of a man who can be imagined as a Muslim leader. Umm Salama was outraged when she heard that Yazid was upposed to be Mu'awiya's successor, even without the Muslims agreeing with it, notwithstanding the Qur'anic instruction to handle matters in mutual consultation. She and the other surviving companions of the Prophet (s) urged Hasan to take over the responsibility of government and reconstruct the system of the Rightly Guided Caliphs. But Hasan did not want to risk any more bloodshed. He saw that many of the values taught by Allah's messenger (s) had already been forgotten. Many of his companions and most of the Mothers of the Faithful had died, and the few of them who were still alive had become old and weak. They summoned all their strength to teach the young Muslims as well as all those thousands of people who had accepted Islam during the last decades. To Hasan, this task seemed more important than to risk human lives in a hopeless war against the powerful army of an illegitimate ruler. Instead of taking meaningless risks, he used all his energy for keeping the Prophet's knowledge alive. But very soon he was killed. Hasan's brother Husayn was another great teacher and imam. After Hasan's death, many Muslims promised Husayn to stand by his side, and when Mu'awiya had died and Yazid had come to power in his place, they invited Husayn to come to Kufa and guide them to build up a community according to the Prophet's

principles. But while he and his family were still on their way there, Yazid's troops occupied the city and waylaid Husayn near Karbala. Thoroughly shocked, Umm Salama heard the news of the horrible bloodshed that followed. Yazid's troops had attacked Husayn's little group, killed him and his men and even a baby and taken the women to Syria in a most shameful manner. This news was too much for the old lady who had spent all her life workig for the cause of Allah. She got ill and died and was buried in Medina with the other Mothers of the Faithful who had preceded her. But her male and female students are among those who continued to work for Islam the way she had not only taught them but also shown by her example.

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