Factors of division in European history

languages – the strongest indicators of national identities (without this problem unification of the U.S. was much easier) overlapping histories (mostly regular wars) stressing differences between countries rather than unification - integration is mainly a reactive idea of ending the past conflicts colonial past - colonial interests drove European countries apart from one another – even today some countries have closer links with their former colonies than with other European countries, e.g. the Commonwealth, la

national identities religions

Factors of division in European history
no single European race, instead European nations every European state has national minorities several European minorities are split with state border lines, e.g. Irish, Basques a large number of geographically non-European people living in Europe “frontier societies in the intermediate lands” : Balkans, Turkey, Cyprus, Malta – always difficult to define their Europeanness

Factors of division in European history
Different political structures in the past (empires, republics, dictatorships, all possible political systems). A legacy of monarchies in Europe is the distinction between head of state and head of government (U.S. does not have such). Today:
constitutional monarchies figurehead presidents, elected or appointed, (Italy, Switzerland, Germany) dual executive or presidential/parliamentary system

variety of political parties; different electoral systems variety of administrative systems

Uncertain Eastern boundary
All other continents are defined by their coastlines. Europe has no clear eastern boundary – strictly speaking, it is an Asian peninsula. The Urals, the Caspian Sea, the Caucasus were nominated as a boundary by an 18th-cent Russian cartographer, Vasily Tatischew, (so that Russia could claim to be both an Asian and European power). A suggestion to move the ancient Eastern boundary of Europe from the Don to the Urals was made Strahlenberg, an 18thcentury Swedish officer in Russian service.

Factors of unity in European history

Europe became unified only in the face of invasions or threats from the outside, e.g. the Huns – 5th c. the Arabs – 7th c. the Turks – 15th - 17th c. the Soviets – 20th c. However, attempts and dreams of unity have existed since the Early Middle Ages.

the dreams and attempts are finally and gradually being implemented. AD 3.INSTUTIONALIZATION . Civilization – 18th c. Christendom – 15th c. all of them based on oppositions: 1. the concept of liberty/freedom – ancient Greece. 2. Enlightenment After 1945 .Europe identifications In history there were three different identifications of the term EUROPE. rediscovered and reused in the 19th century. 5th c. B. .C.

She gave birth later to Minos.) Metamorphoses (2 – 8 A.C. – 17 A.LEGEND OF EUROPA IN GREEK MYTHOLOGY Legend of Europa is attributed to: Moschus of Syracuse c. . daughter of Agenor King of Tyre. becoming the progenitrix of the most ancient branch of Mediterranean civilization. disguised as a snow-white bull.D. She was seduced by Zeus. Ovid’s (43 B. when she later married the King of Crete.C.D) Europa was a Phoenician princess. 150 B. and swam with her on his back from her homeland in what is now Lebanon to Crete.

brother of Europa. Davies (Phoenicia was in the spheres of Egyptian pharaohs) Cadmus. sprang out of the Minoan civilization in Crete . in fact. founded Thebes and introduced Greek alphabet from Phoenicia: the oldest European writing systems are in Crete: Linear A and B European civilization. i. from the sunrise to the sunset European culture was transplanted from earlier centers of civilizations of the east “Europa’s ride is a mythical link between Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece” N.e.Legend of Europa connotations Europa’s ride was from the east to the west.

the sun sets over Europe. Semitic word gharoob which means "sunset". west" and Arabic Maghreb. Hebrew ma'ariv.f.Etymology Greek words meaning broad (eurys) and face (ops). c. Mount Erebus Pheonicians were definitely predecessors of Greek civilization and formed a model for Greeks: colonies – mostly in the same areas money political institutions writing systems – Phenician alphabet was adopted by Greeks . Phoenician 'ereb "evening.EUROPE . From a Middle Eastern viewpoint.

Europa (Greek: Ευρώπη) was a mythological queen of Crete. Later Europa stood for mainland Greece and by 500 B.C. not a geographical designation. B. its meaning was extended to lands to the north.C.Ancient views of Europe Homer (8th c. BC) For Homer (8th c. .).

barbarians customs language religion and PRIMARILY political system IDENTIFICATIONS: Greece-Europe – embodiment of freedom and democracy – respect for an individual Persia/Asia – embodiment of despotism and absolute rule – no respect for an individual . facing the threat from Persia the Greeks start to think about their distinct identity – Europe is beginning to be defined in opposition to Asia. B. The Greek city-states facing the Persian invasion begin to see themselves as different in terms of: language vs. BC) Starting with the Persian Wars in the 5th century.) Identification with freedom (5th c.Ancient views of Europe Classical Greece (5th-4th c.C.

bearing feminine names: Europe – most civilized and the strongest Asia – civilized but politically and militarily weak Africa – uncivilized.Ancient views of Europe Herodotus (5th c.C. with the exception of Egypt . he did not know why the world had been considered to be divided into three parts. B.) Herodotus – father of historiography – wrote.

due to more stable climate – fighting to glorify the ruler. less passionate.C. Europeans – more brave.Ancient views of Europe Hippocrates (5th-4th c. warlike. courageous – fighting to glorify themselves and fighting for freedom .) Defined Europe in opposition to Asia in terms of CLIMATE changes in climate were to make people more flexible and active Climate was to affect political systems and behaviors Asians – more tamed. B.

C. Asians – wise. strength of will and remained servants Europeans – barbarians product of cold climate. B. courageous not very wise or skillful. independent Greeks – combined the best features of Asians and Europeans intermediate geographic position free and courageous best political institutions able to rule other people . skilful but lacked courage. being generally modification of Hippocrates’.Ancient views of Europe Aristotle (4th c.) Aristotle lived in Greece under Macedonian occupation. which had an impact on his views of Europe.

) Greek geographer under Roman rule Points for the first time to the diversity and wealth of the continent – combination of peace-loving and warlike nations. . Europe is a continent free from foreign rule.Ancient views of Europe Strabo (1st c.C. B.

it appears as a place of identification with Christianity (New Testament) Europe appears in a number of Biblical commentaries and Christian teachings .Europe and the Biblical commentary The term EUROPE does not appear in the Bible Indirectly.

Hamites Japheth – Japhethites .Semites Ham . who after the flood become ancestors of the entire human race: Shem .Noah and his three sons The Greek tripartite division of the world corresponds to the Biblical story of Noah and his three sons.

a Jewish scholar and historian (1st c.Noah and his three sons Josephus Flavius.Europeans . AD) (first non-Christian mentioning of Jesus Christ) locates the descendants of Noah’s sons in three continents: Shem – Asia Semites .Asians Ham – Africa (cursed by Noah) Hamites – Africans Japheth – Europe Japhethites .

) Shem – the named/blessed one (Israel) – the place for Jesus to be born Ham – hot climate and heresies. Augustine (4th-5th A. with prophetic implications of the names. by St Augustine (4-5th c A.D. his offspring (Canaan) to be slave to Shem and Japheth Japheth – extension of Christianity .) With development of the Christian Church this division is further refined.Noah and his three sons St.D.

the rest Boundaries in antiquity Europe/Asia – Don/Azov Asia/Africa – the Nile Europe/Africa – the Mediterranean .Africa and Europe together .T and O maps of the world (orbis terrae – circle of the earth) Most popular world maps of the world in the Middle Ages referred to the ancient triparite division of the world • • • • • The world was circular The shape T signified the Mediterranean Sea The shape O signified the encirling Ocean The center of the world was Jerusalem Asia – occupied half of the known world .

D.C. but centered on the Mediterranean with parts in North Africa.Europe and the Roman Empire (3rd c. The Roman Empire was not a region with common identity If there was any identity it was ROMAN rather than EUROPEAN .) For the first time a substantial part of Europe is brought under a common system of government. – 5th c. although not exclusively European. A. B.

Edict of Milan – a letter issued by Constantine the Great proclaiming religious tolerance in the Roman Empire 380 – Christianity becomes the official religion of the Roman Empire Rome = Christianity = Europe .Europe and the Roman Empire Christianity becoming an identification with Europe 313 .

political and cultural division line in Europe The East never experienced: Reformation Counter-Reformation Renaissance .The Roman Empire Historical divisions 1054 – Great Schism – division into Western Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy The most durable religious. geographical. linguistic.

Europe and the Roman Empire Common European legacy LATIN – language of religion. education and diplomacy until the 17th century Roman law – the basis and terminology of today’s legal systems in Europe Institutions of administration Networks of roads across the continent Relative tolerance Rome although destroyed. still recognized as spiritual capital of Europe .

(until the 17th century) – Saracens and Turks .Perceptions of Europe in the Middle Ages Europe becomes perceived as a unity ONLY in the face of different invasions from the outside. e.g. 8th – Arabs 10th – Magyars 11th.

. 732 – the Battle of Tours (Poitiers) – the Arab army is defeated by European knights under Charles the Martel.Europe finds itself under the threat of Arab invasions. the Iberian Peninsula will remain occupied by the Arabs until 1492. after crossing the Pyrenees into France .Arabs and Europe – 8th century 8th century.the Arab expansion into Europe is stopped – turning point in European history Dominant position of Christianity in Europe is ensured Chronicles of the battle talk only about European knights without a division into subjects of particular kings.

