You are on page 1of 10

HIGH AND LATE MIDDLE AGES (1085/1118-1469)

HIGH MIDDLE AGES (1085/1118-1369)

Period comprised between: Conquest of Toledo (Castilla) Conquest of Zaragoza (Aragn) The Trastmara dinasty took the castillian throne

HISTORIOGRAPHICAL DISCUSSIONS The medieval cities are NOT considered yet as islands of freedom in a feudal sea Existence or not of the Modern State in 1300 The origins of La Mesta Old nobility versus new nobility Saint James path (El Camino de Santiago) The reconquer (La Reconquista) Pactism in Aragn

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS Great expansion of the northern kingdoms: all the peninsula, except Granada, was cristian at mid XIIIth century Feudalism as global system of organization of the society Economical Peak (Ferias, moneychangers, trade) Crisis of the cordobian caliphate Development and transformation of the cities Formation of the Universities (Palencia, Salamanca,...) Pilgrinage to Santiago de Compostela Generalization of the carolinian script (type of letter)


XIth century- After the fitna (division of the caliphate in taifas) in 1008, the christian kingdoms passed to be stronger than the muslim ones The northern christian kingdoms started to be recognized for other powerful kingdoms in Europe NAVARRA- The hegemonic proyect of Sancho III El Mayor (1004-1035), finished when he divided his territories between

his children: Garca Snchez III, Navarra; Fernando I, Castilla; Ramiro I, Aragn; Gonzalo, Sobrarbe-Ribagorza ARAGN and PORTUGAL did not want to be conquered by Castilla and Len, so they used its supposed political vassalage to the Pope.


Fernando I (1037-1065) - 1029- Real Monarch - 1038- King of Len -1055- Council of Coyanza Vassalage to the caliphate: parias system Symbol of his triumph: the relics of San Isidoro de Len passed from Sevilla to Len Sancho II (1065-1072) - Elder son of Fernando I, he inherited Castilla without Len (Alfonso), nor Galicia (Garca) - He reunified all the territories - War of the Three Sanchos: Sancho II de Castilla, Sancho Ramrez de Aragn, and Sancho IV Garcs de Navarra (1067) - He was murdered in Zamora, by order of his brothers Alfonso VI (1072-1109): Territorial expansion Conquest of Toledo (1085) Change of the meaning of frontera=border Castilian supremacy The taifas called the almorvides to the Iberian Peninsula, beating the castilians in Sagrajas (1086) and Ucls (1108), breaking the system of parias

Urraca (1109-1126): - She was queen-regent by the minority of Alfonso - Tenseness between Castilla-Len and Aragn after the pact of union, the marriage between Urraca and Alfonso I El Batallador of Aragn, that was not finally celebrated - Crisis of the feudal system: - Nobles alliances - Rebellions in the burgos - The church increased its power

Alfonso VII (1126-1157)

- First king of the Burgundian dinasty

- The border was established in the river Guadiana - Repopulation of Castilla-La Mancha - He obtained the title of emperor, although: Independence of Portugal After his death, the idea of the Hispanic Empire dissapeared After his death and until 1230, Castilla and Len were independent kingdoms

- Sancho III El Deseado (1158-1159) - Alfonso VIII (1158-1214): Rivalry between the Lara and the Castro Influence of Len Almohades in the Peninsula (Battle of Alarcos, 1195) Creation of the Military Orders of Calatrava (1158), Santiago (1175) and Alcntara (1177) Crusade against the almohades: victory in the Navas de Tolosa (1212), which was the origin of the third taifas - Enrique I (1214-1217): - When he died, it produced the unification of Castilla and Len in Fernando III, Berenguelas son, married with Alfonso VIII of Len.