Charlemagne and the Holy Roman Empire 800 – the pope places Rome under protection of one ruler – CHARLEMAGNE who becomes crowned as the king of the Frankish Kingdom but also as the first Holy Roman Emperor HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE as a continuation of the Roman legacy (title kept by the German kings until 1806) Voltaire. . “neither Holy. nor Roman. nor an Empire” Charlemagne described in poems as: Rex Pater Europae (king father of Europe) Europae Veneranda Apex (venerable crown of Europe) EUROPE in the times of Charlemagne seems to indicate only the sphere of power.

In his speech Urban II refers to the tripartite division of the world. 1099 Jerusalem is captured and small Christian princedoms are established in the East.although wrong. Pope Urban II issues the first crusade at the Council of Clermont – 1095. CRUSADES . help to unite Europeans behind the single cause .The Crusades – a peculiar union of Europeans 11th century – due to attacks by Turks against Byzantine Empire and the Holy Land – the Emperor calls for help.

Pierre Dubois (1250-1312) a vision of united Europe A French publicist and lawyer 1306 – De recuperatione terrae sanctae – a work advocating a European league of nations led by France princes and cities of Europe should form a confederal ‘Christian Republic’ it should be overseen by a permanent assembly a panel of judges with the Pope acting as the final court of appeal Disputes settled by artbitration. NOT war Universal education .

regarded as the boundary between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance (1485 turning point in English history) Gutenberg’s printing press 1453 – fall of Constantinople 1492 – fall of Granada and the end of the Reconquista 1492 – Columbus’ discovery of the New World .Perception of Europe 15th century 15th century – a turning point (period) in European culture Generally.

Two identifications of Europe in the 15th century I. made an official equation between Europe and community of Christians. RES PUBLICA CHRISTIANA Pope Pius II at the time tries to unite Europe against the Turks. . The time of religious wars .the era of single European Christendom is gone. The concept disappears as the 16th century brings REFORMATION and split of Christianity in Europe. based on the same faith.

RES PUBLICA LITTERARIA Due to development of humanism in Europe.Two identifications of Europe in the 15th century II. . people come back to the classics. read the same written works of common heritage and form an intellectual bond throughout the continent.

Sent an envoy on a tour of European courts to promote this idea Commonly considered to be the earliest proponent of the European Union .Jiri z Podebrad (George of Podebrady) (1458-71) The idea of Confederation of Europe or Christian League Hussite King of Bohemia opposed to Catholic Habsburgs and the Pope. Suggested a pan-European Christian league to oppose the growing Ottoman threat. based on loyalty to the state rather than to the Church.

Jiri z Podebrad(George of Podebrady) The idea of Confederation of Europe or Christian League a plan remarkably similar to the EU: assembly meeting regularly and moving its seat every five years (like the European Parliament) college of permanent members using majority vote (like the European Commission) council of kings and princes (like the European Council) a court to adjudicate disputes (like the European Court of Justice) .

BALANCE OF POWER 16th-19th century One of the oldest European doctrines A doctrine assuming intended to prevent sufficiently strong so upon the rest. expressed by various thinkers. 19th century – the balance of power is obscured due to national uprisings and ultimately leads to World War One . just equilibrium between nations any one nation from becoming as to enable it to enforce its will A guiding motive for visions of Europe until the 19th century.

some individual princedoms will oppose complete conquest – it is harder to conquer . who derive their power from their birth. not from arbitrary decisions of the ruler .BALANCE OF POWER Nicholas Machiavelli’s visions of Europe Europe consists of SOVEREIGN states as and the ideal state between them is a state of BALANCE Machiavelli defined Europe in terms of political differences with Asia: ASIA – the prince exercises absolute power .if central power falls. the invaders rule – it is easier to conquer EUROPE – the prince rules by surrounding himself with relatively independent lords.if central power falls.

Peace of Westphalia 1648 First treaty between sovereign independent European states recognition of states based on territorial sovereignty tremendous fragmentation of Germany rise of France as the dominant European power concept of reasons of state religious freedom and toleration – confirmation of the earlier Peace of Augsburg cuius regio.in the 19th and 20th century the Westphalia system became a global one . eius religio Regarded as the beginning of the modern system of international relations – secular concept of international relations replacing for ever the medieval idea of a religious authority acting as a final arbiter of Christendom .

Maximilien de Béthune. serving 3year term . Duc de Sully (1560-1641) a visionary of European unification French minister suggesting the Grand Design of a confederacy of 15 equal European Christian republics after defeat of Habsburg Austria and Spain – Memoirs (1638) Very Christian Council of Europe charged with resolving differences and disposing of a common army The Council was to consist of 66 members.

Persian Letters (1721)
An epistolary novel – a fictional travel log of two Persian travelers to Paris – a satirical view of Louis XIV’s France and Europe in general one of the first objective images of Europe using a rhetorical means of a diary of someone else, reflecting many Enlightenment views:
Criticism of social classes Comparison of Christianity and Islam Criticism of Roman Catholicism Europe is seen as a source of constant surprises to the Persians

Montesquieu offers a CULTURAL definition of Europe:
quicker pace of life dynamism capitalism mobility different mentalities


I. Classification of governments on the basis of the government manner of conducting policy republican – based on virtue monarchical – based on honor despotic – based on fear


II. Separation of powers – three branches of power,
each independent: Legislative Executive Judicial Different variations in moden Europe – the most clearcut implementation in the United States


III. Political influence of climate – climate is besides
laws, government maxims, and religion, an important factor influencing the outlook of society France has the ideal climate In Europe there is an extensive temperate zone, climate influences formation of stronger states that can regain freedom more easily (unlike in Asia – hot climate leads to laziness prone to despotism)

Visions of Europe in the 17th and 18th century
By the end of the 18th century, Europe as a common idea is taken for granted. Christianity is still important but no longer synonymous with Europe the idea is CIVILIZATION- understood as all achievements of Europeans. Association between Europe and civilization was based on: ideas of the Enlightenment and progress: Europeans have reached an ideal state. belief that natives in colonies may no longer be converted to Christianity BUT ALSO to European civilization (to be fully developed in the 19th century, e.g. Rudyard Kipling) belief that CIVILIZATION can ONLY be EUROPEAN

. Many of their ideas were later incorporated in practice.Visions of Europe in the 17th and 18th century 18th century also saw emergence of philosophers and thinkers often perceived as distant fathers of the League of Nations and the UN.

France 10. England 6. etc.Visions of Europe in the 17th and 18th century: William Penn (1644-1718) The founder of Pennsylvania (1681) and author of the Frame of Government (1682) advocated universal tolerance (being a Quaker) An Essay Towards the Present Peace in Europe (1693) – advocating the idea of European Parliament: three-fourth majority vote in caser of disputes (similar to qualified majority voting system of today’s EU institutions) votes weighed according to the countries’ economic power: Germany 12. .

.a confederation with a permanent arbitration council.Visions of Europe in the 17th and 18th century: Charles-Irénée Castel. Suggested establishment of free trade and European Senate His ideas were later to inspire Frederich Schiller to write ‘Ode to Joy’ which sung to Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony – has become the European anthem. Abbe de Saint-Pierre (1658-1743) French influential writer and radical Projet de paix perpétuelle (1713) – proposition of an international organization for maintaining peace in Europe .

There are no longer Frenchmen. Germans and Spaniards.Visions of Europe in the 17th and 18th century: Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) Author of the Social Contract theory and Natural Man theory His ideas exerted a huge influence on the French Revolution and the American War of Independence suggested establishment of an organization based on international law – above nations. or even English. but only Europeans .

Bill of Rights adopted at the same time (1789) The Declaration is a “codification” of earlier ideas common to Europeans. .The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (1789) Sources and inspirations: Magna Carta Libertatum (1215) Habeas Corpus Act (1679) John Locke – natural rights Charles Louis Montesquieu – separation of powers J.S.J. Rousseau – social contract The Declaration of Independence of the United States (1776) The Virginia Declaration of Rights (1776) U.

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (1789) COMMENTARY initially represented mostly the interests of the middle class Failure to: Mention women’s rights Revoke the institution of slavery Ideas reflected in: all European constitutions The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) – United Nations The European Convention of Human Rights (1950) – Council of Europe The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (2000) – European Union .

Legacy of the French Revolution Propaganda Revolutionary propaganda makes reference to the concept of Europe: For supporters: Europe equals citizenship and the rights of man For opponents: Europe was the previous status quo before the revolution – a community larger than a state. .

NEAR complete. political unification of the Continent: The Great Empire surrounded by subservient states. Napoleon HOPED for: European association with a common body of law Common court of appeal Single currency Uniform system of weighs and measures .Europe and Napoleon Bonaparte Imperial Times (1804-1815) First.

either: in support of Napoleon. e. Poland in opposition to Napoleon.g.g.Europe and Napoleon Bonaparte Legacy French institutions and laws introduced all over the continent – the Napoleonic Code still being the basis for continental legal systems – coherence of law and administration Rise of nationalist feelings (to be seen in force in the 19th century). Germany . e.