- Fernando II (1157-1188): Attacks against Al-Andalus, what provoked: Confrontation with Portugal Confrontation with Castilla (conflicts in the border) -Alfonso IX (1188-1230)


Fernando III El Santo (1217-1252): He unified again and for ever Castilla and Len He conquered the valley of the Guadalquivir river and most of Extremadura Treaty of Almizra (1244) with Jaime I He delimited the nazari kingdom of Granada

Alfonso X El Sabio (1252-1284): Importance of the culture Great economical crisis Stable relations with the kingdom of Granada Important juridical work (Fuero Real, Espculo, Siete Partidas) The kingdom finished with the confrontation between him and his son, the future Sancho IV

Sancho IV El Fuerte (1284-1295) Economical crisis Social crisis End of the conquests

Fernando IV El Emplazado (1295-1312) His mother, Mara de Molina, la tres veces reina (the three times queen) was really important in the control of the internal situation The kings of Aragn, Navarra and Portugal helped those revolts Combats against the nazari kingdom Alfonso XI El Justiciero (1312-1350) was king with 1 year old

PEDRO I EL CRUEL (1350-1369)

- Vengeance against Leonor de Guzmn (who was killed in 1351) and her sons - His attitude gave him the knicknames Cruel or Righteous - The beggining of his kingdom was link to his councilor Juan Alfonso de Alburquerque - Confrontations with the nobility, headed by the Trastmara - Protection of the jews - Relevance of his diplomatical activity in Europe - The castellanist nobility ask for support in Aragn, what provoked in 1356 the beggining of the War of the Two Pedros, I of Castilla and IV of Aragn, which in 1365 was transformed in: - Civil War in Castilla: Pedro against his brother in law, Enrique de Trastmara. The conflict was internationalizated in the War of the Hundred Years - He died in 1369, murdered by his brother in law and helped by Pierre du Guesclin: Ni quito ni pongo rey, pero ayudo a mi seor.

Relevance: Alfonso I El Batallador: Conquest of Zaragoza (1118), access to the valley of the Ebro When he died without heirs, he divided the kingdom between the Military Orders XIIIth century: Axis of the politic: mediterranean expansion and internal conflicts.

Economical expansion between the Xth-middle XIVth century The feudal economy was based in three pillars: feudal states, small exploitations and cities Shortage of resources of the kings, so they needed to enlarge the taxes Demographical increase, what provoked migrations and the apparition of the arrabales Relevance of the land. Mediterranean trilogy: cereal, grapevine and olive and expansion of the orchard products and pulses Increased of the agrarian production but with low productivity Relevance of the ganadery: creation of the Honrado Concejo de la Mesta in 1273 by Alfonso X ECONOMY II Renasciment of the urban life Local character of the artesanal production until the XIIIth century Consolidation in the XIIIth century of textile centers in Segovia and Cuenca, although the castilian wool used to export to Flanders and England Beggining of the first gremios New currency Increased of the trade, inside the Comercial revolution: Development of practices imported from Italy (mercantiles companies, bill of exchange, etc.) In Castilla were important the cantabrian area and the south of Andaluca Aragn opened to the mediterranean sea, linked to a political expansion and confrontation with italian traders (Pisa, Gnova, Venecia)


Definition: After the end of the conquest of the muslim kingdoms Several periods and models: Monastic repopulation, specially by the benedictine monks Oficial (kings or counts) based in the cartas pueblas=legal texts for regulate the convivence and activities of the new inhabitants (VIII-Xth centuries) Councils: Toledo and Extremadura, alfoz where the daily life was regulated through a fuero Military Orders In Aragn, Valencia and Mallorca, the system was the repartimiento

Along the XIIIth century, the border was placed in the Guadalquivir river and the repopulation was made by the great councils, military orders and nobles, whom received big territories (donados) that could pass to their heirs.


Period comprised between: Rising of the Trastmara dinasty in Castilla

Beggining of the kingdom of the Catholic Kings

The Castilian civil war (1366-1369) two groups were confrontated: king and cities vs. nobility The Trastmara Revolution XVth century: fight between nobility and monarchy Castilian authoritarism vs. Aragonian pactism With the Catholic Kings, we passed from the feudalism to the absolutism Mediterranean policy of Alfonso El Magnnimo There was crisi in 1350-1400?