Prussia and Russia (elements still used today) diplomatic protocol established the Concert came to an end during the Crimean War (1853-56) often seen today as the first world security order Introduced great powers stability (visible later in the League of Nations and the UN) Maintained only the status quo – not a vehicle for reform . United Kingdom.Concert of Europe or the Congress System The concept of conference diplomacy – a system of international conferences to be held at time of crises by the Five Great Powers. Austria.e. France. i.

if necessary. In the rhetoric of the Holy Alliance the concept of EUROPA CHRISTIANA reappears as a new ideal attempted to be destroyed by atheism and the French Revolution. very loose association to ensure the old order in Europe Prevention of nationalism. liberalism. democracy and secularism – and. Turkey and the Pope. except for: the United Kingdom. Prussia and Russia An alliance based on Christian principles by all European rulers. Spring of Nations) – for the fear of the Holy Alliance Monroe’s Doctrine was formulated in America. Reactionary. November Uprising. . military intervention in other countries (e.g. anti-liberal. signed by Austria.Holy Alliance inspired by Tsar Alexander I.

Spring of Nations 1848 Wave of revolutions and demands of change across the continent affecting all countries apart from Russia The Ottoman Empire The United Kingdom The Netherlands Idealistic with a multitude of aims: social. . The fate of European democracy has slipped from our hands. disarmed and gagged. . imprisoned. Pierre Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865) – anarchist ideologue . liberal and national aimed at democratization in the interest of particular smaller nations within larger empires All upheavals brutally supressed We have been beaten and humiliated . scattered. economic.

In 1849. manifestations. speaking at the Paris International Peace Conference. the concept of Europe becomes present in pronouncements.Spring of Nations Victor Hugo (1802-85) In the rhetoric of the Spring of Nations. will merge closely into a higher unity and will form the fraternity of Europe… Two huge groups will be seen. the United States of America and the United States of Europe. holding out hands to one another across the ocean. which will be to Europe what Parliament is to England The nations of Europe. leaflets. . Victor Hugo favoured: A supreme sovereign senate. without losing their distinctive qualities or …glorious individuality.

Europeans are more receptive to the ideas of unity because they remember the horrors of WWI. all of them fail. Interwar period brings new and hopeful international projects. institutionalization of European unity not only SHOULD but MUST be placed in practice. Discussion about European unity starts involving not only intellectuals but also politicians.Perceptions of European integration after WWI A lesson learnt is to prevent Great War from happening again. flood of publications. but point to the need of institutionalization to be fully implemented after 1945. .

his book Mitteleuropa (1915) (BESTSELLER) provided the vision of a postwar German cultural and economic imperium in central Europe. incl. Poland. Courland and northern France) – featuring precision and harmony Austria-Hungary (in the shape in 1915.Naumann (1860-1919) – German political and social theorist. Ukraine) – good taste and harmony Balkan states (natural joining) Italy (possibly?. positive view of Germany’s winning the war justification of Germany’s war aims need to transform the link between Austria and Germany into a cultural. around the core of GermanyAustria. Loose confederation. natural joining) . Belgium. Membership: Germany (in the shape in 1915. providing Germany wins. economic and political near-unification – a global power in Europe assumption that France and Russia would pose no threat in the future MITTELEUROPA Basically. incl. hegemonic plan of creation of an overstate (Oberstadt) which will guarantee a common market and good defence.

MASARYK. in 1918 published in a book form. the condition for creation of democratic states in Europe – dismemberment of the Austrian empire. Tomas – Czech philosopher and politician. minorities should be protected under the international rule. Masryk’s models included: France. Germany or Austria) collective – nation states must interact democratically. Also. Britain. after 1918 became the first President of Czechoslovakia. insulation between Germany and Russia (not democratic in Masaryk’s view) – future in small European states. new European democratic states (incl. For the duration of WWI he was in Britain and USA (advising and inspiring Thomas Woodrow Wilson). Czechoslovakia) would serve as a buffer. USA . Democratic states must function on two levels: individual – freedom of individual citizens (not guaranteed by Russia. In Britain he published an influential magazine called “The New Europe”. For Masaryk.

Masaryk’s and Naumann’s ideas seemed very different. showing two different understandings of European unity: Naumann – centralization (Oberstadt) Masaryk – increased autonomy Both were very SINCERE in their proposals. . but neglected the possibility of war emerging from these two visions.

UNITED STATES OF EUROPE After WWII.Count Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi’s I. it was continued by the European Movement (formal association took place in 1952) European Movement – international organization a pressure group with its own institution: International Council Present at many congresses in history of European integration – especially Paneuropean Congress in 1926 It achieved however merely a fringe group status . The Pan-European Union (1922) – a pressure group for tangible solutions of international agreements. federal Europe . The aim was to create a supranational.

it was so powerful to be a political continent on its own. China and Japan) Paneuropa (also including European colonies) Britain and the Empire Comments: USSR excluded as being too diverse and with no democratic traditions Britain – Kalergi felt uncomfortable to exclude it.e.II. Paneuropa (1923) Hope for the world peace in creation of … FIVE. federally organized “global power fields” or political continents (reflecting the political situation of the world of the 1920s) the Americas (excluding Canada) the USSR Eastern Asia (i. it could serve as a mediator between Paneuropa and the USA it could join Paneuropa if it lost its empire it shares the same democratic traditions and culture .

Arms race among European states = permanent state of crisis. to avoid it: Proposal of a four-stage process to achieve European union: a conference of representatives from 26 European states the agreement of treaties for the settlement of European disputes development of a customs union drafting of a federal European constitution English becoming the common second language for Europe (observing its growing dominant role in the world). PANEUROPA functions: common defense – Paneuropean alliance European courts – legal institutions to introduce obligatory arbitration Common European market – abolishment of trade and customs barriers Creation of SMALL nation states – each nation should be able to create its own nation state Common European Magna Carta of Tolerance – for protection of national minorities in Europe. .

The Briand Memorandum 1930 Memorandum on the Organisation of a System of European Federal Union Document calling for a European FEDERATION WITHIN the League of Nations. on behalf of France. based on: a permanent regime of solidarity based on international agreements for the rational organization of Europe moral union of Europe the general subordination of the economic problem to the political one .

trans-European transport Creation of two bodies: 1.The Briand Memorandum 1930 first usage of terms: common market and European Union Listing specific policy needs. European Conference for debate . e. Permanent Political Committee for executive decisions 2.g.

as the only European power to fight Germany 1939 – Labour leader Clement Attlee (18831967): Europe must federate or perish .Europe and World War Two During the war – visions of FEDERAL European unity are present to prevent or end the conflict the war was a boost to European federalism Attention is paid to Britain.

The Federal Union A BRITISH intellectual group founded in 1938 to campaign for European unity as the last hope Still lobbying for European federation During the war Federal Union publications helped unite anti-fascists all over Europe .

including Germany – later gave rise to the European Union of Federalists .The Ventontene Manifesto (1941) Towards a Free and United Europe One of the first federalist programs for afterwar Europe drafted by Altiero Spinelli and Ernesto Rossi – leaders of resistance against Mussolini based on the British federalist ideas: the clean precise thinking of the English federalists If a post war order is established in which each state retains its complete national sovereignty. the basis for a Third World War would still exist even after the Nazi attempt to establish the domination of the German race in Europe has been frustrated Called for a secret grouping of Resistance leaders from eight countries.

uncertain about their own security. Postwar reconstruction effort is a STRONG NEW ARGUMENT for unification of the continent. .Post-WWII Europe INSTITUTIONALIZATION to prevent another war – complex and painful until today WWII leaves the continent in ruin – INTEGRATION is the most creative answer to what become of Europe Emergence of two new superpowers – Europeans in the middle.

Post-WWII Europe The Iron Curtain Until 1990 eastern and Central Europe under Soviet domination – determined in Yalta and Potsdam Some contries are parts of the Soviet Union (Baltic states) Some form the so-called communist block Western institutions of integration are seen hostile to Soviet-led institutions .

Soviet-led “integration” of Eastern and Central Europe The Warsaw Pact or Warsaw Treaty Organization (19551991) Set against potential NATO threat – in fact being a nuclear threat to Europe during the Cold War Immediate cause – admission (“remilitarization”) of West Germany into NATO in 1955 Treaty signed in the Presidential Palace in Warsaw .

it becomes not only a problem of the country concerned." .The Warsaw Pact The Supreme Command was always Soviet Activities: 1956 – Hungarian Revolution 1968 – Prague Spring Interventions justified by the Brezhnev Doctrine (1968): "When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism. but a common problem and concern of all socialist countries.

The Warsaw Pact disintegration 1988 – Gorbachev's Sinatra Doctrine 1989 – the Autumn of Nations 1991 – formal dissolution .

Post-WWII Europe Yugoslavia Remaining independent – leader of the non-aligned movement Bloody disintegration and ethnic cleansing in the 1990s .

Suez 1956. but not necessarily federal . three times in less than a century!!! destabilized after the war: both by war damage and collaboration (Vichy) facing further blows at bloody decolonization (Indochina 1954. Algeria 1960) perceived as an initiator of many European projects.Post-WWII Europe France it had gone to war with Germany.

tremendous destruction. introversion and guilt occupied by allied powers (1949 West Germany and East Germany) Reunification in 1990 thanks to Konrad Adenauer West Germany is driven towards full integration in many field with western allies Post-WWII Europe Germany .

economically pulled towards the west .Post-WWII Europe Austria divided into Allied zones of occupation until 1955 relatively undamaged in 1955 independence and declaration of neutrality .

Post-WWII Europe Italy similar to Germany. introversion and guilt Prime Minister Alcide de Gasperi's (1945-53) pro-European policies lead to Italy's integration with Europe . tremendous destruction.

the Commonwealth remains more important to the British and European matters are initially sidelined . however.Post-WWII Europe the United Kingdom its resistance to Nazism strengthened the British sense of national identity wealthier and more powerful than France and Germany. however heavily destroyed beginning of decolonization.

Post-WWII Europe Ireland neutral during the war economically tied to Britain .

Post-WWII Europe Spain and Portugal Both neutral during the war Emerged poor and politically marginalized fascist governments: Spain – Francisco Franco since 1939 Portugal – Antonio Salazar since 1928. .

Post-WWII Europe Greece enjoyed economic growth thanks to US financial and military aid generally remaining poor 1967-74 – military dictatorship .

Post-WWII Europe Low Countries all occupied by the Germans 1944 – the three governments-in-exile in London agree to promote economic cooperation after the war after the war the three governments become concerned about their inability to protect themselves .

Post-WWII Europe Benelux 1948 – Benelux Customs Union 1958 .Benelux Economic Union signed (operative in 1960) Treaty of Rome (1957) explicitly provided for the Benelux Union within a wider community 2006 – the Benelux Organization of Intellectual Property .

1946 . Iceland and Norway Finland joined in 1956 later dependent territories were admitted: Greenland. Aland Islands.Committee on Legislative Cooperation – unification of national laws unified and encouraging a common Nordic position in the world 1952 – NORDIC COUNCIL signed by Denmark. Faroe Islands Post-WWII Europe Scandinavia . Sweden.

Benelux and the Nordic Council: favorable circumstances of integration precedents of successful and productive European integration .

STAGES OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION Stage I (1945 – 1951): •the end of WWII .foundation of the European Coal and Steel Community Stage II (1951 .1957): •formation of the ECSC – Treaties of Rome (foundation of the European Economic Community and the Euratom) Stage III (1958 – 1967): •coming into force of the Treaties of Rome – the Merger Treaty .

STAGES OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION Stage IV (1967 – 1973): the Merger Treaty – the 1st enlargement Stage V (1973 .1979): the 1st enlargement – the European Monetary System (ecu) Stage VI (1979 – 1981): EMS/ecu – the 2nd enlargement .

STAGES OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION Stage VII (1981 .1987): the 2nd enlargement – the Single European Act Stage VIII (1987 – 1993): he Single European Act – the Treaty on European Union Stage IX (1993 – 1995): the Treaty of European Union – the 4th enlargement .

STAGES OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION Stage X (1995 – 1997): the 4th enlargement – the Treaty of Amsterdam Stage XI (1997 – 2002): the Treaty of Amsterdam – the European Council Summit in Copenhagen Stage XII (2002 – 2004): the Copenhagen Summit– the 5th enlargement .

STAGES OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION Stage XIII (2004 – 2007): the 5th enlargement – the 6th enlargement Stage XIV (December 13. 2007 .??? .?): The European Union Reform Treaty .

. Berlin. Behind that line. all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere (. Missouri – March 5. lie all the capitals of the ancient states of central and eastern Europe – Warsaw. Belgrade. an IRON CURTAIN has descended across the Continent. Prague.. Fulton.) This is not the liberated Europe which we fought to build up. and Sofia. From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic. Vienna. This means a special relationship between the British Commonwealth and Empire and the United States. 1946 Neither the sure prevention of war. nor the continuous rise of world organisation will be gained without what I have called the fraternal association of the English-speaking peoples.. Bucharest.Winston Churchill The Sinews of Peace Speech or Iron Curtain Speech Westminster College. Budapest.

Ladies and Gentlemen. 1946 Winston Churchill We must build a kind of United States of Europe. Much work. Switzerland – September 19. All that is needed is the resolve of hundreds of millions of men and women to do right instead of wrong and to gain as their reward blessing instead of cursing. .The United States of Europe Speech University of Zurich. The process is simple. In this way only will hundreds of millions of toilers be able to regain the simple joys and hopes which make life worth living. has been done upon this task by the exertions of the Pan-European Union which owes so much to Count Coudenhove-Kalergi and which commanded the services of the famous French patriot and statesman Aristide Briand.

unemployment and dislocation may appeal to communist parties .The Marshall Plan or European Recovery Program (announced 1947.Dec 1951) U.-sponsored program designed to rehabilitate the economies of 17 European nations in order to create stable conditions in which democratic institutions could survive.S. Background: great need in Europe for capital investment – THE USA: the readiest source of capital US point of view: reconstruction of Europe vital to its own economic interests fear that postwar poverty. implemented Apr 1948.

The U.S.S.R. early on withdrew from participation in the plan, however, and was soon followed by the other eastern European nations under its influence. This left the following countries to participate in the plan:

Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, West Germany.

ECONOMIC COOPERATION ADMINISTRATION (ECA) a specially created bureau, distributed over the next four years some $13 billion worth of economic aid, helping to restore industrial and agricultural production, establish financial stability, and expand trade. one-fourth of funds earmarked for Britain one-fifth of funds earmarked for France

COMMITTEE OF EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COOPERATION later replaced by Organisation for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC) and then by

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD 1960)

The Marshall Plan was very successful; the several western European countries experienced a rise in their gross national products of 15 to 25 percent “It has no peer in the history of enlightened self-interest” (N. Davies) Definite help to economic and political recovery in Europe Binding closely economic and political interests between the US and Europe Very profitable investment for the US It encouraged Europeans to work together:

European integration will be based on the west.

In 1948 a number of activist organizations, coordinated by Joseph Retinger, former assistant to the late General Wladyslaw Sikorski staged a full-scale, privately organized Congress of Europe in The Hague Attended by 800 statesmen from throughout western Europe, and observers from Canada and the US including Spaak, De Gasperi, Schuman, Adenauer, de Madariaga, François Mitterrand. Chaired by the only natural candidate – Winston Churchill

THE HAGUE CONGRESS 1948 It called for: recognition of ‘supranationality’ – need for states to surrender part of their sovereignty in the interests of common institutions political and economic union European Assembly European Court of Human Rights liaison committee to keep the aims of the Congress alive .

1949 COLLEGE OF EUROPE in Bruges (later second campus in Natolin) .1949 .THE HAGUE CONGRESS 1948 Consequences EUROPEAN MOVEMENT 1948 COUNCIL OF EUROPE – May 5.

Theories of integration in Europe THE HAGUE CONGRESS 1948 Federalists Unionists Constitutionalists Functionalists Unionists Confederalists Neo-functionalists 1958 .

FEDERALISTS need to establish a suprantational organization pooling of sovereignty with supranational institutions strong. regional. federal executive supranational parliament appointed from national assemblies authority division into European (central). local(today’s Committee of Regions) . national.

Paul H. Altiero Spinelli. “federalist” was deleted from the Treaty of Maastricht due to British pressure federalist ideas included in many treaties and institutions (EC.g. ECJ) Adenauer. Benelux idea opposed by France and Britain (for different reasons though). Spaak. Commission. Council.FEDRALISTS major basis: Churchill’s Zurich speech 1946 idea followed by Italy. e. Walter Hallstein. Duncan Sandy SUPPORTERS: Winston Churchill. Konrad . West Germany.

UNIONISTS British led European integration = cooperation of sovereign states European Parliament should not be supranational but a coordinative body of European integration Institutions: European Conference – members nominated by national governments Council of Ministers – advisory body NATO – in charge of European defence OECE – in charge of economic issues SUPPORTERS: Ernest Bevin. Clement Attlee .

CONSTITUTIONALISTS Stepwise integration Pooling of sovereignty with supranational institutions Constitutional regulations – the basis of ALL integration processes Open to ALL European states. provided they accept the constitutional regulations Creation of institutions by constitutions .

FUNCTIONALISTS Sectoral integration – process of natural selection and evolution Primary objective: economy with benefits for all ECONOMY BEFORE POLITICS Pooling of sovereignty should be gradual and spontaneous – particular functions of states will be transferred to European institutions.“INVISIBLE HAND” of integration . if objectively necessary .

Monnet. to break away from the traditional link between authority and a definite territory” Third way between federalism and unionism SUPPORTERS: de Gasperi. Schuman (Schuman's Declaration is of functionalist nature) .FUNCTIONALISTS Experience will show what will be better for economic integration Results of economic integration will NATURALLY lead to integration in all other areas Main basis: David Mitrany's definition: “Functionalism is an attempt to link authority to a specific activity.

NEOFUNCTIONALISTS Criticism of the functionalists' division between politics and economy – such division is IMPOSSIBLE because economy has always a political basis POLITICS BEFORE ECONOMY Major basis: The Uniting Europe (1958) by Ernst Haas – western Europe is a LIVING LABORATORY of integration – SERIOUS analysis should be made before any projects of integration can be formulated .

NEOFUNCTIONALISTS Integration has different dynamics Spill over – progressive dynamics (naturally affects creation of institutions) Spill back – regressive dynamics Spill around – no dynamics (drifting integration) The PROCESS not the RESULT of political integration is important Not certain about the principles shaping European institutions STATE as a territorial unit must be maintained SUPPORTERS: Ernst Haas. Leon Lindberg (incidentally American scholars) .

without any supranational institutions Supporters: Charles de Gaulle (Europe built around France's security) Pious XII (confederation of European Catholic countries) .CONFEDERALISTS The idea of EUROPE OF HOMELANDS Sovereignty of states is INTACT Europe should be a loose confederation of states Cooperation should be intergovernmental.