Enrique II (1369-1379): New dinasty in Castilla Triumph of the nobility against monarchical power: mercedes enriqueas Several dangers: Cities and some nobles Candidates to the throne: duke of Lancaster, Juan of Ghent and Fernando I of Portugal Fights with Navarra and Aragn -Support to France: batle of La Rochelle (1372) - Politic of pacts, alliances and marriages, that let a peaceful kingdom when he died. Juan I (1379-1390): - Aspirations to the portugues crown after Fernando I of Portugal died, battle of Aljubarrota (1385) - Increase power of the monarchy - Support to France End of the dinastic conflict with the Lancaster: peace for Castilla in 1389

Enrique III (1390-1406): - He was 11 when he became king: ambitions of the nobility and Cortes - Pogrom of 1391 - Origin of the problems with the conversos - Mayority with 14 in 1393 - He limited the power of the Cortes with the creation of the charge of corregidor (kings representation in the municipios)

- Conquest of the Canary Islands - He died with just 27 years old and was called El Doliente Juan II (1406-1454): - Minority until 1419 - His uncle, Fernando de Antequera, was regent togheter with Catalina of Lancaster. He was elected king of Aragn in the Compromiso de Caspe de 1412 - Struggles between Fernando de Antequeras sons or infantes de Aragn and the privado don lvaro de Luna - His second marriage with Isabel de Portugal, and his problems with the nobility and privado carried him to jail in 1453 and he was executed one year later.

ENRIQUE IV (1454-1474)

Same mistakes as his fater: - Weakness of the Crown against the nobles - Privados: Juan de Pacheco and Beltrn de la Cueva - Divorced of Blanca de Navarra en 1453, he got married again with Juana, Alfonso V of Portugal sister, turning his politic towards the alliance with Portugal - He had one daughter, Juana, called La Beltraneja. After, he turned Impotent - Several campaigns against Granada - New civil war: the king found support between the jews and low nobility, and the rest was disposed around the infante Alfonso, Enrique IVs brother, who was crowned as king in the farsa de vila (1465) - Alfonsos death in 1468 made possible than his sister Isabel took the head of the rebels. Pacto de Guisando (1468) and marriage with Fernando de Aragn (octubre de 1469) - Enrique IVs death in 1474 made possible that Isabel was crowned in Segovia in 1474. New civil war until 1479, when Fernando was crowned as king of Aragn.

ARAGN -Pedro IV El Ceremonioso (1336-1387):

After the battle of Epila in 1348 the crown was more powerful against the nobles He abolished the Privilegio de la Unin (1288), but he did not limit the Privilegio General nor the Justicia de Aragn Mediterranea expansionism: he recovered Mallorca, Roselln, Cerdaa, Sicily, Athens and Neopatria and Cerdea

- Juan I (1387-1395)

- Martn I El Humano (1395-1410): He died without heirs Compromiso de Caspe: 9 compromisaries elected Fernando I of Antequera: The castilian Trastmara in the Crown of Aragn.

Charesties of 1302, 1333, 1344-1346 No superpoblation Regional diversity Bubonic plague (Peste Negra): 1348 and recurrent epidemies: 1361-1364, 1371-1374, 1381-1384, 1400. It provoked low production and elevated prices: bandoleros


Agrarian production conditionated by two elements: Demographical crisis Need to find new forms of exploitation The crisis carried: Depopulation of the small villages Lands with short productivity were abandoned Decreased of the demand The agrarian rents disminished The tendency changed in the XVth century thanks to: Baldos were cultivated Lands concentration in feudal lords hands Increased of the prices and salaries Regional specialization of the crops.

Relevance of the sheep, specially with the trashumancia during the XIIIth and XIVth century Creation of the Honrado Concejo de la Mesta de Pastores by Alfonso X in 1273 Increased of the demand of castilian wool in Flanders, opposite to the english one In Aragn, the mestas received the name of ligallos and in Navarra meztas.

Small development and preferently urban Gremios

Increased of the textile production in Castilla in the XVth century: was not possible to import foreign clothes Together with the wool, it worked with linen (lino), hempen cloth (camo) and esparto Increase of the production in the catalan, valencian and majorquinian industry, because of the external trade.

Continue with the tendence of the comercial revolution of the XII and XIII century Great expansion of the naval transport, instead of the terrestrian or fluvial ones Anual Ferias as the Medina del Campo one, and even the weekly ones. In Aragn the lounges (lonjas) Along the XVth century the most important mercantile tecniques were developed Creation of the consulships (Consulados) for legal protection of the traders The castilian trade export raw materials to France, Flanders and England from Burgos and the cantabrian sea. Andaluca, future trade with America

Deep transformations: increased of the aristocratization and pass from the old nobility to the new one Tenssenes in the rural world, specially the payeses de remensa in Aragn Minorities: Jews: Development of an antijews feeling Mudjares.

Related Interests