PRACTICAL. structure – a SUPRANATIONAL organization is more effective. What to do with Germany? How to welcome it back to the community? How to integrate its industrial potential and avoid another war in Europe? If European countries did not move quickly into a process of further integration.1950 . the following might happen: USA becomes a focus of anti-Soviet transatlantic alliance Britain pulls closer to the USA Germany’s industrial and economic growth cannot be controlled .the Schuman Declaration historical background The need to establish a more substantial.

1950 - the Schuman Declaration historical background
For Schuman and Monnet a logical start was: solution of the perennial conflict between France and Germany – if peace is ensured between the two, Europe can be built around them. A starting point, should be meaningful, PRACTICAL, not too ambitious: a supranational institution controlling COAL AND STEEL industries

The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)

Treaty of Paris (1951; rat. 1952)

THE SIX (France, West Germany, Italy, Benelux) created for 50 YEARS – and expired on 23 July 2002 First successful SUPRANATIONAL community in Europe

The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)

institutional structure
Four institutions located in Luxembourg: HIGH AUTHORITY - supranational executive organ COUNCIL OF MINISTERS – decision making body COMMON ASSEMBLY – consultative, advisory body COURT OF JUSTICE – settlement of disputes

The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)

institutional structure
HIGH AUTHORITY able to impose fines on disagreeing members functioning for the benefit and on behalf of the organization – members not allowed to take any instructions from their national governments Composition: NINE members, nominated by the SIX governments (2 members from the bigger states) led by President (first: Jean Monnet) COUNCIL OF MINISTERS Composition: SIX members, one from each state – ministers from national

The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)

institutional structure
COMMON ASSEMBLY discussing annual reports from the High Authority could dismiss the entire High Authority Composition: 78 members, elected by national parliaments first President: Paul Henri Spaak COURT OF JUSTICE Composition: 7 members

EUROPEAN DEFENCE COMMUNITY 1950 – PLEVEN’S PLAN – very BOLD. Common European Army controlled by a supranational organization mixed units – not national units creation of European Minister of Defense 1952 – EDC draft treaty signed by THE SIX 1954 – ratification stopped by the French Parliament . even today.too ambitious for the time and too premature: 1. inclusion of West Germany into European defence structure.History of European integration 1950s .failures The ECSC was followed by projects by THE SIX that FAILED .

History of European integration 1950s . EUROPEAN POLITICAL COMMUNITY 1953 – draft treaty signed by the six It was to integrate the existing ECSC and attempted EDC into a Political Community within 2 years!! 1954 – failed following the collapse of the EDC (also in the French National Assembly) Other failures: White Pool – health community Green Pool – agricultural community .failures 2.

History of European integration TREATIES OF ROME (1957. 1958) THE SIX create with no time limit EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY EUROPEAN ATOMIC ENERGY COMMUNITY (EURATOM) . rat.

1958 – THREE European Communities same membership (THE SIX) similar institutional structures ECSC (est. 1958) Parliamentary Assembly Council of Ministers Commission Court of Justice Euratom (est. 1952) Common Assembly Council of Ministers High Authority Court of Justice EEC (est. 1958) Parliamentary Assembly Council of Ministers Commission Court of Justice .

the process of structural merging of institutions The MERGER TREATY (1965. rat: 1967) By 1967 ALL THREE Communities have the same institutions and common budget: European Parliamentary Assembly (since 1962 the European Parliament) Council of Ministers (since 1993 the Council of the European Union) Commission of European communities (since 1993 – the European Commission) Court of Justice 1958-1967 .

1960s EUROPE AT SIXES AND SEVENS 1960 – the Stockholm Convention establishes: European Free Trade Association (EFTA) Britain’s initiative out of fear of supranationalism of the EEC an industrial free trade area with intergovernmental institutions The two pillars of the Convention: INDUSTRIAL FREEAND FAIR TRADE .History of European integration .

Switzerland • Iceland – 1970 • Finland – 1986 • Liechtenstein – 1991 • Currently: • Norway. Iceland. Britain. Sweden.EFTA membership Outer Seven (EFTA) vs. Inner Six (EEC) the Convention signatories – the OUTER SEVEN: Austria. Denmark. Switzerland . Portugal. Liechtenstein. Norway.

Liechtenstein and Iceland can participate in the European Single Market without joining the EU .European Economic Area (EEA) .1994 • Signed by the EU and three EFTA countries (not Switzerland) • Norway.

History of European integration . fictions and pageants” EEC seen as a means to advance France’s power 1966 – withdrawal of France from civilian structures of NATO .1960s De Gaulle’s French Presidency (1958-69) time of test and crisis for the EC His approach to European integration: fundamentalist commitment to the nation state – EUROPE OF HOMELANDS opposed to federalist approach – “Europe of myths.

1967) on Britain’s accession since UK’s application was part of joint package with Denmark. First veto of 1963 – causes resentment of other five about ‘unilateral and nationalist manner of the veto’ – first political crisis within Europe.History of European integration . . too. Ireland.1960s De Gaulle’s French Presidency (1958-69) time of test and crisis for the EC DOUBLE VETO (1963. Norway – they went down.

it had to be controlled by the EP this solution suited five of the six BUT NOT De Gaulle.1965 The European Commission wanted CAP budget spending must be subject to parliamentary control – since European budget cannot be controlled by six parliaments.1960s De Gaulle’s French Presidency (1958-69) time of test and crisis for the EC CAP crisis .History of European integration . .

not enshrined in any European treaty. when interests ‘very important to one or more member states are at stake’ – the principle until today. 1966 – the French government asserted the right of veto. The Luxembourg compromise is PRACTICAL. 1965 – French ministers prohibited to attend Council meetings – fear among the five that he might want to destroy the community THE LUXEMBOURG COMPROMISE. and has no legal force.e. i.1960s De Gaulle’s French Presidency (1958-69) time of test and crisis for the EC THE EMPTY CHAIR CRISIS. .History of European integration .

1975 – BUDGETARY TREATIES – giving shared control over the Community budget by the Council and the Parliament 1973 – FIRST ENLARGEMENT UK. Ireland and Denmark join (having applied three times) Norway rejects accession in a referendum. The SIX become the NINE .History of European integration – 1970s 1970.

History of European integration – 1970s 1974 – creation of the EUROPEAN COUNCIL meeting of Heads of State or Government of the Member States + President of the European Commission functions as regular SUMMITS – meets twice a year (one meeting is in Brussels) not part of the European checks and balances provider of general policy directions settling conflicts in the Council of Ministers its significance growing over decades formal legal status in the Treaty of Lisbon 2007 .

History of European integration – 1970s 1979 – first DIRECT elections to the European Parliament every five years Both the European Council and direct elections to the EP were projects promoted by a new Prime Minister of France Valery Giscard d’Estaing new approach to integration by the French. later he becomes the leader of the European Convention to draft the European Constitution .

reopening negotiations in 1976. the NINE become the TWELVE . 1986 – THIRD ENLARGEMENT – Spain and Portugal in. people vote to leave the EU.History of European integration – 1980s 1981 – SECOND ENLARGEMENT – Greece Bumpy road Greece’s first attempts – 1950s (economy too underdeveloped). 1982 – de-accession referendum in Greenland. 1967-74 military coup. 1961 – associate membership.

comprehensive institutional reform visiting all Twelve to test the ground . single currency. representing opposing views to European integration: Jacques Delors and Margaret Thatcher Jacques Delors – President of the Commission – federalist in Monnet’s tradition promotion of three projects: single market.History of European integration – 1980s mid-1980s – Eurosclerosis Period dominated by two powerful European individualities.

rat. 1987) First major amendement to the EEC Treaty of Rome OBJECTIVES: Add new momentum to European integration – to complete the single internal market Improvement of decision making process .History of European integration – 1980s SINGLE EUROPEAN ACT (1986.

1987) INSTITUTIONAL CHANGES increasing the number of cases requiring qualified majority voting unanimity required for taxation. free movement of persons.History of European integration – 1980s SINGLE EUROPEAN ACT (1986. and the rights and interests of employed persons formalization of the European Council and summits – necessary in strategic decisions. rat. .

October 3 – reunification of Germany six Laender of East Germany becomes part of the EU back-door enlargement .History of European integration – 1990 1990.

establish a common foreign and security policy. rat. . develop the Community social dimension. 1993) Moving the Communities towards political integration The term EUROPEAN UNION appears OBJECTIVES: strengthen the democratic legitimacy of the institutions. establish economic and monetary union.History of European integration TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION Treaty of Maastricht (1992. improve the effectiveness of the institutions.

in which decisions are taken as closely as possible to the citizen’ .History of European integration TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION Treaty of Maastricht (1992. due to UK protests it was changed to: an ever closer union among the peoples of Europe. rat. however. 1993) Structure: PREAMBLE and SEVEN TITLES PREAMBLE The draft preamble had included the goal of federal union.


TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION (1993) Three-pillar structure of the EU FIRST PILLAR Customs Union and Single Market Common Agricultural Policy Common Fisheries Policy EU competition law Economic and monetary union EU-Citizenship Education and Culture Trans-European Networks Consumer protection Healthcare Research Environmental law Social policy Asylum policy Schengen treaty Immigration policy .

TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION (1993) Three-pillar structure of the EU SECOND PILLAR Foreign policy: Human rights Democracy Foreign aid Security policy: European Security and Defense Policy EU battle groups Peacekeeping .

TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION (1993) Three-pillar structure of the EU THIRD PILLAR Drug trafficking and weapons smuggling Terrorism Trafficking in human beings Organised crime Bribery and fraud .

TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION (1993) Three-pillar structure of the EU DECISION-MAKING . 3. 2.First Pillar COMMUNITY METHOD – qualified majority voting in most areas STAGES 1. Proposal by the Commission or Member States Adoption by the Council of EU and the Parliament Monitoring of compliance with Community law by the Court of Justice .

TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION (1993) Three-pillar structure of the EU DECISION-MAKING – Second and Third Pillars INTERGOVERNMENTAL COOPERATION The Commission’s role is reduced Parliament is only consulted .


Santer’s case later) the Commission’s term of office extended from four to five years with a view to aligning it to with that of the European Parliament. Parliament’s power to confirm the Commission (J. Co-decision procedure which allows the European Parliament to adopt acts in conjunction with the Council.TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION (1993) Institutional changes expands the role of the European Parliament. .

Creation of Europol .TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION (1993) Institutional changes Creation of the advisory Committee of the Regions. made up of representatives of the regional authorities.an European police intelligence agency in The Hague .

This principle specifies that in areas that are not within its exclusive powers the Community shall only take action where objectives can best be attained by action at Community rather than at national level It also provides that the Union shall take decisions as close as possible to the citizen. .TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION (1993) PRINCIPLE OF SUBSIDIARITY The Treaty on European Union has established the principle of subsidiarity as a general rule. which was initially applied to environmental policy in the Single European Act.

terms agreed for entry of Austria. Sweden and Finland in after a long period of neutrality The Twelve become the FIFTEEN Initially. Sweden and Finland AND Norway Norwegians reject their membership again in the ratification referendum .History of European integration 1995 – the 4th enlargement the smoothest one so far – Austria.

1999) First major amendement of the Treaty of Maastricht Three factors behind the Treaty of Amsterdam: encouragement of enlargement improvement of democratic deficit and subsidiarity general improvement of the Treaty of Maastricht . rat.History of European integration Treaty of Amsterdam (1997.

Treaty of Amsterdam (1997. rat. • • • • • . 1999) POLITICAL AND INSTITUTIONAL CHANGES the creation of the post of High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy – Xavier Solana (since 1999) guaranteed right of access for each citizen to the documents produced by the European Union institutions and the right to communicate with the institutions in their own language.

History of European integration The Lisbon Strategy 2000 also known as the Lisbon Agenda or Lisbon Process set out by the European Council in Lisbon in March 2000. and respect for the environment by 2010 set against the background of productivity in the EU being below that of the US. . action and development plan to make the EU: The most dynamic and competitive knowledgebased economy in the world capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion.

2003) Ratified: 1 February 2003. In Ireland: first rejected in 2001 then accepted in 2002. Basically devoted to the leftovers of Treaty of Amsterdam – mostly technical. institutional amendments preparing the European Union for enlargement by revising the Treaties in four key areas: size and composition of the Commission weighting of votes in the Council extension of qualified-majority voting enhanced cooperation. . rat.History of European integration Treaty of Nice (2001.

France.History of European integration Treaty of Nice (2001. 2003) Council of the European Union – adjustment in the weighting of votes in favour of the more populated Member States e.g.change in the composition of the Commission. Poland – 27 votes Commission . rat. UK. . Germany. increase in the powers of the President and change in the way he or she is nominated. Italy – 29 votes.

2003) Enhanced cooperation allows a group of member states to proceed with a project in which a minority does not wish to participate (e.History of European integration Treaty of Nice (2001.g. rat. frontier controls) the . the case of EURO.

History of European integration the 5th Enlargement (parts I and II) – 2004 and 2007 2004: Czech Republic. Rumania EU has TWENTY SEVEN members . Slovakia and Slovenia. Malta. Poland. 2007: Bulgaria. Latvia. Estonia. Lithuania. Hungary. Cyprus.

rejected in France and the Netherlands in 2005) Constitution to replace ALL existing treaties 2002-2003 – establishment of European Convention led by Valerie Giscard d'Estaing Constitutional Treaty signed in 2004 Includes a definition of European symbols NOT IN FORCE .European Constitution (2004.

rat.EU Reform Treaty Treaty of Lisbon (2007. ???) A new Treaty replacing the rejected European Constitution removes: constitutional terminology – no references to words like CONSTITUTION or MINISTER description of symbols Saving large parts of the Constitutional Treaty Makes the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (SOLEMN PROCLAMATION) legally binding – not signed by Poland and Britain .

EU REFORM TREATY (Treaty of Lisbon) main innovation .

renewable once instead of rotating 6-month EU Presidency .EU Reform Treaty institutional changes EUROPEAN COUNCIL: European Council becomes the TOP POLITICAL INSTITUTION Creation of the post of: President-in-Office of the European Council. elected for two and a half years.

EU Reform Treaty institutional changes COUNCIL OF THE EU: Double majority voting instead of the weighting of votes (Nice system) .

Number of Commissioners reduced to 18 as from 2014 Creation of a High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy .EU Reform Treaty institutional changes COMMISSION: Election of the President of the Commission by the Parliament on the proposal of the Council.

EU Reform Treaty institutional changes EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT: The main legislator with the Council of the EU Number of MEPs reduced to 751 .

EU Reform Treaty definition of EU fundamental values Respect for human dignity Fredom Democracy Equality The rule of law Respect for human rights (the Charter is legally binding) .


.European Parliament general characteristics EU’s public forum elected by the citizens of the European Union to represent their interests expresses the democratic will of the Union's citizens and it represents their interests in discussions with the other EU institutions.

EP seats Brussels (committees. special plenary sessions) Strasbourg (12 monthly plenary sessions) Luxembourg (Secretariat) .

The Treaty of Lisbon provides for 751 MEPs regardless of the number of member States . Nearly one third of them are women.Composition The present parliament has 785 MEPs from all 27 EU countries.

National apportionment of MEP seats (785 in total) Germany 99 France 78 Italy 78 United Kingdom 78 Spain 54 Poland 54 Romania 35 Netherlands 27 Belgium 24 Czech Republic 24 Greece 24 Hungary 24 Portugal 24 Sweden 19 Austria 18 Bulgaria 18 Finland 14 Denmark 14 Slovakia 14 Ireland 13 Lithuania 13 Latvia 9 Slovenia 7 Cyprus 6 Estonia 6 Luxembourg 6 Malta 5 .

from the strongly pro-federalist to the openly Eurosceptic.Political groups in the EP Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) do not sit in national blocks. . but in: SEVEN TRANSNATIONAL Europe-wide political groups MEPs are grouped by political affinity not by nationality The EP political groups represent all views on European integration.

Páirtí an Lucht Oibre) . Ulster Unionist Party. PSL the Conservative Party.Party of European Socialists (PES) – 215 MEPs (SLD. UP SDPL. Samoobrona.Political groups in the EP European People's Party (Christian Democrats) and European Democrats (EPP-ED) – 288 MEPs (PO. Fina Gael) Socialist Group . Labour Party. SDLP.

PSL. Samoobrona. LPR. Fianna Fail) .Political groups in the EP Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) – 101 MEPs (PD. Liberal Democrats) Union for Europe of the Nations (UEN) – 44 MEPs (PIS.

Plaid Cymru. SNP.Nordic Green Left (GUE/NGL) – 41 MEPs) (Sinn Fein) .Political groups in the EP Greens/European Free Alliance (Greens/EFA) – 42 MEPs (Green Party. Mebyon Kernow) United Left .

Political groups in the EP Independence/Democracy (IND/DEM) – 24 MEPs (LPR. LPR) . UKIP) Non-attached (Non-inscrits) – 30 MEPs (Samoobrona.

low turnout .EP elections every five years since 1979 by-elections allowed following accession of new member states in mid-term direct and proportional universal suffrage every EU citizen who is registered as a voter in a Member State is entitled to vote.

EP elections the uniform voting method is proportional representation the minimum threshold for obtaining a seat in the Parliament is 5% of votes cast Most of the rules concerning voting and elections remain distinct. in particular concerning: dates of elections constituencies application of proportional representation number of mandates that may be held concurrently voting and eligibility conditions .

EP organization THE BUREAU elected for 2.5 years COMPOSITION the PRESIDENT – Hans Gert Pottering (elected in 2007) 14 Vice-Presidents FUNCTIONS guides Parliament’s internal functioning provides budget estimates in charge of administrative and financial organisation .

EP organization THE CONFERENCE OF PRESIDENTS COMPOSITION the PRESIDENT leaders of the EP parliamentary groups FUNCTIONS: organises practical aspects of Parliament’s work decides on the timetable and agenda for plenary sittings decides on the composition of the committees and delegations in charge of legislative programming holds regular meetings with representatives of national parliaments .

EP organization SIX QUAESTORS sit on the Bureau in an advisory capacity ensure that MEPs have the infrastructure necessary to exercise their mandate responsible for administrative and financial matters of direct concern to MEPs .

. The fact that the EP is directly elected by the citizens helps guarantee the democratic legitimacy of European law.EP THREE ROLES 1. Passing European laws jointly with the Council in many policy areas.

It has the power to approve or reject the nomination of commissioners. and it has the right to censure the Commission as a whole. . Democratic supervision over the other EU institutions.EP THREE ROLES 2. and in particular the Commission.

At the end of the procedure. The power of the purse Parliament shares with the Council authority over the EU budget and can therefore influence EU spending. Parliament debates it in two successive readings. . it adopts or rejects the budget in its entirety. and the budget does not come into force until it has been signed by the President of Parliament.EP THREE ROLES 3.

The issues for debate are also discussed by the political groups. 12 plenary sessions are normally held in Strasbourg (one week per month) and sometimes in Brussels (two days only). Parliament examines proposed legislation and votes on amendments before coming to a decision on the text as a whole.EP at work Parliament's work is divided into two main stages: Preparing for the plenary session. The plenary session itself. At these sessions. . This is done by the MEPs in the various parliamentary committees (20 standing committees) that specialise in particular areas of EU activity.

. the European Commission was set up in the 1950s under the EU’s founding treaties. which it presents to the European Parliament and the Council of European Union.European Commission Like the Parliament and Council. HEART OF EUROPE embodiment of the concept of Europe European civil service independent of national governments – “The only body paid to think European” represents and upholds the interests of the EU as a whole drafts proposals for new European laws.

European Commission The term ‘Commission’ is used in two senses: the team of men and women – one from each EU country – appointed to run the institution and take its decisions (27 persons) the institution itself and its staff (25.000 persons) .

within six months of the elections to the European Parliament.European Commission COMPOSITION 27 Commissioners (including the President of the Commission) (to be reduced to 18 following the ratification of the Treaty of Lisbon) they have all held political positions in their countries of origin are committed to acting in the interests of the Union as a whole and not taking instructions from national governments A new Commission is appointed every five years. .

and to reshuffle these responsibilities (if necessary) during the Commission’s term of office. .European Commission It is up to the Commission President to decide which commissioner will be responsible for which policy area (portfolio).

Individual members of the Commission must resign if asked to do so by the President. provided the other commissioners approve. which has the power to dismiss the whole Commission by adopting a motion of censure. . It also replies regularly to written and oral questions posed by MEPs. where it must clarify and justify its policies. The Commission attends all the sessions of Parliament.European Commission relations with the EP remains politically accountable to Parliament.

. representations in all EU countries and delegations in many capital cities around the world.European Commission THE SEAT The seat of the Commission is in Brussels but it also has offices in Luxembourg.

usually on Wednesdays in Brussels Each item on the agenda is presented by the commissioner responsible for that policy area. .European Commission ORGANIZATION OF WORK The Commission meets once a week. and the whole team then takes a collective decision on it.

European Commission ORGANIZATION OF WORK: Directorates-General The Commission’s staff is organised in departments. . known as Directorates-General Each DG is responsible for a particular policy area and is headed by a Director-General who is answerable to one of the commissioners.

European Commission Directorates-General The Directorates-General are divided into four groups: Policy DGs. External relations DGs. General Service DGs Internal Service DGs. .

to enforce European law (jointly with the Court of Justice) 4. EXECUTIVE BODY .European Commission FOUR ROLES 1. MOTOR OF INTEGRATION . Representing the EU on the international stage .to propose legislation to Parliament and the Council – primary initiator of legislation (sole initiator in the Treaty of Lisbon) 2.to manage and implement EU policies and the budget 3. GUARDIAN OF THE TREATIES .

telecommunications). competitiveness and employment and the approximation of the laws of the associated states of Central and Eastern Europe in areas of relevance to the internal market. These consultations may then lead to the publication of a White Paper. Examples include the White Papers on the completion of the internal market. it can become the action programme for the Union in the area concerned. In some cases they follow a Green Paper published to launch a consultation process at European level. the single currency.Green Paper Commission Green Papers are documents intended to stimulate debate and launch a process of consultation at European level on a particular topic (such as social policy. on growth. translating the conclusions of the debate into practical proposals for Community action. . When a White Paper has been favourably received by the Council. White Paper Commission White Papers are documents containing proposals for Community action in a specific area.

The Council of the EU GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS the EU's main decision-making body like the EP and the Commission . the Council was set up by the founding treaties in the 1950s represents the member states its meetings are attended by one minister from each of the EU’s national governments. .

The Council of the EU

Which ministers attend which meeting depends on what subjects are on the agenda e.g. the Council is to discuss environmental issues, the meeting will be attended by the Environment Minister from each EU country and it will be known as the ‘Environment Council’ Altogether there are NINE different Council configurations

The Council of the EU

Each minister in the Council:
is empowered to commit his or her government, i.e. the minister’s signature is the signature of the whole government is answerable to his or her national parliament and to the citizens that parliament represents.

The Council of the EU
COUNCIL PRESIDENCY The Presidency of the Council rotates every six months each EU country in turn takes charge of the Council agenda and chairs all the meetings for a six-month period There is no single president but rather the task is undertaken by an entire national government, which hence allows that state to influence the direction of EU policy for their term. Although it rotates every six months, as of 2007 every three presidencies have been co-operating on a common political programme (triplet or troika)


The Presidency is assisted by the General Secretariat, which prepares and ensures the smooth functioning of the Council's work at all levels. In 1999, Javier Solana was appointed the first Secretary-General of the Council; he was reappointed in 2004

Javier Solana (1942-)

CURRENT FUNCTIONS: Secretary General of the Council of the European Union High Representative for the CFSP Secretary General of the Western European Union President of the European Defence Agency Head of the proposed External Action Service

.The Lisbon Treaty introduces a new post: High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy – merger of two existing posts: High Representative for the CFSP European Commissioner for External Relations The High Representative will be also: Vice-President of the Commission Chair of the Council in its Foreign Affairs configuration.

. jointly with the European Parliament.The Council of the EU RESPONSIBILITIES I PILLAR To pass European laws – jointly with the European Parliament in many policy areas To co-ordinate the broad economic policies of the member states To conclude international agreements between the EU and other countries or international organisations To approve the EU’s budget.

III PILLAR To co-ordinate co-operation between the national courts and police forces in criminal matters .The Council of the EU RESPONSIBILITIES II PILLAR To develop the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). based on guidelines set by the European Council.

Estonia. Finland. Lithuania and Slovakia 4 votes: Cyprus.The Council of the EU VOTING 29 votes: France. Italy and the United Kingdom 27 votes: Spain and Poland 14 votes: Romania 13 votes: The Netherlands 12 votes: Belgium. Hungary. Latvia. Luxembourg and Slovenia 3 votes: Malta Total: 345 votes . Portugal 10 votes: Austria. Greece. Germany. Ireland. Bulgaria and Sweden 7 votes: Denmark. the Czech Republic.

The Council of the EU VOTING TWO TYPES OF VOTING: unanimous (a Member State can veto) Qualified Majority Voting (QMV) .

however. taxation asylum and immigration policy On most issues. the Council takes decisions by qualified majority voting (QMV) . i. each member state has the power of veto in such areas as: Common Foreign and Security Policy.The Council of the EU VOTING Council decisions have to be unanimous.e.

The Council of the EU QMV – present system (Treaty of Nice) the proposal must be backed by a majority of member states (or two thirds in certain cases) the proposal must be supported by 255 votes from a total of 345 (73. .9% of the votes) a member may request the verification of the population condition: the countries supporting the proposal must represent at least 62% of the total EU population.

The Council of the EU QMV – future system (Treaty of Lisbon) – after 2014 the proposal must be backed by a majority of member states (55% or 72%) the member states backing the proposal must represent at least 65% of the EU population blocking minority: at least 4 countries against the proposal .

which outlines the EP’s position before the talks commence .EUROPEAN COUNCIL Composition EU heads of state or government (usually accompanied by national foreign ministers) the Commission President (non-voting) (usually accompanied by another Commissioner) Secretary General of the Council (and his/her deputy) Opening speech is made by the President of the European Parliament.

the practice had been to hold European summit conferences European Council set up at the close 1974 Paris Summit first met in 1975 legally recognized by the Single European Act (1986) official status was conferred on it by the Treaty of Maastricht .EUROPEAN COUNCIL History 1961 to 1974 .

EUROPEAN COUNCIL Working meets at least twice a year – usually four (twice per presidency) chaired by the Member State holding the presidency of the Council of the European Union after each summit – ‘PRESIDENCY CONCLUSIONS’ .lengthy document is adopted .

and to offer citizens better legal protection The highest court in the EU in matters of Community law (only 1st Pillar) (NOT national laws) .The European Court of Justice GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS ECJ established by the founding treaties in the 1950s CFI created in 1989 to help the Court of Justice cope with the large number of cases brought before it.

UK. chosen by their fellow judges to serve for a renewable term of three years. . France. Italy. three rotating) Court of First Instance: One Judge from each EU country Term of office: members of both courts are appointed for renewable terms of six years The Court of Justice and the Court of First Instance each have a President. Spain. Eight Advocates-General (five permanent from: Germany.The European Court of Justice COMPOSITION Court of Justice: One Judge from each EU country.

Settling legal disputes between states.The European Court of Justice FUNCTIONS AND POWERS Ensuring that EU legislation is interpreted and applied in the same way in all EU countries. it makes sure that national courts do not give different rulings on the same issue Its decisions are binding. institutions. and institutions follow the law. . businesses and individuals. ensuring member states.g. e.

The European Court of Justice FORMS OF ACTION The preliminary ruling procedure Actions for failure to fulfill an obligation Actions for annulment Actions for failure to act .

particularly actions: brought by private individuals companies some organisations cases related to competition law .The European Court of Justice: COURT OF THE FIRST INSTANCE (lower court dealing with specific kinds of cases) CFI is responsible for giving rulings on certain kinds of cases.

The European Court of Justice TREATY OF LISBON CHANGES Terminology: NEW NAME: The Court of Justice of the European Union Court of Justice (instead of the ECJ) General Court (instead of the CFI) .

UK. Italy.The European Court of Justice TREATY OF LISBON CHANGES Eleven Advocates-General (instead of eight) including six permanent ones (instead of five) from Germany. France. Spain and POLAND) .

The Court of Auditors GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS established in 1975 by the Budgetary Treaty under the Treaty of Amsterdam it gained the full power to audit finances of the whole of the EU despite the name it is not a judicial institution professional external audit agency of the EU institutions .


the Council and the European Parliament EESC is a bridge between the Union and its citizens. other interest groups tt presents their views and defends their interests in policy discussions with the Commission. promoting: a more participatory a more inclusive a more democratic society in Europe.European Economic and Social Committee GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS founded in 1957 representing “organised civil society”. . trade unions. farmers.e: employers. consumers. i.

Slovakia. However. Luxembourg 5 members: Malta . Bulgaria. once appointed. Hungary. France. Ireland. Czech Republic. Greece. Sweden 9 members: Denmark. the Netherlands. the members are completely independent of their governments 24 members: Germany.European Economic and Social Committee COMPOSITION 344 members appointed by the Council following nominations made by the government of the respective Member State. Portugal. Austria. Lithuania. Finland 7 members: Estonia. Italy and the United Kingdom 21 members: Poland and Spain 15 members: Romania 12 members: Belgium. Latvia and Slovenia 6 members: Cyprus.

European Economic and Social Committee COMPOSITION Term of office: four years. renewable it elects its President and two Vice-Presidents for a two-year term EESC members are divided into three groups GROUP I: The Employers’ Group GROUP II: The Workers’ Group GROUP III: Various Interest Groups .

.European Economic and Social Committee WORKING The Committee is an integral part of the EU’s decision-making process: it MUST BE CONSULTED before decisions are taken on economic and social policy it MAY give it opinion on its own initiative.The EESC members work in their countries of origin The EESC meets in plenary assembly in Brussels every month its discussions are prepared by six subcommittees known as ‘sections’. or at the request of another EU institution. each dealing with particular policy areas.

Committee of the Regions GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS set up in 1994 under the Treaty on European Union representing regional and local authorities .

the Netherlands. Lithuania. Latvia and Slovenia 6 members: Cyprus. Austria. Finland 7 members: Estonia. Italy and the United Kingdom 21 members: Poland and Spain 15 members: Romania 12 members: Belgium. Ireland. Czech Republic. Slovakia. Greece.Committee of the Regions COMPOSITION 344 members (identical distribution to the EESC): 24 members: Germany. Sweden 9 members: Denmark. Luxembourg 5 members: Malta . Bulgaria. Hungary. France. Portugal.

They are nominated by the EU governments but they work in complete political independence 27 national delegations 6 thematic commissions (sub-committees) 4 political groups (EPP. often leaders of regional governments or mayors of cities. renewable It chooses a President from among its members. for a term of two years.Committee of the Regions COMPOSITION Term of office: four years. UEN) . PES. ALDE. The members of the Committee are elected municipal or regional politicians.

Committee of the Regions WORKING The CoR MUST BE consulted before EU decisions are taken on: Economic and social cohesion Education and youth Culture Public health Trans-European networks Transport Employment Social affairs Environment European Social Fund Vocational training .

five plenary sessions per year .Committee of the Regions WORKING the Committee can adopt opinions on its own initiative and present them to the Commission. Council and Parliament Meetings: Brussels.

and helps small businesses via the European Investment Fund. SEAT: Luxembourg the European Central Bank is responsible for European monetary policy SEAT: Frankfurt .the European Investment Bank finances EU investment projects.

the European Ombudsman investigates complaints about maladministration by EU institutions and bodies. SEAT: Strasbourg the Office for Official Publications of the European Communities publishes information about the EU. SEAT: Luxembourg .

the European Personnel Selection Office recruits staff for the EU institutions and other bodies. The European University Institute SEAT: Florence . the European Administrative School task is to provide training in specific areas for members of EU staff.

Karlsruhe (Germany). Pellen (The Netherlands) . SEAT: Copenhagen. Statistical Office of the European Communities (EUROSTAT) SEAT: Luxembourg Europol SEAT: The Hague EURATOM research institutes: SEATS: Ispra (Italy).Specialized agencies European Environment Agency (EEA).

people and capital across borders of member states Requires more extensive intergovernmental cooperation . services.Forms of economic integration in Europe Customs Association Customs duties and quotas removed between members Members can determine restrictions in relation to nonmembers Customs Union Customs duties and quotas removed between members Common external tariff in relation to non-members Common Market Removal of all limitations to mobility of production Free movement of goods.

formation of single economic policy .Forms of economic integration in Europe Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) Harmonization o monetary and fiscal policies between members Common currency or fixed exchange rates Full Economic Union (FEU) .

MAGIC SQUARE Four objectives of EU economic policy – their achievement will coordinate member states’ national economic policies: stability of prices high employment level trade balance with the third parties economic growth. environmentally cautious .

It is constantly evolving . but without conventions.acquis communautaire The legal framework of the EU .the body of common rights and obligations which bind all the Member States together the legal framework resembles “British Constitution”.

the case law of the European Court of Justice.acquis communautaire COMPOSITION founding and amending TREATIES accession treaties legislation adopted in application of the treaties. sui generis measures relating to justice and home affairs. declarations and resolutions adopted by the Union.g. directives of the European Central Bank. international agreements concluded by the Community international agreements concluded by the Member States between themselves in the field of the Union's activities. Schengen acquis . sui generis measures relating to the common foreign and security policy. e.

Applicant countries have to accept the Community acquis in full before they can join the Union.acquis communautaire The EU has committed itself to maintaining the Community acquis in its entirety and developing it further. .

.acquis communautaire Derogations from the acquis are granted only in exceptional circumstances To integrate into the EU. applicant countries will have to transpose the acquis into their national legislation and implement it from the moment of their accession.

. completeness and unity. 12 – symbol of perfection.Flag of Europe The flag of the EU and the Council of Europe Represents Europe. and European unity and identity. remains unchanged despite enlargements. not a particular European institution.

the EU's executive arm. then encouraged by it to be used by other European organizations. Other EU institutions and bodies use an emblem of their own in addition to the European flag . for the first time it was flown in Brussels on May 9. All European institutions have been using it officially since 1985. The European flag is the only emblem of the European Commission .Flag of Europe First adopted by the Council of Europe in 1955. 1986.

European anthem Ninth Symphony by Beethoven (1823). Adopted by the Council of Europe as its own anthem in 1972. All European institutions have been using it officially since 1985. its final movement called Ode to Joy based on Frederick Schiller’s poem from 1785. it was first officially played in Brussels on May 9. Temporarily dopted as the national anthem of Kosove (2008) . 1986.

for solo piano. The well-known conductor Herbert Von Karajan was asked to write three instrumental arrangements . NO lyrics.European anthem Not intended to replace national anthems but celebrate unity. purely instrumental. . for wind instruments and for symphony orchestra.

.EUROPE DAY May 9 Anniversary of Robert Shuman’s declaration of 1950 adopted by the Council Summit in Milan in 1985.

.EUROPEAN MOTTO Unity in diversity Adopted through an unofficial process in 2000 – results of pupils’ voting on the Internet.

procedure application to the Council for accession from a country the Council asks the Commission for an Opinion – AVIS AVIS is the basis for negotiations and must be unanimously approved by the Council treaty of accession – unanimously adopted by the Council and the assent of Parliament ratification in all member states by way of referendum or parliamentary ratification: .Accession to the EU .

human rights and respect for minorities.Accession criteria (Copenhagen criteria) 1993 . . the EU reserves the right to decide when it will be ready to accept new members. However. the rule of law.the Copenhagen European Council recognised the right of the countries of central and eastern Europe to join the European Union when they have fulfilled three criteria: political: stable institutions guaranteeing democracy. economic: a functioning market economy. incorporation of the acquis.

Slovakia and Slovenia. Rumania . Malta. Cyprus. Estonia. 1982: de-accession of Greenland 1986: Spain and Portugal. Lithuania.Membership in the EU ENLARGEMENTS 1973: Denmark. Poland. 2004: Czech Republic. Latvia. 2007: Bulgaria. Ireland and the United Kingdom. Hungary. 1990: East Germany – ‘backdoor’ enlargement 1995: Austria. Finland and Sweden. 1981: Greece.

APPLICANT COUNTRIES Official candidates: Croatia FYROM Turkey Officially recognized potential candidates: Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Montenegro Serbia Kosovo .

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